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reat"ent' % co"pare an( contrast the &correct' proce(ure for )e innin an analysis that % *as tau ht in the 194+s *ith ho* % )e in treat"ent no* in the 199+s. % ar ue that "y present "etho( is less ri i(, less authoritarian an( "ore realistic than the &classical' proce(ure % *as tau ht 5+ years a o. % en( the paper *ith so"e reflections on trainin analyses an( their econo"ic an( e"otional si nificance for )oth trainin analyst an( trainee analysan(. ,hen % -ualifie( as an analyst in 194. an( starte( "y practice, it *as enerally a ree( )oth )y those *ho ha( traine( "e an( )y "y fello* stu(ents that there *as only one /in( of really effecti0e psychotherapy, 0i1. psychoanalysis, an( that all other for"s of psychotherapy *ere either totally useless or *ere (ilutions of the pure ol( of psychoanalysis. 2urther"ore, it *as also enerally a ree( that the efficacy of psychoanalytical treat"ent (epen(e( on the use of a nu")er of technical proce(ures, 0i1. that the patient shoul( see his analyst at least four ti"es a *ee/ an( prefera)ly fi0e ti"es a *ee/, that the patient shoul( lie on a couch *ith the analyst seate( in0isi)le )ehin( hi", an( that the patient shoul( )e instructe( to free-associate, i.e. say e0erythin that ca"e into his "in( *ithout censorship, let or hin(rance. 3ean*hile the analyst shoul( confine his co""unications to the patient to interpretations, i.e. to state"ents assertin that the patient4s utterances *ere (eter"ine( )y so"e specific unconscious phantasy, *ish or infantile trau"atic e5perience. 6s a result, in the initial consultation or first session the analyst confine( hi"self to three acti0ities. 2irstly, he sou ht to ascertain that the patient-to-)e *as in(ee( a suita)le case for psychoanalytical treat"ent, i.e. that he suffere( fro" a psychoneurosis or, perhaps, a character neurosis, *as neither psychotic nor narcissistic, an( possesse( sufficient e o stren th to sur0i0e the ri ours of analytical treat"ent an( sufficient insi ht to "a/e use of the analyst4s interpretations. !his assess"ent of the patient4s (ia nosis, essential sta)ility an( insi ht *as "a(e )y ta/in a history, i.e. )y en-uirin a)out the patient4s present sy"pto"s, his chil(hoo(, his fa"ily )ac/ roun(, an( his e(ucational le0el - this last )ein ascertaine( to assess *hether the patient *as sufficiently intelli ent an( articulate to un(erstan( interpretations. !his aspect of the initial inter0ie* coul( often, in fact, )e "uch shortene(. !his happene( *hen the patient ha( alrea(y )een assesse( )y another, usually senior, analyst, *ho ha( infor"e( hi" that he *as a case suita)le for treat"ent, an( that,
an( that he *oul( ha0e to o)ey the so-calle( &fun(a"ental rule' that he shoul( (o his )est to tell the analyst *hate0er ca"e into his "in(.e. :econ(ly. the "#$% Club. it is interestin . he (the analyst) *oul( fin( hi" another analyst *ho ha( one. !hir(ly. first session or &initial consultation' in such (etail for a 0ariety of reasons. *ea/er.$ -. i. *on!on +.e ha( to infor" the patient that he ha( such an( such ti"es a0aila)le an( insist that the patient shoul( re-arran e his sche(ules so as to "a/e atten(ance at such ti"es possi)le. se0en or si5 in the "ornin or at si5.that he *oul( ha0e to atten( for sessions four or prefera)ly fi0e ti"es a *ee/. *ho )e in their analyses of patients in this *ay.to use a *or( "uch in 0o ue at that ti"e . !his latter &*ea/er' proce(ure *as in fact not unco""only a(opte( )y )e innin analysts.he coul( (isco0er *hat the patient4s unaltera)le co""it"ents *ere an( offer to see hi" at ti"es co"pati)le *ith the". proce(ure *as. :econ(ly. 2irstly. !hey i"pose these 0arious technical proce(ures on their patients. the Scottish Association of Psychoanalytical Psychotherapists. one4s fee to ta/e into account the patient4s hopefully only te"porary financial pro)le"s. 8n(er such circu"stances the )e innin analyst ha( to ha0e faith in the clinical 9u( "ent an( acu"en of the e5perience( referrin analyst. % hope./. for historical reasons. the historical reason *hy analysts often *or/ such peculiar hours.7777777777777 Charles Rycroft. inci(entally. psychoanalytical. e0en so"eti"es to the e5tent of insistin that their patients synchronise their 0acations *ith the analyst4s an( of char in the" for "isse( sessions re ar(less of the reasons for the patient4s failure to atten(. seein patients at ei ht. in fact. % un(erstan(. there are. Or alternati0ely )ut less &correctly' . 0i1. one-time member of the British Psycho-Analytical Society. the analyst ha( to ne otiate *ith his future analysan( "atters of ti"e an( fees. to offer to a(9ust. A!!ress for correspon!ence( % )o!bury &ar!ens. lo*er. !hey 2 . !his secon(. )ut an alternati0e. the analyst ha( to infor" the patient . Various versions of ‘On be innin treatment have. often a(opte(. that he *oul( ha0e to lie on the couch.or at least assure hi"self that the patient alrea(y appreciate( . se0en or ei ht o4cloc/ in the e0enin . still analysts aroun( to(ay. the &uil! of Psychotherapists. been rea! to the Bristol Psychotherapy Association. . as an account of ho* analysts in the later 194+s "ana e( first sessions. ha0in no 0acancy hi"self. in the 199+s. at various times in the last four years. insistin that it *as not open to ne otiation. *ho un(erstan(a)ly preferre( to ha0e lo*-fee-payin patients than to ha0e no patients at all< a fact not infre-uently e5ploite( )y senior analysts see/in to place i"po0erishe( )ut (eser0in patients. the Phila!elphia Association an! the 'nstitute for Psycholo ical an! Social Stu!ies. *ea/er alternati0e is. % ha0e (escri)e( the classical. !he &correct' proce(ure *as to state one4s fee une-ui0ocally. 6n( fees. is in full-time private practice.
techni-ues. % ha0e often hear( analysts an( psychotherapists apolo ise at clinical se"inars for presentin a case *ho" they are only seein three ti"es a *ee/. totally "is ui(e(. contracts. "ore (iscipline( *or/ (one alle e(ly )y the analysts. the analyst *oul( )e &correct' an( 9ustifie( in insistin that he (an( not he to ether *ith the patient) shoul( (eci(e upon e0ery (etail of the treat"ent. inferior position )y )ein e5pecte( to lie on the couch. it see"s to "e. an( ac-uiesce )lin(ly in the analyst4s (ecisions as to the settin in *hich treat"ent shoul( ta/e place. etc. spatial an( te"poral. (epen(ent. e0en if he happens to )e "e(ically -ualifie(. % )elie0e. critical scrutiny *hile so"e of the" are. there is. in "y 0ie*. a)out (oin so. "ore intensi0e. in *hich treat"ent shoul( ta/e place< % "ean all the arran e"ents. this classical contract is still aroun( as an i(eal. By &settin ' % "ean here "ore than the place. neuroses are not illnesses in the sense that fe0ers an( tu"ours. as se0eral analysts inclu(in "yself ha0e pointe( out in print. they nonetheless feel a )it uilty. ho* fre-uently his patient shoul( co"e to see hi". proce(ures. e0en sur ical "o(el. apolo ise for ha0in faile( to et their patient to lie on the couch. e5periencin their seate( position as )ein enthrone( an( their patients4 recu")ent position as supplicant. :econ(ly. are e-ually if not "ore so for the )enefit of the analyst. 6n( si"ilarly a)out ti"es. %t see"s to "e that that there is so"ethin authoritarian an( o"nipotent a)out the analyst clai"in a ri ht to (eci(e. the fre-uent sessions. other (etails of *hich. on the )asis of only fe* "inutes4 con0ersation. )ein put into the *ea/er. 6n(. !hir(ly. so"ethin authoritarian a)out the i(ea that the analyst has the ri ht to i"pose his i(ea of the i(eal settin in *hich analysis shoul( ta/e place. is therefore not entitle( to clai" that the patient shoul( o)ey &(octor4s or(ers'. =e otiations )et*een a sur eon an( a sur ical patient a)out the posture the patient shoul( a(opt on the operatin ta)le *oul( clearly )e inappropriate.o*e0er )efore 3 . an( % suspect that so"e analysts reciprocate this feelin . further"ore. !he first critical co""ent that nee(s "a/in is that the strict contract i"pose( )y the analyst on the patient is )ase( on a "e(ical. %f the neuroses really *ere analo ous to se0ere physical illnesses. the couch."a/e ti ht contracts *ith their patients. or for presentin a case *ith psychotic or &)or(er-line' sy"pto"s. the roo". 2ourthly. althou h they are in fact -uite prepare( to (e0iate fro" the classical rules. the char in for "isse( sessions. so"e (etails of *hich. !he couch-chair arran e"ent of the furniture can all too easily sy")olise a (ifference in po*er an( status )et*een the analyst an( the patient. By apolo isin in this *ay they re0eal that. re-uire. 6s % shall e5plain later there are *ays in *hich )oth the posture of the patient an( the fre-uency of his atten(ance can )e arran e( )y "utual a ree"ent )et*een the t*o parties. a )it sheepish. But. *ithin *hich the analytical (ialo ue ta/es place. it is not unco""on for psychotherapists to put the"sel0es )elo* the analysts in the professional pec/in or(er that per0a(es the carin professions an( to (ispara e their o*n *or/ )y co"parin it to the (eeper. )ut this can only rarely )e (eci(e( upon in the first session. these rules. . % a" sure that so"e patients e5perience it this *ay. feelin that they are )ein put (o*n. an( it follo*s fro" the insi ht that neuroses are not analo ous to physical illnesses that psychoanalytical treat"ent is not analo ous to "e(ical or sur ical treat"ent< an( the analyst. are. the synchronisation of 0acations. the &fun(a"ental rule' are putati0ely at least for the )enefit of the patient. etc.
an( shoul( only start atten(in "ore fre-uently after they ha0e (isco0ere( for the"sel0es that their therapist can )e helpful *ithout )ein intrusi0e. But it also has (isa(0anta es for hi". in "y 0ie*. reco nisin that this is the )e innin of a ne* phase in their life. once starte( it oes on all the ti"e. an( i0es hi" (aily opportunities to re ress into (epen(ence. 6n( rather si"ilarly *ith the couch. al*ays *ithhol(in so"ethin to ensure that the analysis *ill last for at least a thousan( an( one sessions. But not all patients are li/e this. this can )e (one. !his is the tacit assu"ption that &*or/in throu h' only occurs (urin sessions an( in the presence of the analyst. t*o patients shortly after one another. %t suits the analyst )ecause he is spare( )ein stare( at all (ay an( "a/es it easier for hi" to "aintain his stance of )ene0olent (etach"ent. ta/en o0er. *hereas. !hese are people *ho ha0e a per0asi0e fear of )ein intru(e( upon. or he sees it upsi(e (o*n. say. !his rule has reat a(0anta es for the analyst since it ena)les hi" to (e0ote his ti"e an( ener y to relati0ely fe* patients at no ris/ of sprea(in hi"self too thinly. the patients for *ho" the classical analytical settin *as (esi ne(< it fits the" li/e a lo0e an( they ta/e to it li/e (uc/s to *ater. %f his chair is place(' so that the patient cannot possi)ly see hi". his inco"e *ill (rop )y a -uarter or so. :o"e ha0e co""it"ents that "a/e (aily atten(ance i"possi)le. :uch people. >ach patient pro0i(es hi" *ith. (o )etter seein their analyst only once or t*ice a *ee/. in "y e5perience. until such ti"e as he succee(s in fillin his 0acancies. re ress. an( possesse(. of course. !his assu"es that the process of chan e in(uce( )y the analyst4s interpretations only procee(s (urin sessions. !he arran e"ent also has a(0anta es for the patient.e5plainin ho*. one in *hich for 5+ "inutes a (ay for an e5ten(e( perio( li/ely to last for "onths or years e5ternal reality *ill )e loo/e( after )y so"eone else an( they can collapse. an( % ha0e /no*n analysts fail 4 . a theoretical "isapprehension at the )ac/ of the i(ea that (aily atten(ance is necessary for a (eep analysis. !here is also. (aily or rather fi0e ti"es a *ee/ atten(ance. 2irstly. an( if he has the "isfortune to &lose'. he is (epri0e( of 0isual infor"ation. as they put it. so"eti"es e0en a year ahea(. %t also "eans that he has a pre(icta)le ti"eta)le< he can /no* e5actly ho* )usy an( *ho" he *ill )e seein a *ee/. % thin/. security of relationship. so"e cannot affor( the fees or ha0e to "a/e e5cessi0e sacrifices to pay the". or lose the"sel0es in re0erie. if that is *hat he *ants an( nee(s. >ither he cannot see his patient4s face at all. % ha0e /no*n patients start their analysis )y si hin *ith relief as they settle the"sel0es co"forta)ly on the couch. an ei hth of his earne( inco"e. )ut it also has (isa(0anta es for hi". !hey are also the ones *ho resist ter"ination an( (isplay *hat % so"eti"es fri0olously call the :chehera1a(e co"ple5. %t pro0i(es hi" *ith security of tenure. (urin sleep as *ell as (urin the *a/in (ay. % shall (iscuss in so"e (etail the reasons *hy so"e of the cherishe( &correct' proce(ures shoul( not )e ta/en as a)solute rules of uni0ersal application. a "onth. !hese are. Other patients ha0e psycholo ical pro)le"s that "a/e (aily atten(ance threatenin . it see"s to "e. % once /ne* a eneral practitioner *ho *as re(uce( to "a/in ho"e 0isits on a )icycle in or(er to pay his analyst4s fees.
an( the proce(ure % a" oin to (escri)e. it see"s to "e. % suspect an( hope. those see"in ly a)sur(. the recu")ent posture has too 0i0i( se5ual connotations to )e en(ura)le. special /in( of process. for the ti"e )ein .to notice that their patient is *eepin silently . for others. less authoritarian. the couch can ha0e (isa(0anta es for the patient too. since the point of 0ie* % a" a(optin . %t *ill. !hey can e5perience )ein put on the couch as hu"iliatin an( (e"eanin . reportin a (rea" they ha( ha( the pre0ious ni ht. !hey feel (epri0e( of all hu"an contact apart fro" the occasional (iscarnate utterances of their analyst.hen analysts as/ their patients to free associate they are.o*e0er. !he ?er"an *or( >infall. relationship or acti0ity is )ein en a e( upon. !here is. an( the eneral in9unction to o)ey the fun(a"ental rule is really a re-uest to the patient that he uses his inner ear . less for"al. an( this is surely a fair co""ent. Patients ha0e )een /no*n to respon( to this in9unction )y sayin that if they coul( (o that they *oul( )e in no nee( of treat"ent. an( *hat. !he fun(a"ental rule . to listen for.the in9unction to the patient to tell e0erythin that co"es into his "in( *ithout reser0ation. an(. ha0e )eco"e o)0ious that the reason % ha0e )een su)9ectin the classical analytical techni-ue as % learnt it in the 194+s to such critical scrutiny is that % *ish to use it as a foil *ith *hich to present a *ay of )e innin treat"ent that is less ri i(. his "other. an( that he shoul( "a/e no atte"pt to concentrate *hile (oin so .% a". 6lthou h so"e patients fin( the couch ratifyin . if thou hts are associations they "ust )e associations to so"e other thou ht. re ress or lose hi"self in re0erie. 5 . %t "eans &irruption' or &su((en i(ea'.is also open to criticis". )ut 9ust as. *hile the uncon0entionality of the seatin -lyin arran e"ent can )e e5perience( as sy")olic of the fact that an unusual. so at the )e innin of treat"ent the patient4s so-calle( &free' associations "ust )e either to the pro)le" that has )rou ht hi" into treat"ent or to the situation in *hich he fin(s hi"self *hether on the couch or off it. % thin/. 2irst. .hat occurs to you in this conte5t or connection@'. *hich 2reu( use( in the phrase freier >infall (oes not "ean &association' at all. an( to )roach e")arrassin topics. it see"s to "e. if not "ore. %t also encoura es pro9ections in that it "a/es it easier for hi" to i"a ine that his analyst is )ein . father or *hate0er. a confusion of thou ht lur/in )ehin( the concepts of the fun(a"ental rule an( free association. !he "ain a(0anta e of the couch for the patient is that it allo*s hi" to collapse. =ote that % a" here a)an(onin the *or( &analyst' in fa0our of &therapist'. . spea/in "etaphorically . protectin .*hich is a failure in tact as *ell as in techni-ue. really as/in the -uestion &. an( "iss the eye-contact an( interplay of facial e5pression (rea(fully. an( later they "ust )e responses to the (rea" he has 9ust tol( or the interpretation he has 9ust hear(. others can e5perience it e5actly the other *ay roun(. say. co"fortin . 2reu( *as ettin at *as that patients shoul( )e encoura e( to report i(eas that su((enly an( apparently irrele0antly 9u"pe( into their hea(s after. *ithout )ein stare( at )y his analyst. of course. li/ely to lea( to the esta)lish"ent of a oo( *or/in relationship )et*een therapist an( patient. 6n( curiously enou h the i(ea of association (i( not co"e into 2reu(4s ori inal for"ulation. irrele0ant thou hts that irrupt fro" apparently no*here an( are all too often i nore( )y the or(inary (efensi0e chatter of consciousness.to listen to.
they to ether ha0e to (eci(e *hen an( ho* fre-uently they shoul( "eet an( ho* "uch the patient shoul( pay the therapist. or that his econo"ic position preclu(es pri0ate treat"ent. an( *ill nee( help in translatin his sy"pto"s into pro)le"s. the therapist has ne5t to assess *hether treat"ent *ith hi"self is feasi)le or (esira)le. his )ac/ roun(. 8n(er such circu"stances. in(ee(. *ithin the =. %n this case the therapist nee(s to /no* ho* he set a)out fin(in a therapist. the i"print of all the 0arious relationships he has ha( (urin his life to (ate. !he *ish for psychotherapy can )e a (efence< it can )e "ore co"forta)le to )elie0e that one has a neurosis than that one has a (e enerati0e or anic illness or that one4s "arria e is hopelessly on the roc/s. !hir(ly.) Of course. after the therapist an( the future patient ha0e a ree( to see one another a ain. )oth in the eneral sense that he )rin s *ith hi" his past. the first session is li/ely to )e also the last. %t is a pity to (isco0er after treat"ent has )een arran e( that the patient li0es too far fro" one to )e a)le to atten( re ularly. an( to accept this fre-uency initially *hile pointin out that it can al*ays )e increase( or (ecrease( later if it see"s appropriate. after ha0in (eci(e( that the patient is. 3y usual proce(ure is to as/ the patient ho* often he ha( i"a ine( hi"self seein any therapist he *ent to.:. (O0er the years % ha0e encountere( se0eral "arria es that ha0e only sur0i0e( )ecause one or )oth parties ha0e )een in inter"ina)le psychotherapy. %n such cases the "echanis" of (enial is at *or/. !he first is that the prospecti0e patient "ust co"e fro" so"e*here. of course. he "ay ha0e (eci(e( on his o*n initiati0e that he nee(s psychotherapy. Other*ise )oth the therapist an( the patient *ill fin( the"sel0es in an i"possi)le position an( feel a rie0e(. 6t the )e innin of treat"ent the therapist "ust )ear three thin s in "in(. or that the patient4s an( the therapist4s personal li0es are too inti"ately intert*ine( for can(our in therapy to )e possi)le. he "ay initially ha0e consulte( his eneral practitioner. 6n( the therapist *ill also nee( to assess *hether the patient4s i(ea that he nee(s psychotherapy is *ell infor"e( an( insi htful or *hether it is "is ui(e(. 6 ain. an( ho* an( *hy he has arri0e( in one4s consultin roo" an( not in so"eone else4s. % a" of course spea/in "etaphorically< for instance. an( in appreciatin that his &illness' is not 9ust a "isfortune that has happene( to hi" )ut "ust )e in so"e *ay a "anifestation an( (eri0ati0e of his life history. -ualitati0e (ifference )et*een a psychoanalyst an( a psychotherapist. %t can happen that people see/ psychotherapy *hen they really nee( the help of a neurolo ist or a (i0orce la*yer. Or alternati0ely. etc. %n this case he "ay arri0e at the therapist4s consultin roo" still thin/in of hi"self as a patient in the "e(ical sense. a suita)le case for treat"ent. if the therapist spots i""e(iately that the patient4s *ish to ha0e psychotherapy is a (efence.really "a/e nonsense of the i(ea that there is a (efina)le. interconnecte( since the "ore fre-uent the atten(ance the hi her the )ill is li/ely to )e. *ho "ay ha0e referre( hi" to a psychiatrist *ho has reco""en(e( psychotherapy an( i0en hi" one4s na"e. !hese t*o are. an( in the "ore specific sense that he "ust ha0e arri0e( in the therapist4s consultin roo" )y so"e specific route. :econ(ly. 6 . the therapist shoul( infor" the patient of the treat"ent facilities a0aila)le nearer his ho"e.
%n practice % fin( that "ost patients opt initially for t*o sessions a *ee/ an( then. to )e precise. !his is the point at *hich it )e ins to )eco"e clear *hether *hat *e starte( on in the first session *as )rief. ne0er succee(e( in for"ulatin a eneral theory a)out ho* to fin( the &fair'. %n such a settin the patient can (isco0er for hi"self *hich he prefers. 3any years a o % ha( a patient *ho really (i( ha0e *ealth )eyon( the (rea"s of a0arice an( *ho *as *ell a*are of the fact . But *hiche0er it is . a ain hopefully. an( the analysan( *ill )e a*are that he really is (epen(ent on his analyst4s oo( *ill.e not % su este( that he shoul( pay "e one uinea per session "ore than % char e( any other patient< anythin "ore. focal psychotherapy or psychoanalysis. 6(herence to the classical analytical techni-ue can. four points a)out trainin analyses . % ha0e. the i(eal. !he fee can. %f it )eco"es psychoanalysis. )e a(9uste( )y "utual a ree"ent either up*ar(s or (o*n*ar(s if circu"stances see" to *arrant it. his infantile se5uality.or shoul( % say trainin therapies@ 2irstly. after a fe* *ee/s. his Oe(ipus co"ple5. i.an( of the fact that people *ere often only too rea(y to e5ploit an( spon e on hi". he sai(. respect an( positi0e e0aluation of hi" if he is to 7 . one *hich (oes not "a/e the patient feel that he is )ein e5ploite( or suc/e( (ry or that he is )ein treate( as an o)9ect of charity< an(. an( it *ill not ha0e )een i"pose( on the patient )y the therapist on the )asis of a sin le consultation lastin an hour or so at the "ost. % )elie0e. further"ore. it *ill )e )ecause he has (isco0ere( for hi"self the a(0anta es of the couch an( not )ecause his therapist has put hi" there. e-uita)le fee is one *hich (oes not en en(er a rie0ance in either the patient or the therapist. spouse. lea( to situations in *hich one or )oth parties feel that they ha0e let the"sel0es in for "ore than they )ar aine(.6n( as re ar(s fees. *oul( corrupt "e. % shoul( li/e to "a/e a fe* or. % "ust confess. e5plore profita)ly his inner *orl(. hopefully. % )elie0e. it *ill o on in(efinitely an( the patient *ill. in(ee(. relie0e(. 6n( % a" con0ince( that un(etecte( (e0iations fro" it in either (irection can increase the ne ati0e transference an(. he ac-uires so"e real *orl(ly po*er o0er his analysan(. e-uita)le fee. etc. *hen a therapist un(erta/es a trainin analysis. )ut in practice % see" not to fin( it (ifficult. frien(s.)rief focal psychotherapy or (eep analysis. !he i(eal consultin roo" contains )oth a couch an( a co"forta)le easy chair. analytical patient. . $ather si"ilar consi(erations apply to the couch. an( *ith an i"pro0e( un(erstan(in of his relationships *ith his parents.e. *hile the therapist feels free to interpret *hy he has chosen one an( has a0oi(e( the other.it *ill ha0e )een an infor"e( choice. an( if he )eco"es a classical. 2inally. %f it *as )rief. "a(e )y the patient as "uch as )y the therapist. one that (oes not "a/e the analyst feel that his ser0ices are )ein un(er0alue( or that he is e5ploitin his patient4s affluence. his internal o)9ect relationships. focal psychotherapy. the patient *ill stop treat"ent a fe* *ee/s or "onths later *ith his presentin sy"pto" or pro)le" un(erstoo( an(. an( the patient can choose for hi"self *hether he lies (o*n or sits. either he or % or )oth of us )e in to feel that it shoul( o up to three or "ore or (o*n to one. e"ployers. recu")ent. the ne ati0e counter-transference.
an( if an analysan( /no*s that he *ill still )e in analysis in t*o. % thin/. three or four years ti"e. %t see"s to "e that the *or( insi ht (oes not really -uite co0er or a(e-uately (escri)e this special -uality sai( to )e )esto*e( )y a trainin analysis. the crucial an( "ost i"portant peculiarity of trainin analyses is that there is so"ethin irrational. a 9o) of *or/ ta/es the ti"e a0aila)le for (oin it in. . )y un(erta/in trainin cases an analyst ac-uires capti0e patients *ho" he is unli/ely to &lose'. the trainee analysan( is co""itte( to atten(in for *hate0er nu")er of years the trainin or anisation insists upon. 6lthou h this has one a(0anta e . !he fees they char e *ill )e influence(. on the interaction )et*een the stren th an( nature of the patient4s resistances an( the insi ht into the" (isplaye( an( (eploye( )y his therapist. )etter esta)lishe( )o(ies is to pro0i(e such analysts *ith a source of relia)le lon -stay patients. an( that it *oul( create pro)le"s. often ri htly. "ythical. 6ccor(in to Par/inson. !his special -uality is. 6s a result. if he *ere to )eco"e (issatisfie( *ith his analyst an( start (ou)tin his co"petence. % )elie0e. usually calle( &insi ht'.it also has one serious (isa(0anta e: one of Par/inson4s Aa*s "ay co"e into operation. in trainin analyses the "ini"u" (uration is (eter"ine( )y the rules of the trainin or anisation. perhaps insupera)le pro)le"s. . the trainee analysan( "ay feel. e0en -uasi-reli ious a)out the". that to (o so *oul( )e to put his career in 9eopar(y.e. if not (eter"ine(. a procrastinatin ten(ency "ay enter into the treat"ent. % can thin/ of analysts *ho earne( secure inco"es )y (oin trainin *ho *oul( not.hereas the or(inary patient can 9ust stop treat"ent an( perhaps fin( another therapist *ho suits hi" )etter. 6n( % hope % a" not )ein too cynical in su estin that one of the functions of trainin )o(ies *ho rely for trainin analyses on analysts )elon in to ol(er. since there 8 . an( this increases his sense of econo"ic security. 2ourthly.-ualify as a therapist. ha0e sur0i0e( if they ha( relie( solely on or(inary patients. relie0in future therapists of their neuroses an( )lin( spots. hopefully.it ensures that the stu(ent *ill still )e in analysis *hile he is seein his o*n first patients . trainin analyses are also presu"e( an( (esi ne( to trans"it so"e special -uality of "in( fro" one eneration of therapists to the ne5t. )ut there is so"ethin o)scure a)out the notion of insi ht an( *hat one really "eans )y )ein &in touch *ith one4s unconscious'. althou h analysts *ho con(uct trainin analyses (o so. %n a((ition to their practical functions of. one presu"es.hy )roach so"e ne* e")arrassin . an( of instruction in theory an( techni-ue. couple( *ith the satisfaction attachin to professional a(0ance"ent. )ecause of their (e0otion to the psycho(yna"ic cause. their (oin so has econo"ic conse-uences. )oth for the"sel0es an( their analysan(s. i. *hereas in &or(inary' therapies the len th of treat"ent (epen(s solely on the (yna"ics of the relationship )et*een the patient an( the therapist. *hich is *hat an &insi htful' person is "eant to )e. )y the re ulations of the or anisation for *ho" they train.hereas the or(inary patient can stop treat"ent at any ti"e if he *ishes to (o so. (ifficult topic if (oin so can )e postpone( in(efinitely@ % ha0e (eli)erately phrase( this last sentence so that it applies e-ually to the analyst an( the analysan(. as *ill also the nu")er of ti"es a *ee/ that they see their analysan(s an( the len th of the analysis. . an( "ay feel that he has ot *hat he sou ht after only a fe* *ee/s or "onths. :econ(ly. !hir(ly.
one of the 2oun(in 2athers or 3others . 9ust as priests an( )ishops (o not al*ays in fact possess race. i"plication or tacit assu"ption that a trainin analysis confers on its recipient so"ethin "ore than.an( so on )ac/ to 2reu( or Jun or one of their ori inal (isciples. an( persons *ho ha0e )een throu h this rite are all too often (ee"e(.hereas in the #hristian tra(ition race is trans"itte( )y the layin on of han(s. 9 .oly :pirit' *hich priests ac-uire )y or(ination an( the 6postolic :uccession. potency . !he assu"ption see"s to )e that persons *ho ha0e ha( a trainin analysis *ith so"eone *ho hi"self has ha( a trainin analysis *ith so"eone *ho hi"self . re retta)ly.*hich sets the" a)o0e other "ortals.has ac-uire( so"ethin analo ous to &the race of the . in the analytical tra(ition it is trans"itte( )y the lyin on of couches. But. e5cellence. .see"s to )e so"e su estion.aretB. 9ust the capacity to un(erstan( one4s o*n an( other people4s "oti0es an( feelin s. in classical ?ree/ . so"ethin superior to. to ha0e ac-uire( so"e race. an( 9ust as not all "e")ers of the no)ility are in fact no)le. so not all analysan(s *ho ha0e one throu h the ritual of trainin ac-uire the race an( insi ht that are "eant to )e instille( an( e0o/e( )y it. )oth )y the"sel0es an( )y others. 0irtue.
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