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APPOSITIVE CLAUSE VS RELATIVE CLAUSE

1) APPOSITIVE
The following is from a gramar book: "Relative clauses need to be distinguished from a 2nd type of finite clause which can postmodify a noun: the appositive clause. This looks very similar to a relative clause introduced by that . Compare: 1) The story that I wrote was published. 2) The story that I had resigned was published. The first is relative (that can be replaced by which); the 2nd is appositive (that means "that is", and cannot be replaced by which)." 1) The story that I wrote was published.=I wrote the story and the story was published Here “the story” is the object of “I wrote”. In other words, “I wrote” is an incomplete sentence. 2) The story that I had resigned was published.=The story was published.(What kind of story is it?) The story is that I had resigned. Here “I had resigned” is a complete sentence and it is the content of the story.

An appositive that-clause usually follows an abstract noun, which is mostly a derivative from a verb or an adjective. belief (believe), comment (comment), confidence (confident), discovery (discover), doubt (doubt), evidence (evident), fact, fear (fear), hope (hope), indication (indicate), idea, information (inform), knowledge (know), news, opinion, order (order), problem, promise (promise), proof (prove), proposal (propose), report (report), rumor (rumor), story (tell), suggestion (suggest), thought (think), truth (true), wish (wish). (EX) We must face the fact that the Earth is steadily warming. (EX) We agree to the opinion that we must reduce CO2 release. (EX) Columbus had a firm belief that the world is round. (EX) Cleopatra received the news that Caesar had been killed.

(In the latter sentence.if we ask." In other words. ("the story" becomes "that" or "which" when this sentence becomes a suborniate clause to the main clause "The story was published. the answer is obvious: I wrote. "the story" is not included. 'that I had resigned' tells us what the story is all about. (In the latter sentence.--> Here.") 2)The story that (I had resigned) was published. regarding the appostive aspect.'that' could be omitted and the meaning of the sentence doesn't change. I had resigned." In other words." and it is the object of the verb "wrote. "I had resigned the story.) 2)The story that (I had resigned) was published. 2.if we ask.'that' cannot be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence or making it meaningless. "that" is a relative pronoun referring to "the story." The sentence also can be divided into two: The story was published." The sentence also can be divided into two: The story was published. 2) Relative Clauses with a little information about appositive clauses Relative Clause Defined Relative clauses are subordinate clauses that attach to nouns.'that I wrote' tells us who the book's author is. ." Now.--> Here. "The story that I had resigned was published. . "The story (that) I wrote was published"." .) 1. By defintion appostive clauses restrict the meaning of the main idea. people will be confused since "had resigned the story" does not make sense! . "Who had resigned the story?". --> Here. "Who wrote the story?".Read this sentence to mean "the story (written) about my resignation was pusblished. ." This sentence can be divided into two: The story was published.1) The story (that I wrote) was published. Because they add information to a noun. we cannot say. "the story" is not included. . "that" is not the object of the verb "had resigned. I believe both 'that I wrote' and 'that I had resigned' are appositive clauses. "that" is not the object of the verb "had resigned. I wrote the story. some grammarians and ESL/EFL teachers call them adjective clauses. "I had resigned the story. . I had resigned. we cannot say.

the two sentences must share the same noun. it has to be changed by adding the appropriate relative pronoun--who. and attach that clause to a noun. which. For this process to occur. the relative pronoun that is added. It is a connecting word--but it is also the subject of sentence #2 and of the new relative clause: Relative clause: that explains the differences between clauses and phrases . turn it into a subordinate clause. or whose--selected on the basis of a combination of meaning and syntax. Look at the following two sentences. #A2. that. The relative pronoun serves two functions--it is a subordinating conjunction and it is a part of the syntax of the clause.Examples of Sentences with Relative Clauses "Societies to Social Networks" Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach Relative Clause Structure To make a relative clause. we take a sentence. The book explains the differences between clauses and phrases. I read a book. To use the second sentence as a relative clause. In this example. What noun is shared by both sentences? #A1. For example. whom is used to refer to people (or animals closely associated with people) and it must be the object of a verb or preposition. whom.

Sentence that The book was highly recommended by my sister. Core sentence I bought a book. Sentence that My sister recommended the book. the internal structure of the relative clause is more complicated because the noun that is the focus of the clause is not the subject of the clause.New sentence: I read a book that explains the differences between clauses and phrases. In addition. #3. I bought the book to help me prepare for class. Relative clause process step 1--insert the relative pronoun: I bought that to help me prepare for class Relative clause process step 2--move the relative pronoun to the front of the clause: that I bought to help me prepare for class Relative clause process step 3--attach the relative clause to its noun #B3: I read a book that I bought to help me prepare for class. . I bought a book that my sister recommended. The book that is required for this workshop comes highly recommended. and at the end of sentences. The book that my sister recommended was quite useful. relative clauses come in two major types: (1) those that have the relative pronoun as the subject of the clause and (2) those that have the relative pronoun as something other than the subject of the clause (object or complement or object of a preposition). I bought a book that was highly recommended by my sister. Let's analyze the location and type of relative clause in each of the following sentences: #1. #4. subject: I verb: read direct object: a book that I bought to help me prepare for class Relative Clause Types Like wh-questions. #B2. #1 I bought a book that was highly recommended by my sister. subject: I verb: read direct object: a book that explains the differences between clauses and phrases In the following example. became the relative clause Relative Pronoun subject of the relative clause Function Location of the it's at the end of the sentence--attached to the relative clause noun that's the direct object--part of the large noun phrase that is the direct object #2 I bought a book that my sister recommended. Core sentence I bought a book. relative clauses can be added to nouns in just about any part of a sentence--at the beginning. The relative pronoun is a connecting word and it is also the direct object #B1. I read a book. in the middle. #2.

which was published in 2002. A non-restrictive relative clause is used to give additional information about the noun but not to identify it or to create categories. Non-restrictive Relative Pronouns Relative clauses are also classified depending on their relationship with the noun they modify. Sentence that My sister recommended the book. Core sentence The book was quite useful. The relative clause points to a particular book--and also means that there are books that my sister did not recommend. Look at this example: The Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. became the relative clause Relative Pronoun subject of the relative clause Function Location of the it's at the beginning of the sentence--attached to relative clause the noun that's the subject--part of the large noun phrase that is the subject of the sentence #4 The book that my sister recommended was quite useful. is based on the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Core sentence The book comes highly recommended. . became the relative clause Relative Pronoun direct object of the relative clause Function Location of the it's at the beginning of the sentence--attached to relative clause the noun that's the subject--part of the large noun phrase that is the subject of the sentence Restrictive vs. Sentence that The book is required for this workshop. Look at our book example: The book that my sister recommended was quite useful. A restrictive relative pronoun identifies its noun--and divides the world into categories.became the relative clause Relative Pronoun direct object of the relative clause Function Location of the it's at the end of the sentence--attached to the relative clause noun that's the direct object--part of the large noun phrase that is the direct object #3 The book that is required for this workshop comes highly recommended.

2.The relative clause--which was published in 2002--gives additional information about the book but it doesn't say that there are two Student Grammars--one published in 2002 and another at some other date. The students who turned their papers in early went to a party. Relative Pronoun Reduction Relative pronouns can sometimes be left out. they are understood but not given in the sentence as in the following examples: I bought a book my sister recommended. can the relative pronoun be left out? Where is it required? . then it must be kept. the clearest examples of non-restrictive relative clauses are those that go with proper nouns: Douglas Biber. What do you think? #1--there are two groups of students. The students. who is a well-known corpus linguist. I attended a lecture by Diane Larsen-Freeman. Those who turned in their papers early and those who didn't. who was born into a wealthy English family. Let's try this definition again by analyzing these two sentences. the relative clause in #1 is a restrictive relative clause. Otherwise. Better examples for use in our ESL/EFL classes would be something from a textbook they are using like this example I found in my sociology source: A classic example of an early woman sociologist is Harriet Martineau (1802-1876). How many groups of students is each sentence talking about? 1. So. #2--that's about all of the students. the relative pronoun can generally be dropped. who want to teach ESL/EFL. who is one of the co-authors of the Grammar Book. In which of these sentences. It's non-restrictive. The book my sister recommended was quite useful. It's even silly. Notice that the old definition about non-restrictives adding unimportant information is not true. This non-restrictive relative clause gives important information that adds to our understanding of Harriet Martineau but is not needed to define who she was. Why would you provide un-important information?! A non-restrictive provides information that the writer wants you to have but it is attached to a noun that is already identified and doesn't need anything else to make you know which one you are talking about. Probably for teaching purposes. If the relative pronoun is the subject of its clause. try to get a lot of classroom experience. teaches at the University of Northern Arizona. At TESOL.

you'll find students leaving the preposition out altogether: *At TESOL. #2: relative clause: Students who become independent learners can continue to learn after they . I bought a book. The underlying sentence is: Students can become independent learners. As our students struggle with making this type of combination. object of the relative clause Relative Clauses & Prepositions Relative clause structure gets more complicated when a prepositional phrase is involved. I bought a book that I got new ideas about teaching grammar. Appositive Clauses Appositive clauses look a great deal like relative clauses. it's the direct recommended. At TESOL. The book that my sister recommended not required. it's the direct was quite useful. The book that is required for this required. #2: I got new ideas about teaching from the book. object of the relative clause #3. 2. it's the subject of workshop comes highly recommended. Relative clause creation step #1--insert the pronoun as the object of the preposition: I got new ideas about teaching from that Relative clause creation step #2--front the pronoun: but.. But notice that if you use this approach. The basic problem is deciding what to do with the preposition--where does it go when the clause is put into the sentence..#1. Analyze the following examples: what kind of word is the clause attached to? what is the original sentence that the clause was created from? #1: appositive clause: I like the idea that students can become independent learners. Here's an example: #1: At TESOL.. At TESOL. I bought a book that was highly required. 1. *At TESOL. you have two choices: Choice #1: Leave the preposition at the end: that I got new ideas about teaching from. it's the subject of recommended by my sister. The clause is attached to a noun--the idea... the relative clause #4. you cannot use that. I bought a book from which I got new ideas about teaching grammar. I bought a book from that I got new ideas about teaching grammar. I bought a book that my sister not required. the relative clause #2. Relative Clauses vs. You have to use which.what to front? Where does the preposition go? Actually. I bought a book that I got new ideas about teaching grammar from. Choice #2: Move the preposition with its object to the front.

Notice how the nominalized version has the same grammatical feature as the verb version--the noun clause of the verb version becomes the appositive clause of the noun version. The underlying sentence is: Students become independent learners. belief. Try analyzing these: what's the core sentence? What sentence was changed to make the relative clause? What's the grammatical function of the relative pronoun in its clause? Where in the sentence does the relative clause come? . thought. 1. Appositive clauses can be related to particulate verbs and their noun clause direct objects: I believe that students can become independent learners. An appositive clause does not include the noun that it attaches to. I know that students can become independent learners. Grammarians and linguists refer to this process of changing a verb to a noun as nominalization. and a few others are often followed by appositive clauses. how are these two subordinate clause types different? A relative clause includes in its internal structure the same noun that it attaches to. My feeling that students can become independent learners is shared by many other teachers. knowledge. Our knowledge that students can become independent learners drives our work. I listed some examples from the sociology textbook that I'm using for examples. Click here for my analysis. Test your knowledge by deciding which of these sentences has an appositive clause and which has a relative clause. just be careful not to jump to the conclusion that every noun + that combination is a relative clause. the appositive clause is like a linking verb--or an equal sign: the idea = students can become independent learners. Nouns like idea. the relative pronoun has a grammatical role that combines being a connector with a role in the syntax of its clause. Here's that list again. The clause is attached to a noun--students 2. The belief that students can become independent learners is common among teachers. Based on that analysis.leave our classes. The idea that I shared with my students comes from many years of teaching experience. The relative pronoun means the same thing as the noun that the clause is attached to. The idea that we must work together as a team guides our department's work. The connector that just connects the clause to the noun without playing any internal role in the clause. Analyzing Authentic Examples At the beginning of this lecture. When analyzing authentic samples. I feel that students can become independent learners.

The underlying sentence is: Students become independent learners. Analyze the following examples: what kind of word is the clause attached to? what is the original sentence that the clause was created from? #1: appositive clause: I like the idea that students can become independent learners. The clause is attached to a noun--students 2. The clause is attached to a noun--the idea. #2: relative clause: Students who become independent learners can continue to learn after they leave our classes. 1. 2.Examples of Sentences with Relative Clauses "Societies to Social Networks" Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach 3) APPOSITIVE Appositive clauses look a great deal like relative clauses. 1. The relative pronoun means the same thing as the noun that the clause is attach . Based on that analysis. The underlying sentence is: Students can become independent learners. how are these two subordinate clause types different? A relative clause includes in its internal structure the same noun that it attaches to.

the two sentences must share the same noun. some grammarians and ESL/EFL teachers call them adjective clauses. The connector that just connects the clause to the noun without playing any internal role in the clause. Relative clauses are subordinate clauses that attach to nouns. For this process to occur. I read a book. belief. we take a sentence. When analyzing authentic samples. To make a relative clause.ed to. the relative pronoun has a grammatical role that combines being a connector with a role in the syntax of its clause. just be careful not to jump to the conclusion that every noun + that combination is a relative clause. An appositive clause does not include the noun that it attaches to. Look at the following two sentences. thought. Test your knowledge by deciding which of these sentences has an appositive clause and which has a relative clause. Appositive clauses can be related to particulate verbs and their noun clause direct objects: I believe that students can become independent learners. turn it into a subordinate clause. What noun is shared by both sentences? #A1. and attach that clause to a noun. Notice how the nominalized version has the same grammatical feature as the verb version--the noun clause of the verb version becomes the appositive clause of the noun version. Our knowledge that students can become independent learners drives our work. The idea that we must work together as a team guides our department's work. I know that students can become independent learners. Grammarians and linguists refer to this process of changing a verb to a noun as nominalization. I feel that students can become independent learners. The belief that students can become independent learners is common among teachers. Nouns like idea. The idea that I shared with my students comes from many years of teaching experience. knowledge. My feeling that students can become independent learners is shared by many other teachers. Because they add information to a noun. and a few others are often followed by appositive clauses. . the appositive clause is like a linking verb--or an equal sign: the idea = students can become independent learners.

whom is used to refer to people (or animals closely associated with people) and it must be the object of a verb or preposition. To use the second sentence as a relative clause. it has to be changed by adding the appropriate relative pronoun--who. In this example. For example.#A2. whom. The book explains the differences between clauses and phrases.about. The relative pronoun serves two functions--it is a subordinating conjunction and it is a part of the syntax of the clause. or whose--selected on the basis of a combination of meaning and syntax. that.htm . It is a connecting word--but it is also the subject of sentence #2 and of the new relative clause: Relative clause: that explains the differences between clauses and phrases New sentence: I read a book that explains the differences between clauses and phrases. which.com/od/basicsentencegrammar/a/buildappositive. the relative pronoun that is added. subject: I verb: read direct object: a book that explains the differences between clauses and phrases Check : http://grammar.