You are on page 1of 33

STAAR Reporting Category 1 Matter & Energy

Middle School Science Science STAAR Need to Know

STAAR Need to Know

Atomic Theory

Atoms are building blocks of elements Atoms in each unique element are the same.
(Ex: Every oxygen element has the same # of protons)

Atoms are different from atoms of other elements


(Ex: Hydrogen has a different # of protons than oxygen)

Two or more different atoms bond in simple ratios to form compounds


(Ex: Hydrogen & oxygen can
STAAR Need to Know 2

chemically combine to form water- H2O )

STAAR Need to Know

STAAR Need to Know

Atoms and Elements

STAAR Need to Know

Atomic Particle Charges

Protons Positive + Neutrons Neutral = Electrons Negative STAAR Need to Know 6

Location of Subatomic Particles


10-13 cm

electrons
protons
nucleus

neutrons

10-8 cm
STAAR Need to Know 7

Location of Atomic Particles


Inside the Nucleus Protons with a Positive charge AND Neutrons with a Neutral charge that means they do not have a charge Outside the Nucleus- in electron cloud Electrons with a Negative charge Did you know electrons are very, very small and move very, very fast???
8

STAAR Need to Know

Periodic Squares

The periodic square for an element can tell you lots of information about that atom. Atomic number = # of protons Atomic number = # of electrons

11 Na 22.99

That means in a neutral (uncharged) atom the # of protons and electrons are always the SAME!!!!
STAAR Need to Know 9

Atomic Mass on the Periodic Table

Atomic Number or Protons Symbol


Atomic Mass or Protons + neutrons

11

Na 22.99
10

STAAR Need to Know

Atomic number

Atomic number = # of Protons A=P=E M-A=N


STAAR Need to Know 11

Mass Number

The number of protons and neutrons in an atom


STAAR Need to Know 12

Number of Electrons

A balanced atom is neutral The net overall charge is zero Number of protons = Number of electrons Atomic number = Number of electrons

STAAR Need to Know

13

STAAR Need to Know

14

Identity & properties of Elements

STAAR Need to Know

15

STAAR Need to Know

16

STAAR Need to Know

17

Elements with similar properties are placed in the same group in the periodic table. The stair-step line separates the elements into metals and nonmetals.

STAAR Need to Know

18

Metals & Nonmetals

STAAR Need to Know

19

Element
Chlorine-35 Iron-56

Protons Neutrons Electrons

2 elements with similar properties

17 26

18 30

17 26

F and Br Ru and Os

Magnesium-24

12

12

12

Ca and Sr

Lead-208

82
7

126
7

82
7

Sn and Ge
P and As 20

Nitrogen-14

STAAR Need to Know

Molecules & Compounds

STAAR Need to Know

21

STAAR Need to Know

22

Mixtures
Combination of two or more pure substances. Substances are mixed together but have not reacted to form any new molecules. Example- Sugar (a compound) dissolves in water (a compound) to form a mixture. The molecules of sugar and water do not change chemically. They just become mixed together.

STAAR Need to Know

23

Organic Compounds

Compounds that includes carbon along with other element(s) hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorous, and or sulfur. Nucleic Acid (DNA), Carbohydrates, Proteins, & Starch.

STAAR Need to Know

24

Properties & Changes

STAAR Need to Know

25

Properties of matter
Physical properties can be observed without changing the substance into a different substance.

STAAR Need to Know

26

Chemical Properties
Characteristics of a substance that are observed when it reacts (changes) to produce one or more different substances. Example- Water can be changed into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas using an electric current. When water molecules change chemically into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas, we say that a chemical change has occurred. Hydrogen gas and oxygen gas each have a different set of properties. Substances change into different substances through STAAR Need to Know chemical reactions.
27

Chemical Reactions
Substances change into other substances in chemical reactions. The atoms in the original substance are rearranged. The bonds in the original substance may be broken and new bonds may be formed between different atoms. This produces one or more

new substances that may be either pure elements or compounds.

The products of a chemical reaction always have difference chemical and physical properties than the original substance(s).
STAAR Need to Know 28

Evidence of a Chemical Reaction

a change in odor, a change in color, a solid precipitate is formed, a gas is formed, there is either absorption (Endothermic) or release (Exothermic) of heat

STAAR Need to Know

29

STAAR Need to Know

30

STAAR Need to Know

31

Chemical Equations

STAAR Need to Know

32

STAAR Need to Know

33