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Peter Laarakker1 and Suyus Windanaya2 Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency, the Netherlands email@example.com 2 National Land Agency, Indonesia firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract To meet the Land Policy challenges in Indonesia in the field of agrarian reform, development planning, development of land and real estate market, infrastructure and environmental issues, the availability of adequate land information is of utmost importance. Indonesia is aware that this availability can only be realised by extensive use of information and communication technology and many initiatives have started to automate the production, storage and use of land information. Progress however has not been optimal, challenges have arisen in the field of regulatory framework, available budgets, mandates and availability of trained staff to run the new systems. To a certain extend these kind of problems have appeared anywhere in the world where paper based working methods were replaced by computerized ones. At first automated systems were developed on “islands” but after a while organisations started to discover that automated communication between these systems was difficult, creating the need for a much stronger coordination between these organisations than was usual before. The installment of these coordinating mechanisms lead also to the possibilty to make maximum use of the developed IT systems; the development of (spatial) data infrastructures lead to efficient and customer friendly electronic government initiatives. It took very much time to develop this new way of working. Organisations were not used to this strong level of cooperation and greater inter-dependencies. It needed a cultural change that took many years. Indonesia has to make this change in a much shorter period of time. At one side advanced IT systems are available from the first moment of automation, on the other side the Land Policy challenges are serious and the political pressure to solve them is high. It was decided to develop a National Land Information System. With the development of a NLIS, the field of land information comes in a new phase of application of IT. The necessary investments in IT knowledge and IT organisation are high. The paper gives an overview of different IT initiatives in the field of land information in Indonesia against the background of the model for Business-IT alignment of Henderson and Venkatraman and the Nolan and Nortan model for IT development.
Keywords: Land Information, NSDI, Business-IT alignment
Use and Utilisation of Land-project Information System for Land Management Sistem Layanan Informasi Mandiri (Independent Information System) .Acronyms BAKOSURTANAL BPN IT IPSLA LADM LARASITA LMPDP LOC NLIS NLPF NNC NSDI NSDN P4T SIMTANAS SLIM National Mapping Agency National Land Agency Information Technology Institutional Partnership for Strenghtening Land Administration Land Administration Domain Model Layanan Rakyat Untuk Sertifikasi Tanah. mobile land office Land Management and Policy Development Project Local Office Computersystem National Land Information System National Land Policy Framework Network Node Connector National Spatial Data Infrastructure National Spatial Data Network Ownership. Tenure.
Business and IT have to be aligned to get an effective and efficient . Indonesia is introducing the use of information and communication technology in Land Information over a wide range of applications. This paper deals with these two aspects of the introduction of IT in Land Information in Indonesia. infrastructure and environmental issues. storage and use of land information. Land Information in its most literally means all information on land like legal status. development of land and real estate market. use. Indonesia is aware that this availability can only be realised by extensive use of information and communication technology and many initiatives have started to automate the production. LAND INFORMATION IN INDONESIA To make a strategy for an NLIS it is necessary to define the scope of this system. These two variables define 4 possibilities for the scope of the strategy as shown in the next table: . 2. the availability of adequate land information is of utmost importance. manage. Another important question is the way the implementation of IT technology is organised and the communication between the departments that are responsible for the production of Land Information and the departments that are responsible for ITsupport. In the framework of the LMPDP project sponsored by the World Bank a start was made with the development of a strategy for a NLIS by the National Land Agency of Indonesia (BPN). The second fuzzy part of the concept of NLIS is the word ‘system’. environmental aspects etc. An important question for such a strategy is the definition of the scope of strategy. This can refer to a technical computer system but also to a system with a wider meaning: a number of organisations that work together to capture.1. development planning. On the other hand land information is sometimes set against geographic information and then has more limited meaning. share and disseminate information on land. INTRODUCTION To meet the Land Policy challenges in Indonesia in the field of agrarian reform.
. agreements. The NSDN consists of Network Nodes and a Network Node Connector (NNC). capacitybuilding etc. First there is Keppres 34/2003 that calls on BPN to develop a National Land Information System. to facilitate the exchange of data and to provide assistance for the Network Nodes. In the presidential decree no provisions are made for the coordination structure of the NSDN. property. Limited to cadastral/land registry data [Cadastre/Land Registry organisation] D The LIS is covering most land related datasets and the system includes all (inter)organisational aspects like (financial) regulations. often referred to as a [Clearinghouse] The names between [brackets] are meant as an indication. Secondly Presidential decree 85/2007 decides upon the development of a National Spatial Data Network (NSDN). Bakosurtanal is taking the role as as Network Node Connector. [Cadastral/Land Registry system] Focused on all aspects of organisation necessary to create the LIS B Organisation like Cadastre or Land Registry. Part of this policy is the acceleration of land titling and the development of spatial planning capacity in the municipalities.Different concepts of LIS APPROACH Focused on technical side A Information system to collect and manage cadastral and registry data and distribute on national level. The tasks of the NNC are to build and maintain the NSDN access system. The NLPF sets the objectives for the Land Policy and the priorities for the development of the NLIS should follow from these Land Policy objectives. Two important regulations in Indonesia are related to this discussion on the scope of the NLIS. The LIS concept is then getting close to the concept of [NSDI] DATA Wide number of datasets. infrastructure etc C Technical exchange platform for land related data. tax. Very important for the development of the NLIS is the development of the National land Policy Framework. The Network Nodes are the ministries and provincial and local governments and cities that handle spatial data. landuse.
see figure 2. capacity. But because of the growing importance of IT in organisations. network-systems. BUSINESS–IT ALIGNMENT IN SPATIAL INFORMATION This chapter is about management and IT. spatial data bases. Business. sustainability (can systems be maintained in the future?) and innovation (what are the future needs of customers and which IT-developments can support those needs?).and IT-strategy affect each other mutually. Business strategy and IT-strategy have to be aligned. GPS equipment. These business processes are supported by IT-systems and tools. but also management has to understand what it means and what it needs to introduce IT systems in such a big amount. etc. Figure 1: Business-IT alignment Business strategy IT strategy Business processes Systems An organisation has a business strategy in which its functions and objectives in society or in the market are definded. the sceme originally developed by Henderson and Venkatraman (H&V) is of great value. This chapter is about creating this mutual understanding. this understanding has to be created. Primarily IT has to make what the Business wants. However this development has to be done with a strategic IT-view. In organisations that are dealing with land information this can be Gissystems. also in the field of spatial information in Indonesia.1 Business-IT alignment in one organisation Looking at an organisation that is increasing its use of IT for support of the business processes. see figure 1.3. business processes are designed. 3. The IT-systems are developed based on business needs. To implement this strategy. but there can also be constraints. in budget. Figure 2: External influences . for reasons of efficiency (re-use of developed components). two worlds that sometimes do not understand each other. This system of alignment between Business and IT is influenced by many internal and external factors. available tehnology etc. IT has to understand what business management wants.
On a higher level the same problem occurs that occurred after phase one in a single organisation: optimized internally but not yet externally. Then automated components were merged together to support a complete business process. Support of the chain Historicly organisations have started with an automation of simple tasks. Internally in departnments things are running smoothly. often introducing Enterprise Resource Software (ERP) to link all information together. Support of the organisation 4. The phases are: 1. much used is the one of Nolan. At the same time relations with clients and suppliers have to be optimized. clients are happy with the improved service but they have to refer to many different service points.The chain in which an organisation works is now considered as a whole. so many different user interfaces are being built. Internally the interfaces with other business or staff departments are difficult so integrated joint service is not possible and management information from all the business processes is pasted together in an unsophisticated manner. Competition or political pressure forces organisations to improve their joint performance. 3. Capabilities of suppliers and the staff of the organisation are influencing the strategy. These issues are addressed by the organisation and in the next phase these problems are solved. For the business processes and IT-systems more operational issues are influential. Norton & Co. Automation of tasks 2. there will be many different client wishes. And since clients themselves have also developed their own systems in an isolated way. Many models have been developed. It is discovered that the wheel is invented many times and initiatives are . Support of primary process 3. This situation is often refered to as island-automation. IT-strategy is influenced by technological developments that create new possibilities.2 Phases in Business-IT alignment Several phases can be distinguished in the way IT applications are supporting an organisation over time.politics clients staff competitors IT developments suppliers architecture sourcing Business strategy SWOT IT strategy (re)design Business processes Quality management Systems legacy problems maintenance The Business Strategy is often based on a Strenght/Weaknesses & 0pportunities/Threats analysis in which political wishes. competitors or stakeholders actions and capabilities of the own organisation and staff are considered. The existing IT-architecture is also framing the strategy. clients needs.
IT departments are small and taking care only for some very specialised activities. IT-strategy. Efficiency is the main objective of automation. development and for research. often taking care themselves of automation. sometimes leading to a full business process redesign. it will be clear that the role of IT in an organisation in the consecutive phases will be different. for operations. the situation can be symbolised in figure 3. An independent IT-strategy function and more specialized IT-operation departments are introduced. In the first phase the business is completely in the lead. if there is any. only looking from the perspective of the processes.taken to develop shared service centres. Figure 3: Phase 1 in Business-IT alignment Business strategy IT strategy Business processes Systems In the second phase (see figure 4) clients profit from the introduced IT systems. asking for dedicated applications. is hidden in the business strategy. IT-strategy starts to develop also an opinion on the business processes. so many different user interfaces are being built. Costs of IT are rising. Projecting this model of phases of development on the Business-IT alignment model in picture 1. Modifying H&V’s model. Figure 4: Phase 2 in Business IT-alignment Business strategy IT strategy Business processes Systems . maintenance of interfaces is getting complicated so on the Board level the need for better coordination and a more strategic approach to IT is being felt.
it will influence both business and IT strategy. it is therefor necessary that IT strategy is also aligned with the IT-strategy of other organisations. . Business processes are supported by the participating organisations and in the field of ITsystems. For sustainability of the cooperation in the chain.In phase 3 a balance between influence of business and IT exists. support of the chain Business Business strategy Business strategy strategy ICT ICT strategy IT strategy strategy Business Business processes Business processes processes Systems Systems Systems The discussion between the organisations on all fields of Business-IT alignment is also influenced by many internal and external factors as can be seen in figure 6. decisions are taken based on an assesment of business and IT-relevant circumstances. Organsations have to discuss on high strategic level the common elements of their operations. Operating in the chain means that business processes of multiple organisation have to be aligned (see figure 5). Coordination mechanisms are necessary to get a sustainable cooperation. Figure 5: Phase 4. leading to a common architectual reference framework. Business and IT have the same level in the Board Room. 3. that organisation has to look at those other organistions in the same way it looks at its own organisation. interoperability is being created. Business-IT alignment between organisations When the strategy of an organisation is starting to focus on the chain in which it is operating.3 Phase 4. When organisations are knot together like that. as is symbolised in figure 1. All elements of IT alignments are mutually influencing.
sometimes concluding to a change of mandates of the participating organisations. . one asking fees for services and the other being financed from central budgets. Decisions have to be taken on standards. information models and other architectural issues to create interoperability. both technical and semantic. At the system level technological developments are important.Figure 6: External influences on multiple organisation business-IT alignment E-government different business models government IT-policy Business Business strategy Business strategy strategy ICT ICT strategy IT strategy strategy NLIS/NSDI Business Business processes Business processes processes chain integration Systems Systems shared Systems service interoperability A problem can be that cooperating organisations are working with different business models. And a more detailed assesment of chain integration can be done. Their plans have to fit within general government policy on electronic government or IT.
4. Figure 7 Business strategy IT strategy System for production of base map Design of GIS for small islands Design of GIS for P4T project Business processes Systems Design and introduction of Larasita in the whole country IT strategy ! Growing Business-IT alignment Business strategy Process design for filling LOC’s with issued titles Upgrading of LOC Introduction management reporting system Business processes Business strategy Systems Introduction of Simtanas Introduction of Oracle spatial database Introduction of LADM IT strategy Business processes Business Business strategy Business strategy strategy Systems ICT ICT strategy IT strategy strategy Design of pilot project in Makassar Design of node in framework of NSDN Business Business processes Business processes processes Systems Systems Systems Central in the approach at this moment is the introduction of Simtanas. the System for Land Management. BUSINESS-IT ALIGNMENT IN LAND INFORMATION INDONESIA 4. At the other side there are activities that show signs of IT-governance in phase 4. In the future the updating of the cadastral map should be done on line. In the district offices still a lot of work has to be done to enter the existing data in the computerised system. There is contact with other organisations on IT matters. Simtanas is now focussing on cadastral information. some systems are managed in phase 1 and 2: business is completely in the lead and no or low involvement exists of the IT department. At one side. these activities can be mapped against the phases that are described in Chapter 3. Many activities are managed somewhere between phase 1 and 4.1 Business-IT alignment in BPN When looking at the systems that are introduced in BPN. based on Oracle spatial and using the LADM-model. . The plan is to build a national database for the cadastral map.
Producers. It is an IT-paradox in BPN that it is working in all phases of IT development. Using the picture for phase 4 it is clear what is missing: an integrated business strategy for the NSDN. NSDN Already mentioned is the National Spatial Data Network (NSDN). The approach now is purely technical. All the information produced also has to be made available through the NSDN. so they can learn of specific wishes from the side of the region. The system is meant to support the district in the execution of its tasks with respect to land. It is however not clear who has the business responsibility for this. Business alignment between BPN and Bakosurtanal is very necessary to avoid overlapping activities in the future. etc. At this moment Deputy 1 is maintaining its own ITsystems and making the data available trough cd’s to the district offices of BPN. can those wishes be met? The philosophy of an NSDI is to create a one-stop portal for all necessary spatial information in a certain area. . To investigate the possibilities of the use of GIS it is good that such initiatives are taken but it is important that experiences are shared with other users and producers of spatial information. NLIS Business-IT alignment is also necessary for the development of the NLIS. They have to know and must be able to discuss what technical infrastructure will be developed. The concepts of NLIS and NSDI are very close. A steering committee in which the IT-department is participating is discussing the issues that arise from this new development. Every involved organsation has to produce a clearing unit. which responsibility lies with Bakosurtanal. At the same time it works to integrate the business applications from the deputies. Municipality of Sleman In the framework of LMPDP component 5 a well working GIS system was developed in a number of subregions in the district of Sleman. Users. Who are the clients. what are their wishes.2 Business-IT alignment in NLIS/NSDI There are a number of activities that lead to a need of Business-IT alignment on the higher level 4. There is a steering committee active to discuss the technical standards for these clearing units. This is necessary to be able to plan their own development. Many of these activities are considered technical IT-issues. underestimating the effect that the introduction of modern technology has on an organisation. which standards will be used. The country has a low level of titling and an even lower level of cadastral mapping. so they can see what information can be obtained from the municipality. these units will be connected by the National Network Connector. And on an even higher level it has to work on national portals in a complicated interorganisational environment to let the information that is collected have its maximum use.In the future also base map information should be entered in the system and made available to the district offices. NLIS will contain much information that is needed by other government organisations or produced by other organisations. 4. but that means that production plans of the connected organisations have to be aligned. BPN is trying hard to collect the basic information.
This is applicable both within the organisation of BPN as between the government organisations that together have to produce the land information in Indonesia. .5. Looking at the Nolan&Norton model for IT development one can conclude that all phases are present in Indonesia. It is very important to reconsider the organisation of Business-IT alignment for an effective and efficient use of IT resources. CONCLUSIONS Indonesia is introducing IT in Land Information over a wide range of applications.
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