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Summary: Big Picture - Integrals dy dx

Key problem

Recover the integral y (x) from its derivative

Find total distance traveled from record of the speed Find total height knowing the slope since the start dy Simplest way Recognize as derivative of a known y (x) dx dy 1 If = x3 then its integral y (x) (Function (1)) was x4 + C dx 4

dy = ex then y = ex + C dx dy 1 If = e2x then y = e2x + C dx 2 Integral Calculus is the reverse of Diﬀerential Calculus � dy dy y (x) = dx adds up the whole history of slopes dx dx Integral is like sum Derivative is like diﬀerence If

Sums Diﬀerences

y0 y 1 − y0

y1 y 2 − y1

y2 y3 − y2

y3 y 4 − y3

y4

Notice cancellation (y1 − y0 ) + (y2 − y1 ) = y2 − y0 = change in height Divide and multiply diﬀerences by step size ∆x ∆y y − y0 y − y1 Sum of ∆x = 1 ∆x + 2 ∆x = y2 − y0 ∆x ∆x ∆x � dy ∆x → 0 Sum changes to integral dx = yend − ystart dx

dy dx = y (x) + C dx The integral reverses the derivative and brings back y (x) Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Integration and Diﬀerentiation are inverse operations � x d Opposite order too s(t) dt = s(x) dx 0 � x KEY What is the meaning of an integral s(t) dt ?

0

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PLAY PAUSE Click PLAY to hear Professor Strang walk you through this summary Example Slope s(t) = 6t (increasing speed) Method 1 y = 3t2 has the required derivative 6t Method 2 The triangle under the graph of s(t) has area 3t2 1 From 0 to t. distance is close to s(t∗ )∆t t∗ = starting time for that step s(t∗ ) = starting speed Not exact because speed changes a little within time ∆t Total distance is close to sum of short distances s(t∗ )∆t Total distance becomes exact as ∆t → 0 and sum → integral Picture of each step shows a tall thin rectangle s(t∗ )∆t = height times base = area of rectangle t∗ = start point of the time step Sum of s(t∗ )∆t = total area of all rectangles Now ∆t → 0 The rectangles ﬁll up the triangle Integral of s(t) dt = exact area y (t) under the graph Fundamental Theorem Area y (t) has desired derivative s(t) ∆y is the thin area under s(t) between t and t + ∆t ∆t is the base of that thin “rectangle” ∆y is the height of that thin “rectangle” ∆t This height approaches s(t) as the base ∆t → 0 . base = t and height = 6t and area = t(6t). 2 [Most shapes are more diﬃcult! Area comes from integrating s] Method 3 (fundamental) Short time steps each at constant speed This limiting step deﬁnes the integral of s(t) In a step ∆t.

8. What functions y (t) have the constant derivative s(t) = 7? 2. ﬁnd the integral 7 dt = . From 0 to t. At this instant t = 2. the correct area under s = et is y = et − 1. If t is small. the area must be small. From 0 to t. ﬁnd area = integral (7 + 6t) dt. From t = 0 to 2. What function y (t) has the derivative s(t) = 7 + 6t ? � 2 5. Notice y0 in (y1 − y0 ) + (y2 − y1 ) + (y3 − y2 ) = ∆y dy The sum of ∆y = ∆t becomes the integral of dt ∆t dt The area under s(t) from 0 to t becomes y (t) − y (0). From t = 0 to 2. But t = 0 has y = e0 = 1.PLAY PAUSE Click PLAY to hear Professor Strang walk you through this summary Practice Questions 1. dy The slope is and now y (0) = dt . the area under the curve s = et IS NOT y = et . . 9. What is the area from 0 to t under the graph of s(t) = 7? � 2 3. 0 6. 0 4. what is d(area) ? dt 7.

but has been provided by the author as an individual learning resource. For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use. visit: http://ocw. .MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu Resource: Highlights of Calculus Gilbert Strang The following may not correspond to a particular course on MIT OpenCourseWare.mit.edu/terms.

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