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# Chapter 4:

1- A fair coin is tossed three times and the events A and B are defined as follows: A: {At least one head is observed} B: {The number of head observed is odd} Find P(A), P(B), P(A ), P(not A) and P(A ). P(A) = 7/8 , P(B)= 4/8 , P(A ) = 4/8 , P(not A) = 1/8 and P(A ) = 7/8.

2- A class contains 10 men and 20 women of which half the men and half the women have brown eyes. Find the probability that a person chosen at random is a man or has brown eyes. M: a person is men ,W: a person is women , B: a person have brown eyes. P( )=

3- In a large housing plan, 35% of the homes have a deck and a two car garage, and 80% of the houses have a two-car garage. Find the probability that a house has a deck given that it has a garage. D: house has a deck , P(D|G) = G: house has a garage.

4- We know that only 70% of the students are female. And 40% of the students are female and have a car. A single person is selected at random. What is the percentage of the female are own a car? C: Student has a car , F: female P(C|F) = The percentage: 57% 5- In a box, there are 10 red balls,3 white balls. Two balls are drawn from the box without replacement. What is the probability that a. The first two are red. b. The first is red and the second is white. c. The second is red given that the first is white. Answer: a. b. c. |

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6- A group of students at Qatar University were classified according to their gender and smoking habits, as shown below smoking habits Gender Male(M) Female(F) Total Smoker (S) 28 4 32 Non-smoker (N) 12 56 68 Total 40 60 100

a. What is the probability the student is Non-smoker? P(N) = b. What is the probability the student is male but does not smoke? P(M N) = c. What is the probability the student is male or Non-smoker? P(M N)= P(M) + P(N) - P(M N) = + = d. Given that the student is female, What is probability the she smokes? P(S|F) = f. If the student was male, what is the probability he smokes? P(S|M) = .

7- Consider the discrete probability distribution: x P (x) 0 0.1 1 k 2 0.3 3 0.2 4 0.1

a. Find the value of k. 0.1+k+0.3+0.2+0.1=1 k = 1-0.7 = 0.3 b. Find the probability that x is larger than 1. P(X

## ) = 0.3 + 0.2 + 0.1 = 0.6

c. Calculate the mean and variance for this distribution. = 2 = (x - )2 = 0 *(0.1) + 1*(0.3) + 2*(0.3) + 3*(0.2) + 4*(0.1) = 1.9 = 1.29

Chapter 5:
1- The probability that an individual is right-handed is 0.84. In a class of 10 students, what is the mean and standard deviation of the number of right-handed students? Binomial distribution Mean=np= 8.4 ; standard deviation= npq= 1.16 2- The proportion of smokers in a population is 0.6. In a random sample of size 8, n=8 , p = 0.6 , q=1-p=0.4

a. What is the probability that the number of smokers less than or equal 2.

b.

## What is the probability that the number of smokers exactly 2. = = 0.041

c.

Find the mean, variance and standard deviation. mean =np=8 0.6= 4.8 variance= npq = 8 0.6 0.4= 1.92 standard deviation

3- Suppose a certain intersection has an average of 2 car accidents per day. a. What is the probability of there being exactly 3 car accidents today? =2

e k e 2 23 P(X=3)= 0.1804 k! 3!
b. Find the mean and standard deviation. Mean = = 2 Standard deviation=

Chapter 6& 7:
1- Let Z be a random variable follows a standard normal distribution. Find: d. P(Z> 1.42) = 0.9222 e. P(Z<-0.73) =1- P(Z> - 0.73)= 1- 0.2327= 0.7673 f. P(0.65>Z>1.26)= 0.8962- 0.7422 =0.154 g. 1-0.123=0.877 = 1.16 h. If P(Z>c)=0.975, find the value of c. c = 1.96 i. If P(Z<c)=0.975, find the value of c. 1-0.975= 0.025 , c= -1.96

2- The heights of a certain population of corn plants follow a normal distribution with mean = 150 centimeters and standard deviation = 31 centimeters. a. What percentage of corn plants from this population have heights between 145 and 160 centimeters? P(145 < X < 160) = P ( < < )

=P(

<

<

= P(-0.16 < Z < 0.32) = P(Z < 0.32) - P(Z -0.16) = 0.6255 - 0.4364 = 0.1891 So, about 19% of corn plants from this population have heights between 145 and 160 centimeters. b. If a random sample of 36 corn plants is chosen from this population, find the probability that their average height will be greater than 160 inches. P 160) = P ( =P( ) )

= P( Z

1.93) = 1 - P(Z

## 1.93) = 1 - 0.9732 = 0.0268

c. What is the height of a plant such that only 1% of all plants exceed this height? P(x< c) = 0.01 1-0.01=0.99 The z-score having an area of 0.01 to its right is 2.33, z = 2.33

## =150 + 31(2.33) = 222.23

3- In a survey, 500 mothers and fathers were asked about the importance of sports for boys and girls. Of the parents interviewed, 60% agreed that the genders are equal and should have opportunities to participate in sports. What is the sampling distribution of the sample proportion of parents who agree that the genders are equal and should have opportunities? n= 500 , p= 0.6 , q= 0.4 np = 500 0.6 = 300 <5 , nq = 500 0.4 = 200 <5 The sampling distribution of the sample proportion is approximately normal with mean = p = 0.6 standard deviation =