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Miller, C.D.

Shell Structures
Structural Engineering Handbook
Ed. Chen Wai-Fah
Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 1999
Shel l Structures
Cl arence D. Mi l l er
ConsultingEngineer,
Bloomington, I N
11.1 Introduction
Overview

Production Practice

Scope

Limitations

Stress
Componentsfor StabilityAnalysisandDesign

Materials

Ge-
ometries, FailureModes, andLoads

BucklingDesignMethod

StressFactor

Nomenclature
11.2 AllowableCompressiveStressesfor Cylindrical Shells
Uniform Axial Compression

Axial Compression Due to
BendingMoment

External Pressure

Shear

Sizingof Rings
(General Instability)
11.3 AllowableCompressiveStressesFor Cones
UniformAxial Compression and Axial Compression
Dueto Bending

External Pressure

Shear

Local Stiffener
Buckling
11.4 AllowableStressEquationsFor Combined Loads
For Combination of Uniform Axial Compression and Hoop
Compression

For Combination of Axial Compression Due
to BendingMoment, M, and Hoop Compression

For Com-
bination of Hoop Compression and Shear

For Combination
of Uniform Axial Compression, Axial Compression Due to
Bending Moment, M, and Shear, in the Presence of Hoop
Compression, (f
h
= 0)

For Combination of UniformAxial
Compression, Axial Compression Due to Bending Moment,
M, andShear, intheAbsenceof HoopCompression, (f
h
= 0)
11.5 Tolerancesfor Cylindrical and Conical Shells
Shells Subjected to Uniform Axial Compression and Axial
Compression Dueto Bending Moment

ShellsSubjected to
External Pressure

ShellsSubjected to Shear
11.6 AllowableCompressiveStresses
Spherical Shells

Toroidal and Ellipsoidal Heads


11.7 Tolerancesfor Formed Heads
References
Further Reading
11.1 Introduction
11.1.1 Overview
Many steel structures, such aselevated water tanks, oil and water storagetanks, offshorestructures,
and pressurevessels, arecomprised of shell elementsthat aresubjected to compression stresses. The
shell elements aresubject to instability resulting from theapplied loads. Thetheoretical buckling
strength based on linear elasticbifurcation analysisiswell known for stiffened aswell asunstiffened
cylindrical and conical shells and unstiffened spherical and torispherical shells. Simple formulas
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
havebeen determined for many geometriesand typesof loads. Initial geometric imperfectionsand
residual stresses that result from thefabrication process, however, reducethebuckling strength of
fabricatedshells. Theamount of reduction isdependent on thegeometryof theshell, typeof loading
(axial compression, bending, external pressure, etc.), sizeof imperfections, and material properties.
11.1.2 ProductionPractice
Thebehavior of acylindrical shell isinuencedtosomeextent bywhether it ismanufacturedinapipe
or tubingmill or fabricated from platematerial. Thetwo methodsof production will bereferred to
asmanufactured cylindersand fabricated cylinders. Thedistinction isimportant primarily because
of thedifferencesin geometric imperfectionsand residual stresslevelsthat may result from thetwo
different production practices. In general, fabricated cylindersmaybeexpected tohaveconsiderably
larger magnitudes of imperfections (in out-of-roundness and lack of straightness) than the mill
manufacturedproducts. Similarly, fabricatedheadsarelikelytohavelarger shapeimperfectionsthan
those produced by spinning. Spun heads, however, typically have a greater variation in thickness
and greater residual stressesdueto thecold working. Thedesign rulesgiven in thischapter apply to
fabricated steel shells.
Fabricatedshellsareproducedfromat platesbyrollingor pressingtheplatestothedesiredshape
and weldingtheedgestogether. Becauseof themethod of construction, themechanical properties
of the shells will vary along the length and around the circumference. Mist of the edges to be
welded together mayresult in unintentional eccentricitiesat thejoints. In addition, weldingtendsto
introduceout-of-roundnessand out-of-straightnessimperfectionsthat must betaken into account
in thedesign rules.
11.1.3 Scope
Rulesaregiven for determiningtheallowablecompressivestressesfor unstiffened and ringstiffened
circular cylinders and cones and unstiffened spherical, ellipsoidal, and torispherical heads. The
allowable stress equations are based on theoretical buckling equations that have been reduced by
knockdown factorsand by plasticity reduction factorsthat weredetermined fromtestson fabricated
shells. Theresearch leadingto thedevelopment of theallowablestressequationsisgiven in [ 2, 7, 8,
9, 10] .
Allowablecompressivestressequationsarepresentedfor cylindersandconessubjectedtouniform
axial compression, bending moment applied over theentirecross-section, external pressure, loads
that producein-planeshear stresses, and combinationsof theseloads. Allowablecompressivestress
equationsarepresented for formed headsthat aresubjected to loadsthat produceunequal biaxial
stressesaswell asequal biaxial stresses.
11.1.4 Limitations
Theallowablestressequationsarebased on an assumed axisymmetric shell with uniform thickness
for unstiffened cylindersand formed headsand with uniform thicknessbetween ringsfor stiffened
cylinders and cones. All shell penetrations must be properly reinforced. The results of tests on
reinforced openingsand somedesign guidancearegiven in [ 6] . Thestability criteriaof thischapter
maybeusedfor cylindersthat arereinforcedinaccordancewiththerecommendationsof thisreference
if the openings do not exceed 10% of the cylinder diameter or 80% of the ring spacing. Special
consideration must begiven to theeffectsof larger penetrations.
Theproposedrulesareapplicabletoshellswith D/t ratiosupto2000andshell thicknessesof 3/16
in. or greater. Thedeviationsfromtruecircular shapeandstraightnessmust satisfytherequirements
stated in thischapter.
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Special consideration must begiven to endsof membersor areasof load application wherestress
distribution may be nonlinear and localized stresses may exceed those predicted by linear theory.
When thelocalized stressesextend over adistanceequal to onehalf thewavelength of thebuckling
mode, they should be considered as a uniform stress around the full circumference. Additional
thicknessor stiffeningmay berequired.
Failuredueto material fractureor fatigueand failurescaused by dentsresulting from accidental
loadsarenot considered. Therulesdo not apply to temperatureswherecreep may occur.
11.1.5 StressComponentsfor StabilityAnalysisandDesign
Theinternal stresseld that controlsthebucklingof acylindrical shell consistsof thelongitudinal,
circumferential, andin-planeshear membranestresses. Thestressesresultingfromadynamicanalysis
should betreated asequivalent staticstresses.
11.1.6 Materials
Steel
The allowable stress equations apply directly to shells fabricated from carbon and low alloy
steel platematerials such as thosegiven in Table11.1 or TableUCS-23 of [ 3] . Thesteel materials
in Table11.1 aredesignated by group and class. Steelsaregrouped according to strength level and
welding characteristics. GroupI designatesmild steelswith specied minimum yield stresses 40
ksi and thesesteelsmay bewelded by any of theprocessesasdescribed in [ 5] . GroupII designates
intermediatestrengthsteelswithspeciedminimumyieldstresses>40ksi and52ksi. Thesesteels
require the use of low hydrogen welding processes. GroupIII designates high strength steels with
specied minimum yield stresses> 52ksi. Thesesteelsmay beused provided that each application
is investigated with respect to weldability and special welding procedures that may be required.
Consideration should begiven to fatigueproblemsthat may result from theuseof higher working
stresses, and notch toughnessin relation to other elementsof fracturecontrol such asfabrication,
inspection procedures, servicestress, and temperatureenvironment.
The steels in Table 11.1 have been classied according to their notch toughness characteristics.
ClassC steelsarethosethat haveahistory of successful application in welded structuresat service
temperatures above freezing. Impact tests are not specied. Class B steels are suitable for use
wherethickness, cold work, restraint, stressconcentration, and impact loadingindicatetheneed for
improved notch toughness. When impact testsarespecied, ClassB steelsshould exhibit Charpy
V-notch energy of 15ft-lbsfor Group 1and 25ft-lbsfor Group II at thelowest servicetemperature.
TheClassBsteelsgiven in Table11.1 can generally meet theCharpy requirementsat temperatures
rangingfrom50

to32

F. ClassAsteelsaresuitablefor useat subfreezingtemperaturesandfor critical


applicationsinvolvingadversecombinationsof thefactorscited above. Thesteelsgiven in Table11.1
can generally meet theCharpy requirementsfor ClassBsteelsat temperaturesrangingfrom4

to
40

F.
Other Materials
Thedesignequationscanalsobeappliedtoother materialsfor whichachart or tableisprovided
in Subpart 3of [ 4] bysubstitutingthetangent modulusE
t
for theelasticmodulusE in theallowable
stress equations. The method for nding the allowable stresses for shells constructed from these
materialsisdetermined by thefollowingprocedure.
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TABLE11.1 Steel PlateMaterials
Specied Specied
minimum minimum
yield stress tensilestress
Group Class Specication (ksi)
a
(ksi)
a
I C ASTM A36 (to 2in. thick) 36 58
ASTM A131GradeA (to 1/2in. thick) 34 58
ASTM A285GradeC(to 3/4in. thick) 30 55
I B ASTM A131GradesB, D 34 58
ASTM A516Grade65 35 65
ASTM A573Grade65 35 65
ASTM A709Grade36T2 36 58
I A ASTM A131GradesCS, E 34 58
II C ASTM A572Grade42(to 2in. thick) 42 60
ASTM A591required over 1/2in. thick
ASTM A572Grade50(to 2in. thick) 50 65
ASTM A591required over 1/2in. thick
II B ASTM A709Grades50T2, 50T3 50 65
ASTM A131GradeAH32 45.5 68
ASTM A131GradeAH36 51 71
II A API Spec2H Grade42 42 62
API Spec2H Grade50(to 21/2in. thick) 50 70
API Spec2H Grade50(over 21/2in. thick) 47 70
API Spec2W Grade42(to 1in. thick) 42 62
API Spec2W Grade42(over 1in. thick) 42 62
API Spec2W Grade50(to 1in. thick) 50 65
API Spec2W Grade50(over 1in. thick) 50 65
API Spec2W Grade50T (to 1in. thick) 50 70
API Spec2W Grade50T (over 1in. thick) 50 70
API Spec2YGrade42(to 1in. thick) 42 62
API Spec2YGrade42(over 1in. thick) 42 62
API Spec2YGrade50(to 1in. thick) 50 65
API Spec2YGrade50(over 1in. thick) 50 65
API Spec2YGrade50T (to 1in. thick) 50 70
API Spec2YGrade50T (over 1in. thick) 50 70
ASTM A131GradesDH32, EH32 45.5 68
ASTM A131GradesDH36, EH36 51 71
ASTM A537ClassI (to 21/2in. thick) 50 70
ASTM A633GradeA 42 63
ASTM A633GradesC, D 50 70
ASTM A678GradeA 50 70
III A ASTM A537ClassII (to 21/2in. thick) 60 80
ASTM A678GradeB 60 80
API Spec2W Grade60(to 1in. thick) 60 75
API Spec2W Grade60(over 1in. thick) 60 75
ASTM A710GradeA Class3(to 2in. thick) 75 85
ASTM A710GradeA Class3(2in. to 4in. thick) 65 75
ASTM A710GradeA Class3(over 4in. thick) 60 70
a
1ksi = 6.895MPa
Step1. Calculatethevalueof factor Ausingthefollowingequations. ThetermsF
xe
, F
he
,
and F
ve
aredened in subsequent paragraphs.
A =
F
xe
E
A =
F
he
E
A =
F
ve
E
Step 2. Using thevalueof A calculated in Step 1, enter theapplicablematerial chart in
Subpart 3of [ 4] for thematerial under consideration. Movevertically to an intersection
with the material temperature line for the design temperature. Use interpolation for
intermediatetemperaturevalues.
Step 3. Fromtheintersection obtained in Step 2, movehorizontallytotheright toobtain
thevalueof B. E
t
isgiven by thefollowingequation:
E
t
=
2B
A
When values of A fall to the left of the applicable material/temperature line in Step 2,
E
t
= E.
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Step 4. Calculatetheallowablestressesfromthefollowingequations:
F
xa
=
F
xe
FS
E
t
E
F
ba
= F
xa
F
ha
=
F
he
FS
E
t
E
F
va
=
F
ve
FS
E
t
E
11.1.7 Geometries, FailureModes, andLoads
Allowablestressequationsaregiven for thefollowinggeometriesand load conditions.
Geometries
1. Unstiffened Cylindrical, Conical, and Spherical Shells
2. RingStiffened Cylindrical and Conical Shells
3. Unstiffened Spherical, Ellipsoidal, and Torispherical Heads
Thecylinder andconegeometriesareillustratedin Figures11.1and11.3andthestiffener geometries
areillustrated in Figure11.4. Theeffectivesectionsfor ringstiffenersareshown in Figure11.2. The
maximumconeangle shall not exceed 60

.
FIGURE11.1: Geometry of cylinders.
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FIGURE11.2: Sectionsthrough rings.
FIGURE11.3: Geometry of conical sections.
FailureModes
Bucklingstressequationsaregiven herein for four failuremodesthat aredened below. The
bucklingpatternsareboth load and geometry dependent.
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FIGURE11.4: Stiffener geometry.
1. Local Shell BucklingThismodeof failureischaracterizedbythebucklingof theshell in
aradial direction. Oneor morewaveswill form in thelongitudinal and circumferential
directions. The number of waves and the shape of the waves are dependent on the
geometry of theshell and thetypeof load applied. For ringstiffened shells, thestiffening
ringsarepresumed to remain round prior to buckling.
2. General InstabilityThismodeof failureischaracterizedbythebucklingof oneor more
ringstogether with theshell into acircumferential wavepattern with two or morewaves.
3. Column BucklingThismodeof failureischaracterized byout-of-planebucklingof the
cylinder with the shell remaining circular prior to column buckling. The interaction
between shell buckling and column buckling is taken into account by substituting the
shell bucklingstressfor theyield stressin thecolumn bucklingformula.
4. Local Buckling of RingsThis mode of failure relates to the buckling of the stiffener
elements such as the web and ange of a tee type stiffener. Most design rules specify
requirementsfor compact sectionsto precludethismodeof failure. Very littleanalytical
or experimental work has been done for this mode of failure in association with shell
buckling.
LoadsandLoadCombinations
Allowablestressequationsaregiven for thefollowingtypesof stresses.
a. Cylindersand Cones
1. Uniformlongitudinal compressivestresses
2. Longitudinal compressivestressesduetoabendingmoment actingacrossthefull circular
cross-section
3. Circumferential compressivestressesdueto external pressureor other applied loads
4. In-planeshear stresses
5. Any combination of 1, 2, 3, and 4
b. Spherical Shellsand Formed Heads
1. Equal biaxial stressesboth stressesarecompressive
2. Unequal biaxial stressesboth stressesarecompressive
3. Unequal biaxial stressesonestressistensileand theother iscompressive
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11.1.8 BucklingDesignMethod
Thebucklingstrengthformulationspresentedinthisreport arebasedonclassical linear theorywhich
ismodied by reduction factorsthat account for theeffectsof imperfections, boundary conditions,
nonlinearityof material properties, andresidual stresses. Thereduction factorsaredeterminedfrom
approximatelower bound valuesof test dataof shellswith initial imperfectionsrepresentativeof the
tolerancelimitsspeciedin thischapter. Thevalidation of theknockdown factorsisgiven in [ 7] , [ 8] ,
[ 9] , and [ 10] .
11.1.9 StressFactor
The allowable stresses are determined by applying a stress factor, FS, to the predicted buckling
stresses. Therecommended valuesof FS are2.0 when thebuckling stressiselastic and 5/3 when
thebucklingstressequalstheyield stress. A linear variation shall beused between theselimits. The
equationsfor FS aregiven below.
FS = 2.0 if F
ic
0.55F
y
(11.1a)
FS = 2.407 0.741F
ic
/F
y
if 0.55F
y
< F
ic
< F
y
(11.1b)
FS = 1.667 if F
ic
= F
y
(11.1c)
F
ic
isthepredicted buckling stress, which isdetermined by letting FS = 1 in theallowablestress
equations. For combinationsof earthquakeloador windloadwithother loads, theallowablestresses
may beincreased by afactor of 4/3.
11.1.10 Nomenclature
Note: Thetermsnot dened hereareuniquely dened in thesectionsin which they arerst used.
A = cross-sectional areaof cylinder A = (D
o
t )t, in.
2
A
S
= cross-sectional areaof aringstiffener, in.
2
A
F
= cross-sectional areaof alargeringstiffener which actsasabulkhead, in.
2
D
i
= insidediameter of cylinder, in.
D
o
= outsidediameter of cylinder, in.
D
L
= outsidediameter at largeend of cone, in.
D
S
= outsidediameter at small end of cone, in.
E = modulusof elasticity of material at design temperature, ksi
E
t
= tangent modulusof material at design temperature, ksi
f
a
= axial compressivemembranestressresultingfromapplied axial load, Q, ksi
f
b
= axial compressivemembranestressresultingfromapplied bendingmoment, M, ksi
f
h
= hoop compressivemembranestressresultingfromapplied external pressure, P, ksi
f
q
= axial compressive membrane stress resulting from pressure load, Q
p
, on the end of a
cylinder, ksi.
f
v
= shear stressfromapplied loads, ksi
f
x
= f
a
+f
q
, ksi
F
ba
= allowableaxial compressivemembranestressof acylinder dueto bendingmoment, M, in
theabsenceof other loads, ksi
F
ca
= allowablecompressivemembranestressof acylinder dueto axial compression load with

c
> 0.15, ksi
F
bha
= allowableaxial compressivemembranestressof acylinder dueto bendingin thepresence
of hoop compression, ksi
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F
hba
= allowablehoop compressivemembranestressof acylinder in thepresenceof longitudinal
compression dueto abendingmoment, ksi
F
he
= elastic hoop compressive membrane failure stress of a cylinder or formed head under
external pressurealone, ksi
F
ha
= allowablehoop compressivemembranestressof acylinder or formed head under external
pressurealone, ksi
F
hva
= allowablehoop compressivemembranestressin thepresenceof shear stress, ksi
F
hxa
= allowablehoop compressivemembranestressof a cylinder in thepresenceof axial com-
pression, ksi
F
t a
= allowabletension stress, ksi
F
va
= allowableshear stressof acylinder subjected only to shear stress, ksi
F
ve
= elasticshear bucklingstressof acylinder subjected only to shear stress, ksi
F
vha
= allowableshear stressof acylinder subjected to shear stressin thepresenceof hoop com-
pression, ksi
F
xa
= allowablecompressivemembranestressof acylinder dueto axial compression load with

c
0.15, ksi
F
xc
= inelastic axial compressive membrane failure (local buckling) stress of a cylinder in the
absenceof other loads, ksi
F
xe
= elasticaxial compressivemembranefailure(local buckling) stressof acylinder intheabsence
of other loads, ksi
F
xha
= allowableaxial compressivemembranestressof a cylinder in thepresenceof hoop com-
pression, ksi
F
y
= minimumspecied yield stressof material, ksi
F
u
= minimumspecied tensilestressof material, ksi
FS = stressfactor
I

s
= moment of inertia of ring stiffener plus effective length of shell about centroidal axis of
combined section, in.
4
I

s
= I
s
+A
s
Z
2
s
L
e
t
A
s
+L
e
t
+
L
e
t
3
12
K = effectivelength factor for column buckling
I
s
= moment of inertiaof ringstiffener about itscentroidal axis, in.
4
L = design length of avessel section between linesof support, in. A lineof support is:
1. acircumferential lineon ahead (excludingconical heads) at one-third thedepth of the
head fromthehead tangent lineasshown in Figure11.1
2. astiffeningringthat meetstherequirementsof Equation 11.17
L
B
= length of cylinder between bulkheadsor largeringsdesigned to act asbulkheads, in.
L
c
= unbraced length of member, in.
L
e
= effectivelength of shell, in. (seeFigure11.2)
L
F
= one-half of thesum of thedistances, L
B
, from thecenter lineof a largering to thenext
largeringor head lineof support on either sideof thelargering, in. (seeFigure11.1)
L
s
= one-half of thesumof thedistancesfromthecenter lineof astiffeningringto thenext line
of support on either sideof thering, measured parallel totheaxisof thecylinder, in. Aline
of support isdescribed in thedenition for L (seeFigure11.1).
L
t
= overall length of vessel asshown in Figure11.1, in.
M = applied bendingmoment acrossthevessel cross-section, in.-kips
M
s
= L
s
/

R
o
t
M
x
= L/

R
o
t
P = applied external pressure, ksi
P
a
= allowableexternal pressurein theabsenceof other loads, ksi
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Q = applied axial compression load, kips
Q
p
= axial compression load on end of cylinder resultingfromapplied external pressure, kips
R = radiusto centerlineof shell, in.
R
c
= radiustocentroid of combined ringstiffener and effectivelength of shell, in. R
c
= R+Z
c
R
o
= radiusto outsideof shell, in.
t = thicknessof shell, lesscorrosion allowance, in.
t
c
= thicknessof cone, lesscorrosion allowance, in.
Z
c
= radial distancefromcenterlineof shell tocentroidof combinedsection of ringandeffective
length of shell, in. Z
c
=
A
s
Z
s
A
s
+L
e
t
Z
s
= radial distancefrom center lineof shell to centroid of ring stiffener (positivefor outside
rings), in.
S = elasticsection modulusof full shell cross-section, in.
3
S =

_
D
4
o
D
4
i
_
32D
o
r = radiusof gyration of cylinder, in.
r =
_
D
2
o
+D
2
i
_
1/2
4

c
= slendernessfactor

c
=
KL
c
r
_
F
xa
FS
E
_
1/2
11.2 AllowableCompressiveStressesfor Cylindrical Shells
Themaximum allowablestressesfor cylindrical shellssubjected to loadsthat producecompressive
stressesaregiven by thefollowingequations.
11.2.1 UniformAxial Compression
Allowablelongitudinal stressfor acylindrical shell under uniformaxial compression isgiven byF
xa
for valuesof
c
0.15 and by F
ca
for valuesof
c
> 0.15. F
xa
isthesmaller of thevaluesgiven by
Equations11.3and Equation 11.4.

c
=
KL
c
r
_
F
xa
FS
E
_
1/2
(11.2)
whereKL
c
istheeffectivelength. L
c
istheunbraced length. Recommended valuesfor K [ 1] are
2.1for memberswith oneend freeand theother end xed, 1.0for memberswith both endspinned,
0.8for memberswith oneend pinned and theother end xed, and 0.65for memberswith both ends
xed.
Local Buckling(For
c
0.15)
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F
xa
=
F
y
FS
for
D
o
t
135 (11.3a)
F
xa
=
466F
y
_
331 +
D
o
t
_
FS
for 135 <
D
o
t
< 600 (11.3b)
F
xa
=
0.5F
y
FS
for
D
o
t
600 (11.3c)
or
F
xa
=
F
xe
FS
(11.4)
where
F
xe
=
C
x
E
t
D
o
(11.5)
C
x
=
409 c
389 +
D
o
t
not to exceed 0.9 for
D
o
t
< 1247
C
x
= 0.25 c for
D
o
t
1247
c = 2.64 for M
x
1.5
c =
3.13
M
0.42
x
for 1.5 < M
x
< 15
c = 1.0 for M
x
15
M
x
=
L
(R
o
t )
1/2
(11.6)
Column Buckling(For
c
> 0.15)
F
ca
= F
xa
for
c
0.15 (11.7a)
F
ca
= F
xa
[1 0.74 (
c
0.15)]
0.3
for 0.15 <
c
<

2 (11.7b)
F
ca
=
0.88F
xa

2
c
for
c

2 (11.7c)
11.2.2 Axial CompressionDuetoBendingMoment
Allowable longitudinal stress for a cylinder subjected to a bending moment acting across the full
circular cross-section isgiven by F
ba
.
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F
ba
= F
xa
for
D
o
t
135 (11.8a)
F
ba
=
466F
y
FS
_
331 +
D
o
t
_ for 100
D
o
t
< 135 (11.8b)
F
ba
=
1.081F
y
FS
for
D
o
t
< 100 and 0.11 (11.8c)
F
ba
=
(1.4 2.9 )F
y
FS
for
D
o
t
< 100 and < 0.11 (11.8d)
whereF
xa
isthesmaller of thevaluesgiven by Equations11.3and 11.4and =
F
y
D
o
Et
.
11.2.3 External Pressure
Theallowablecircumferential compressivestressfor acylinder under external pressureisgiven by
F
ha
and theallowableexternal pressureisgiven by thefollowingequations:
P
a
= 2F
ha
t
D
o
(11.9)
F
ha
=
F
y
FS
for
F
he
F
y
2.439 (11.10a)
F
ha
=
0.7F
y
FS
_
F
he
F
y
_
0.4
for 0.552 <
F
he
F
y
< 2.439 (11.10b)
F
ha
=
F
he
FS
for
F
he
F
y
0.552 (11.10c)
where
F
he
=
1.6C
h
Et
D
o
(11.11)
C
h
= 0.55
t
D
o
for M
x
2
_
D
o
t
_
0.94
C
h
= 1.12M
1.058
x
for 13 < M
x
< 2
_
D
o
t
_
0.94
C
h
=
0.92
M
x
0.579
for 1.5 < M
x
13
C
h
= 1.0 for M
x
1.5
11.2.4 Shear
Allowablein-planeshear stressfor acylindrical shell isgiven by F
va
.
F
va
=

v
F
ve
FS
(11.12)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
where
F
ve
=

v
C
v
Et
D
o
(11.13)
C
v
= 4.454 for M
x
1.5 (11.14a)
C
v
=
_
9.64
M
2
x
_
_
1 +0.0239M
3
x
_
1/2
for 1.5 < M
x
< 26 (11.14b)
C
v
=
1.492
M
1/2
x
for 26 M
x
< 4.347
D
o
t
(11.14c)
C
v
= 0.716
_
t
D
o
_
1/2
for M
x
4.347
D
o
t
(11.14d)

v
= 0.8 for
D
o
t
500

v
= 1.389 0.218 log
10
_
D
o
t
_
for 500 <
D
o
t
1000

v
= 1.0 for
F
ve
F
y
0.48

v
= 0.43
F
y
F
ve
+0.1 for 0.48 <
F
ve
F
y
< 1.7

v
= 0.6
F
y
F
ve
for
F
ve
F
y
1.7
11.2.5 Sizingof Rings(General Instability)
UniformAxial CompressionandAxial Compression
DuetoBending
When ring stiffeners are used to increase the allowable longitudinal compressive stress, the
followingequationsmust besatised. If M
x
15, stiffener spacingistoo largeto beeffective.
A
s

_
0.334
M
0.6
s
0.063
_
L
s
t and A
s
0.06L
s
t (11.15)
also I

s

5.33L
s
t
3
M
1.8
s
(11.16)
External Pressure
(a) Small Rings
I

s

1.5F
he
L
s
R
2
c
t
E
_
n
2
1
_ (11.17)
F
he
=stressdetermined fromEquation 11.11with M
x
= M
s
.
n
2
=
2D
3/2
o
3L
B
t
1/2
and 4 n
2
100
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
(b) LargeRingsWhich Act AsBulkheads
I

s
I
F
where I
F
=
F
heF
L
F
R
2
c
t
2E
(11.18)
I
F
= thevalueof I

s
which makes a largestiffener act as a bulkhead. Theeffectivelength of
shell isL
e
= 1.1

D
o
t (A
1
/A
2
)
A
1
= cross-sectional areaof small ringplusshell areaequal to L
s
t , in.
2
A
2
= cross-sectional areaof largeringplusshell areaequal to L
s
t , in.
2
R
c
= radiusto centroid of combined largeringand effectivewidth of shell, in.
F
heF
= averagevalueof thehoop bucklingstresses, F
he
, over length L
F
whereF
he
isdetermined
fromEquation 11.11, ksi
Shear
I

s
0.184C
v
M
0.8
s
t
3
L
s
(11.19)
C
v
=valuedetermined fromEquation 11.14with M
x
= M
s
.
Local Stiffener Buckling
To precludelocal bucklingof thestiffener prior to shell buckling, thefollowingstiffener prop-
ertiesshall bemet. SeeFigure11.4for stiffener geometry.
(a) Flat Bar Stiffener, Flangeof aTeeStiffener, and OutstandingLegof an AngleStiffener
h
1
t
1
0.375
_
E
F
y
_
1/2
(11.20)
whereh
1
isthefull width of aat bar stiffener or outstandinglegof an anglestiffener and one-half
of thefull width of theangeof ateestiffener and t
1
isthethicknessof thebar, legof angle, or ange
of tee.
(b) Web of TeeStiffener or Legof AngleStiffener Attached to Shell
h
2
t
2
1.0
_
E
F
y
_
1/2
(11.21)
whereh
2
isthefull depth of ateesection or full width of an anglelegand t
2
isthethicknessof the
web or angleleg.
11.3 AllowableCompressiveStressesFor Cones
Unstiffenedconical transitionsor conesectionsbetweenringsof stiffenedconeswithanangle 60

shall bedesigned for local bucklingasan equivalent cylinder accordingto thefollowingprocedure.


SeeFigure11.3for conegeometry.
11.3.1 UniformAxial CompressionandAxial Compression
DuetoBending
AllowableLongitudinal andBendingStresses
Assumean equivalent cylinder with diameter D
e
= D/ cos , whereD istheoutsidediameter
of theconeat thecross-section under consideration and length equal to L
c
. D
e
issubstituted for
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
D
o
in Equations 11.3 to Equations 11.8 to nd F
xa
and F
ba
and L
c
for L in Equation 11.6. The
allowablestressmust besatised at all cross-sectionsalongthelength of thecone.
UnstiffenedCone-Cylinder Junctions
Cone-cylinder junctionsaresubject tounbalanced radial forces(duetoaxial load and bending
moment) and to localized bendingstressescaused by theanglechange. Thelongitudinal and hoop
stressesat thejunction may beevaluated asfollows:
Longitudinal StressIn lieu of detailed analysis, the localized bending stress at an unstiffened
cone-cylinder junction may beestimated by thefollowingequation.
f

b
=
0.6t

D(t +t
c
)
t
2
e
(f
x
+f
b
) tan (11.22)
where
D = outsidediameter of cylinder at junction to cone
t = thicknessof cylinder
t
c
= thicknessof cone
t
e
= t to nd stressin cylinder section
t
e
= t
c
to nd stressin conesection
= coneangleasdened in Figure11.3
f
x
= uniformlongitudinal stressin cylinder section at junction resultingfromaxial loads
f
b
= longitudinal stressin cylinder section at junction resultingfrombendingmoment
For strength requirements, thetotal stress(f
x
+f
b
+f

b
) shall belimited to theminimumtensile
strengthgiveninTable11.1or TableU, Subpart 1of [ 4] for theconeandcylinder material andf
x
+f
b
shall belessthan theallowabletensilestressF
t
, whereF
t
isthesmaller of 0.6F
y
or F
u
/3.
Hoop StressThehoop stresscaused by theunbalanced radial lineload may beestimated from:
f

h
= 0.45
_
D/t (f
x
+f
b
) tan (11.23)
For hoop tension, f

h
shall belimited to thetensileallowable. For hoop compression, f

h
shall be
limited to F
ha
whereF
ha
iscomputed fromEquation 11.10with F
he
= 0.4Et /D.
A cone-cylinder junction that does not satisfy the above criteria may be strengthened either by
increasingthecylinder and conewall thicknessesat thejunction, or by providingastiffeningringat
thejunction.
Cone-Cylinder JunctionRings
If stiffeningringsarerequired, thesection propertiesshall satisfy thefollowingrequirements:
A
c

t D
F
y
(f
x
+f
b
) tan (11.24)
I
c

t DD
2
c
8E
(f
x
+f
b
) tan (11.25)
where
D = cylinder outsidediameter at junction
D
c
= diameter to centroid of compositeringsection for external rings
D
c
= D for internal rings
A
c
= cross-sectional areaof compositeringsection
I
c
= moment of inertiaof compositeringsection
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
In computingA
c
and I
c
theeffectivelength of theshell wall actingasaangefor thecomposite
ringsection shall becomputed from:
b
e
= 0.55
_
_
D/t +
_
Dt
c
/ cos
_
(11.26)
11.3.2 External Pressure
AllowableCircumferential CompressionStresses
Assumeanequivalent cylinder withdiameter D
e
= 0.5(D
L
+D
S
) andlengthL
e
= L
c
/ cos .
Thislength and diameter shall besubstituted into Equations11.10and 11.11to determineF
ha
.
IntermediateStiffeningRings
If required, circumferential stiffeningringswithin conetransitionsshall besized usingEqua-
tion 11.17 with R
c
= D/2 whereD istheconediameter at thering, t istheconethickness, L
s
is
theaveragedistanceto adjacent ringsalongtheconeaxis, and F
he
istheaverageof theelastic hoop
buckling stress values computed for the two adjacent bays by the method given in the preceding
paragraph.
Cone-Cylinder JunctionRings
A junction ring isnot required for buckling dueto external pressureif f
h
< F
ha
whereF
ha
is determined from Equation 11.10 with F
he
computed using C
h
equal to 0.55 (cos )(t /D) in
Equation 11.11. D isthecylinder diameter at thejunction.
Circumferential stiffeningringsrequiredat thecone-cylinder junctionsshall besizedsuchthat the
moment of inertiaof thecompositeringsection satisesthefollowingequation:
I
c

D
2
16E
_
t L
1
F
he
+
t
c
L
c
F
hec
cos
2

_
(11.27)
where
D = cylinder outsidediameter at junction
L
c
= distanceto rst stiffeningringin conesection alongconeaxis
L
1
= distanceto rst stiffeningringin cylinder section or lineof support
F
he
= elastichoop bucklingstressfor cylinder (seeEquation 11.11)
F
hec
= F
he
for conesection treated asan equivalent cylinder
t = cylinder thickness
t
c
= conethickness
11.3.3 Shear
AllowableIn-PlaneShear Stress
Assumean equivalent cylinder with alength equal totheslant length of theconebetween rings
(L
c
/ cos ) and adiameter D
e
= D/ cos , whereD istheoutsidediameter of theconeat thecross-
section under consideration. This length and diameter shall be substituted into Equations 11.12
to 11.14to determineF
va
.
IntermediateStiffeningRings
If required, circumferential stiffening ringswithin conetransition shall besized using Equa-
tion 11.19whereL
s
istheaveragedistanceto adjacent ringsalongtheconeaxis.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
11.3.4 Local Stiffener Buckling
Toprecludelocal bucklingof astiffener, therequirementsof Equations11.20and11.21must bemet.
11.4 AllowableStressEquationsFor Unstiffened
andRing-StiffenedCylindersandCones
Under CombinedLoads
11.4.1 For Combinationof UniformAxial
CompressionandHoopCompression
For
c
0.15
Theallowablestressin thelongitudinal direction isgiven by F
xha
and theallowablestressin the
circumferential direction isgiven by F
hxa
.
F
xha
=
_
1
F
2
xa

C
1
C
2
F
xa
F
ha
+
1
C
2
2
F
2
ha
_
0.5
(11.28)
where
C
1
=
F
xa
FS +F
ha
FS
F
y
1.0 and C
2
=
f
x
f
h
f
x
= f
a
+f
q
=
Q
A
+
Q
p
A
and f
h
=
PD
o
2t
F
xa
FS isgiven by thesmaller of Equation 11.3or 11.4, and F
ha
FS isgiven by Equation 11.10.
F
hxa
=
F
xha
C
2
(11.29)
For 0.15 <
c
< 1.2
F
xha
isthesmaller of F
ah1
and F
ah2
whereF
ah1
= F
xha
given by Equation 11.28 with f
x
= f
a
and F
ah2
isgiven by thefollowingequation.
F
ah2
= F
ca
_
1
f
q
F
y
_
(11.30)
F
ca
isgiven by Equation 11.7.
11.4.2 For Combinationof Axial CompressionDuetoBending
Moment, M, andHoopCompression
The allowable stress in the longitudinal direction is given by F
bha
and the allowable stress in the
circumferential direction isgiven by F
hba
.
F
bha
= C
3
C
4
F
ba
(11.31)
whereC
3
and C
4
aregiven by thefollowingequationsand F
ba
isgiven by Equation 11.8.
C
4
=
f
b
f
h
F
ha
F
ba
C
2
3
_
C
2
4
+0.6C
4
_
+C
2n
3
1 = 0 (11.32)
f
b
=
M
S
f
h
=
PD
o
2t
n = 5 4
F
ha
FS
F
y
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Solvefor C3 fromEquation 11.31by iteration. F
ha
FS isgiven by Equation 11.10.
F
hba
= F
bha
f
h
f
b
(11.33)
11.4.3 For Combinationof HoopCompressionandShear
Theallowableshear stressisgiven by F
vha
and theallowablecircumferential stressisgiven by F
hva
.
F
vha
=
_
_
F
2
va
2C
5
F
ha
_
2
+F
2
va
_
1/2

F
2
va
2C
5
F
ha
(11.34)
whereC
5
=
f
v
f
h
and F
va
isgiven by Equation 11.12and F
ha
isgiven by Equation 11.10.
F
hva
=
F
vha
C
5
(11.35)
11.4.4 For Combinationof UniformAxial Compression,
Axial CompressionDuetoBendingMoment, M,
andShear, inthePresenceof HoopCompression, (f
h
= 0)
Let K
s
= 1
_
f
v
F
va
_
2
(11.36)
For
c
0.15
_
f
a
K
s
F
xha
_
1.7
+
f
b
K
s
F
bha
1.0 (11.37)
F
xha
isgiven byEquation 11.28, F
bha
isgiven byEquation 11.30and F
va
isgiven byEquation 11.12.
For 0.15 <
c
< 1.2
f
a
F
xha
+
8
9
f
b
F
bha
1.0 for
f
a
F
xha
0.2 (11.38)
where
=
C
m
1 f
a
FS/F
e
F
e
=

2
E
(KL
c
/r)
2
See Equation 11.2 for KL
c
and Equation 11.30 for F
xha
. F
bha
is given by Equation 11.31. FS
is determined from Equation 11.1 where F
ic
= F
xa
FS (see Equations 11.3 and 11.4). C
m
is a
coefcient whosevalueshall betaken asfollows[ 1] :
1. For compression membersin framessubject to joint translation (sidesway),
C
m
= 0.85.
2. For rotationally restrained compression membersin framesbraced against joint transla-
tion andnot subject totransverseloadingbetween their supportsin theplaneof bending,
C
m
= 0.6 0.4(M
1
/M
2
)
whereM
1
/M
2
istheratio of thesmaller to larger momentsat theendsof that portion
of themember that isunbraced in theplaneof bendingunder consideration. M
1
/M
2
is
positivewhen themember isbent in reversecurvatureand negativewhen bent in single
curvature.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
3. For compression members in frames braced against joint translation and subjected to
transverseloadingbetween their supportsthefollowingapply:
a. for memberswhoseendsarerestrained against rotation in theplaneof bending,
C
m
= 0.85
b. for memberswhoseendsareunrestrainedagainst rotationintheplaneof bending,
C
m
= 1.0
11.4.5 For Combinationof UniformAxial Compression, Axial
CompressionDuetoBendingMoment, M, andShear,
intheAbsenceof HoopCompression, (f
h
= 0)
For
c
0.15
_
f
a
K
s
F
xa
_
1.7
+
f
b
K
s
F
ba
1.0 (11.39)
F
xa
isgiven by thesmaller of Equations11.3 or 11.4, F
ba
isgiven by Equation 11.8 and K
s
isgiven
by Equation 11.36.
For 0.15 <
c
< 1.2
f
a
K
s
F
ca
+
8
9
f
b
K
s
F
ba
1.0 for
f
a
K
s
F
ca
0.2 (11.40)
f
a
2K
s
F
ca
+
f
b
K
s
F
ba
1.0 for
f
a
K
s
F
ca
< 0.2 (11.41)
F
ca
isgiven by Equation 11.7, F
ba
isgiven by Equation 11.31, and K
s
isgiven by Equation 11.36.
SeeEquation 11.38for denition of .
11.5 Tolerancesfor Cylindrical andConical Shells
11.5.1 ShellsSubjectedtoUniformAxial Compression
andAxial CompressionDuetoBendingMoment
Thedifferencebetween themaximumand minimumdiametersat any cross-section shall not exceed
1%of thenominal diameter at thecross-sectionunder consideration. Additionally, thelocal deviation
from a straight line, e, measured along a meridian over a gauge length L
x
shall not exceed the
maximumpermissibledeviation e
x
given below.
e
x
= 0.002R
L
x
= 4

Rt but not greater than L for cylinders


L
x
= 4

Rt / cos but not greater than L


c
/ cos for cones
L
x
= 25t acrosscircumferential welds
Also L
x
isnot greater than 95%of themeridianal distancebetween circumferential welds.
11.5.2 ShellsSubjectedtoExternal Pressure
Thedifferencebetween themaximumand minimumdiametersat any cross-section shall not exceed
1%of thenominal diameter at thecross-section under consideration. Additionally, themaximum
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
deviation from a true circular form, e, shall not exceed the value given by Figure 11.5 or by the
followingequations.
e = 0.0165t (M
x
+3.25)
1.069
0.1t e 0.0242R (11.42)
FIGURE11.5: Valuesof e/t whichgiveabucklingpressureof 80%of thetheoretical bucklingpressure.
Also, e shall not exceed 2t . Measurementsto determinee aremadewith agaugeor templatewith
thechord length L
c
given by thefollowingequation.
L
c
= 2Rsin(/2n) (11.43)
n = c
_
R/t
L/R
_
d
2 n 1.41(R/t )
0.5
(11.44)
where
c = 2.28(R/t )
0.54
2.80
d = 0.38(R/t )
0.044
0.485
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
11.5.3 ShellsSubjectedtoShear
Thedifferencebetween themaximumand minimumdiametersat any cross-section shall not exceed
1%of thenominal diameter at thecross-section under consideration.
11.6 AllowableCompressiveStressesfor Spherical
ShellsandFormedHeads, WithPressureon
ConvexSide
11.6.1 Spherical Shells
WithEqual Biaxial Stresses
Theallowablecompressivestressfor aspherical shell under uniformexternal pressureisgiven
by F
ha
and theallowableexternal pressureisgiven by P
a
.
F
ha
=
F
y
FS
for
F
he
F
y
6.25 (11.45a)
F
ha
=
1.31F
y
FS
_
1.15 +
F
y
F
he
_ for 1.6 <
F
he
F
y
< 6.25 (11.45b)
F
ha
=
0.18F
he
+0.45F
y
FS
for 0.55 <
F
he
F
y
1.6 (11.45c)
F
ha
=
F
he
FS
for
F
he
F
y
0.55 (11.45d)
F
he
= 0.075E
t
R
o
(11.46)
P
a
= 2F
ha
t
R
o
(11.47)
whereR
o
istheradiusto theoutsideof thespherical shell and F
ha
isgiven by Equation 11.45.
WithUnequal Biaxial StressesBothStressesAreCompressive
Theallowablecompressivestressesfor aspherical shell subjectedtounequal biaxial stresses,
1
and
2
, whereboth
1
and
2
arecompression stressesresultingfromapplied loads, aregiven by the
followingequations.
F
1a
=
0.6
1 0.4k
F
ha
(11.48)
F
2a
= kF
1a
(11.49)
wherek =
2
/
1
and F
ha
isgiven by Equation 11.45. F
1a
istheallowablestressin thedirection of

1
and F
2a
istheallowablestressin thedirection of
2
. Thelarger of thecompression stressesis
1
.
WithUnequal Biaxial StressesOneStressIsCompressiveandtheOther IsTensile
Theallowablecompressivestressfor aspherical shell subjected to unequal biaxial stresses
1
and
2
, where
1
isacompression stressand
2
isatensilestress, isgiven by F
1a
whereF
1a
isthe
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
valueof F
ha
determined fromEquation 11.45with F
he
given by Equation 11.50.
F
he
=
_
C
o
+C
p
_
E
t
R
o
(11.50)
C
o
=
102.2
195 +R
o
/t
for
R
o
t
< 622
C
o
= 0.125 for
R
o
t
622
C
p
=
1.06
3.24 +
1
p
p =

2
E
R
o
t
Shear
When shear ispresent, theprincipal stressesshall becalculated and used for
1
and
2
.
11.6.2 Toroidal andEllipsoidal Heads
Theallowablecompressivestressesfor formedheadsisdeterminedbytheequationsgivenfor spherical
shellswhereR
o
isdened below.
R
o
= theoutsideradiusof thecrown portion of thehead for torispherical heads, in.
R
o
= theequivalent outsidespherical radiustaken asK
o
D
o
for ellipsoidal heads, in.
K
o
= factor dependingon theellipsoidal head proportionsD
o
/2h
o
(seeTable11.2)
h
o
= outsideheight of theellipsoidal head measured fromthetangent line(head-bend line), in.
TABLE11.2 Factor K
o
D
o
/2h
o
. . . 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2
K
o
. . . 1.36 1.27 1.18 1.08 0.99
D
o
/2h
o
2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0
K
o
0.90 0.81 0.73 0.65 0.57 0.50
Note: Useinterpolation for intermediatevalues.
11.7 Tolerancesfor FormedHeads
Theinner surfaceof aspherical shell or formed head shall not deviatefromthespecied shapemore
than 1.25%of thenominal diameter of thevessel. Such deviationsshall bemeasured perpendicular
to thespecied shape. Additionally, themaximum local deviation from atruecircular form, e, for
spherical shellsand any spherical portion of aformed head designed for external pressureshall not
exceed theshell thickness. Measurementstodeterminee aremadewith agaugeor templatewith the
chord length L
c
given by thefollowingequation:
L
c
= 3.72

Rt
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
References
[ 1] AISC. 1989. Manual of Steel Construction, AllowableStressDesign, 9th ed., Section C-C2,
American Instituteof Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.
[ 2] API 2U. 1987. API Bulletin 2U, Bulletin on Stability Design of Cylindrical Shells, 1st ed.,
American PetroleumInstitute, Washington, D.C.
[ 3] ASME. 1992. ASMEBoiler and PressureVessel Code, Section VIII, Rulesfor Construction of
PressureVessels, Division 1, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, NewYork.
[ 4] ASME. 1992. ASMEBoiler and PressureVessel Code, Section II, Materials, Part D-Properties,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, NewYork.
[ 5] AWS. 1992, Structural WeldingCode, AWSD1.1-92, American WeldingSociety.
[ 6] Miller, C.D. 1982. Experimental Study of theBucklingof Cylindrical ShellsWith Reinforced
Openings, ASME/ANSNuclear EngineeringConference, Portland, OR.
[ 7] Miller, C.D. 1991. ASMECodeCaseN-284: Metal Containment Shell BucklingDesign Meth-
ods, Revision1, inCodeCases: NuclearComponents, ASMEBoilerandPressureVessel Code,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, NewYork, March 14, 1995.
[ 8] Miller, C.D. 1995. AnEvaluationof CodesandStandardsRelatedtoBucklingof Cylindrical
Shells Subjected to Axial Compression, Bendingand External Pressure, UMI Dissertation
Services, Ann Arbor, MI.
[ 9] Miller, C.D. and Saliklis, E.P. 1993. Analysis of Cylindrical Shell Database and Validation
of Design Formulations, API Project 90-56, Chicago Bridge & Iron Technical Services Co.,
Plaineld, IL.
[ 10] Miller, C.D. and Saliklis, E.P. 1995. Analysisof Cylindrical Shell Databaseand Validation of
Design Formulations, Phase2: For D/t Values> 300, API Project 92-56, Chicago Bridge&
Iron Technical ServicesCo., Plaineld, IL.
Further Reading
Additional information on thedesign of shell structurescan befound in thefollowingreferences:
[ 1] American Iron and Steel Institute, 1992. Steel PlateEngineeringData, Volume1Steel Tanks
for Liquid Storageand Volume2Useful Information on theDesign of PlateStructures.
[ 2] Wozniak, R.S. 1990. Steel Tanks, in Structural EngineeringHandbook, Gaylord, E.H. and
Gaylord, C.S. Eds., 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, NewYork, 27-1to 27-29.
Thefollowingisalist of codes, specications, and standardsthat providerulesfor thedesign of shell
structuressubject toinstabilityfromloadswhich producecompressivestressesin theshell elements.
Acomparison wasmadebyMiller andSaliklis[ 8, 9, 10] of thepredictedfailurestressesgiven byeach
of thesesetsof ruleswith thetest dataobtained fromover 600testson steel modelsrepresentativeof
fabricatedshells. Thebest t equationsweredeterminedfor eachshell typeandload. Theseequations
werethen modied to obtain abetter t with thetest database. Theequationsgiven in thischapter
aretheresultsof thesestudies.
[ 3] API BUL 2U. 1987. Bulletin on Stability Design of Cylindrical Shells, 1st ed., American
PetroleumInstitute, Washington, D.C.
[ 4] API RP 2A-LRFD. 1993. RecommendedPracticefor Planning, DesigningandConstructing
FixedOffshorePlatformsLoadandResistanceFactor Design, 1st ed., American Petroleum
Institute, Washington, D.C.
[ 5] API RP 2A-WSD. 1993. Recommended Practicefor Planning, Designingand Constructing
FixedOffshorePlatformsWorkingStressDesign, 20th ed., American Petroleum Institute,
Washington, D.C.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
[ 6] API STD 620. 1990. DesignandConstructionof Large, WeldedLow-PressureStorageTanks,
8th ed., American PetroleumInstitute, Washington, D.C.
[ 7] API STD650. 1993. WeldedSteel Tanksfor Oil Storage, 9thed., American PetroleumInstitute,
Washington, D.C.
[ 8] ASMEVIII. 1992. PressureVessels, Division 2, ASME Boiler andPressureCode, American
Society of Mechanical Engineers, Washington, D.C.
[ 9] AWWA D100. 1984. AWWA Standardfor WeldedSteel Tanksfor Water Storage, American
Water WorksAssociation, Denver, CO.
[ 10] DIN 18800. 1990. Stabilityof Shell TypeSteel Structures, German CodeDIN 18800, Part 4.
[ 11] ECCSNo. 56. 1988. Bucklingof Steel Shells, EuropeanRecommendations, European Conven-
tion for Constructional Steelwork, Publication No. 56, 4th ed., Brussels, Belgium.
[ 12] NPD. 1990. BucklingCriteriafor Cylindrical Shells, Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, Oslo,
Norway.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC