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Shell Structures

Structural Engineering Handbook

Ed. Chen Wai-Fah

Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 1999

Shel l Structures

Cl arence D. Mi l l er

ConsultingEngineer,

Bloomington, I N

11.1 Introduction

Overview

Production Practice

Scope

Limitations

Stress

Componentsfor StabilityAnalysisandDesign

Materials

Ge-

ometries, FailureModes, andLoads

BucklingDesignMethod

StressFactor

Nomenclature

11.2 AllowableCompressiveStressesfor Cylindrical Shells

Uniform Axial Compression

Axial Compression Due to

BendingMoment

External Pressure

Shear

Sizingof Rings

(General Instability)

11.3 AllowableCompressiveStressesFor Cones

UniformAxial Compression and Axial Compression

Dueto Bending

External Pressure

Shear

Local Stiffener

Buckling

11.4 AllowableStressEquationsFor Combined Loads

For Combination of Uniform Axial Compression and Hoop

Compression

For Combination of Axial Compression Due

to BendingMoment, M, and Hoop Compression

For Com-

bination of Hoop Compression and Shear

For Combination

of Uniform Axial Compression, Axial Compression Due to

Bending Moment, M, and Shear, in the Presence of Hoop

Compression, (f

h

= 0)

For Combination of UniformAxial

Compression, Axial Compression Due to Bending Moment,

M, andShear, intheAbsenceof HoopCompression, (f

h

= 0)

11.5 Tolerancesfor Cylindrical and Conical Shells

Shells Subjected to Uniform Axial Compression and Axial

Compression Dueto Bending Moment

ShellsSubjected to

External Pressure

ShellsSubjected to Shear

11.6 AllowableCompressiveStresses

Spherical Shells

11.7 Tolerancesfor Formed Heads

References

Further Reading

11.1 Introduction

11.1.1 Overview

Many steel structures, such aselevated water tanks, oil and water storagetanks, offshorestructures,

and pressurevessels, arecomprised of shell elementsthat aresubjected to compression stresses. The

shell elements aresubject to instability resulting from theapplied loads. Thetheoretical buckling

strength based on linear elasticbifurcation analysisiswell known for stiffened aswell asunstiffened

cylindrical and conical shells and unstiffened spherical and torispherical shells. Simple formulas

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

havebeen determined for many geometriesand typesof loads. Initial geometric imperfectionsand

residual stresses that result from thefabrication process, however, reducethebuckling strength of

fabricatedshells. Theamount of reduction isdependent on thegeometryof theshell, typeof loading

(axial compression, bending, external pressure, etc.), sizeof imperfections, and material properties.

11.1.2 ProductionPractice

Thebehavior of acylindrical shell isinuencedtosomeextent bywhether it ismanufacturedinapipe

or tubingmill or fabricated from platematerial. Thetwo methodsof production will bereferred to

asmanufactured cylindersand fabricated cylinders. Thedistinction isimportant primarily because

of thedifferencesin geometric imperfectionsand residual stresslevelsthat may result from thetwo

different production practices. In general, fabricated cylindersmaybeexpected tohaveconsiderably

larger magnitudes of imperfections (in out-of-roundness and lack of straightness) than the mill

manufacturedproducts. Similarly, fabricatedheadsarelikelytohavelarger shapeimperfectionsthan

those produced by spinning. Spun heads, however, typically have a greater variation in thickness

and greater residual stressesdueto thecold working. Thedesign rulesgiven in thischapter apply to

fabricated steel shells.

Fabricatedshellsareproducedfromat platesbyrollingor pressingtheplatestothedesiredshape

and weldingtheedgestogether. Becauseof themethod of construction, themechanical properties

of the shells will vary along the length and around the circumference. Mist of the edges to be

welded together mayresult in unintentional eccentricitiesat thejoints. In addition, weldingtendsto

introduceout-of-roundnessand out-of-straightnessimperfectionsthat must betaken into account

in thedesign rules.

11.1.3 Scope

Rulesaregiven for determiningtheallowablecompressivestressesfor unstiffened and ringstiffened

circular cylinders and cones and unstiffened spherical, ellipsoidal, and torispherical heads. The

allowable stress equations are based on theoretical buckling equations that have been reduced by

knockdown factorsand by plasticity reduction factorsthat weredetermined fromtestson fabricated

shells. Theresearch leadingto thedevelopment of theallowablestressequationsisgiven in [ 2, 7, 8,

9, 10] .

Allowablecompressivestressequationsarepresentedfor cylindersandconessubjectedtouniform

axial compression, bending moment applied over theentirecross-section, external pressure, loads

that producein-planeshear stresses, and combinationsof theseloads. Allowablecompressivestress

equationsarepresented for formed headsthat aresubjected to loadsthat produceunequal biaxial

stressesaswell asequal biaxial stresses.

11.1.4 Limitations

Theallowablestressequationsarebased on an assumed axisymmetric shell with uniform thickness

for unstiffened cylindersand formed headsand with uniform thicknessbetween ringsfor stiffened

cylinders and cones. All shell penetrations must be properly reinforced. The results of tests on

reinforced openingsand somedesign guidancearegiven in [ 6] . Thestability criteriaof thischapter

maybeusedfor cylindersthat arereinforcedinaccordancewiththerecommendationsof thisreference

if the openings do not exceed 10% of the cylinder diameter or 80% of the ring spacing. Special

consideration must begiven to theeffectsof larger penetrations.

Theproposedrulesareapplicabletoshellswith D/t ratiosupto2000andshell thicknessesof 3/16

in. or greater. Thedeviationsfromtruecircular shapeandstraightnessmust satisfytherequirements

stated in thischapter.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Special consideration must begiven to endsof membersor areasof load application wherestress

distribution may be nonlinear and localized stresses may exceed those predicted by linear theory.

When thelocalized stressesextend over adistanceequal to onehalf thewavelength of thebuckling

mode, they should be considered as a uniform stress around the full circumference. Additional

thicknessor stiffeningmay berequired.

Failuredueto material fractureor fatigueand failurescaused by dentsresulting from accidental

loadsarenot considered. Therulesdo not apply to temperatureswherecreep may occur.

11.1.5 StressComponentsfor StabilityAnalysisandDesign

Theinternal stresseld that controlsthebucklingof acylindrical shell consistsof thelongitudinal,

circumferential, andin-planeshear membranestresses. Thestressesresultingfromadynamicanalysis

should betreated asequivalent staticstresses.

11.1.6 Materials

Steel

The allowable stress equations apply directly to shells fabricated from carbon and low alloy

steel platematerials such as thosegiven in Table11.1 or TableUCS-23 of [ 3] . Thesteel materials

in Table11.1 aredesignated by group and class. Steelsaregrouped according to strength level and

welding characteristics. GroupI designatesmild steelswith specied minimum yield stresses 40

ksi and thesesteelsmay bewelded by any of theprocessesasdescribed in [ 5] . GroupII designates

intermediatestrengthsteelswithspeciedminimumyieldstresses>40ksi and52ksi. Thesesteels

require the use of low hydrogen welding processes. GroupIII designates high strength steels with

specied minimum yield stresses> 52ksi. Thesesteelsmay beused provided that each application

is investigated with respect to weldability and special welding procedures that may be required.

Consideration should begiven to fatigueproblemsthat may result from theuseof higher working

stresses, and notch toughnessin relation to other elementsof fracturecontrol such asfabrication,

inspection procedures, servicestress, and temperatureenvironment.

The steels in Table 11.1 have been classied according to their notch toughness characteristics.

ClassC steelsarethosethat haveahistory of successful application in welded structuresat service

temperatures above freezing. Impact tests are not specied. Class B steels are suitable for use

wherethickness, cold work, restraint, stressconcentration, and impact loadingindicatetheneed for

improved notch toughness. When impact testsarespecied, ClassB steelsshould exhibit Charpy

V-notch energy of 15ft-lbsfor Group 1and 25ft-lbsfor Group II at thelowest servicetemperature.

TheClassBsteelsgiven in Table11.1 can generally meet theCharpy requirementsat temperatures

rangingfrom50

to32

applicationsinvolvingadversecombinationsof thefactorscited above. Thesteelsgiven in Table11.1

can generally meet theCharpy requirementsfor ClassBsteelsat temperaturesrangingfrom4

to

40

F.

Other Materials

Thedesignequationscanalsobeappliedtoother materialsfor whichachart or tableisprovided

in Subpart 3of [ 4] bysubstitutingthetangent modulusE

t

for theelasticmodulusE in theallowable

stress equations. The method for nding the allowable stresses for shells constructed from these

materialsisdetermined by thefollowingprocedure.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

TABLE11.1 Steel PlateMaterials

Specied Specied

minimum minimum

yield stress tensilestress

Group Class Specication (ksi)

a

(ksi)

a

I C ASTM A36 (to 2in. thick) 36 58

ASTM A131GradeA (to 1/2in. thick) 34 58

ASTM A285GradeC(to 3/4in. thick) 30 55

I B ASTM A131GradesB, D 34 58

ASTM A516Grade65 35 65

ASTM A573Grade65 35 65

ASTM A709Grade36T2 36 58

I A ASTM A131GradesCS, E 34 58

II C ASTM A572Grade42(to 2in. thick) 42 60

ASTM A591required over 1/2in. thick

ASTM A572Grade50(to 2in. thick) 50 65

ASTM A591required over 1/2in. thick

II B ASTM A709Grades50T2, 50T3 50 65

ASTM A131GradeAH32 45.5 68

ASTM A131GradeAH36 51 71

II A API Spec2H Grade42 42 62

API Spec2H Grade50(to 21/2in. thick) 50 70

API Spec2H Grade50(over 21/2in. thick) 47 70

API Spec2W Grade42(to 1in. thick) 42 62

API Spec2W Grade42(over 1in. thick) 42 62

API Spec2W Grade50(to 1in. thick) 50 65

API Spec2W Grade50(over 1in. thick) 50 65

API Spec2W Grade50T (to 1in. thick) 50 70

API Spec2W Grade50T (over 1in. thick) 50 70

API Spec2YGrade42(to 1in. thick) 42 62

API Spec2YGrade42(over 1in. thick) 42 62

API Spec2YGrade50(to 1in. thick) 50 65

API Spec2YGrade50(over 1in. thick) 50 65

API Spec2YGrade50T (to 1in. thick) 50 70

API Spec2YGrade50T (over 1in. thick) 50 70

ASTM A131GradesDH32, EH32 45.5 68

ASTM A131GradesDH36, EH36 51 71

ASTM A537ClassI (to 21/2in. thick) 50 70

ASTM A633GradeA 42 63

ASTM A633GradesC, D 50 70

ASTM A678GradeA 50 70

III A ASTM A537ClassII (to 21/2in. thick) 60 80

ASTM A678GradeB 60 80

API Spec2W Grade60(to 1in. thick) 60 75

API Spec2W Grade60(over 1in. thick) 60 75

ASTM A710GradeA Class3(to 2in. thick) 75 85

ASTM A710GradeA Class3(2in. to 4in. thick) 65 75

ASTM A710GradeA Class3(over 4in. thick) 60 70

a

1ksi = 6.895MPa

Step1. Calculatethevalueof factor Ausingthefollowingequations. ThetermsF

xe

, F

he

,

and F

ve

aredened in subsequent paragraphs.

A =

F

xe

E

A =

F

he

E

A =

F

ve

E

Step 2. Using thevalueof A calculated in Step 1, enter theapplicablematerial chart in

Subpart 3of [ 4] for thematerial under consideration. Movevertically to an intersection

with the material temperature line for the design temperature. Use interpolation for

intermediatetemperaturevalues.

Step 3. Fromtheintersection obtained in Step 2, movehorizontallytotheright toobtain

thevalueof B. E

t

isgiven by thefollowingequation:

E

t

=

2B

A

When values of A fall to the left of the applicable material/temperature line in Step 2,

E

t

= E.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Step 4. Calculatetheallowablestressesfromthefollowingequations:

F

xa

=

F

xe

FS

E

t

E

F

ba

= F

xa

F

ha

=

F

he

FS

E

t

E

F

va

=

F

ve

FS

E

t

E

11.1.7 Geometries, FailureModes, andLoads

Allowablestressequationsaregiven for thefollowinggeometriesand load conditions.

Geometries

1. Unstiffened Cylindrical, Conical, and Spherical Shells

2. RingStiffened Cylindrical and Conical Shells

3. Unstiffened Spherical, Ellipsoidal, and Torispherical Heads

Thecylinder andconegeometriesareillustratedin Figures11.1and11.3andthestiffener geometries

areillustrated in Figure11.4. Theeffectivesectionsfor ringstiffenersareshown in Figure11.2. The

maximumconeangle shall not exceed 60

.

FIGURE11.1: Geometry of cylinders.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE11.2: Sectionsthrough rings.

FIGURE11.3: Geometry of conical sections.

FailureModes

Bucklingstressequationsaregiven herein for four failuremodesthat aredened below. The

bucklingpatternsareboth load and geometry dependent.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

FIGURE11.4: Stiffener geometry.

1. Local Shell BucklingThismodeof failureischaracterizedbythebucklingof theshell in

aradial direction. Oneor morewaveswill form in thelongitudinal and circumferential

directions. The number of waves and the shape of the waves are dependent on the

geometry of theshell and thetypeof load applied. For ringstiffened shells, thestiffening

ringsarepresumed to remain round prior to buckling.

2. General InstabilityThismodeof failureischaracterizedbythebucklingof oneor more

ringstogether with theshell into acircumferential wavepattern with two or morewaves.

3. Column BucklingThismodeof failureischaracterized byout-of-planebucklingof the

cylinder with the shell remaining circular prior to column buckling. The interaction

between shell buckling and column buckling is taken into account by substituting the

shell bucklingstressfor theyield stressin thecolumn bucklingformula.

4. Local Buckling of RingsThis mode of failure relates to the buckling of the stiffener

elements such as the web and ange of a tee type stiffener. Most design rules specify

requirementsfor compact sectionsto precludethismodeof failure. Very littleanalytical

or experimental work has been done for this mode of failure in association with shell

buckling.

LoadsandLoadCombinations

Allowablestressequationsaregiven for thefollowingtypesof stresses.

a. Cylindersand Cones

1. Uniformlongitudinal compressivestresses

2. Longitudinal compressivestressesduetoabendingmoment actingacrossthefull circular

cross-section

3. Circumferential compressivestressesdueto external pressureor other applied loads

4. In-planeshear stresses

5. Any combination of 1, 2, 3, and 4

b. Spherical Shellsand Formed Heads

1. Equal biaxial stressesboth stressesarecompressive

2. Unequal biaxial stressesboth stressesarecompressive

3. Unequal biaxial stressesonestressistensileand theother iscompressive

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

11.1.8 BucklingDesignMethod

Thebucklingstrengthformulationspresentedinthisreport arebasedonclassical linear theorywhich

ismodied by reduction factorsthat account for theeffectsof imperfections, boundary conditions,

nonlinearityof material properties, andresidual stresses. Thereduction factorsaredeterminedfrom

approximatelower bound valuesof test dataof shellswith initial imperfectionsrepresentativeof the

tolerancelimitsspeciedin thischapter. Thevalidation of theknockdown factorsisgiven in [ 7] , [ 8] ,

[ 9] , and [ 10] .

11.1.9 StressFactor

The allowable stresses are determined by applying a stress factor, FS, to the predicted buckling

stresses. Therecommended valuesof FS are2.0 when thebuckling stressiselastic and 5/3 when

thebucklingstressequalstheyield stress. A linear variation shall beused between theselimits. The

equationsfor FS aregiven below.

FS = 2.0 if F

ic

0.55F

y

(11.1a)

FS = 2.407 0.741F

ic

/F

y

if 0.55F

y

< F

ic

< F

y

(11.1b)

FS = 1.667 if F

ic

= F

y

(11.1c)

F

ic

isthepredicted buckling stress, which isdetermined by letting FS = 1 in theallowablestress

equations. For combinationsof earthquakeloador windloadwithother loads, theallowablestresses

may beincreased by afactor of 4/3.

11.1.10 Nomenclature

Note: Thetermsnot dened hereareuniquely dened in thesectionsin which they arerst used.

A = cross-sectional areaof cylinder A = (D

o

t )t, in.

2

A

S

= cross-sectional areaof aringstiffener, in.

2

A

F

= cross-sectional areaof alargeringstiffener which actsasabulkhead, in.

2

D

i

= insidediameter of cylinder, in.

D

o

= outsidediameter of cylinder, in.

D

L

= outsidediameter at largeend of cone, in.

D

S

= outsidediameter at small end of cone, in.

E = modulusof elasticity of material at design temperature, ksi

E

t

= tangent modulusof material at design temperature, ksi

f

a

= axial compressivemembranestressresultingfromapplied axial load, Q, ksi

f

b

= axial compressivemembranestressresultingfromapplied bendingmoment, M, ksi

f

h

= hoop compressivemembranestressresultingfromapplied external pressure, P, ksi

f

q

= axial compressive membrane stress resulting from pressure load, Q

p

, on the end of a

cylinder, ksi.

f

v

= shear stressfromapplied loads, ksi

f

x

= f

a

+f

q

, ksi

F

ba

= allowableaxial compressivemembranestressof acylinder dueto bendingmoment, M, in

theabsenceof other loads, ksi

F

ca

= allowablecompressivemembranestressof acylinder dueto axial compression load with

c

> 0.15, ksi

F

bha

= allowableaxial compressivemembranestressof acylinder dueto bendingin thepresence

of hoop compression, ksi

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

F

hba

= allowablehoop compressivemembranestressof acylinder in thepresenceof longitudinal

compression dueto abendingmoment, ksi

F

he

= elastic hoop compressive membrane failure stress of a cylinder or formed head under

external pressurealone, ksi

F

ha

= allowablehoop compressivemembranestressof acylinder or formed head under external

pressurealone, ksi

F

hva

= allowablehoop compressivemembranestressin thepresenceof shear stress, ksi

F

hxa

= allowablehoop compressivemembranestressof a cylinder in thepresenceof axial com-

pression, ksi

F

t a

= allowabletension stress, ksi

F

va

= allowableshear stressof acylinder subjected only to shear stress, ksi

F

ve

= elasticshear bucklingstressof acylinder subjected only to shear stress, ksi

F

vha

= allowableshear stressof acylinder subjected to shear stressin thepresenceof hoop com-

pression, ksi

F

xa

= allowablecompressivemembranestressof acylinder dueto axial compression load with

c

0.15, ksi

F

xc

= inelastic axial compressive membrane failure (local buckling) stress of a cylinder in the

absenceof other loads, ksi

F

xe

= elasticaxial compressivemembranefailure(local buckling) stressof acylinder intheabsence

of other loads, ksi

F

xha

= allowableaxial compressivemembranestressof a cylinder in thepresenceof hoop com-

pression, ksi

F

y

= minimumspecied yield stressof material, ksi

F

u

= minimumspecied tensilestressof material, ksi

FS = stressfactor

I

s

= moment of inertia of ring stiffener plus effective length of shell about centroidal axis of

combined section, in.

4

I

s

= I

s

+A

s

Z

2

s

L

e

t

A

s

+L

e

t

+

L

e

t

3

12

K = effectivelength factor for column buckling

I

s

= moment of inertiaof ringstiffener about itscentroidal axis, in.

4

L = design length of avessel section between linesof support, in. A lineof support is:

1. acircumferential lineon ahead (excludingconical heads) at one-third thedepth of the

head fromthehead tangent lineasshown in Figure11.1

2. astiffeningringthat meetstherequirementsof Equation 11.17

L

B

= length of cylinder between bulkheadsor largeringsdesigned to act asbulkheads, in.

L

c

= unbraced length of member, in.

L

e

= effectivelength of shell, in. (seeFigure11.2)

L

F

= one-half of thesum of thedistances, L

B

, from thecenter lineof a largering to thenext

largeringor head lineof support on either sideof thelargering, in. (seeFigure11.1)

L

s

= one-half of thesumof thedistancesfromthecenter lineof astiffeningringto thenext line

of support on either sideof thering, measured parallel totheaxisof thecylinder, in. Aline

of support isdescribed in thedenition for L (seeFigure11.1).

L

t

= overall length of vessel asshown in Figure11.1, in.

M = applied bendingmoment acrossthevessel cross-section, in.-kips

M

s

= L

s

/

R

o

t

M

x

= L/

R

o

t

P = applied external pressure, ksi

P

a

= allowableexternal pressurein theabsenceof other loads, ksi

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Q = applied axial compression load, kips

Q

p

= axial compression load on end of cylinder resultingfromapplied external pressure, kips

R = radiusto centerlineof shell, in.

R

c

= radiustocentroid of combined ringstiffener and effectivelength of shell, in. R

c

= R+Z

c

R

o

= radiusto outsideof shell, in.

t = thicknessof shell, lesscorrosion allowance, in.

t

c

= thicknessof cone, lesscorrosion allowance, in.

Z

c

= radial distancefromcenterlineof shell tocentroidof combinedsection of ringandeffective

length of shell, in. Z

c

=

A

s

Z

s

A

s

+L

e

t

Z

s

= radial distancefrom center lineof shell to centroid of ring stiffener (positivefor outside

rings), in.

S = elasticsection modulusof full shell cross-section, in.

3

S =

_

D

4

o

D

4

i

_

32D

o

r = radiusof gyration of cylinder, in.

r =

_

D

2

o

+D

2

i

_

1/2

4

c

= slendernessfactor

c

=

KL

c

r

_

F

xa

FS

E

_

1/2

11.2 AllowableCompressiveStressesfor Cylindrical Shells

Themaximum allowablestressesfor cylindrical shellssubjected to loadsthat producecompressive

stressesaregiven by thefollowingequations.

11.2.1 UniformAxial Compression

Allowablelongitudinal stressfor acylindrical shell under uniformaxial compression isgiven byF

xa

for valuesof

c

0.15 and by F

ca

for valuesof

c

> 0.15. F

xa

isthesmaller of thevaluesgiven by

Equations11.3and Equation 11.4.

c

=

KL

c

r

_

F

xa

FS

E

_

1/2

(11.2)

whereKL

c

istheeffectivelength. L

c

istheunbraced length. Recommended valuesfor K [ 1] are

2.1for memberswith oneend freeand theother end xed, 1.0for memberswith both endspinned,

0.8for memberswith oneend pinned and theother end xed, and 0.65for memberswith both ends

xed.

Local Buckling(For

c

0.15)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

F

xa

=

F

y

FS

for

D

o

t

135 (11.3a)

F

xa

=

466F

y

_

331 +

D

o

t

_

FS

for 135 <

D

o

t

< 600 (11.3b)

F

xa

=

0.5F

y

FS

for

D

o

t

600 (11.3c)

or

F

xa

=

F

xe

FS

(11.4)

where

F

xe

=

C

x

E

t

D

o

(11.5)

C

x

=

409 c

389 +

D

o

t

not to exceed 0.9 for

D

o

t

< 1247

C

x

= 0.25 c for

D

o

t

1247

c = 2.64 for M

x

1.5

c =

3.13

M

0.42

x

for 1.5 < M

x

< 15

c = 1.0 for M

x

15

M

x

=

L

(R

o

t )

1/2

(11.6)

Column Buckling(For

c

> 0.15)

F

ca

= F

xa

for

c

0.15 (11.7a)

F

ca

= F

xa

[1 0.74 (

c

0.15)]

0.3

for 0.15 <

c

<

2 (11.7b)

F

ca

=

0.88F

xa

2

c

for

c

2 (11.7c)

11.2.2 Axial CompressionDuetoBendingMoment

Allowable longitudinal stress for a cylinder subjected to a bending moment acting across the full

circular cross-section isgiven by F

ba

.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

F

ba

= F

xa

for

D

o

t

135 (11.8a)

F

ba

=

466F

y

FS

_

331 +

D

o

t

_ for 100

D

o

t

< 135 (11.8b)

F

ba

=

1.081F

y

FS

for

D

o

t

< 100 and 0.11 (11.8c)

F

ba

=

(1.4 2.9 )F

y

FS

for

D

o

t

< 100 and < 0.11 (11.8d)

whereF

xa

isthesmaller of thevaluesgiven by Equations11.3and 11.4and =

F

y

D

o

Et

.

11.2.3 External Pressure

Theallowablecircumferential compressivestressfor acylinder under external pressureisgiven by

F

ha

and theallowableexternal pressureisgiven by thefollowingequations:

P

a

= 2F

ha

t

D

o

(11.9)

F

ha

=

F

y

FS

for

F

he

F

y

2.439 (11.10a)

F

ha

=

0.7F

y

FS

_

F

he

F

y

_

0.4

for 0.552 <

F

he

F

y

< 2.439 (11.10b)

F

ha

=

F

he

FS

for

F

he

F

y

0.552 (11.10c)

where

F

he

=

1.6C

h

Et

D

o

(11.11)

C

h

= 0.55

t

D

o

for M

x

2

_

D

o

t

_

0.94

C

h

= 1.12M

1.058

x

for 13 < M

x

< 2

_

D

o

t

_

0.94

C

h

=

0.92

M

x

0.579

for 1.5 < M

x

13

C

h

= 1.0 for M

x

1.5

11.2.4 Shear

Allowablein-planeshear stressfor acylindrical shell isgiven by F

va

.

F

va

=

v

F

ve

FS

(11.12)

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

where

F

ve

=

v

C

v

Et

D

o

(11.13)

C

v

= 4.454 for M

x

1.5 (11.14a)

C

v

=

_

9.64

M

2

x

_

_

1 +0.0239M

3

x

_

1/2

for 1.5 < M

x

< 26 (11.14b)

C

v

=

1.492

M

1/2

x

for 26 M

x

< 4.347

D

o

t

(11.14c)

C

v

= 0.716

_

t

D

o

_

1/2

for M

x

4.347

D

o

t

(11.14d)

v

= 0.8 for

D

o

t

500

v

= 1.389 0.218 log

10

_

D

o

t

_

for 500 <

D

o

t

1000

v

= 1.0 for

F

ve

F

y

0.48

v

= 0.43

F

y

F

ve

+0.1 for 0.48 <

F

ve

F

y

< 1.7

v

= 0.6

F

y

F

ve

for

F

ve

F

y

1.7

11.2.5 Sizingof Rings(General Instability)

UniformAxial CompressionandAxial Compression

DuetoBending

When ring stiffeners are used to increase the allowable longitudinal compressive stress, the

followingequationsmust besatised. If M

x

15, stiffener spacingistoo largeto beeffective.

A

s

_

0.334

M

0.6

s

0.063

_

L

s

t and A

s

0.06L

s

t (11.15)

also I

s

5.33L

s

t

3

M

1.8

s

(11.16)

External Pressure

(a) Small Rings

I

s

1.5F

he

L

s

R

2

c

t

E

_

n

2

1

_ (11.17)

F

he

=stressdetermined fromEquation 11.11with M

x

= M

s

.

n

2

=

2D

3/2

o

3L

B

t

1/2

and 4 n

2

100

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

(b) LargeRingsWhich Act AsBulkheads

I

s

I

F

where I

F

=

F

heF

L

F

R

2

c

t

2E

(11.18)

I

F

= thevalueof I

s

which makes a largestiffener act as a bulkhead. Theeffectivelength of

shell isL

e

= 1.1

D

o

t (A

1

/A

2

)

A

1

= cross-sectional areaof small ringplusshell areaequal to L

s

t , in.

2

A

2

= cross-sectional areaof largeringplusshell areaequal to L

s

t , in.

2

R

c

= radiusto centroid of combined largeringand effectivewidth of shell, in.

F

heF

= averagevalueof thehoop bucklingstresses, F

he

, over length L

F

whereF

he

isdetermined

fromEquation 11.11, ksi

Shear

I

s

0.184C

v

M

0.8

s

t

3

L

s

(11.19)

C

v

=valuedetermined fromEquation 11.14with M

x

= M

s

.

Local Stiffener Buckling

To precludelocal bucklingof thestiffener prior to shell buckling, thefollowingstiffener prop-

ertiesshall bemet. SeeFigure11.4for stiffener geometry.

(a) Flat Bar Stiffener, Flangeof aTeeStiffener, and OutstandingLegof an AngleStiffener

h

1

t

1

0.375

_

E

F

y

_

1/2

(11.20)

whereh

1

isthefull width of aat bar stiffener or outstandinglegof an anglestiffener and one-half

of thefull width of theangeof ateestiffener and t

1

isthethicknessof thebar, legof angle, or ange

of tee.

(b) Web of TeeStiffener or Legof AngleStiffener Attached to Shell

h

2

t

2

1.0

_

E

F

y

_

1/2

(11.21)

whereh

2

isthefull depth of ateesection or full width of an anglelegand t

2

isthethicknessof the

web or angleleg.

11.3 AllowableCompressiveStressesFor Cones

Unstiffenedconical transitionsor conesectionsbetweenringsof stiffenedconeswithanangle 60

SeeFigure11.3for conegeometry.

11.3.1 UniformAxial CompressionandAxial Compression

DuetoBending

AllowableLongitudinal andBendingStresses

Assumean equivalent cylinder with diameter D

e

= D/ cos , whereD istheoutsidediameter

of theconeat thecross-section under consideration and length equal to L

c

. D

e

issubstituted for

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

D

o

in Equations 11.3 to Equations 11.8 to nd F

xa

and F

ba

and L

c

for L in Equation 11.6. The

allowablestressmust besatised at all cross-sectionsalongthelength of thecone.

UnstiffenedCone-Cylinder Junctions

Cone-cylinder junctionsaresubject tounbalanced radial forces(duetoaxial load and bending

moment) and to localized bendingstressescaused by theanglechange. Thelongitudinal and hoop

stressesat thejunction may beevaluated asfollows:

Longitudinal StressIn lieu of detailed analysis, the localized bending stress at an unstiffened

cone-cylinder junction may beestimated by thefollowingequation.

f

b

=

0.6t

D(t +t

c

)

t

2

e

(f

x

+f

b

) tan (11.22)

where

D = outsidediameter of cylinder at junction to cone

t = thicknessof cylinder

t

c

= thicknessof cone

t

e

= t to nd stressin cylinder section

t

e

= t

c

to nd stressin conesection

= coneangleasdened in Figure11.3

f

x

= uniformlongitudinal stressin cylinder section at junction resultingfromaxial loads

f

b

= longitudinal stressin cylinder section at junction resultingfrombendingmoment

For strength requirements, thetotal stress(f

x

+f

b

+f

b

) shall belimited to theminimumtensile

strengthgiveninTable11.1or TableU, Subpart 1of [ 4] for theconeandcylinder material andf

x

+f

b

shall belessthan theallowabletensilestressF

t

, whereF

t

isthesmaller of 0.6F

y

or F

u

/3.

Hoop StressThehoop stresscaused by theunbalanced radial lineload may beestimated from:

f

h

= 0.45

_

D/t (f

x

+f

b

) tan (11.23)

For hoop tension, f

h

shall belimited to thetensileallowable. For hoop compression, f

h

shall be

limited to F

ha

whereF

ha

iscomputed fromEquation 11.10with F

he

= 0.4Et /D.

A cone-cylinder junction that does not satisfy the above criteria may be strengthened either by

increasingthecylinder and conewall thicknessesat thejunction, or by providingastiffeningringat

thejunction.

Cone-Cylinder JunctionRings

If stiffeningringsarerequired, thesection propertiesshall satisfy thefollowingrequirements:

A

c

t D

F

y

(f

x

+f

b

) tan (11.24)

I

c

t DD

2

c

8E

(f

x

+f

b

) tan (11.25)

where

D = cylinder outsidediameter at junction

D

c

= diameter to centroid of compositeringsection for external rings

D

c

= D for internal rings

A

c

= cross-sectional areaof compositeringsection

I

c

= moment of inertiaof compositeringsection

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

In computingA

c

and I

c

theeffectivelength of theshell wall actingasaangefor thecomposite

ringsection shall becomputed from:

b

e

= 0.55

_

_

D/t +

_

Dt

c

/ cos

_

(11.26)

11.3.2 External Pressure

AllowableCircumferential CompressionStresses

Assumeanequivalent cylinder withdiameter D

e

= 0.5(D

L

+D

S

) andlengthL

e

= L

c

/ cos .

Thislength and diameter shall besubstituted into Equations11.10and 11.11to determineF

ha

.

IntermediateStiffeningRings

If required, circumferential stiffeningringswithin conetransitionsshall besized usingEqua-

tion 11.17 with R

c

= D/2 whereD istheconediameter at thering, t istheconethickness, L

s

is

theaveragedistanceto adjacent ringsalongtheconeaxis, and F

he

istheaverageof theelastic hoop

buckling stress values computed for the two adjacent bays by the method given in the preceding

paragraph.

Cone-Cylinder JunctionRings

A junction ring isnot required for buckling dueto external pressureif f

h

< F

ha

whereF

ha

is determined from Equation 11.10 with F

he

computed using C

h

equal to 0.55 (cos )(t /D) in

Equation 11.11. D isthecylinder diameter at thejunction.

Circumferential stiffeningringsrequiredat thecone-cylinder junctionsshall besizedsuchthat the

moment of inertiaof thecompositeringsection satisesthefollowingequation:

I

c

D

2

16E

_

t L

1

F

he

+

t

c

L

c

F

hec

cos

2

_

(11.27)

where

D = cylinder outsidediameter at junction

L

c

= distanceto rst stiffeningringin conesection alongconeaxis

L

1

= distanceto rst stiffeningringin cylinder section or lineof support

F

he

= elastichoop bucklingstressfor cylinder (seeEquation 11.11)

F

hec

= F

he

for conesection treated asan equivalent cylinder

t = cylinder thickness

t

c

= conethickness

11.3.3 Shear

AllowableIn-PlaneShear Stress

Assumean equivalent cylinder with alength equal totheslant length of theconebetween rings

(L

c

/ cos ) and adiameter D

e

= D/ cos , whereD istheoutsidediameter of theconeat thecross-

section under consideration. This length and diameter shall be substituted into Equations 11.12

to 11.14to determineF

va

.

IntermediateStiffeningRings

If required, circumferential stiffening ringswithin conetransition shall besized using Equa-

tion 11.19whereL

s

istheaveragedistanceto adjacent ringsalongtheconeaxis.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

11.3.4 Local Stiffener Buckling

Toprecludelocal bucklingof astiffener, therequirementsof Equations11.20and11.21must bemet.

11.4 AllowableStressEquationsFor Unstiffened

andRing-StiffenedCylindersandCones

Under CombinedLoads

11.4.1 For Combinationof UniformAxial

CompressionandHoopCompression

For

c

0.15

Theallowablestressin thelongitudinal direction isgiven by F

xha

and theallowablestressin the

circumferential direction isgiven by F

hxa

.

F

xha

=

_

1

F

2

xa

C

1

C

2

F

xa

F

ha

+

1

C

2

2

F

2

ha

_

0.5

(11.28)

where

C

1

=

F

xa

FS +F

ha

FS

F

y

1.0 and C

2

=

f

x

f

h

f

x

= f

a

+f

q

=

Q

A

+

Q

p

A

and f

h

=

PD

o

2t

F

xa

FS isgiven by thesmaller of Equation 11.3or 11.4, and F

ha

FS isgiven by Equation 11.10.

F

hxa

=

F

xha

C

2

(11.29)

For 0.15 <

c

< 1.2

F

xha

isthesmaller of F

ah1

and F

ah2

whereF

ah1

= F

xha

given by Equation 11.28 with f

x

= f

a

and F

ah2

isgiven by thefollowingequation.

F

ah2

= F

ca

_

1

f

q

F

y

_

(11.30)

F

ca

isgiven by Equation 11.7.

11.4.2 For Combinationof Axial CompressionDuetoBending

Moment, M, andHoopCompression

The allowable stress in the longitudinal direction is given by F

bha

and the allowable stress in the

circumferential direction isgiven by F

hba

.

F

bha

= C

3

C

4

F

ba

(11.31)

whereC

3

and C

4

aregiven by thefollowingequationsand F

ba

isgiven by Equation 11.8.

C

4

=

f

b

f

h

F

ha

F

ba

C

2

3

_

C

2

4

+0.6C

4

_

+C

2n

3

1 = 0 (11.32)

f

b

=

M

S

f

h

=

PD

o

2t

n = 5 4

F

ha

FS

F

y

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

Solvefor C3 fromEquation 11.31by iteration. F

ha

FS isgiven by Equation 11.10.

F

hba

= F

bha

f

h

f

b

(11.33)

11.4.3 For Combinationof HoopCompressionandShear

Theallowableshear stressisgiven by F

vha

and theallowablecircumferential stressisgiven by F

hva

.

F

vha

=

_

_

F

2

va

2C

5

F

ha

_

2

+F

2

va

_

1/2

F

2

va

2C

5

F

ha

(11.34)

whereC

5

=

f

v

f

h

and F

va

isgiven by Equation 11.12and F

ha

isgiven by Equation 11.10.

F

hva

=

F

vha

C

5

(11.35)

11.4.4 For Combinationof UniformAxial Compression,

Axial CompressionDuetoBendingMoment, M,

andShear, inthePresenceof HoopCompression, (f

h

= 0)

Let K

s

= 1

_

f

v

F

va

_

2

(11.36)

For

c

0.15

_

f

a

K

s

F

xha

_

1.7

+

f

b

K

s

F

bha

1.0 (11.37)

F

xha

isgiven byEquation 11.28, F

bha

isgiven byEquation 11.30and F

va

isgiven byEquation 11.12.

For 0.15 <

c

< 1.2

f

a

F

xha

+

8

9

f

b

F

bha

1.0 for

f

a

F

xha

0.2 (11.38)

where

=

C

m

1 f

a

FS/F

e

F

e

=

2

E

(KL

c

/r)

2

See Equation 11.2 for KL

c

and Equation 11.30 for F

xha

. F

bha

is given by Equation 11.31. FS

is determined from Equation 11.1 where F

ic

= F

xa

FS (see Equations 11.3 and 11.4). C

m

is a

coefcient whosevalueshall betaken asfollows[ 1] :

1. For compression membersin framessubject to joint translation (sidesway),

C

m

= 0.85.

2. For rotationally restrained compression membersin framesbraced against joint transla-

tion andnot subject totransverseloadingbetween their supportsin theplaneof bending,

C

m

= 0.6 0.4(M

1

/M

2

)

whereM

1

/M

2

istheratio of thesmaller to larger momentsat theendsof that portion

of themember that isunbraced in theplaneof bendingunder consideration. M

1

/M

2

is

positivewhen themember isbent in reversecurvatureand negativewhen bent in single

curvature.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

3. For compression members in frames braced against joint translation and subjected to

transverseloadingbetween their supportsthefollowingapply:

a. for memberswhoseendsarerestrained against rotation in theplaneof bending,

C

m

= 0.85

b. for memberswhoseendsareunrestrainedagainst rotationintheplaneof bending,

C

m

= 1.0

11.4.5 For Combinationof UniformAxial Compression, Axial

CompressionDuetoBendingMoment, M, andShear,

intheAbsenceof HoopCompression, (f

h

= 0)

For

c

0.15

_

f

a

K

s

F

xa

_

1.7

+

f

b

K

s

F

ba

1.0 (11.39)

F

xa

isgiven by thesmaller of Equations11.3 or 11.4, F

ba

isgiven by Equation 11.8 and K

s

isgiven

by Equation 11.36.

For 0.15 <

c

< 1.2

f

a

K

s

F

ca

+

8

9

f

b

K

s

F

ba

1.0 for

f

a

K

s

F

ca

0.2 (11.40)

f

a

2K

s

F

ca

+

f

b

K

s

F

ba

1.0 for

f

a

K

s

F

ca

< 0.2 (11.41)

F

ca

isgiven by Equation 11.7, F

ba

isgiven by Equation 11.31, and K

s

isgiven by Equation 11.36.

SeeEquation 11.38for denition of .

11.5 Tolerancesfor Cylindrical andConical Shells

11.5.1 ShellsSubjectedtoUniformAxial Compression

andAxial CompressionDuetoBendingMoment

Thedifferencebetween themaximumand minimumdiametersat any cross-section shall not exceed

1%of thenominal diameter at thecross-sectionunder consideration. Additionally, thelocal deviation

from a straight line, e, measured along a meridian over a gauge length L

x

shall not exceed the

maximumpermissibledeviation e

x

given below.

e

x

= 0.002R

L

x

= 4

L

x

= 4

c

/ cos for cones

L

x

= 25t acrosscircumferential welds

Also L

x

isnot greater than 95%of themeridianal distancebetween circumferential welds.

11.5.2 ShellsSubjectedtoExternal Pressure

Thedifferencebetween themaximumand minimumdiametersat any cross-section shall not exceed

1%of thenominal diameter at thecross-section under consideration. Additionally, themaximum

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

deviation from a true circular form, e, shall not exceed the value given by Figure 11.5 or by the

followingequations.

e = 0.0165t (M

x

+3.25)

1.069

0.1t e 0.0242R (11.42)

FIGURE11.5: Valuesof e/t whichgiveabucklingpressureof 80%of thetheoretical bucklingpressure.

Also, e shall not exceed 2t . Measurementsto determinee aremadewith agaugeor templatewith

thechord length L

c

given by thefollowingequation.

L

c

= 2Rsin(/2n) (11.43)

n = c

_

R/t

L/R

_

d

2 n 1.41(R/t )

0.5

(11.44)

where

c = 2.28(R/t )

0.54

2.80

d = 0.38(R/t )

0.044

0.485

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

11.5.3 ShellsSubjectedtoShear

Thedifferencebetween themaximumand minimumdiametersat any cross-section shall not exceed

1%of thenominal diameter at thecross-section under consideration.

11.6 AllowableCompressiveStressesfor Spherical

ShellsandFormedHeads, WithPressureon

ConvexSide

11.6.1 Spherical Shells

WithEqual Biaxial Stresses

Theallowablecompressivestressfor aspherical shell under uniformexternal pressureisgiven

by F

ha

and theallowableexternal pressureisgiven by P

a

.

F

ha

=

F

y

FS

for

F

he

F

y

6.25 (11.45a)

F

ha

=

1.31F

y

FS

_

1.15 +

F

y

F

he

_ for 1.6 <

F

he

F

y

< 6.25 (11.45b)

F

ha

=

0.18F

he

+0.45F

y

FS

for 0.55 <

F

he

F

y

1.6 (11.45c)

F

ha

=

F

he

FS

for

F

he

F

y

0.55 (11.45d)

F

he

= 0.075E

t

R

o

(11.46)

P

a

= 2F

ha

t

R

o

(11.47)

whereR

o

istheradiusto theoutsideof thespherical shell and F

ha

isgiven by Equation 11.45.

WithUnequal Biaxial StressesBothStressesAreCompressive

Theallowablecompressivestressesfor aspherical shell subjectedtounequal biaxial stresses,

1

and

2

, whereboth

1

and

2

arecompression stressesresultingfromapplied loads, aregiven by the

followingequations.

F

1a

=

0.6

1 0.4k

F

ha

(11.48)

F

2a

= kF

1a

(11.49)

wherek =

2

/

1

and F

ha

isgiven by Equation 11.45. F

1a

istheallowablestressin thedirection of

1

and F

2a

istheallowablestressin thedirection of

2

. Thelarger of thecompression stressesis

1

.

WithUnequal Biaxial StressesOneStressIsCompressiveandtheOther IsTensile

Theallowablecompressivestressfor aspherical shell subjected to unequal biaxial stresses

1

and

2

, where

1

isacompression stressand

2

isatensilestress, isgiven by F

1a

whereF

1a

isthe

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

valueof F

ha

determined fromEquation 11.45with F

he

given by Equation 11.50.

F

he

=

_

C

o

+C

p

_

E

t

R

o

(11.50)

C

o

=

102.2

195 +R

o

/t

for

R

o

t

< 622

C

o

= 0.125 for

R

o

t

622

C

p

=

1.06

3.24 +

1

p

p =

2

E

R

o

t

Shear

When shear ispresent, theprincipal stressesshall becalculated and used for

1

and

2

.

11.6.2 Toroidal andEllipsoidal Heads

Theallowablecompressivestressesfor formedheadsisdeterminedbytheequationsgivenfor spherical

shellswhereR

o

isdened below.

R

o

= theoutsideradiusof thecrown portion of thehead for torispherical heads, in.

R

o

= theequivalent outsidespherical radiustaken asK

o

D

o

for ellipsoidal heads, in.

K

o

= factor dependingon theellipsoidal head proportionsD

o

/2h

o

(seeTable11.2)

h

o

= outsideheight of theellipsoidal head measured fromthetangent line(head-bend line), in.

TABLE11.2 Factor K

o

D

o

/2h

o

. . . 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2

K

o

. . . 1.36 1.27 1.18 1.08 0.99

D

o

/2h

o

2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0

K

o

0.90 0.81 0.73 0.65 0.57 0.50

Note: Useinterpolation for intermediatevalues.

11.7 Tolerancesfor FormedHeads

Theinner surfaceof aspherical shell or formed head shall not deviatefromthespecied shapemore

than 1.25%of thenominal diameter of thevessel. Such deviationsshall bemeasured perpendicular

to thespecied shape. Additionally, themaximum local deviation from atruecircular form, e, for

spherical shellsand any spherical portion of aformed head designed for external pressureshall not

exceed theshell thickness. Measurementstodeterminee aremadewith agaugeor templatewith the

chord length L

c

given by thefollowingequation:

L

c

= 3.72

Rt

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

References

[ 1] AISC. 1989. Manual of Steel Construction, AllowableStressDesign, 9th ed., Section C-C2,

American Instituteof Steel Construction, Chicago, IL.

[ 2] API 2U. 1987. API Bulletin 2U, Bulletin on Stability Design of Cylindrical Shells, 1st ed.,

American PetroleumInstitute, Washington, D.C.

[ 3] ASME. 1992. ASMEBoiler and PressureVessel Code, Section VIII, Rulesfor Construction of

PressureVessels, Division 1, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, NewYork.

[ 4] ASME. 1992. ASMEBoiler and PressureVessel Code, Section II, Materials, Part D-Properties,

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, NewYork.

[ 5] AWS. 1992, Structural WeldingCode, AWSD1.1-92, American WeldingSociety.

[ 6] Miller, C.D. 1982. Experimental Study of theBucklingof Cylindrical ShellsWith Reinforced

Openings, ASME/ANSNuclear EngineeringConference, Portland, OR.

[ 7] Miller, C.D. 1991. ASMECodeCaseN-284: Metal Containment Shell BucklingDesign Meth-

ods, Revision1, inCodeCases: NuclearComponents, ASMEBoilerandPressureVessel Code,

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, NewYork, March 14, 1995.

[ 8] Miller, C.D. 1995. AnEvaluationof CodesandStandardsRelatedtoBucklingof Cylindrical

Shells Subjected to Axial Compression, Bendingand External Pressure, UMI Dissertation

Services, Ann Arbor, MI.

[ 9] Miller, C.D. and Saliklis, E.P. 1993. Analysis of Cylindrical Shell Database and Validation

of Design Formulations, API Project 90-56, Chicago Bridge & Iron Technical Services Co.,

Plaineld, IL.

[ 10] Miller, C.D. and Saliklis, E.P. 1995. Analysisof Cylindrical Shell Databaseand Validation of

Design Formulations, Phase2: For D/t Values> 300, API Project 92-56, Chicago Bridge&

Iron Technical ServicesCo., Plaineld, IL.

Further Reading

Additional information on thedesign of shell structurescan befound in thefollowingreferences:

[ 1] American Iron and Steel Institute, 1992. Steel PlateEngineeringData, Volume1Steel Tanks

for Liquid Storageand Volume2Useful Information on theDesign of PlateStructures.

[ 2] Wozniak, R.S. 1990. Steel Tanks, in Structural EngineeringHandbook, Gaylord, E.H. and

Gaylord, C.S. Eds., 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, NewYork, 27-1to 27-29.

Thefollowingisalist of codes, specications, and standardsthat providerulesfor thedesign of shell

structuressubject toinstabilityfromloadswhich producecompressivestressesin theshell elements.

Acomparison wasmadebyMiller andSaliklis[ 8, 9, 10] of thepredictedfailurestressesgiven byeach

of thesesetsof ruleswith thetest dataobtained fromover 600testson steel modelsrepresentativeof

fabricatedshells. Thebest t equationsweredeterminedfor eachshell typeandload. Theseequations

werethen modied to obtain abetter t with thetest database. Theequationsgiven in thischapter

aretheresultsof thesestudies.

[ 3] API BUL 2U. 1987. Bulletin on Stability Design of Cylindrical Shells, 1st ed., American

PetroleumInstitute, Washington, D.C.

[ 4] API RP 2A-LRFD. 1993. RecommendedPracticefor Planning, DesigningandConstructing

FixedOffshorePlatformsLoadandResistanceFactor Design, 1st ed., American Petroleum

Institute, Washington, D.C.

[ 5] API RP 2A-WSD. 1993. Recommended Practicefor Planning, Designingand Constructing

FixedOffshorePlatformsWorkingStressDesign, 20th ed., American Petroleum Institute,

Washington, D.C.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

[ 6] API STD 620. 1990. DesignandConstructionof Large, WeldedLow-PressureStorageTanks,

8th ed., American PetroleumInstitute, Washington, D.C.

[ 7] API STD650. 1993. WeldedSteel Tanksfor Oil Storage, 9thed., American PetroleumInstitute,

Washington, D.C.

[ 8] ASMEVIII. 1992. PressureVessels, Division 2, ASME Boiler andPressureCode, American

Society of Mechanical Engineers, Washington, D.C.

[ 9] AWWA D100. 1984. AWWA Standardfor WeldedSteel Tanksfor Water Storage, American

Water WorksAssociation, Denver, CO.

[ 10] DIN 18800. 1990. Stabilityof Shell TypeSteel Structures, German CodeDIN 18800, Part 4.

[ 11] ECCSNo. 56. 1988. Bucklingof Steel Shells, EuropeanRecommendations, European Conven-

tion for Constructional Steelwork, Publication No. 56, 4th ed., Brussels, Belgium.

[ 12] NPD. 1990. BucklingCriteriafor Cylindrical Shells, Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, Oslo,

Norway.

c 1999by CRCPressLLC

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