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1950Sweatt v Painter: Herman Sweatt, an African American, wanted to attend Law school at UT-Austin.

Texas said its constitution didnt allow integrated education. Texas created separate law school to keep Sweatt out of the original law school. The Supreme Court said this separate but equal school was not separate but equal. The facilities were isolated, the facilities were different, the students were isolated from others studying law in Austin. Review 1954s Brown v Board of Education 1947Mendez v Westminster School District: In 1945 some places in California sent Mexican American children to separate public schools,. Several Mexican American parents challenged this in U.S. district court. This practice was a violation of the Fourteenth Amendments equal protection under the law. Westminster Schools appealed. The U.S. Court of Appeals said that the case didnt involve a constitutional question. The court said that segregation within a race was not permitted if not required by a specific state law. Mexican Americans are white racially so this case was not a constitutional issue. In 1947 California did away with their school segregation laws. 1948Delgado v Bastrop I.S.D.: Because of Mendez v Westminster School District, the Texas Attorney General decided that segregation of Mexican American children was illegal. Delgado and others sued Bastrop I.S,D., saying that separating Mexican American children from other white children was a violation since there was no specific state law. Bastrop I.S.D. was ordered to stop segregating Mexican American students. 1954Hernandez v Texas: Pete Hernandez was convicted of murder by an all white jury in Texas. Hernandez appealed th to the U.S. Supreme Court claiming that his 14 amendment right to equal protection under the law was violated because there were no Mexican Americans on the jury, nor had there been in any case in at least 25 years. Texas said that since th Mexican Americans are white they were not entitled to any special protection under the 14 amendment. The Supreme Court ruled that Mexican Americans formed a separate group that was entitled to protection. Hernandez had the right to be tried by juries that did not exclude Mexican Americans. 1984Edgewood I.S.D. v Kirby: In 1971 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that children do not have a fundamental right to an education under the U.S. Constitution. Civil rights activists filed suit in various state courts, based on the provisions of state constitutions. MALDEF filed a suit against William Kirby, the Texas Education Commissioner, for Edgewood I.S.D., a poor district servicing a large number of Mexican Americans. The district said that the way the state funded public schools resulted in a huge difference between the funds available for students in rich districts and those in poor districts, which violated the provision in the Texas Constitution, promising a fair and efficient public school system. Review Plessy v Ferguson 1896. 1969Tinker v Des Moines: John and Mary Beth Tinker were high school and junior high students, respectively, that were suspended from school for wearing black arm bands to school in protest of the war in Vietnam. The Supreme Court ruled in their favor, saying they should be able to peacefully protest the war by wearing black armbands. 1972Wisconsin v Yoder: Jonas Yoder and 2 other Amish childrens parents were prosecuted because they refused to send their children to school past the eighth grade. This was a violation of their religion. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of Yoder, saying that the Wisconsin law was in violation of Amish values and beliefs. 1973White v Regester: In 1970 the Texas legislature changed its district boundaries, Bexar and Dallas counties became districts with several members. Under the new plan neither Mexican American nor African Americans would have a real chance of being elected. The U.S. Supreme Court said that the legislature had to make these into smaller, one member districts, giving Mexican Americans and African Americans the chance to elect their own representatives. The Supreme Court said that Texas couldnt discriminate by setting up multi-member districts. Which of these cases expanded civil rights for minorities? How?

Understanding Civil Rights Landmark Cases

Which of these cases protected individual rights? How?

HISD Social Studies Curriculum 2012

U.S. History Since 1877