Chem. Eng. Technol. 2009, 32, No.

1, 55–63

55

Zhi-shan Bai1 Hua-lin Wang1 Shan-Tung Tu1
1

Research Article

School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, P.R. China.

Study of Air-Liquid Flow Patterns in Hydrocyclone Enhanced by Air Bubbles
In order to improve the oil-water separation efficiency of a hydrocyclone, a new process utilizing air bubbles has been developed to enhance separation performance. Using the two-component phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) technique, the velocities of two phases, air and liquid, and air bubble diameter were measured in a hydrocyclone. The air-liquid mixing pump can produce 15 to 60 lm-diameter air bubbles in water. There is an optimum air-liquid ratio for oil-water separation of a hydrocyclone enhanced by air bubbles. An air core occurs in the hydrocyclone when the air-liquid ratio is more than 1 %. The velocities of air bubbles have a similar flow pattern to the water phase. The axial and tangential velocity differences of the air bubbles at different air-liquid ratio are greater near the wall and near the core of the hydrocyclone. The measured results show that the size distribution of the air bubbles produced by the air-liquid mixing pump is beneficial to the process where air bubbles capture oil droplets in the hydrocyclone. These studies are helpful to understand the separation mechanism of a hydrocyclone enhanced by air bubbles.
Keywords: Air bubble enhancement, Hydrocyclone, Oil-water separation, Phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) Received: October 08, 2008; revised: October 17, 2008; accepted: October 20, 2008 DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200800518

1

Introduction

Hydrocyclones have been used for industrial purposes for more than 100 years. With considerable efforts in research and development, hydrocyclones are now widely used in various industries to separate two components of different densities with the aid of the strong centrifugal force created by the swirling flow. The flow inside a hydrocyclone is a complicated three-dimensional swirling flow. The study of the flow pattern in a hydrocyclone is very important for the optimum design and evaluation of its separation performance. Since the separation mechanisms are associated with the velocity field, its exact determination is crucial for the understanding of the separation process [1–3]. Many studies have been conducted to understand the internal flow pattern of a hydrocyclone. The velocity profiles of hydrocyclones were first measured by Kelsall [4], who used a stroboscope with a rotating microscope objective


Correspondence: Prof. H. Wang (fbaizs@yahoo.com.cn), Key Lab of Safety Science of Pressurized Systems, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, P.R. China.

lens to determine the velocities of aluminum flakes that seeded the flow in a transparent test section. Then Ohashi and Maeda [5] employed photographic techniques, which flashed at precisely-controlled time intervals to determine the velocity of the seed particle. More recently, a number of authors used laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) to determine the tangential and axial velocities in hydrocyclones [6–9]. With the development of science and technology, mathematical models based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are highly desirable. The first successful work in predicting the fluid flow in hydrocyclones was achieved by Pericleous and Rhodes [10]; using the PHOENICS computer code for the solution of the partial differential equations, including the simple Prandtl mixing length model and the axisymmetry assumptions, the authors reported the velocity predictions in a 200-mm hydrocyclone. Later, Hsieh and Rajamani [11] numerically solved the turbulent momentum equations to obtain the velocities and compared them with the laser Doppler velocimetry measurements in a 75-mm hydrocyclone. In recent years, some works on the simulation of hydrocyclones using the incompressible NavierStokes equations, supplemented by a suitable turbulence model, have proven to be appropriate for modeling the flow in a hydrocyclone [12–16]. In order to improve the oil-water separation performance, we enhanced the separation efficiency of conventionally con-

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The dimensions of the hydrocyclones used in the experimental work are shown in Tab. up to today.0 nm) and two green (514. no measured data is available for an air-liquid twophase flow field in a hydrocyclone.-s. Water with air Air inlet Water inlet cyclone. Do/D 0. The original transmitting/receiving lens was substituted by dedicated backscatter receiving optics. rectangular inlets (5 mm × 10 mm) was used for the laser Doppler measurements. 2. In order to acquire air-liquid two-phase flow characteristics in the hydrocyclone. No. 8 – Pressure gauge. Technol. 4 – Air flowmeter. The rejected air volume is controlled by a valve.4 PDPA System and Measurement Procedure 2. 3 – Oil pot. Hollow glass microspheres were added to the water to generate tracer particles.cet-journal. Water (20 °C) with small air bubbles was fed into the hydrocyclone under controlled flow conditions by a set of valves. thus providing two blue (488. which can provide sufficient water phase flow seeding. air and liquid are mixed by the air-liquid mixing pump technology from Japanese NIKUNI Company. Eng.23 Ls/D 1. A Bragg cell inside the fiber drive split the laser beam in the 0 and –1 orders. oil. 2009. 1. Air-liquid mixing. Weinheim http://www. 3. Oil enters the pump by atmospheric pressure and is mixed with water in the pump. water was the working fluid.07 Du/D 0. Water. 7 8 3 1 4 6 5 7 8 9 2 2. Larger diameter air bubbles were removed from the water in the air-liquid separation pot because they can cause deterioration of the separation performance. Oil droplets collide with bubbles and were carried by bubbles in the hydro- A two-component phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) was adapted for measuring.1 Experimental Setup and Procedure Hydrocyclone 2 7 8 A 35 mm-diameter hydrocyclone with two symmetrical. 2. Bai et al. Feed pressure and flow rates were monitored with accurate manometers and a flowmeter.5 nm) laser beams. Chem. 6 – Airliquid mixing pump. The purpose of the present work is to obtain detailed knowledge of the air-liquid twophase flow characteristics in a hydrocyclone using the phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) technique which is necessary to understand the separation mechanism of the hydrocyclone enhanced by air bubbles. 2. and air bubbles are fed into the hydrocyclone together. 5 – Air-liquid separation pot. The laser beams were transmitted by monomode polarization preserving glass fibers to the PDPA probe. However.3 Flow Configuration The flow diagram of oil-water separation using a hydrocyclone enhanced by air bubbles is illustrated in Fig.5-m3 water pot by means of an air-liquid mixing pump. therefore. Diagram of oil-water separation using hydrocyclones enhanced by air bubbles: 1 – Water pot. The interaction between air bubbles and oil droplets can be summarized as an entrapment of the air bubbles by a single or flocculated structure of oil droplets. 9 – Hydrocyclone. This setup allows si- © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. no additional seeding was needed. So the oil can be removed more easily and rapidly with the air bubbles than without in the hydrocyclone.37 Lu/D 9.56 Z. The fluid was pumped from a 1. Air bubbles can reflect light well and. 32. Air bubbles Figure 1. The base unit included a SpectraPhysics Stabilite 2017 ion laser operating in multiline mode and a fiber drive from Aerometrics.00 L/D 7. 55–63 structed hydrocyclones by using air bubbles.2 Air-Liquid Mixing As shown in Fig. 2 – Wastewater pot. KGaA. Gas moves faster than oil due to their differences in density and can lead to interaction between oil and air [17–20].71 h 6° Figure 2. Dimensions of the hydrocyclone used in the experimental work. 7 – Liquid flowmeter. 1.com . Table 1. The pump generates small air bubbles and provides high probability for oil/bubble interaction. Air enters the pump through the air inlet and is mixed and broken up in the pump. 1. The maximum air-liquid ratio of the pump is about 1:9. which were then separated by two prisms into the different wavelengths. the detailed process of which is shown in Fig.

The simulated results show that the optical ports have little influence on the internal flow of axial half planes without optical ports inside the hydrocyclone. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. Schematic of the PDPA system. including testing model and system. the computational fluid dynamics method was used to simulate the flow fields inside the hydrocyclone with optical ports.Chem. In this work. Velocity data were measured for the ten axial half planes without optical ports from inlet to exit as defined in Fig. Finally. No. The other axial step was equal to 30 mm and radial steps of 0. multaneous two-component velocity measurements in the backscatter mode. a sample of typically 1000 Doppler bursts was taken for each measurement. 1. 55–63 Oil-water separation 57 Figure 3. Receiving lens Laser Laser Model 3 Bragg cell Computer Processo Without optical port With optical port Figure 4.cet-journal. Technol. For a given axial coordinate. the probe was moved by using a highly accurate three-component (x–y–z) traverse system controlled by a computer. Fig. the first measurement point was placed near the wall of the cyclone and the last point was chosen in proximity of the core. 8. The laser route is illustrated in Fig. 5. Transmitting lens Lase θ 1 2 In order to study the effect of optical ports on the flow inside the hydrocyclone. The PDPA signals were then processed by two Dantec 57N20 BSA enhanced units. Figure 6. KGaA. The first axial step was equal to 20 mm from the top of the hydrocyclone. During the measurements. 4 shows a block diagram of the PDPA system. Because the surfaces of the test section were cylindrical and conical in shape. Orifice Figure 5. are shown in Fig. This bending took place in all three dimensions because of the three-dimensional shape of the test model. Light collected by the transmitting/receiving lens was focused by an achromatic lens onto the end of a multimode fiber optics. Weinheim http://www. The optical ports can avoid the asymmetrical bending phenomena because of lower refraction ratio and plane surface. The experimental device. 32. the fluid flow is modelled as turbulent. and the direction of the measured velocity. a 5 mm-diameter orifice vertical to the hydrocyclone axial was opened in the position of the laser beams entrance and was then stopped up with optical glass. The asymmetrical bending of the laser beams at the inside and outside surfaces of the test section affected the probe volume position. The collected light was separated into the individual wavelengths by a Dantec color separator and then transmitted to two Dantec photomultipliers.5 mm were applied. In order to overcome the asymmetrical bending phenomena. The laser route. operating in synchronous mode. This is shown in Fig. Eng. 6. 7. described by the Reynolds stress model (RSM). Oil/bubble attachment [18]. in all the experimental work. Model of testing. the pair of laser beams bend asymmetrically when they cross the inside and outside surfaces.com . 2009. the separation angle of the beams.

2.5 3. 10 under the condition of the inlet flow rate of In the hydrocyclone. – For a high air-liquid ratio.1 3 Separation Performance of the Hydrocyclone Enhanced by Air Bubbles The Reynolds number of the inlet flow in the hydrocyclone is described as follows: Re ˆ qDv l (1) where vˆ 4Q i pD2 In order to acquire the high oil-water separation performance using the hydrocyclone enhanced by air bubbles. A range of air bubbles is beneficial because the smaller bubbles can capture the smaller oil droplets and the larger ones. 2009.0 3. Bai et al.5 – 1) List of symbols at the end of the paper. having a median droplet diameter usually in the range of 3–50 lm. The influence of air-liquid ratio. Figure 9. 32. KGaA. Chem. the oil droplets in oily wastewater are normally stabilized as an oil-in-water emulsion. The dispose of testing plane.0 1. the air bubbles can also reduce the viscosity of the liquid and raise the collision probability of oil with water. Weinheim http://www. The efficiency reaches a maximum when the airliquid ratio is close to 1 %.-s. 1.0 0. beyond which further increases in 80 76 72 0. Photograph of the experimental system. Technol. the air-liquid ratio could be defined as follows: Qq ˆ Qg Ql (2) 92 88 84 E/% The flow diagram of oil-water separation using the hydrocyclone enhanced by air bubbles is illustrated in Fig. When the air-liquid ratio is less than 1 %. is illustrated in Fig. 4 (a) Model of testing (b) Testing system Results and Discussion Size Distribution of Air Bubbles Figure 8. 9. but excessive air bubbles disturb the flow field in the hydrocyclone and decreases the separation efficiency. No. the size distribution of air bubbles in water is an important factor. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. According to the appropriate literature [17– 19]. Qq1).cet-journal.0 2. This is caused by the following: – A certain air bubble number in liquid is advisable to reduce the viscosity of the liquid and to raise the collision probability of oil with water. The experimental results show that air bubbles that occur in water can improve the deoiling efficiency of hydrocyclones.com . inlet Reynolds number 15000).5 1. an increase in the air-liquid ratio will improve the efficiency of oil removal.58 Z. Eng. Hydrocyclone Optical port air-liquid ratio will cause performance deterioration. E. The distribution of air bubble diameter inside the hydrocyclone is plotted in Fig. Separation efficiency (E) vs.5 Qq 2. the larger droplets [26–28]. The air-liquid ratio of 1 % can provide a better separation of oil from water. It will make the removal of oil more easily. 55–63 Z1 20 30 Z2 30 Z3 30 Z4 30 Z5 30 Z6 30 Z7 30 Z8 30 Z9 30 Z10 Figure 7. air-liquid ratio (Qq) (Oil concentration 100 mg/L. on separation efficiency. 4.

50 m3/h. there is no positive vertical velocity at all the radial distances. The size distributions remain similar at different axial heights in the body of the hydrocyclone. the inlet flow rate at r/mm r/mm 0 5 10 15 20 -30 0 30 60 90 r/mm 0 5 10 15 20 -30 0 60 0 30 0 5 10 15 20 30 90 60 120 90 120 Z/mm 150 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 150 Z/mm 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 Figure 11. Velocity distribution of water. 4. The size distribution of air bubbles produced by the airliquid mixing pump is beneficial to the process where air bubbles capture oil droplets in the hydrocyclone. It can be observed from the figure that a peak positive axial velocity is immediately below the bottom of the vortex finder and a minimum value of positive axial velocity is at a vertical distance of 170 mm from the top of the hydrocyclone. Technol. At an axial height of 260 mm.50 m3/h and Qq = 1. 1.Chem. This result is in agreement with previous theoretical studies on size distribution [4]. No. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.0 %. Eng.0 %.2 Velocity of Water For the inlet flow rate of 1. there is no diameter change at any of the radial distances. The diameter change diminishes at radial distance with the increase of axial height. the positive values of axial velocity decreases till it reaches zero at some axial distance.cet-journal. KGaA.com 5m/s . negative. It can be seen that the air-liquid mixing pump can produce 15–60 lm-diameter air bubbles in water. Size distribution of air bubbles. Z/mm 180 210 240 270 300 5m/s 330 20μm 330 360 360 (a) Axial velocity (b) Tangential velocity Figure 12.e. i. 32. indicating no further classification of water in this region. 11 shows the distribution profiles of air bubble size in the hydrocyclone when Qq = 1. Fig. the axial velocity profiles at different radial distances and at different axial heights in the hydrocyclone are integrated and presented in Fig. 55–63 Oil-water separation 59 1. close to the hydrocyclone wall and upward towards the center. It indicates that the diameter of air bubbles increase from the wall towards the center. Granularity distribution of air bubbles. 2009. The axial velocity is downward.50 m3/h. 1. With increasing axial distance.. 12a). Weinheim http://www. The figure also indicates that at an axial height (Z) of 200 mm. At an axial height of Figure 10.

The profiles of tangential velocity remain similar at different axial heights in the body of the hydrocyclone.0% uZ/m.5 0 2 4 6 r/mm 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 r/mm 6 8 10 Z5 Z7 Figure 13. It can also be noted that the maximum values of tangential velocity decrease with decrease 1.0% Qq=2. The change rule of axial velocity is not uniform with the increase in Qq in other regions.0% -1 1. Bai et al.0% -1 0. It can be seen that the axial velocity distributions of air bubbles have a similar trend to the water phase.5 -2. It can be seen from the figure that Qq affects tangential velocity only in the core of the hydrocyclone. 16. Weinheim http://www.s 0. Axial velocity distribution of water at different Qq. there is no positive axial velocity at any radial distances. beyond which further increase in the air-liquid ratio will decrease the separation performance. The tangential velocity distributions of air bubbles at different Qq are shown in Fig. The tangential velocities at different Qq are shown in Fig.0 -1. 13 and Fig. KGaA. thus reducing the separation efficiency. reached a maximum value.8 0. This is because the air content is higher in the core than other regions due to centrifugal force.50 m3/h. 32. an air core occurs in the hydrocyclone. there is little change in other regions. 4. It can be seen from Fig.2 Qq=0.4 -1 1. 2009.8 -1.2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 r/mm 0 2 4 6 8 r/mm 10 12 14 16 Z1 1.5 0. an increase in air-liquid ratio will improve the separation efficiency under the condition of the air-liquid ratio being less than the optimum split ratio. This is because at higher air-liquid ratio.60 Z.5% Qq=1. 12b) under the condition of inlet flow rate at 1.5 0.0 0.5 Qq=0.-s. 15.s -0. The distributions of axial velocity indicate that the main separation parts are the cylinder and the upside of the cone.4 -0.0% uZ/m.5 -2.0 Qq=0.0 -1.5 -1.s -0. The geometry of the cylinder and cone angle is key to the design of a hydrocyclone.8 -1. It can be observed from the figure that the tangential velocity increased from the hydrocyclone wall towards the center.0 -0.50 m3/h. 14 that the air core occurs in the hydrocyclone when the air-liquid ratio is more than 1 %.cet-journal.0 0. Technol.4 Velocity of Air Bubbles For an inlet flow rate of 1.0% Qq=2. The axial velocity distributions of air bubbles at different Qq are shown in Fig. 13. It can also be noted that the maximum values of tangential velocity decrease with decrease in axial height.4 -0.com .5% Qq=1.2 Qq=0. the axial velocities at different Qq are shown in Fig. It can be seen from the figure that the axial velocity increases in the core region with the increase of Qq. indicating no further classification in this region. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.0% Qq=2. No. Maximum values of tangential velocities are observed in the cylindrical portion. and then rapidly decreased.0% Qq=2. 14.0 -0.0 uZ/m. Chem. At the same inlet flow rates. 55–63 200 mm.5 -1. There is an optimum air-liquid ratio for oil-water separation of a hydrocyclone enhanced by air bubbles.0 -1 Z3 1.s 0. The axial velocity increases in the core region with the increase in Qq.4 uZ/m. The measured results of tangential velocity at different vertical heights are plotted in Fig.8 0. large numbers of air bubbles will arouse turbulence fluctuation and then make it possible for finer oil droplets to move into the underflow.5% Qq=1.3 The Effects of Air-Liquid Ratio on Velocity of Water 4.2 0. Eng. It is beneficial to remove oil droplet bypass overflow.5% Qq=1. 1.

0% uZ/m.5 0 2 4 r/mm 6 Qq=2.0% Qq=2.2 0.5% Qq=1.0% -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 2 4 6 8 uθ/m.s -1 0.s 0.5% Qq=1.5% Qq=1.8 0.com .5 -1.0 -0.s 8 10 -2.0 -1 Z3 1. Tangential velocity distribution of water at different Qq.0 -1.0 -2.4 -0.0% -0. Weinheim http://www.0 -1.5 -2.0% -1 -7 -6 -5 uθ/m.0 Qq=0.0% Qq=2.5% Qq=1.0% uθ/m.5% Qq=1.5 0 2 4 r/mm 6 8 10 Z5 Z7 Figure 15. Eng. 2009.s -1 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 Qq=0.s -4 -3 -2 -1 0 0 2 4 6 r/mm 8 10 12 0 2 4 r/mm 6 8 10 Z5 Figure 14.0% uθ/m. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.5% Qq=1.cet-journal.s 10 12 14 16 18 20 r/mm 0 0 2 4 6 8 r/mm 10 12 14 16 Z1 -8 -7 -6 -5 -1 Z3 -12 Qq=0.8 Qq=0.0% Qq=2. Technol.2 0 2 4 6 8 r/mm 10 12 14 16 Z1 1.5 0.5 0. KGaA.4 -1 Z7 1.4 uZ/m.0% Qq=2. No.8 -1. 1.5% Qq=1. Axial velocity distribution of air bubbles.0 0.8 0.Chem.0% Qq=2.2 Qq=0. 32.0 -0.s 0.0 -0. 1.0 Qq=0.s -4 -3 -2 -1 Qq=0.4 -0.0% uZ/m.5 -1.0% Qq=2.5% Qq=1.5 -2.0% uZ/m.2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 r/mm -1.0% -1 0. 55–63 -8 -7 -6 -1 Oil-water separation -8 61 Qq=0.0% Qq=2.

1. Bai et al. The tangential velocity distributions of air bubbles have a similar trend to the water phase.0% -1 -10 -9 -8 uθ/m.62 Z. There is an optimum air-liquid ratio for oil-water separation of a hydrocyclone enhanced by air bubbles.0% -5 -4 -3 -2 10 12 14 16 18 20 r/mm 0 2 4 6 8 r/mm 10 12 14 16 Z1 -9 -8 -7 -6 -1 Z3 -11 Qq=0. Eng. (2) the interactions of air bubbles and oil droplets should be studied.0% Qq=2. Technol.5% Qq=1. The results are summarized as follows: – In order to overcome the influence of shape on laser beams. the air-liquid mixing pump can produce 15 to 60 lm-diameter air bubbles in water. -9 -8 -7 -6 -1 Chem.0 %. large Symbols used D Do Du E L Ls Lu Qg Qi [mm] [mm] [mm] [%] [mm] [mm] [mm] [m3/h] [mm] hydrocyclone diameter overflow orifice diameter underflow orifice diameter separation efficiency length of cone length of swirl chamber length of tail pipe air and liquid flow rate inlet flow rate © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.cet-journal. The size distribution of air bubbles produced by air-liquid mixing pump is beneficial to the process that air bubbles capture oil droplets in the hydrocyclone.s -7 -6 -1 Qq=0.s -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 2 4 6 8 Qq=2. The magnitude of the tangential velocity value increases at the same radial distance with the increase in Qq. Weinheim http://www. The velocity differences are greater near the core because the velocity and velocity gradients at the core region are greater and then arouse the turbulence fluctuation. – Under the condition of the inlet flow rate of 1.0% Qq=2. further studies are considered in two directions: (1) The oil-water-air three-phase velocities in hydrocyclones should be examined.5% Qq=1. the velocities of two phases. However. 5 Conclusions numbers of air bubbles will reduce the separation efficiency.0% Qq=2.0% uθ/m. The axial and tangential velocity differences of air bubbles at different air-liquid ratios are greater near the wall and near the core of the hydrocyclone. 32. – The velocities of air bubbles have a similar flow pattern to the water phase. 55–63 -8 Qq=0. air and liquid. Z7 in axial height.-s.s -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 Qq=0.0% -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 0 2 4 6 r/mm 8 uθ/m. This work is helpful to understand the separation mechanism of a hydrocyclone enhanced by air bubbles.0% uθ/m.50 m3/h and Qq = 1.s 10 12 14 0 2 4 r/mm 6 8 10 Z5 Figure 16. By using a two-component phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) technique. No. The axial and tangential velocity differences at different Qq are greater near the wall and near the core of the hydrocyclone. The collision between wall and fluid make the velocity fluctuations strengthen near the wall.5% Qq=1. 2009. At higher air-liquid ratios. in order to achieve an optimal design. KGaA.5% Qq=1. optical ports were set up in the hydrocyclone and the asymmetrical bending phenomena were resolved. Tangential velocity distribution of air bubbles. were measured in a hydrocyclone enhanced by air bubbles.com .

Collantes. 2003. Yu. 151. 33. [8] B. Maeda. A.. 57. A 1999. 55–63 Oil-water separation 63 Ql Qq Re uz uh m Z [m3/h] [–] [–] [m/s] [m/s] [m/s] [mm] liquid flow rate air-liquid ratio Reynolds number axial velocity tangential velocity hydrocyclone characteristic velocity axial height from top wall Greek symbols q h [kg/m3] [°] density of liquid cone angle References [1] H. Eng. [10] N. 30. [12] T. R. Miner. Conf. Gonzalez. G. Zhao. 135. Richard. 22. Ohasi. F. D. 2006. [16] B. 2007. 200. [14] M. Technol. [9] J. H. C. Chem. Chem. 1958. 2000. R. Int. Pollut. Prasad. 1991. Smyth. [2] E. [7] K. P. 80. Narasimha. Inst. J. K. D. 2000. Rodes. Proc. F. D. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. Oliveira. 30 (2). J. 80. Eng. 37 (5). A. Sep. Int. Holtham. 380. Wang. 513. A 2003. 214 (1). Process. Eng. Purif. B. J. 20.Chem. England. 267. Concha. Boysan. 80. 6 (4). 2007. Purif. Oliveira. G. Can. Environ. 33. Bakker. Life Sci.. Colman. on Hydrocyclone 1987. 313. A. Neesse. Eng. Weinheim http://www. Miner. of Int. 20. T. [6] I. T. Williams. Miner.. G. Eng. Trygve et al. Bath 1984. [4] D. R. Eng. Colloids Surf. S. Y. 1098. [11] K. [15] T. Jiang. Eng. 347 [3] L. Grattoni. A. Chiné. 1952. Drake. [13] M. Moosai. 735. 1. T. 1. 127. J. 177. Eng. K. [18] R. on Hydrocyclone. of 2nd Int. 72 (A4). Rajamani. [17] C. Colloids Surf. A. Hsien. N. M. F. 1994. 2008. 78 (A8). Dyakowski. 113. Slack. J. J. Technol. 2007. AIChE J. 183. [20] M. F. 154. Mathew. Rajamani. Technol. Eng. J. J. R. Niewiadomski et al. 368. 32. AIChE J. Dueck. Conf. 1991. A. B. K. D. in Proc. Chem. [5] H. S.com . M.cet-journal. Hornung. Sep. 21. 303. Res.B. A. No. 2000. Elsayed et al. Concha. Moosai. Chem. Kelsall. Pericleous. Eng. F. Richard. 37 (1). O. 87. Wang. A . 257. [19] R.. BHRA.. 2008. KGaA. Des. 59. Chiné. N. Chem. 2006. Trans. Eng. C. 2009. R. Thew. Res. Des. X. Chem. Hsiesh. Chem.

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