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RSEA MATRIX RESULTS (BIOPHYSICAL) FOR THE INFOGRAPHIC MAP LABB TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY Peak: Mossy 1.

Habitats PIBCFI
mangroves, marshes, bare soil/grasslands, cultivated areas, forests, coconut plantations

MUAD
forests (peak: montane primary forests; lower slopes: lowland dipterocarp forsts; steep slope: grasses, tree ferns and shrubs), grasslands,lakes, and river systems

NEDF
forests

VSU
Forests: old growth forest (OGF), advanced second growth (ASG), early second growth (ESG), cultivated (CVT)

CBCF
forests: primary old growth forest, mixed tree plantation, scrubland/grassland/agricultural areas, pioneer vegetation, secondary growth forest; plantation forest; brushlands, natural limestone forest type of habitat in all forest patches; riparian forest; plantation forest

PEFI
Peak: primary growth and mossy forest Middle slopes: midmontane (750-900 masl) farms and agroforest plantations, secondary,and primary growth forests; Lower slopes: cultivated and uncultivated lands (e.g., grasslands) in alluvial plains and rolling to undulating lands in the footslopes and hilly lands

IDIS
forests, shrub lands, cultivated areas, and grasslands

2. Flora

forests Middle and above lower scopes: secondary growth forest (plantation forests, reforestation lands, grasslands, agricultural farmlands, agroforest ecosystems, and ecotone) Other habitats close or within secondary forest: caves, stream, river systems, cliff, and dead creek 268 species

POLILLO - 303 species; BURDEOS 281 species; PANUKULAN - 281 species; PATNANUNGAN 214 species; JOMALIG - 155 species BURDEOS aquatic organisms (1 threatened, 3

436 (123 newly listed)

121 tree species

229 flora species in 65 families, with 31 Philippine endemics

Over 700 species

97 species in Mt. Sinaka and 79 tree species of trees in Mt. Mahuson,

159 plant species (97 (62%) were tree species; 39 (24%) were shrub species; and 23 (15%) were herbaceous species.

a. threatened

1 threatened, 1 critically endangered, and 6

65 species are in the IUCN Red List of Threatened

13 tree species, 3 of these are critically

10 IUCN-critically endangered species which

20 endemic plants in Nug-as Forest and Palinpinon Range; in addition to various kinds of

LABB
vulnerable species

PIBCFI
vulnerable); JOMALIG aquatic organisms (1 threatened, 1 vulnerable); PATNANUNGAN aquatic organisms (6 threatened, 1 vulnerable); POLILLO aquatic organisms (1 threatened, 4 vulnerable) BURDEOS aquatic organisms (2 endemic); terrestrial floral inventory (30 endemic); JOMALIG aquatic organisms (2 endemic); terrestrial floral inventory (10 endemic); PATNANUNGAN aquatic organisms (2 endemic); terrestrial floral (10 endemic); POLILLO aquatic organisms (4 endemic); terrestrial floral inventory (27

MUAD
Species (19 are listed as Critically Endangered, 1 as Endangered, 24 as Vulnerable, and 21 as of Lesser Risk). All of the Critically Endangered species belong to the family Dipterocarpaceae.

NEDF
endangered and the rest categorized as threatened or vulnerable. Brgy. Buenavista has the most number of threatened tree species (11 spp.)

VSU
are mostly Dipterocarp species and 20 IUCN-vulnerable species

CBCF
Cinnamon species, 6 rare endemic trees are critically endangered in Nug-as Forest There are at least 14 threatened endemic plants in Nug-as Forest and Palinpinon Range

PEFI

IDIS

b. endemic

55 species

Only 16% or 70 species of the total number of species recorded in the area are endemic. Of the 70, only 2 species or about 3% are found only in Negros.

Tabunan forest, which has a total of 111 plant species observed in its forest interior, is dominated by endemics it its forest canopy. A Philippine endemic Lady Slipper Orchid Paphiopedilum hennisianum is also found in the area.

5 tree species are unique only to the Philippines (endemic); a shrub (Medinilla pendula) endemic to the Philippines, is considered globally endangered

LABB

PIBCFI
endemic)

MUAD

NEDF

VSU

CBCF

PEFI

IDIS

3. Fauna

51 species of terrestrial wildlife belonging to 35 families under 46 genera were recorded during the RSA. Of these, 6 were mammals, 34 were birds, 4 were reptiles, and 7 were amphibians. A high proportion, 68.63%, or 35 species are Philippine endemics, 15 species are nonendemics, and one is still unidentified.

POLILLO - 64 aquatic organisms; BURDEOS - 35 aquatic organisms; PANUKULAN - 55 aquatic organisms; PATNANUNGAN 19 aquatic organisms; JOMALIG - 20 aquatic organisms; Invertebrates in POLILLO - 44 species; BURDEOS - 27 species; PANUKULAN - 42 species; PATNANUNGAN 11; species

A total of 81 species are recorded comprised of 20 species of amphibians and 61 species of reptiles. This list includes 59 endemic herpetofauna, of which 11 species are amphibians and 48 species are reptiles. The high number of species (81) is indicative of high biodiversity in the area as this represents 72.3 % of the total herp fauna of Negros Island, which is 112 species. The amphibians of 20 species constitute 100% of the total Negros species while the reptile species of 61, represents 66.3 % of the total Negros fauna of 92 reptilian species.

The faunal study recorded 71 species of birds, 19 species of herpetofauna, 18 species of mammals, and at least 9 species of aquatic macrofauna.

The watersheds host a substantial fraction of the countrys forest vertebrates. At least 171 species (i.e., birds, mammals, frogs, and reptiles) are currently known.

LABB a. Avifauna (birds) a.1 threathened a.2 endemic


A total of 84 species of birds were reported to have occured in Mount BanahawSan Cristobal Protected Landscape (MBSCPL). Of the total, 85.71% or 72 species are Philippine endemics; 8.33% or 7 species are threatened.

PIBCFI
POLILLO - 98 species; BURDEOS 104 species; PANUKULAN - 98 species; PATNANUNGAN 103 species; JOMALIG - 97 species

MUAD
Overall, bird record is 140 species, about 54.9% of the overall Negros Island bird record; 44 species are endemic, with 31% bird endemism. 50 species were recorded, 14 endemic species

NEDF
A total of 71 species of birds were recorded during the sampling period. Of the 71 species, 48 are known to breed in the country (residents) while 6 are considered local migrants, migrating within the Philippines. In addition to this, the study also recorded 17 Philippine endemics. The herpetofauna species discovery curve show a total of 19 species accumulated over a period of 12 days. The herpetofauna list later increased to 28 species and

VSU
Birds: 112 species Of the 112 species of birds, 41 are endemic to the Philippines and 14 are endemic to the Visayas and the Greater Mindanao faunal region. Among the 41 species, 11 are in the IUCN threatened category.

CBCF
TABUNAN: A total of 93 forest birds species have so far been recorded in Tabunan forest. Bird Species in Nug-as and Lantoy KBA (81) Bird as Important Species for Conservation in Nug-as Forest (9)

PEFI
59 species were recorded, 12 endemic to Mindanao (6 are near-threatened and 1 threatened)

IDIS
The watersheds have at least 124 species of birds. If we consider only the Mindanao Islands share of Philippine endemic species (94), the watersheds contain an impressive 70 % of these. Over half (24) of the 45 Mindanao endemic species are living in the watersheds.

b. Herpetofauna b.1 threatened b.2 endemic

Of the 29 amphibian species recorded at MBSCPL, 18 or 62.07% are known as Philippine endemics; while 11 or 37.93% are categorized by IUCN as threatened.

POLILLO - 54 species; BURDEOS 44 species; PANUKULAN - 43 species; PATNANUNGAN 31 species; JOMALIG - 25 species

25 species, 10 are endemic; amphibians constitute 11 species with 4 endemics (36%), reptiles with 14 species, 6 endemics (43% endemism)

Herpetofauna: 64 species

Amphibians and reptiles in Nugas Forest (6); Herpetofauna as Important Species for Conservation in Nug-as Forest (3)

18 species of amphibians were documented in the sampling sites; 8 species previously recorded were not documented while 9 species were recorded in the present study but not documented in the previous studies

At least 22 species of herptiles are known for the watersheds. In the latest study, at least 20 species were identified out of 130 individuals collected. The total consisted of 16 frogs (6

LABB

PIBCFI

MUAD

NEDF
included species that were observed by the locals.

VSU

CBCF

PEFI

IDIS
families), 4 lizards (2 families), and 2 snakes (2 families).

c. Mammals c.1 threatened c. 2 endemic

22 mammalian species are reportedly found in MBSCPL; 4 of these are volant species, which are all fruit bats belonging to Family Pteropodidae; another 18 species are non-volant; 13 species (59.09%) are Philippine endemics; 6 species are categorized as vulnerable under IUCN red list

POLILLO - 38 species; BURDEOS - 29 species; PANUKULAN - 22 species; PATNANUNGAN 24 species; JOMALIG - 25 species

7 species, 3 endemic (bats)

The study recorded about 18 species of mammals in the reserve. Ten (9 bats and 1 rodent) of these species were captured in the field while the remaining 8 were reported to the research team.

Mammals: 36 species A total of 36 species of mammals belonging to 15 families were recorded, 17 species (47%) are Philippine endemics of which 8 are restricted only to the Mindanao faunal region.

Mammals in Nug-as Forest: volant (10); non-volant (4) Mammals as Important Species for Conservation in Nug-as Forest (7)

23 species of volant (bats) and non-volant mammals (rat, mice, shrew, wild deer, pig, tarsier, macaque, civet, lemur, and squirrel) found in the study sites 11 species of bats were recorded in the Arakan Valley, 130 bats belonging to 5 species captured in Mt. Mahuson and 180 individual bats belonging to 8 species caught in Mt. Sinaka; 5 species of non-volant mammals were observed in Arakan Valley and 1 rodent species in Mt. Mahuson and 10 individual non-volant mammals representing 5 species in Mt. Sinaka; 2 species of large mammals were recorded through

The mammalian diversity of the watersheds is grouped into two: the nonflying group (arboreal species, rodents and other land mammals) and the flying mammals (bats). There are at least 17 species of non-flying mammals at the watersheds, distributed in 14 Genera and 10 Families. Of these, 53 % (9) are Mindanao endemics and 30 % (5) are Philippine endemic, for a combined endemism of 82 % (14).

LABB

PIBCFI

MUAD

NEDF

VSU

CBCF

PEFI
direct observation, while 5 species were recorded through ethobiological survey Avifauna (12 species out of 59 recorded are endemic to Mindanao)

IDIS

d. Endemism

Avifauna (85.71% or 72 species are endemic); mammals (59.09% or 13 species are Philippine endemics); amphibian (62.07% or 18 species are Philippine endemics)

POLILLO - fish (3), flora (2), amphibians (11), reptiles (23), invertebrates (33), mammals (9), birds (32); BURDEOS fish (2), flora (30), amphibians (11), reptiles (20), invertebrates (21), mammals (9), birds (31); PANUKULAN fish (4), flora (28), amphibians (8), reptiles (20), invertebrates (33), mammals (8), birds (31); PATNANUNGAN fish (2), flora (10), amphibians (6), reptiles (11), invertebrates (8), mammals (6), birds (23); JOMALIG fish (2), flora (10), amphibians (2), reptiles (7), mammals (6), birds (6)

54.46% herpetofaunal endemism; 31% bird endemism; 3 out of 7 mammal species are endemic

For avifauna, the study recorded 17 Philippine endemics.

Flora (31 Philippine endemics); birds (41 endemic to the Philippines, 14 endemic to the Visayas and the Greater Mindanao faunal region); mammals (17 species [or 47%] are Philippine endemics of which 8 are restricted only to the Mindanao faunal region)

TABUNAN: Magsalay (1993) published a paper on the rediscovery of 4 endemic subspecies of birds in Cebu. From 1996 to 2002, the Cebu Biodiversity Conservation Foundation and its partners confirmed the presence of 12 extant endemic bird species and subspecies in Cebu. NUGAS and DALAGUETE Birds (9); herpetofauna (3); mammals (5)

There are at least 17 species of non-flying mammals at the watersheds. Of these, 53 % (9) are Mindanao endemics and 30 % (5) are Philippine endemic, for a combined endemism of 82 % (14). As to the 22 species of herptiles, endemism is also high as almost three fourths of them (15 species) are restricted to the Philippine archipelago, with 9 species confined only to Mindanao Island.

MARINE BIODIVERSITY

LABB 1. Habitats
freshwater and river systems (underground streams,waterfalls, and springs) Under the coastal and marine environment of Quezon, there are 5 important ecosystems, which are classified according to economic uses: mangroves, sea grasses, coral reefs, municipal fisheries, and commercial fisheries.

PIBCFI
Mangrove habitat

MUAD
Tinagong-dagat is a lake located inside the NNNP; rivers supported by the natural park are Malogo river, Imbang river, Himuga-an River, and Bago river

NEDF

VSU

CBCF

PEFI
41 rivers and 89 creeks crisscrossing the 28 barangays in Arakan

IDIS
For marine ecosystem in the Davao Gulf, 3 types of habitats are (i) corals, (ii) sea grasses, and (iii) mangroves.

PHYSICAL PROFILE 1. Topography

Rough with moderate slopes (foothills) to very steepy (towards the summit)

The islands of Polillo can be considered as lowland owing to its low relief and generally level to moderately sloping terrain. Mt. Malulod is the highest peak found in the Polillo archipelago standing at an estimated 310

Moderately rolling to very steep slopes; with elevation of 1,0001,823 meters above sea level; slope gradient is from 8% to 50%, with most area being 18% slope and above; highest points are Mount Silay in the north (1, 510 masl) and

The topography of the IHWFR is generally rough and defined by mountains and hills. Cutting through this rough terrain is a river system, Hilabangan River (and its tributaries). Forming the higher

Tabunan: Rolling to hilly; with elevation between 800-900 masl with a slope of 18-30%; slope drastically changes from a gentle 11% to 34% at the interface between forest and abandoned farmlands to a very steep 40% to greater than 50% at the forest entrance

Slopes greater than 30% comprise three fourths (74.7%) of the total land area, plains (1-8%) slope and undulating (8-18% slope) to rolling lands (18-30% slope) are found in the southern and western sides of Arakan along its boundary. Moderately undulating (8-15%) lands are the Arakan

The watersheds are predominantly lowland with 74 % of its land area located between 0-1000 masl altitudes. Uplands (i.e., 1000-2000 masl altitude) account for 24% of the total area, while the remaining 1

LABB

PIBCFI
meters above mean sea level. High elevation and steeply sloping areas are concentrated at the northern (between Burdeos and Panukulan) and central portions (between Polillo and Burdeos) of Polillo mainland. Both Jomalig and Patnanungan Islands have low flat areas and gentle slopes.

MUAD
Mt. Mandalagan in the south (1, 885 masl)

NEDF
elevations are mounts Cansirmon and Maalot-alot (circa. 1,000 masl) at the northeast and the lower mountains and hills (circa 500 masl) at the southeast. The mountains are contiguous with the Negros Oriental mountain range at the east and collectively form the central part of the Negros volcanic arc. The IHWFR lies within a Type III climate region which is defined by a pronounced wet and dry season. Dry season usually starts on the month of October and

VSU

CBCF

PEFI
and Tinanan plains.

IDIS
% comprise steep mountain terrains beyond 2000 masl altitude.

2. Climate

a. Average Rainfall b. Average temperature

Type II; wet from May to October and dry from November to April; mean annual temperature is 21.8 C, with warmest month (July 1998) with 29.46 C Rainfall is

Type II climatic type characterized as having no dry season with a very pronounced maximum rain period from October to January; mean monthly rainfall ranges from about 100 680

Type III; relatively dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year; average temperature is o 27.2 C Average rainfall is 51.29 mm (38.1 mm during dry

Southern Leyte lowlands are endowed with wet climate that is suitable for agriculture.

TABUNAN: Type III; dry from Nov-April and wet during the rest of the year; area is cool highland with temperature less than 25 degrees Celsius Average rainfall is 1,795.4 m; experienced more rainfall throughout the year in recent history with global climate

Type F (relatively even distribution of rainfall and temperature that ranges from 27 to 28.5 degrees Celsius) in the northern part of Arakan, and Type B (short dry season of 4 months with temperature from 27 to 29 degrees Celsius) in the western part

The climate at the watersheds falls under a Type IV classification. Rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year. Average monthly

LABB
abundant; average is 3,047.4 mm over a 25-year period; in Nagcarlan side, average annual rainfall is 2,3502,400 mm, while in Lucban side, average annual rainfall is 4,470 mm with average of 262 rainy days Wind direction is from north to south that approach Quezon from the east, giving equal distribution of rainfall from north to south; May is a transition period between tradewinds season; monsoon season prevalent from July to September; from June to October, Southwest monsoon (amihan) reaches Quezon from the west and southwest

PIBCFI
millimeters and the annual rainfall averages to about 3.70 meters

MUAD
season and 63.5 mm during wet season) Prevailing wind direction during the month of November to May is east to westsouthwest and southeast to northnortheast from June to October

NEDF
ends on April while the wet season starts on the month of May and ends on the month of September.

VSU
change

CBCF

PEFI
Highest precipitation occurs from August to November, followed by unevenly distributed rainfall from December to July, while driest period is from February to April; area has adequate moisture for most agricultural crops from May to December

IDIS
rainfall for the same decadal data was also highest between the months of May to October (wet season), with rains at its maximum during July (average = 300 mm). The least rainfall was recorded between February (115 mm) and April (153 mm), which is considered to be the summer season in Davao. The average temperature during the past decade (200111) is 27.27 C (mean max = 31.37 C, mean min = 23.18 C).

LABB 3. Mineral Resources


There are no records of mineral exploration within and in the vicinity of the MBSCPL. However, the environs of the protected landscape are favored locations of quarrying for sand and gravel. The favorite basaltic quarries are located on the downstream of various rivers emanating from Mts. Banahaw and San Cristobal. Active volcano with last recorded eruption in 1721 though highly populated urban centers are not in the immediate danger zone as far as lava flow is concerned; not in the immediate vicinity of an active fault in the Philippine archipelago; not

PIBCFI
Abundant coal resources

MUAD
Potential nonmetallic mineral resources include silica, Andesite flow sheet (Ara-al), Guano rock, phosphate, and sulfur deposits

NEDF

VSU

CBCF

PEFI
Known mineral resources are nonmetallic, including limestone, sand, and gravel; no confirmed metallic mineral resources in the area although several mineral exploration permit applications are being processed by MGB-12

IDIS
Based on the geologic setting, rock types and structures, the presence of floats and of banded chalcedonic quartz at Tamugan river, the watersheds possibly host gold and copper minerals.

4. Geohazards

Floodings and landslides

2 dormant volcanoes (Mt. Silay in the North and Mt. Mandalagan in the South): Mt. Mandalagan's last eruption was 10,000 years ago, showing solfatara activities, while Mt. Silay's last eruption is unknown These volcanoes lie

Flood and landslide prone area

The natural and geological features of the province make it vulnerable to landslide and flooding.

TABUNAN: Medium-risk zone (landslide prone) Most of the northeast-trending lineament or faults traverse the Lusaran watershed in the vicinity of Tabunan barangay; hence, the medium risk zone.

Generally typhoonfree; but with its mountainous terrain (with steep slopes and deep ravines cut by numerous rivers and creeks), the area is susceptible to geohazards, including earthquake-triggered landslides and floodings; several fault lines traverse Arakan in its north, south, and central portions

LABB
highly susceptible to earthquaketriggered landslide based on critical acceleration values and earthquake intensities Natural hazards include landslides, floods, forest fire, and potential threat of volcanic activity; large portion of Municipality of Sariaya may suffer extensive damage due to flash floods

PIBCFI

MUAD
south of Mt. Kanlaon, considered 3rd most active volcano in the Philippines which last erupted in 2006. Murcia and Don Salvador Benedicto lie at the foot of Mt. Kanlaon.

NEDF

VSU

CBCF

PEFI
7,875 ha or 11.4% of Arakan's total land area are identified as flood-prone; landslides and floods are aggrevated by its high erosion rates, particularly in high elevation areas with steep slopes; only about 15% have little or no erosion, while 85% have moderate to severe erosion; highest erosion rates occur in logged-over areas that have remained denuded

IDIS

5. Air Quality

Forests help maintain air quality.

TABUNAN: The ambient air quality in terms of suspended particulates of Barangay Tabunan is still safe. SO2 (Sulfur Dioxide) is below detectable concentrations and Carbon Dioxide is still fair. Tabunan area is not threatened by NO (Nitrogen Oxide) and NO2 (Nitrogen Dioxide) pollution.

Air quality is relatively good except for pollution created by land transportation and application of pesticides by a few banana plantations. There are no monitoring devices and services to gauge air quality in the area.

Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) levels are generally safe in the watersheds, particularly in the interiors where vehicular and human densities are much lower than in downtown Davao. Readings from the Talomo-Toril

LABB

PIBCFI

MUAD

NEDF

VSU

CBCF

PEFI

IDIS
stations indicate healthy levels of Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Oxide (NO2), and Ozone (O3).

6. Inland Waters

Mount Banahaw is a major watershed flowing downstream to Sariaya, Candelaria, Tayabas, Lucban, and Dolores towns all in Quezon province, and Rizal, Nagcarlan, Liliw, Majayjay and San Pablo City in Laguna province. These rivers are the Balayong, Maimpis, Liliw, Dalitiwan, Malinao, Nagcarlan, Kinabuhayan, and San Diego.

145 watersheds exist throughout the Polillo archipelago (with areas ranging approximately between 1 to 10,700 hectares), of which 96 are found within Polillo mainland.

4 major river systems (Malogo river in the boundary of Silay and E.B. Magalona, Imbang river in Talisay, Himuga-an river in Sagay, and Bago river in Bago)

Ilog-Hilabangan River System and its tributaries

The Hinabian in Silago and Lawigan Forest Reserve in St. Bernard serve as watershed in the province.

Tabunan: Watersheds within the Central Cebu Protected Landscape (CCPL): Kotkot Lusaran River Watershed Forest Reserve (14,121 hectares); Mananga Watershed (6,823 ha); Buhisan Watershed

Nug-as and Dalaguete: Argao River Watershed Forest Reserve (626 ha)

Endowed with good aquifers, enough to supply areas within Arakan Valley (41 rivers and 89 creeks that criscross 28 barangays with headwaters in the northern, western, and southern highlands of Arakan; 11 waterfalls, 38 springs and 3 lakes)

The watersheds represent 3 of the 8 distinct water basins of Davao City. Talomo and Lipadas river basins are distinguished as separate basins whereas PaniganTamugan is lumped with 2 more watersheds that comprise the Davao River water basinthe largest of the 8 watershed areas.
Davao gulf has a total surface area of 3,087 km2 shared by four provinces, five cities, and 18mun. Davao City contributes 60.1 km2 of shoreline to the gulf.

7. Marine Waters

Polillo Bay, Burdeos Bay, Anibawan Bay

Sogod Bay