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Optimal Size and Cost Analysis of StandAlone Hybrid Wind/PV Power Generation Systems
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Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems
Original Article
Yazdanpanah Jahromi, Mohammad Ali; University of Sistan and Balushestan, Mechanical Engineering Department Farahat, Said; University of Sistan and baluchestan, Mechanical Engineering Department Barakati, Seyed Masoud; University of Sistan and Balushestan, Power Electronic Engineering hybrid wind/PV systems, multiobjective optimization, sizing method, electricity match rate (EMR), match evaluation method (MEM), management strategy
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Manuscript # GCEE20120150 (Optimal Size and Cost Analysis of StandAlone Hybrid Wind/PV Power Generation Systems) Amendments concerning the comments of Reviewer # 1
We thank the respected reviewer for the comments that he/she raised that helped us to enhance the quality of the paper. These comments are addressed separately below. 1) Comment #1: The models used in this paper have already been presented by the authors
in the Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science TJMCS Vol.5 No. 2 (2012) 134145. This paper has to be cited and parts of the manuscript submitted to CEES, where the models are described, can be adequately shortened.
Amendments/Replies: Based on this comment of the respected reviewer, there are a few points which should be clearly highlighted. The mentioned previously work has been published in late December 2011. We have submitted the currents work in 18 December 2012 in Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems, and we didn’t know about our previous work publication since then. The mentioned reference is now included in the manuscript as reference [15]. We removed or added some texts to improve the quality of the paper in the revised version of the paper. Examples are: • • • • • • A text has been added to the end of second paragraph in Section 1 to include the mentioned reference. We found that Figures 3 and 4 (of the original paper) is out of the scope of this paper. So we removed these figures. We added a text and an equation to Section 2.2, after equation (8). Sections 2.3, 5.4 and 7 have been added to the article. Two text has been added to the first paragraph in section 8 to clarify how the solutions have been obtained. We added two paragraphs to the end of Section 8. A study of operating hours of diesel generator in optimal configuration is carried out and given in Table 9.
2) Comment #2: The choice of the two technical objectives (IC and CC) is very critical, in fact
due to the statistical variations of the load. A perfect generation, that overlaps the loads yearly profile, doesn’t represent an optimal solution as it introduces an high number of unavailability hours . To overcome this problem a storage system has to be considered in the optimization algorithm.
Amendments/Replies: We have include a diesel generator and a battery as backup and storage systems, respectively, to even out the irregularities. Moreover, a proper management strategy is designed to control the starting and stopping operation times of diesel generator. The mathematical modelling of battery storage system is given in section 2.3. Annual replacement cost (ARC), and annual fuel cost (AFC) is two cost parameters which appear after adding diesel generator and battery to the system. These two cost parameter are included in Equation (19) and their description given in
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sections 5.3 and 5.4. The operation strategy for the proposed hybrid system is expressed in section 7. 3) Comment #3: The assumption of 10 year in the life time of the project is an evident
limitation considering the big difference between the life time of wind generator and PV modules.
Amendments/Replies: We appreciate the suggestions of the respected reviewer. The life time of the project is assumed to be 20 years. All the hybrid components is assumed to have a life time of 20 years, except the battery life time which considered to have a life time of 5 years. Life time specification for all hybrid components is included in Table 6. 4) Comment #4: It is not clear how the solutions have been generated. The authors combine
a system (wind turbine) with components of a PV system, i.e. PV modules. These solutions are practically useless as an inverter can accept only a certain number of PV modules. It means that the PV optimization requires also the consideration of inverters.
Amendments/Replies: We have added two text to clarify how the solutions have been obtained. The first one, is included in the last section of 4 as:
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In this work, match evaluation method (MEM) is used for sizing purpose. This is first uses in [15]. St in Equation 11 and 12 is the sum of two or sometimes three parts; NPV.SPV, NWT.SWT, and Nbattery.Sbattery, or NPV.SPV, NWT.SWT, and Sdiesel which respectively denote the energy supply sources, PV modules, WTs, and battery, or PV modules, WTs, and diesel generator. NPV is the number of PV modules, NWT is the number of WTs, and NBattery is the number of battery. The management strategy controls the starting and stopping operation times of diesel generator.
The second one is include in the first paragraph in section 8 as follows:  Load is needed to be matched with different supplies in a way that resultant supply (N1.S1 + N2S2 + … +Nn.Sn) meet the load with high electricity match rate (EMR). Main objective of the proposed optimal algorithm is to find the optimal values of “N1, N2, …, Nn”. At the first paragraph of section 5 (just before section 5.1), we revised the following paragraph: Four main parts are considered in this revision article: wind turbine together with its tower, PV module, battery and other devices. The other devices which are not included in the decision variables, are equipment including inverter, controller, and cables.
5) Comment #5: The analysis needs further investigation, specifically concerning the following
aspects: 2
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and the thermal coefficient of open circuit voltage. we added the following text in the paper to the second paragraph in Section 2. or have higher cost than the selected configuration. or optimal CC range ( CC = +1.manuscriptcentral. 3. Does the selection consider the impact of ambient temperature on photovoltaic production? Amendments/Replies: we appreciate the suggestion of the reviewer 1. 2. −1 ). or have higher cost than the selected configuration. Which is the criteria for selecting the wind turbines ? Further important parameters have to specified such as cutin wind speed.4 ).The Weibull PDF is basely depend on the shape factor. The η can be calculated using equation (9) [29]. evaluating convergence. The results of these studies. The reason of this selection is that this configuration provides the lowest cost in larger EMR. suggest the choice of Kyocera Solar (KC200) PV module and Bornay (Inclin 3000) wind turbine for the proposed hybrid power system. several executions of the design program have been worked out. The shape factor will typically range from 1 to 3 [28]. 2. 1.5. the scale factor.2: . In addition. compared to the other configurations.In order to determine the best values of parameters. the Wiebull PDF has been plotted in Figure 5. detailed specification of the WTs are included in the article as Table 4. or optimal CC range ( CC = +1.As noted earlier. with a shape Factor of 2. either have not optimal IC range ( 0 ≤ IC ≤ 0. Does the selection consider the pdf wind speed distribution ? 3. Other configurations. Therefore. either have not optimal IC range ( 0 ≤ IC ≤ 0. and the wind speed (equation 8).Thanking this comment of the reviewer. ν η= (9) 1 Γ(1 + ) β where ν is the mean wind speed and Γ is the gamma function. 4. For wind speed profile which shown in Figure 4. Other configurations. Larger EMR in lower ACS is the criteria for selecting the mentioned configuration. rP Fo URL: http:/mc. cutout wind speed. and we have taken the above comment onboard when revising the manuscript. Which is the criteria for selecting the PV modules? And what about the inverters ? Further important parameters have to specified such as the thermal coefficient of maximum power. we revised the following text: . −1 ). several executions of the design program have been done.Page 3 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 1.com/gcee ee rR ev 3 ie w On ly .At the section of 8.4 ). The reason of this selection is that this configuration provides the lowest cost in larger EMR. The selection of shape factor is usually based on the experience and multiple observations of sites where wind speed data have been recorded. Each hybrid system has included one type of PV modules and one type of WTs together with diesel and battery storage systems. rated wind speed. β and η are independent of WT specifications and they are constant for all WTs.
The monthly ambient temperature and solar radiation is added as Figures 1 and 2. rP Fo URL: http:/mc.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly 4 .Yes. The model predict the output power of PV panels in different meteorological conditions of ambient temperature and solar radiation. Finally we would like to thank this respected reviewer for his/her comments that helped us to improve the quality of the paper.manuscriptcentral. Because of large number of inputs and complicated procedure.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 4 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 4. we prefer to simulate the system based on monthly data (in August).
1) Comment #1: The manuscript needs improvements before it can be considered for publication. Correct.manuscriptcentral.SPV.In this work. the presentation of their results needs to be improved for clarity. and diesel generator. Examples are: • Two text has been added to the first paragraph in section 8 to clarify how the solutions have been obtained. NWT. We now have revised the WHOLE manuscript carefully and tried to avoid any grammar or syntax error. or PV modules. and they need a native English speaker to read through the manuscript and correct the language.com/gcee . Each hybrid system has included one type of PV modules and one type of WTs together with diesel and battery storage systems. 5. match evaluation method (MEM) is used for sizing purpose. We have added a text as follow in the last section of 4 as: .In order to determine the best values of parameters. A study of operating hours of diesel generator in optimal configuration is carried out and given in Table 9.Sn) meet the load with high electricity match rate (EMR). NPV. and Nbattery. . or NPV. N2. We added two paragraphs to the end of Section 8. There are some pieces of information it seems that the authors have forgotten to include. several executions of the design program have been worked out. This is first uses in [15]. NWT.SWT.S1 + N2S2 + … +Nn. These comments are addressed separately below. Main objective of the proposed optimal algorithm is to find the optimal values of “N1. evaluating convergence.4 and 7 have been added to the article. WTs. and Sdiesel which respectively denote the energy supply sources. Nn” . The management strategy controls the starting and stopping operation times of diesel generator. PV modules. Sections 2. and battery. Amendments/Replies: We added some texts to improve the quality of the article in the revised version of it.Load is needed to be matched with different supplies in a way that resultant supply (N1. rP Fo ee rR ev ie • w On ly • • • 5 URL: http:/mc. Thank you. St in Equation 11 and 12 is the sum of two or sometimes three parts.3. and NBattery is the number of battery.SPV. ….SWT. The paper needs to be reviewed for clarity to tune up recurring grammatical issues. NPV is the number of PV modules. NWT is the number of WTs.Sbattery.Page 5 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Manuscript # GCEE20120150 (Optimal Size and Cost Analysis of StandAlone Hybrid Wind/PV Power Generation Systems) Amendments concerning the comments of Reviewer # 2 We thank the respected reviewer for the comments that he/she raised that helped us to enhance the quality of the paper. We believe that the language is now acceptable for the publication. WTs.
5) Comment #5: It is not explained in the text why there are values such as "7247/27" in Tables 4 and 5. 6 URL: http:/mc. This information is basic background material which doesn't add value to the current paper. We removed these figures. The η can be calculated using equation (9) [29]. The references for the prices and detailed technical characteristics are included in the first paragraph of section 3. the scale factor. The paper is incomplete without this detail. and we have change all the WTs in revised version. The shape factor will typically range from 1 to 3 [28]. the following text is added: . ν η= (9) 1 Γ(1 + ) β where ν is the mean wind speed and Γ is the gamma function. β and η are independent of WT specifications and they are constant for all WTs. An annual plot would be useful to show as well. The selection of shape factor is usually based on the experience and multiple observations of sites where wind speed data have been recorded. 4) Comment #4: Figure 8's description should be modified to note that this is the energy output by wind speed for one month and also include which month it is. Amendments/Replies: Monthly and yearly plots is included in Figures 7 and 8 for the given WTs in Table 2. but the text should clarify where information has been collected from and mention that these values vary with time. At the end of section 5. There is another challenge that Southwest Wind power has recently gone out of business and sold several of these products off.com/gcee rP Fo ee rR ev ie w On ly . and the wind speed (equation 8).The Weibull PDF is basely depend on the shape factor. The required information is now included in the manuscript. What is the division symbol being used to represent in these values? The results of the optimization should be very clearly explained. Figures 3 and 4 are not needed. with a shape Factor of 2. These values change with time (and are currently different than what is noted in the paper .It is worth mentioning that the price of these components change over time.2: . Amendments/Replies: Correct. 3) Comment #3: In this reviewers opinion.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 6 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 2) Comment #2: The references for the prices of the equipment used should be noted.manuscriptcentral.5.in fact I believe the Sky stream turbine's cost quoted is closer to its educational price. as the real focus of the paper is the process not the specifics. The corresponding text in now added under the figures. Other cost parameters are given in Tables 6 and 7. provide the details of the shape factor and scale factor which fit the Zabol data as plotted in Figure 6. rather than MSRP). Amendments/Replies: We appreciate the suggestion of reviewer 2. however. For wind speed profile which shown in Figure 4. We added the following text in the paper to the second paragraph in Section 2. Therefore. the Wiebull PDF has been shown in Figure 5. The paper should. I don't think this should impact this paper being published.
respectively. We correct them in the revised version of manuscript. Amendments/Replies: In the current paper. Perhaps color coding the top several designs would also make this more intuitive to interpret. 6) Comment #6: Figure 14 is the most important figure in this study. A suitable management strategy controls the starting and stopping time of diesel generator which is a critical factor for optimization. in a novel approach a battery and also a diesel generator have been added to different hybrid systems as backup and storage systems. Arrows to overlay the direction of optimal solutions are now included in Figures 12. Perhaps the scale could be changed to zoom in on the results. 14. 7) Comment #7: An additional result of this study that would be quite interesting to see is a plot showing the resulting generation and demand over some period of time from the optimized system designs and an evaluation of the amount of backup generation or storage that would be needed to make each scenario work for a standalone application (if that is an objective of the work). Because of large number of inputs and complicated procedure. and it is unfortunately quite difficult to interpret. 13. Finally we would like to thank this respected reviewer for his/her comments that helped us to improve the quality of the paper. Amendments/Replies: Some ranges that there are no values have removed in 3D Pareto front for the best configuration which is now Figure 15 in revised version. The algorithm and the management strategy are hourly basis. Study of operating hours of diesel generator in optimal configuration is carried out. Other simulation results is out of the objectives of this work.com/gcee ee rR ev 7 ie w On ly . Arrows overlaying the direction of the optimal solutions would help. and 15. rP Fo URL: http:/mc.manuscriptcentral. we prefer to simulate the system based on monthly data (in August).Page 7 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Amendments/Replies: Sorry.
University of Sistan and Baluchestan. Tel. University of Sistan and Baluchestan.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 8 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Optimal Size and Cost Analysis of StandAlone Hybrid Wind/PV Power Generation Systems Mohammad Ali Yazdanpanah Jahromia∗. Iran rP Fo b Department of Mechanical Engineering. University of Sistan and Baluchestan.: ++989173923846. Said Farahatb.Yazdanpanah.com/gcee ee Zahedan. Iran rR ev ie w On ly . email: M. Iran c Department of Power Electronic Engineering. ∗ Corresponding author.manuscriptcentral.com URL: http:/mc.j@gmail. fax: +05412447092. Seyed Masoud Barakatic a Department of Mechanical Engineering. Zahedan. Zahedan.
and annualized cost of system (ACS). located in southeast of Iran. obtaining the best solutions that the applied algorithm has found simultaneously considering three objectives: inequality coefficient (IC). match evaluation method (MEM). using the climatic condition data of the city Zabol.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly . correlation coefficient (CC). A match evaluation method (MEM) is developed based on renewable energy supply/demand match evaluation criteria. a new sizing methodology is developed for standalone hybrid wind/PV power systems. Standalone hybrid power systems are promising rP Fo management strategy URL: http:/mc. The sizing methodology determines a multiobjective design.manuscriptcentral. Keywords: Hybrid wind/PV systems. In this article. MOPSO algorithm and NSGAII are selected related to their match with nature of renewable energy sizing problem. Additionally. electricity match rate (EMR). a study of operating hours of diesel generator in optimal configuration is carried out. sizing method. 1. The optimal number of wind turbines. the algorithm developed for different cases. PV modules and batteries ensuring that the system total cost is minimized while guaranteeing a highly reliable source of load power is obtained. Introduction Nowadays. using multiobjective optimization algorithms.Page 9 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Optimal Size and Cost Analysis of StandAlone Hybrid Wind/PV Power Generation Systems Design of sustainable energy systems for the supply of electricity need correct selection and sizing to reduce investment costs. to size the proposed system in lowest cost. As an example of application of this technique. rise in the fuel prices. Based on the proposed technique. the renewable energy and estimation of energy production are popular research areas and they should be further investigated. harmful emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and growing in energy demand have made power generation from conventional energy sources unsustainable. Fast depletion of conventional energy resources. six different wind turbines and also six different PV modules have been considered. multiobjective optimization. A management strategy has been designed to achieve higher electricity match rate (EMR).
The reliability of hybrid systems are important to both planning and utilization stages. The design of hybrid systems is usually done by searching the configuration and/or control with the lowest total cost throughout the useful life of the installation or pollutant emissions. The two technologies that have seen the most significant growth are wind turbine (WT) and solar photovoltaic (PV). the economic disadvantages of renewable energy systems compared to rP Fo URL: http:/mc.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 10 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 alternatives particularly in remote areas as an isolated small power producing units for the supply of power. is well suitable for the built environment. cost and emission on individual renewable energy supply options.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly . Design and modelling are important aspects of the analysis of hybrid power systems. Solar energy. Vafaei (2011) showed that hybrid standalone power generation systems are usually more reliable and less costly than systems that use only single source of energy [3]. Wind power has recently become the fastest growing renewable energy resource and is projected to lead the growth of the renewable power portfolio in the near term [1]. Hence. Proper sizing ensures the load demand supply in all conditions with the lowest total cost. The solar energy distribution is mostly periodic and the wind speed may present stochastic patterns.manuscriptcentral. Designing energy systems including solar and wind energies together. Optimal sizing of the hybrid components is one of the main issues related with the application of such hybrid alternative energy systems. These both together. Hence the combined exploitation of the available wind and solar potential caused reliable power generation. present supplementary availability. Hybrid power systems can address the limitations of reliability. to some extent. both as a thermal and an electric options. efficiency. Energy security under varying weather condition and the corresponding system cost are the two major issues in designing of hybrid power generation systems. reduce the depth of the problem [2]. M. There are many studies carried out by various researchers in the field of renewable energies.
(2012) reviewed different sizing methodologies developed in the recent years in [14]. Nevertheless. A multiobjective design of hybrid systems by minimizing the total cost. the sizing procedure will be more complex. The MEM is based on the coordination criteria between generation and consumption intervals. and neurobiological systems. Energy system reliability is one of the key aspects regarding stochastic nature of renewable sources. deal with pollutant emission and unmet load.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly . pollutant emission and unmet load is presented in [13]. molecular. Match evaluation method (MEM) which is used in this article is another sizing method [15]. 12]. LunaRubio et al. swarm of insects. Most of these methods are based on certain characteristics and behavior of biological. By increasing number of hybrid components. Variation of load demand in different time intervals that may not match with the generation power of renewable energy sources further promotes the complex structure of the sizing procedure. Some other sizing method.Page 11 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 conventional energy sources can partially be overcome. techniques are not able to take into account all the characteristics associated to the posed problem consuming excessive CPU time. modern optimization methods obtain a set of nondominated solutions with little computational effort. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and genetic algorithm (GA) are the two of modern stochastic optimization rP Fo The design process is generally very complex. One parameter that helps to elucidate the system reliability is loss of power supply probability (LPSP) technique.manuscriptcentral. The classical optimization URL: http:/mc. One other sizing method commonly used is based on levelized cost of energy (LCE) as used in [11. Optimal configuration was calculated by LPSP technique and minimum annualized cost of system (ACS) in [410]. The sizing methodologies for hybrid power systems available in the literature cover a large spectrum of approaches. The LCE can be defined as a metric that describes the cost of every unit of energy generated by a project.
CC measure of how well the predicted values from a forecast model "fit" with the reallife data [22]. correlation coefficient (CC) and annualized cost of system (ACS). IC provides a relative measure of forecast accuracy in terms of deviation from the perfect forecast [21]. These two objectives together. three objectives are proposed. They are inequality coefficient (IC). (2006) proposed an optimized wind/PV hybrid power system using PSO algorithm to have higher capacity and faster search efficiency [16]. Zhoaand et al. S. can obtain good match rate for hybrid systems. the strategy will be used to start the diesel generator or use the battery power. IC and CC are selected together. Hence. In this procedure. More coordination between the components increases the system efficiency. J.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 12 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 methods that can find Paretooptimal solution in one single simulation run. which is considered to be the criteria for sizing. Erdinc and M.manuscriptcentral.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly . deals with trend matching. The electricity match rate (EMR) technique. Dhillon (2009) proposed the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGAII) to simultaneously minimize the total system real power losses in transmission network and cost. Uzunoglu (2012) reviewed different optimum sizing approaches in literatures [19]. by satisfying power balance equation [17]. IC gives the match magnitude while CC. O. a new optimum sizing methodology for standalone hybrid systems is developed based on MEM at the lowest investment. The rP Fo URL: http:/mc. In this article. is employed in different wind/PV hybrid systems. When the output power of renewable energy resources cannot meet the load demand. IC provides a measure of how well a time series of estimated values compares to a corresponding time series of observed values [20]. to check the EMR between supplies and load demand. IC and CC control the EMR while ACS checks the system cost. In other word. Using of genetic algorithm (GA) in unit sizing of photovoltaic/wind generator systems is discussed in [18]. Y. The optimization algorithm selects the optimal size of hybrid components based on above procedure.
and battery. 2. Using the EMR objective functions. The decision variables included in the optimization process are the number of PV module. Modelling of Hybrid Wind/PV System In order to predict the performance of a hybrid power system. The simulation is carried out based on the basis of the algorithm developed for different cases using the climatic condition data of the city Zabol. individual components need to be modelled first. with different output powers and costs are considered for this optimization procedure to investigate the efficiency of the proposed methodology. CC and ACS.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly . WT.Page 13 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 optimum combination of hybrid windPV system can make the best compromise between the three considered objectives: IC. The results are validated by NSGAII. A brief description for modelling of windPVbattery system is presented in forthcoming subsection. The MEM sizing technique is implemented based on multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm. cables and other accessory devices.1. The optimization is conducted by an iterative simulation using a system model and real weather and load demand data.manuscriptcentral. located in southeast of Iran. and then the generation power can be evaluated to meet the load demand. inverter. The proposed hybrid power generation system consists of WT. 2. Six different kinds of wind turbine (WT) and also six different kinds of PV module. PV array. the configuration of the proposed hybrid system which gives the highest EMR requirements can be obtained. Simulation of PV array performance has been done by considering the modelling of the maximum rP Fo URL: http:/mc. Weather data from the city of Zabol obtained from a nearby meteorological station is used for more precise estimation of the local potential of both solar and wind energy. Mathematical Model of PV Module PV technology is identified as most environment friendly technologies [23].
Isc and Voc are the shortcircuit current and the opencircuit voltage at 25 [°C] and 1000 [W/m2].exp( i .ln( max )) E iN E iN V max −V min Ix = p . The PV panel model depending on the solar radiation and the temperature can be calculated as [24]: I(V)= V 1 . 1 − exp( − ) 1 bVx b . V is the output voltage of the photovoltaic [V]. Tw is 25 [°C] standard test condition (STC). Ei . I(V) is the output current of the photovoltaic panel [A].Ix 1 − exp( −1 ) b . b is characteristic constant based on IV curve.[ I sc + TCi . Ix and Vx is short circuit current and open circuit voltage.[1 − exp( V 1 − )] . bVx b URL: http:/mc. The characteristic constant.TCV . TCi is the temperature coefficient of Voc in [V/C].Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 14 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 power point tracking (MPPT) controller. is the maximum opencircuit voltage at 25 [°C] and 1200 [W/m2] (usually Vmax is close to 1. rP Fo P (V ) = V . V −V oc Ei E .(T − T N ) + s V .manuscriptcentral. This model can predict output power of PV panel in different temperatures and various irradiation levels. respectively.03Voc). 1exp(. Vmin is close to 0. Vmin is the minimum opencircuit voltage at 25 [°C] and 200 [W/m2]. max − s . at any given Ei and T . is the effective solar irradiation impinging the cell in [W/m2]. usually varies from 0.) b Ix (1) Vx = s.01 to 0. Vmax.(V max −V min ).18 and can be calculated using (5) with iterative procedure [25]. respectively. p is the number of photovoltaic panels in parallel. b. s is the number of photovoltaic panels in series.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly . (usually. Ei.(T − T N ) ] E iN (2) (3) (4) where P is the output power of the photovoltaic panel [W]. T is the solar panel temperature [°C].85Voc).
This can be done through the following expression [26]: where V2. temperature and time of day. is an important phase before calculating the output power of WTs. by using the wind speed data at a reference height from the database. V1 is wind speed measured at known height H1. the shape factor ‘β’. Pout(Ex) is the PV module output power at an average hourly solar irradiation (Ex).(1 − exp( ))) Isc bn (5) For calculating the available energy of PV module at a specific site the following Equation is used [25]: E PV = Pout (E x ). 2.manuscriptcentral. with two parameters.Page 15 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 b n +1 = V op −V oc I −1 V oc . the product of “TotalDay” is to change from daily to monthly or yearly quantities.(TotalDay ) (6) where Epv is the expected production of photovoltaic energy in [kWh]. and the scale factor ‘η’ [27]. ”SolarWindow” is the total time hours that sun hit the PV module at an average hourly solar irradiation.com/gcee ee rR V2 =( ev H2 α ) V1 H1 ie w On (7) ly .(SolarWindow ). is the wind speed at the desired height H2. ‘f(v)’. A commonly used value for open land is oneseventh (1/7). The PDF calculates the probability that the wind speed will be rP Fo URL: http:/mc. The variations in wind speed are best described by the Weibull probability distribution function (PDF). α is wind shear exponent coefficient which varies with pressure. respectively. Figure 3 shows the PV and IV curves for each photovoltaic module given in Table 1 by using available solar radiation and ambient temperature which is given in Figures 1 and 2. for the selected site.ln(1 − op . Mathematical Model of Wind Turbine Adjusting the measured wind speed to the hub height.2.
com/gcee ee rR η= ν ev Γ (1 + 1 ie w ) (9) β On ly .5. the Weibull PDF is defined as [27]: f (v ) = β v β −1 − ( η )β ( ) e η η v (8) where β is the shape factor. the Wiebull PDF has been plotted in Figure 5. and v is the wind speed. The larger shape factor indicates a relatively narrow distribution of wind speeds around the average while the lower shape factor indicates a relatively wide distribution of wind speeds around the average. This curve is a function of the turbine rP Fo URL: http:/mc. β and η are independent of WT specifications.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 16 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 occurred between zero and infinity during the entire chosen time period. The η can be calculated using Equation (9) [29]. A power curve is a graph that presents the output power of wind turbine at any wind speed. The value of β controls the curve shape and hence is called the shape factor. The scale factor (η) defines where the bulk of the distribution lies and how stretched out [25]. where ν is the mean wind speed and Γ is the gamma function. Note that the PDF curve shape and the height of it provide in some way that the area under the PDF curve is unity. The wind speed distribution (PDF) is the key information needed to estimate the total kWh produced in a period of time by a WT at a given site. And then. η is scale factor. Therefore.manuscriptcentral. using the WT power curve the annual energy output can be calculated. In this article. The Weibull PDF is basely depend on the shape factor. For wind speed profile which shown in Figure 4. The selection of shape factor is usually based on the experience and multiple observations of sites where wind speed data have been recorded. There are various notations for Weibull PDF in articles. with a shape Factor of 2. The shape factor will typically range from 1 to 3 [28]. the scale factor and the wind speed.
Batteries are required to even out irregularities in the solar and wind power distributions. The product of days by hours. Modelling of Battery Storage System Stochastic nature of renewable sources make their supply really intermittent and unreliable. gives the total hours in the period of simulation. f(v) is the Weibull PDF for wind speed (ν). rP Fo URL: http:/mc.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly (11) . SOC is an important parameter in system assessments ' [31].3.η ) υ =1 25 (10) where Ewt is the expected energy production of WT in kWh for a specific site.(1 + δ c . and η is the scale factor. ' '' C bat = C bat . Temperature can also affect battery capacity. The energy available for a WT at a specific site can be calculated using (10) [30]. respectively.(T bat − 298. Leadacid batteries are usually used for standalone hybrid windPVdiesel generation systems [27]. β is the shape factor. EWT = (days )(hours ). in a given temperature (T bat [K]). 2. This characteristic necessitate the use of energy storage system in renewable power systems. Monthly (August) and yearly total energy outputs for each WT are presented in Figures 7 and 8.15)). Batteries are the most widely used devices for energy storage. β . can be seen in Figure 6. Surplus electrical energy is stored in a battery bank which supplies power to the load when the total power output of WTs and PVs is insufficient. The modelling of battery based on state of charge (SOC) is the most commonly used model.manuscriptcentral. Pc is the output power of wind turbine.∑ Pc f (ν . The power curves of the WTs which given in Table 2. There are different models in literatures for battery behaviour simulation. So the correct battery sizing is critical.Page 17 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 design and normally obtained from the wind turbine manufacturer. The available battery capacity ( C bat [AH]). can be calculated using (11) [32].
DOD. when the load demand is more than the total output energy of supply sources. the battery SOC may decrease to the minimum level which is defined as SOCmin = 1 .∆t 24 )+ I bat (t ).6% per degree is usually used for δc . 0. which 90% for charging stage and 100% in discharging process are recommended. the charge or discharge time and previous state of charge. The value of 0. the battery current rate at time t can be expressed as (12) [31]. By all above consideration the battery SOC can be defined as [31]: where η bat is the battery efficiency. σ is the selfdischarge rate.ηbat ' C bat (13) ev ie w On ly (14) . In order to prevent the batteries against destruction. PPV (t ) + P W ind (t ) − PACLoad (t ) V bat (t ) I bat (t ) = ηinverter − PDCLoad (12) where ηinverter is the inverter efficiency which is considered as 92% in this study. When the wind turbine and PV module supply power more than the load demand.∆t . where DOD is the depth of discharging of battery. for longevity of battery lifetime. If the cable losses in the system are neglected. it is important to control the batteries SOC at the following constrain: where SOCmax is the maximum state of charge for batteries (SOCmax = 1). rP Fo SOC (t + 1) = SOC (t ). The SOC at any hour t is depending on the battery current.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 18 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 where δc is temperature coefficient. the overcharging process is occurred.manuscriptcentral.(1 − URL: http:/mc.2% per day is recommended. For the proposed hybrid WPDB system.com/gcee ee SOC min ≤ SOC ≤ SOC max rR σ . In this study. it is supposed that the WTs has the DC outputs. On the other hand. unless otherwise specified by the manufacturer. the value of DOD is considered 60%.
Solar module power at standard test condition rating and price] [Table 2. The Components Characteristics There are six possible different PV generators and also six possible different WTs. Each hybrid system will include one kind of PV as well as one kind of WT with battery and diesel. Weibull probability density function (f(v))] [Figure 6. The specifications of these components used to design and to optimize the hybrid wind/PV are presented in Tables 1 and 2. 4 and 5.4. respectively [25. Detailed specifications of the wind turbine] [Table 5. [Table 1. Wind turbine power curves (The symbols represent data sampled from the power curve graphs given by the manufacturer)] [Figure 7. PV and IV Curves] [Figure 4. Small wind turbines rating and price] [Table 3. PVs and battery which is given by the Manufacturers are given in Tables 3.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly . Detailed technical characteristics of WTs. Solar module specifications at standard test condition rating] [Table 4. Meteorological conditions of solar radiation in August] [Figure 2. The hourly load data in August used in this study is shown in Figure 9. Monthly (August) variation of domestic load profile] 4.manuscriptcentral. This is the Monthly variation of domestic load profile in the region. Load Model The output power of the proposed hybrid system should meet the power load demand. Total wind turbine energy outputs by wind speed for one year] [Figure 9. 3. Battery characteristic] [Figure 1. Ambient temperature in August] [Figure 3. respectively [25]. 33].Page 19 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 2. Sizing Model Based on Match Evaluation Method (MEM) There are challenges in term of finding the correct capacity for hybrid power generation rP Fo URL: http:/mc. Meteorological conditions of wind speed in August] [Figure 5. Total wind turbine energy outputs by wind speed in August] [Figure 8.
Moreover. the CC would stabilize the same. respectively. It does not explain the relative match magnitudes of the individual variables. Spearman's Rank correlation coefficient (CC) is one of the objectives which can describe the correlation between supply and demands.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 20 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 systems.manuscriptcentral. Zero value of LS indicates a perfect match. the least squares (LS) approach can be used. as one variable tends to increase the other will decrease at the same rate and vice versa for the perfect positive match ( CC = +1 ). In perfect negative match ( CC = −1 ).∑ (S t − s ) 2 . if two profiles are perfectly in phase with each another. Thus. The LS in Equation (15) is always a positive quantity. respectively. another rP Fo URL: http:/mc. The correlation coefficient. if the size of a power supply doubled. would result in perfect correlation. The following Equation describes LS [34]: LS = ∑ (Dt − S t ) 2 t =0 n (15) where Dt and St are demand and supply at time t. but of very different magnitudes. For a perfect match rate. however the excess supply would be far greater. but not a perfect match rate. Value of “0” represents no match. can express as [35]: n where Dt and St are the load demand and supply at time t. respectively. Result of “1” shows the perfect positive match while “1” indicates perfect negative match. The maximization of EMR between demand and supply intervals is an important subject in hybrid power systems. Calculation of this coefficient will always result in a value between 1 and 1. Hence. d and s are the mean demand and supply over time period n. The CC is used to describe the trend matching between the time series of two data sets.com/gcee ee CC = n t =0 rR ∑ (D t =0 t ev n t =0 − d ). both phase and magnitude must be considered. For quantifying the magnitude of deviation between two set of data variables.(S t − s ) ie w On ly (16) ∑ (D t − d )2 . CC.
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criterion is needed to determine the match magnitude. The inequality coefficient (IC), describes the inequality in the magnitude domain due to three sources: unequal tendency (mean), unequal variation (variance) and imperfect covariation (covariance) [35]. Therefore, IC and CC are selected together, to check the EMR between supplies and load demand. The resultant IC can range in value between 0 and 1.The smaller IC denotes the larger match rate. Value of “0” represents a perfect match while “1” shows no match. The IC can be given by the following Equation [35]:
1 n ( Dt − S t ) 2 ∑ n t =0 1 n 1 n ( Dt ) 2 + ∑ ∑ (S t )2 n t =0 n t =0
where Dt and St are demand and supply at time t, respectively. n is the total time period. Values of IC between 0  0.4 represents good match and value above 0.5 shows weak match [36]. IC is more important criterion than CC in determining the strength of matching between supplies and demand. However CC is also good but it is not as well as IC. In this work, match evaluation method (MEM) is used for sizing purpose. This is first uses in [15]. St in Equation 11 and 12 is the sum of two or sometimes three parts;
NPV.SPV, NWT.SWT, and Nbattery.Sbattery, or NPV.SPV, NWT.SWT, and Sdiesel which respectively
denote the energy supply sources, PV modules, WTs, and battery, or PV modules, WTs, and diesel generator. NPV is the number of PV modules, NWT is the number of WTs, and
NBattery is the number of battery. The management strategy controls the starting and
stopping operation times of diesel generator.
5. Cost Analysis Based on ACS Concept
A cost analysis of the system is performed for each configuration according to the concept of annualized cost of system (ACS) [4, 6, 37]. An optimum combination of a
rP Fo
IC =
(17)
URL: http:/mc.manuscriptcentral.com/gcee
ee
rR
ev
ie
w
On
ly
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hybrid windPVbattery energy system must satisfy both the reliable and economical requirements. For all configurations, the ACS is composed of the sum of individual annualized capital cost of components (ACC), annualized operation and maintenance cost (AOC), annual replacement cost (ARC), and annual fuel cost (AFC). Four main parts are considered: wind turbine together with its tower, PV module, battery and other devices. The other devices which are not included in the decision variables, are equipment including inverter, controller, and cables. The ACS is expressed by:
5.1. Annualized Capital Cost
The annualized capital cost (ACC) of each component has taken into account the installation cost, and can be calculated using (19).
where Ccap is capital cost of each component, US$; and CRF is capital recovery factor, a ratio that calculate the present value of an annuity (a series of equal annual cash flows).
CRF can define as:
CRF (i , n ) = i (1 + i ) n (1 + i ) n − 1
where n is the component lifetime, year; i is the annual interest rate related to the nominal interest rate (iloan, the rate at which a loan could be obtained) and the annual inflation rate, f, by the Equation given below:
i = i loan − f 1+ f
rP Fo
ACS = A CC (PV +W ind + Tower + Diesel + Battety + Other ) + AOC (PV +W ind + Tower + Battey + Other ) + ARC ( Battery ) + A FC ( Diesel )
(18)
URL: http:/mc.manuscriptcentral.com/gcee
ee
A CC = C cap .CRF (i , n )
rR
ev ie w On ly
(19)
(20)
(21)
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5.2. Operation and Maintenance Cost
The operation and maintenance cost is the maintenance and repair cost of hybrid components. The maintenance cost of each component, which has taken the inflation rate f into account, can be calculated as follows:
A OC = A OC (1) * (1 + f ) n
(22)
where AOC(1) is the maintenance cost of that component for the first year of the project.
5.3. Annual Replacement Cost
The components which have a lifetime less than the project lifetime need to be replaced during the lifetime of the project. The ARC can be calculated from Equation (23).
A RC = C rep * SFF (i , n rep )
Where Crep, is replacement cost of units, US$,
calculate the future value of a series of equal annual cash flows, depends on lifetime of units (nrep) and interest rate (i), as given below.
SFF (i , n rep ) =
5.4. Annual Fuel Cost (AFC)
The cost of fuel for diesel generator is calculated using the following Equation (25).
where T fc is total fuel consumption for lifetime of the project.
The fuel (gasoil) price is considered 0.16049 $/kWh. The expected CO2 emission is 0.669 kg/kWh. The output power of diesel generator is 500 W. The initial capital cost of different PV modules and WTs, are given in Table 1 and 2, respectively [25]. Other cost parameters used in this paper are shown in Tables 6 and 7 [3, 31]. It is worth mentioning that the price of these components change over time.
rP Fo
URL: http:/mc.manuscriptcentral.com/gcee
ee
(23) is sinking fund factor, a ratio to
AFC = T fc *CRF (i , n )
rR
SFF
ev
i (1 + i ) nrep − 1
ie w On ly
(24)
(25)
short time computation. Backup and storage systems such as diesel generator and battery storage is needed to have better EMR and also even out irregularities. In this article. Implementation of MOPSO and NSGAII has been done in various engineering and business applications in recent years.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 24 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 [Table 6. stochastic nature of renewable sources. For the purpose of this article. Generally. and particular nature of sizing method. six different WTs and also six different PV modules. easy implementation and few memory requirements. MultiObjective Optimization Procedure Using MOPSO The sizing of the hybrid wind/PV systems is much more complicated than the single source power generation systems. The particles move through the search space. The system configurations will be optimized by rP Fo URL: http:/mc. in order to achieved better fitness. economical parameters and EMR objectives must be considered in order to reach the best compromise for both power match rate and cost. The local and global bests are updated in each iteration. Longterm system performance. a multiobjective PSO (MOPSO) algorithm is employed to size the hybrid standalone wind/PV power generation systems. PSO and GA are the most suitable algorithms in term of global optimization. The global best fitness and the candidate solution that achieved this fitness are also remembered. The cost and lifetime aspect for the proposed hybrid components] [Table 7. PSO is based on a simple concept. It is because of more variables and parameters that have to be considered in system optimization.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly . Best value of fitness achieved so far is remembered as its personal best fitness. The PSO algorithm was originally proposed by Kennedy and Eberhart in 1995 [38].manuscriptcentral. the fitness of each candidate solution is evaluated. Cost parameters] 6. In every iteration of the algorithm. Each solution is considered as a particle. It works by maintaining a population of candidate solutions to the problem. with different characteristics and costs are considered.
the MOPSO algorithm has higher speed than NSGAII. respectively. [Figure 10.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly .where max(D) and min(Sn) are the maximum and minimum values of demand and supplies over considered time period. and also maximizing CC. Then a for loop is run to call MOPSO algorithm (or NSGAII) several times (n) with objectives of minimizing IC and ACS. and load demand data for one month. which dynamically searches for the optimal configuration to maximize the EMR and also minimize the ACS. hourly solar irradiation on a horizontal surface. WTs and batteries are design variables.Page 25 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 employing the MOPSO algorithm. a set of possible solutions (Pareto set) will be obtained. These multiobjective optimization algorithms can find Paretooptimal solution in one single simulation run. Proper sizing algorithm is the one which can find the optimal size of each component in each configuration to maximize the EMR between demand and supplies. By mathematically formulating of multiobjective design problem and applying it to each configuration of hybrid system. The results of optimum capacity generated by rP Fo URL: http:/mc. are the three objective functions of this optimization process which conflicting to each other. The flow chart of the optimization process is presented in Figure 10. The input data for the simulation are ambient air temperature. and load demand profile. By employing the MOPSO algorithm to each configuration. The solutions are validated by NSGAII. With the same number of iteration and population. the best combination of components (minimizing IC and ACS and also maximizing the CC) can been obtained. The number of PV panels. The minimum value (lower limit) of design variables is selected 1 to be sure that there is at least one of each supply in the system and the upper bound of them is set as max(D ) min(S n ) . wind speed. WT installation high. CC and ACS.manuscriptcentral. Flow chart of optimization process using MOPSO (or NSGAII)] The optimization process starts with taking input values of hourly data for WT and PV module output powers. IC.
the excess power is used to charge the batteries. are considered. When a prespecified iteration count ( n = n max ) is reached.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 26 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 MOPSO algorithm (or NSGAII) in decimal values are then converted to closest integer values in order to get whole value of each sizing of supply sources. In this case. ie w On • If the total generated power (PWT + PPV) is less than the load demand. the algorithm is terminated. Optimum sizing results along with corresponding IC. the diesel generator will start and supply the power in order to protect the batteries against excessive draining. the batteries will supply the extra power. ly URL: http:/mc. Hence. the sizing optimization will be done with only two supplies. rP Fo ee rR ev • If the total power generated from wind turbines (PWT) and PV panels (PPV) is more than the load demand (PL).manuscriptcentral. CC and ACS values are recorded for each run and stored in arrays. and SOC of batteries is higher than SOCmin. wind turbines.com/gcee . The n max = 200 . which update in each iteration. and a population size of n pop = 200 . Diesel generator fuel consumption is an important subject for entire operation cost. In this case. there is need for backup and storage systems such as diesel generator and battery storage. 7. and batteries. Surplus power from diesel will charge the batteries as amount as SOCmax. The operation strategy could be explained in detail as fallow. Operation of Proposed Hybrid System In order to have continuous power generation. If the batteries SOC are equal or less than SOCmin. the calculation of sizing optimization is divided in two categories: PVwindbattery and PVwind including one diesel generator. one of the critical factor for optimization is managing the starting and stopping time of diesel generator. The decision parameters for the optimization algorithm are the numbers of PV modules. A set of possible solutions (Pareto set) with relative number of each supply will be finally provided.
The sizing of optimal hybrid wind/PV systems was achieved using multiobjectives PSO algorithm and GA approaches.Sn) meet the load with high electricity match rate (EMR). compared to the other configurations. southeast of Iran. Each hybrid system has included one type of PV modules and one type of WTs together with diesel and battery storage systems. using the developed program for each combination. several executions of the design program have been worked out. [Figure 11. Main objective of the proposed optimal algorithm is to find the optimal values of “N1. given in Tables 1 and 2. based on the MEM. correlation coefficient (CC) and annualized cost of system (ACS) were computed. The inequality coefficient (IC).S1 + N2S2 + … +Nn.Page 27 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 The proposed management strategy is presented as a flowchart in Figure 11. …. every time diesel generator started. evaluating convergence. Nn”. The algorithm has been implemented using data collected of the city Zabol. they are calculated correspond with the generating kWh. Load is needed to be matched with different supplies in a way that resultant supply (N1. The obtained solutions for goal functions are presented as optimal Pareto front. Optimization Results and Discussion The output power of PV arrays and WTs.Flowchart of operation strategy] 8. It can be noted that the increasing of IC implies the decreasing of CC. In order to determine the best values of parameters. ACS and CC vs. To calculate the CO2 emission and fuel cost of diesel generator. It is the same for both IC vs.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly . N2. suggest the choice of Kyocera Solar (KC200) PV module and Bornay (Inclin 3000) wind turbine for the proposed hybrid power system. The reason of this selection is that this configuration provides the lowest cost in larger rP Fo URL: http:/mc. The optimized model gives the optimal size for hybrid components based on MEM and minimum ACS. ACS. The results of these studies. have been calculated according to the model which described before. by specifications of PV modules and WTs.manuscriptcentral.
−1 ). 2D Pareto front for the last generation. annualized cost of system (ACS)] [Figure 14. Inequality coefficient (IC) vs. 13 and 14. WT. respectively.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 28 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 EMR. The evolution of the 3D Pareto front can be observed in Figure 15. the Pareto front has been plotted for IC vs. Pareto front/optimal solutions obtained from multiobjective optimization] As mentioned earlier. as shown in Figures 12. 2D Pareto front for the last generation. and also CC vs. [Table 8. Correlation coefficient (CC) vs. The calculations of the goal functions have also been done for these sizing numbers. IC vs. But this configuration has the highest ACS which can be very important in practical system installation. 2 and 3 for PV modules. Table 8 show that the values 6. rP Fo URL: http:/mc. Inequality coefficient (IC) vs. 2D Pareto front for the last generation. and battery) needed to supply the energy to the load demand at the lowest cost possible. WTs. respectively. annualized cost of system (ACS)] [Figure 15. or optimal CC range ( CC = +1. ACS. correlation coefficient (CC)] [Figure 13. or have higher cost than the selected configuration. Owing to above considerations.manuscriptcentral. and battery units. Other configurations. 3D Pareto front for the best configuration] The results obtained by the optimization algorithms for the best configuration are summarized in Table 8. give us better match rate respect to others. They are the optimum combination of hybrid components (PV. Table 9 shows the total hours the diesel operates in one month (August).com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly . [Figure 12. CC. So the total hours the diesel generator operates in one month (744 hours) can be one of the criteria in the selection of optimal solutions. either have not optimal IC range ( 0 ≤ IC ≤ 0. The 11 best sizing selections from 30 runs for the best configuration have been obtained. IC is more important factor than CC and ACS. One scope of using hybrid renewable energy systems is to use green energies like solar and wind instead of fossil fuels.4 ). ACS.
Conclusion This study has been dedicated to determining the optimum standalone hybrid wind/PV power generating systems. solar irradiation and load demand.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly . The optimization process provides optimum capacity of as many numbers of supplies as required to match with a load demand in lowest investment. Studies have been done on different configurations of standalone hybrid wind/PV systems. correlation coefficient (CC). A new sizing methodology has been developed based on the match evaluation method (MEM). eliminating exhaustive search and avoid excessive computation times. the necessity of match rate. Obtained results suggest the choice of Kyocera Solar (KC200) PV module and Bornay (Inclin 3000) wind turbine for the rP Fo URL: http:/mc. A management strategy has been designed to achieve higher match rate between supply and demand intervals. This work is undertaken with triple objective function: inequality coefficient (IC). WT and battery gives the maximum diesel generator operating hours in lowest ACS and number of 6.Page 29 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 [Table 9. and 2 for PV module. by considering the fuel cost. and annualized cost of system (ACS).manuscriptcentral. gives the minimum one in highest ACS. and 3 for them. considering resource uncertainties associated with wind speed. so it can handle large scale design problems. A diesel generator and a battery is used to even out the irregularities. It depends to the designer to select one of the obtained optimal sizing numbers for the hybrid components. 1. Six different wind turbines (WTs) and also six different PV modules. The results are also validated by NSGAII. Sizing parameters have been determined by the multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm. This sizing methodology is useful for better energy utilization. with different characteristics have been considered. Total hours the diesel operates in one month for each sizing solutions] It can be seen that the sizing number of 4. and the cost consideration 9. 2.
2008. Simulation results show that a configuration with 6 PVs.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly .manuscriptcentral.Riahy.H. 2012. [2] S.Wang. p. pp. The algorithm has been run for the best configuration." Energy. "Optimal sizing method for standalone hybrid solar–wind system with LPSP technology by using genetic algorithm. Lin Lu a. ELSEVIER. rP Fo URL: http:/mc. 1577–1587. Joshua D. G. ELSEVIER.Nehrir. pp. and 2 battery units has long diesel operating hours in acceptable match rate. The designers can select the best configuration among the Pareto set which fits their desire. 546 e 562. [5] D. It is worth mentioning that the proposed methodology can be effectively employed for any composition of hybrid energy systems in any locations taking account of the meteorological data and the consumer’s demand. and Z. G. and 3 battery units has a high electricity match rate (EMR) and lower operating hours for the diesel generator with the expense of high ACS. "Unit sizing and cost analysis of standalone hybrid wind/PV/fuel cell power generation systems. A.B. 2011. Obtained solutions are nondominated and they form the Pareto front.Nelson. pp. 2006. 1 wind turbine. 2 wind turbines. among all configurations." Renewable Energy." Solar Energy." enewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. and its ACS is the lowest.H.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 30 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 proposed hybrid power system. Elsevier. 1641 – 1656. "A comprehensive method for optimal power management and design of hybrid RESbased autonomous energy systems. Elsevier. and Scott Samuelsen.Abedi.Fang."OptimallySized Design of a Wind/Diesel/Fuel Cell Hybrid System fo Remote Community " Master of Applied Science Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Waterloo. and C. M. Fabian Mueller.Gharehpetian. [4] Hongxing Yang.Eichman. [3] Vafaei Mehdi.H.Hosseinian. References [1] Brian Tarroja. 354–367. Another configuration with 4 PV modules.B. "Metrics for evaluating the impacts of intermittent renewable generation on utility loadbalancing.Alimardani. and S. 2012. Wei Zhou.
[15] Mohammad Ali Yazdanpanah Jahromi. July 2011. 2007. [7] Daming Xu.J. Jinan. "A novel optimization sizing model for hybrid solarwind power generation system. "Simulation and Optimum Design of Hybrid SolarWind and SolarWindDiesel Power Generation Systems. pp. M.F Kébé. C. and Boubekeur Azoui.VargasVa´zquez. V. vol. 2006.manuscriptcentral. 2006. M." Electrical Systems. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. 2559– 2572. Barakati. pp. G." Solar Energy. pp. 288294.BernalAgustin. "The Elitist Nondominated Sorting GA for Multiobjective Optimization of Standalone Hybrid Wind/PV Power Systems. "Multiobjective design of PV– wind– diesel– hydrogen– battery systems." Renewable Energy. and G. [13] Rodolfo DufoLopez and Jose´ L.Page 31 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 [6] Wei Zhou. Shandong Electric Power Research Institute. Zhang. J. "Optimal sizing of photovoltaic pumping system with water tank storage using LPSP concept. O. and Wei Zaou. 2012. P. pp." The Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science.A." Applied Energy. Lin Lu. Wang.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly . 5. [8]Adel A. [14] R.M. Zhao. 1636 – 1647.Ndiaye. 2011. Zhan. [9]Yahia Bakelli. ELSEVIER. [10] S. and B. and S. S. ELSEVIER.Ndongo. [16] Y.Diaf. Said Farahat. ELSEVIER." Solar Energy." Doctor of Philosophy. "The Optimal Capacity Configuration of an Independent Wind/PV Hybrid Power Supply System Based On Improved PSO Algorithm".TrejoPerea. 1077–1088.Notton. 2012. [12] Hongxing Yang. "Optimal sizing of renewable hybrids energy systems: A review of methodologies. 134145. Samboua. and Binggang Cao. "Design and technoeconomical optimization for hybrid PV/wind system under various meteorological conditions. 2008. pp. G. [11] Bilala B. Modeling and Control Strategy of PV/FC Hybrid Power System.Haddadi. Longyun Kang. D. Amar Hadj Arab." Solar Energy. and A. D. Elbaset. "Design. 2008. and M.China.Rı´osMoreno. 270286. "A Novel Sizing Methodology Based on Match Evaluation Method for Optimal Sizing of StandAlone Hybrid Energy Systems Using NSGAII. ELSEVIER.Belhamel. Y.Louche. rP Fo URL: http:/mc. "Methodology to Size an Optimal StandAlone PV/wind/diesel/battery System Minimizing the Levelized cost of Energy and the CO2 Emissions " Energy Procedia. 2007. Zou. pp. M. P.LunaRubio. 2012.. M." Applied Sciences.
com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly . Dionissia Kolokotsa. 2010. Textbook. Michigan State University. pp. 11." Electrical Power and Energy Systems. Electrical Engineering.Erdinc and M. 2010. Thapar University.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 32 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 [17] Dhillon Javed. Report to reliability panel on demand forecast. 2006. p.: Taylor & Francis Group. 367375. 83–92. Puerto Rico. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Energy [23] Mohammadi. VICTORIAN ANNUAL PLANNING REPORT: Australian Market Operator Limited (AEMO). "Optimum design of hybrid renewable energy systems: Overview of different approaches. Mayagüez Campus. 2006.Hosseinian. [25] Miguel Rios Rivera. pp.Gharehpetian.: AEMO. [26] Bogdan S. [20] AEMO. 1072–1088. S." Ph. "Wind Energy Project Analysis." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.Dissertation.Borowy and Ziyad M." Solar Energy. and Operation. [28] RERScreen International Clean Energy Decision Support Centre." Master of Engineering Power Systems & Electric Drives.Salameh. pp. "Modeling and analysis of solar distributed generation. Elsevier. 2008.. Minister of Natural Resources Canada.ELSEVIER." IEEE Trans. 2006. "Methodology for optimal sizing of standalone photovoltaic/windgenerator systems using genetic algorithms. "Multiobjective Optimization Of power Dispatch Problem Using NSGAII. Wind and Solar Power Systems:Design. ELSEVIER. 1412– 1425. Analysis. 2009. and G.D. 168.Uzunoglu. [24] Eduardo Ivan Ortiz Rivera. 2012. [22] ChinYuan Hsieh and ChenYu Hsieh." Master of Science. [19] O. Antonis Potirakis. Patiala. rP Fo URL: http:/mc. 1996." ed. [21] Neville Henderson. Second ed.manuscriptcentral.B.. "GAbased optimal sizing of microgrid and DG units under pool and hybrid electricity markets. [18] Eftichios Koutroulis. 2012. [27] Mukund R.H. 2012.Patel. Energy Conversion. "Small Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrid Renewable Energy System Optimization. 2004. and Kostas Kalaitzakis. M. pp. 620624. pp. "Methodology for Optimally Sizing the Combination of a Battery Bank and PV Array in a Wind/PV Hybrid System. Canada. "Climate Change Prediction by Wireless Sensor Technology " International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ). vol.
Takashi Hiyama. 2009. 2007. H. Powerbatt. Q.Page 33 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 [29] S. 14. 2009. W. T. "Site Matching of Wind Turbine Generators: A Case Study. Lua. Energy Systems Research Unit. Solar Energy. 2005. pp." Doctor of Philosophy. and MvClave. 2008. Jangamshetti and V. b.Rao." Master Of Science. "Determination Of Favorable Conditions For The Developement Of a Wind Power Farm In PUERTO RICO." Master of Science. Zhou. [36] Waqas Sana. [38] Singiresu S.manuscriptcentral. University of Strathclyde.com. 2001. Electrical Engineering. Guruprasada Rau.com/gcee ee rR ev ie Energy Systems. vol. "Simulation and Optimum Design of Hybrid SolarWind and SolarWindDiesel Power Generation Systems. Z. 2011. w On ly . PUERTO RICO. "Optimal sizing method for standalone hybrid solar–wind system with LPSP technology by using genetic algorithm". "Development of an Optimisation Algorithm for Auto sizing Capacity of Renewable and Low Carbon Department of Mechanical Engineering. Elbaset. Available: http://www. 354–367. "Aiding Renewable Energy Integration through Complimentary DemandSupply Matching.polluxbattery. 15371543. Mulekar. 2013. "Optimal Design of WindPVDieselBattery System using Genetic Algorithm". Z. and Mochamad Ashari. Probability and Statistics for Engineers. [33] E. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. [37] Heri Suryoatmojo. [30] Carlos Antonio Ramos Robles. [32] Yang.my/ [34] Scheaffer. Adel A.. and Fang. Certifications. Engineering Optimization Theory and Practice. University of Strathclyde Engineering. pp. [35] Born Francesca Jane. 2011." Doctor of Philosophy. L. A. H. December 1999. Industrial power Battery." IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. rP Fo URL: http:/mc. [31] Wei.
8 Ambient Temperature ( o C) rP Fo 0.4 0.2 ee 100 0 0 200 300 400 500 600 Time (Number of Hours In August) 700 800 Figure 1.2 1 Insolation (kW/m2) 0.6 0.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 34 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 All Figures 1.com/gcee . Ambient temperature in August URL: http:/mc. Meteorological conditions of solar radiation in August rR ev ie w On ly 100 200 300 400 500 600 Time (Number of Hours In August) 700 800 40 35 30 25 20 15 0 Figure 2.manuscriptcentral.
Page 35 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 200 Power (W) 150 100 50 0 0 10 20 30 Voltage (V) 40 50 Type1 Type2 Type3 Type4 Type5 Type6 60 Wind Speed (m/s) rP Fo 8 6 4 2 0 Type1 Type2 Type3 Type4 Type5 Type6 20 30 Voltage (V) 40 50 60 Current (A) ee 0 10 Figure 3.manuscriptcentral.com/gcee . PV and IV Curves rR 30 ev ie w On ly 100 200 300 400 500 600 Time (Number of Hours In August) 700 800 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 Figure 4. Meteorological conditions of wind speed in August URL: http:/mc.
1 Weibull PDF (f(v)) 0. Wind turbine power curves (The symbols represent data sampled from the power curve graphs given by the manufacturer) URL: http:/mc.06 rP Fo 0.12 0.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 36 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 0.manuscriptcentral.08 0.02 ee 5 5 0 0 10 15 Wind Speed (m/s) 20 25 Figure 5.com/gcee .04 0. Weibull probability density function (f(v)) rR ev 12 Type1 Type2 10 Type3 Type4 Type5 ie Power Output (kW) 8 Type6 w 6 On 4 2 ly 0 0 10 Wind Speed (m/s) 15 20 25 Figure 6.
Total wind turbine energy outputs by wind speed for one year ly URL: http:/mc.manuscriptcentral.Page 37 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 800 700 600 Energy (kWh/Month) 500 400 300 200 100 Type1 Type2 Type3 Type4 Type5 Type6 0 0 12000 10000 rP Fo 5 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 5 10 Wind Speed (m/s) 15 20 25 Figure 7.com/gcee . Total wind turbine energy outputs by wind speed in August ee rR ev ie w On 10 Wind Speed (m/s) 15 20 Type1 Type2 Type3 Type4 Type5 Type6 Energy (kWh/Year) 25 Figure 8.
4 0 Figure 9. Monthly (August) variation of domestic load profile URL: http:/mc.manuscriptcentral.9 0.com/gcee ev ie w On ly .6 ee rR 100 200 300 400 500 600 Time (Number of Hours In August ) 700 800 0.7 0.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 38 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 1 0.8 Load (kW) rP Fo 0.5 0.
com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly .Page 39 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo Figure 10. Flow chart of optimization process using MOPSO (or NSGAII) URL: http:/mc.manuscriptcentral.
Operation strategy of proposed hybrid System URL: http:/mc.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly .Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 40 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo Figure 11.manuscriptcentral.
128 0.Page 41 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 0.912 Figure 12.132 Optimum Direction of Inequality Coefficient (IC) ev ie w On ly s .913 0.9135 0.131 0.9115 Optimum Direction of Correlation Coefficient (CC) 0.13 0.manuscriptcentral. rP Fo 0.1305 0. 2D Pareto front for the last generation.1295 URL: http:/mc.1285 0. correlation coefficient (CC).1315 0. Inequality coefficient (IC) vs.9125 0.911 0.com/gcee ee rR 0.129 0.
2D Pareto front for the last generation.16 0.15 0.145 0.17 0.13 0.14 2800 0.155 0.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 42 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 4000 3800 Optimum Direction of Annualized Cost of System (ACS) 3600 3400 Figure 13.135 0. annualized cost of system (ACS).175 Optimum Direction of Inequality Coefficient (IC) URL: http:/mc.165 0.com/gcee rR ev ie w On ly . rP Fo 3200 3000 ee 0.manuscriptcentral. Inequality coefficient (IC) vs.
94 0.8 ev ie w On ly . 2D Pareto front for the last generation. annualized cost of system (ACS).9 0.Page 43 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 3700 3600 Optimum Direction of Annualized Cost of System (ACS) 3500 3400 3300 Optimum Direction of Correlation Coefficient (CC) Figure 14.92 URL: http:/mc. Correlation coefficient (CC) vs. rP Fo 3200 3100 3000 2900 2800 2700 0.86 0.88 0.manuscriptcentral.82 0.84 0.com/gcee ee rR 0.
9 0.35 0.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly .3 0. 3D Pareto front for the best configuration URL: http:/mc.25 Optimum Direction of Inequality Coefficient (IC) Figure 15.2 1 0.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 44 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Optimum Direction of Annualized Cost of System (ACS) 4200 4000 3800 3600 3400 3200 3000 2800 Optimum Direction of Correlation Coefficient (CC) rP Fo 0.8 0.manuscriptcentral.
200 1.060 0.6 32.3 4.000 2.Page 45 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Table 1.160 0.968 2 3 4 5 6 Kestrel Wind (Kestrel 3000) Bornay (Inclin 6000) Bornay (Inclin 3000) Bergey (BWC ExcelR) 8. Detailed specifications of the wind turbines Product Rated power Cutin wind Cutout wind capacity (W) speed (m/s) speed (m/s) Eoltec 6.000 2.7 None Kestrel 3000 3.123 0.065 0.9 SX170B 35.003 0. Solar module specifications at standard test condition rating Product Nominal Nominal Shortcircuit Opencircuit voltage at voltage current current at [V] STC [V] [ A] STC [A] (Voc) (ISC) KC200 26.97 170 170 180 190 165 efficiency 0. Battery characteristic Volt Rated Capacity (Ah) URL: http:/mc.2 Inclin 6000 6.20 0.5 14.2 12.258 Height 0.0 12.206 ie w On Rated wind speed (m/s) 11.5 11.19 0.6 8.9 6.000 1.9 Table 4.2 32.5 (m/s) 6000 3000 10000 6000 3000 8100 Table 5.060 0.1 8.00 200 2 3 4 5 6 BP Solar (SX 170B) Evergreen (Spruce ES170) Evergreen (Spruce ES180) Evergreen (Spruce ES190) Solar World (SW165) 728.968 1.17 0.8 SW165 35.00 774.8 Seller Solacity Kestrel ARE Bornay Bornay AltE Store ly 22.396 Abundant Renewable Energy (ARE442) Table 3.1 32.000 2.6 Spruce ES190 26.6 5.1 None rP Fo 12 60 Watt at 12.3 7.340 0.400 36. Solar module power at standard test condition rating and price PV Panels Parameters Type of PV PV MSRP Watt at 1000 Product module (US$/Unit) W/m2 1 Kyocera Solar (KC200) 800.968 2.40 Weight (kg) .000 3.000 10.17 Table 2.350 ev Width 0.3 6.6 Spruce ES190 25.340 0.340 0.17 0.4 Spruce ES180 25.8 None ARE442 10.396 1.9 7.1 43.com/gcee ee rR Temperature coefficient of Isc [%/°C] (TCi) 0.028 23.060 Temperature coefficient of Voc [%/°C] (TCV) 0.166 Dimensions (m) Length 0.00 709. Small wind turbines rating and price Small Wind Turbine Parameters Type of wind Turbine MSRP Tower price Product turbine (US$/Unit) (US$/Unit) 1 Solacity (Eoltec) 25.0 BWC ExcelR 7.000 3.0 43.968 2.5 15.4 4.7 7.060 0.500 3.8 5.00 817.0 11.7 7.0 13.070 6.18 0.5 11.manuscriptcentral.0 Inclin 3000 3.97 731.8 32.
63 6 5 2 3 0.9286 3653.00 20.8814 3878.1875 0.9160 4110.1942 0.1857 0.9270 3585.2399 0.00 20.9080 3960.2102 0.8804 3810.00 Other components 900.00 5.89 7 6 2 2 0.00 Table 7.1860 0.12 25.86 3 4 2 3 0.9096 4028.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 46 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Table 6.98 10 7 1 2 0. Pareto front/optimal solutions obtained from multiobjective optimization Solution Optimization Algorithm Made in MOPSO and NSGAII NPV NWIND NBattery IC CC ACS 1 4 2 2 0.92 5 5 2 2 0.1947 0.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly .manuscriptcentral.8892 3284.00 their towers PV modules (Table 1) 65.32 Table 9.9171 4178. Cost parameters Interest rate.2180 0.160490 rP Fo Table 8.00 1000.9181 3434. Inflation rate.1850 0.010485 Fuel cost (US$/kWh) 0.00 Replacement cost (US$/kAh) Null Null 124.00 Battery 124.69 8 6 2 3 0.82 4 5 1 2 0. f iloan(%) (%) 5.00 20.2106 0.95 9 6 1 2 0.8596 3134.1998 0.00 Diesel 500. The cost and lifetime aspect for the proposed hybrid components Components Initial capital cost Maintenance cost in the (US$/kW) first year (US$/kW) Wind turbines and (Table 2) 95.06 11 7 1 3 0. Total hours the diesel operates in one month for each sizing solutions Diesel Operating Hours For One Month Solution NPV NWIND NBattery (Total Month Hours In August = 744) 1 4 2 2 378 2 4 1 2 421 3 4 2 3 367 4 5 1 2 395 5 5 2 2 342 6 5 2 3 334 7 6 2 2 301 8 6 2 3 299 9 6 1 2 363 10 7 1 2 327 11 7 1 3 321 URL: http:/mc.000000 Carbon tax (US$/kWh) 0.12 Null Null Life time (year) 20.00 90.000000 2.56 2 4 1 2 0.
manuscriptcentral.Page 47 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo Meteorological conditions of solar radiation in August 176x155mm (96 x 96 DPI) URL: http:/mc.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly .
manuscriptcentral.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 48 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo PV and IV Curves 361x166mm (96 x 96 DPI) URL: http:/mc.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly .
com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly .manuscriptcentral.Page 49 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo Meteorological conditions of wind speed in August 176x161mm (96 x 96 DPI) URL: http:/mc.
manuscriptcentral.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly .Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 50 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo Meteorological conditions of wind speed in August 176x161mm (96 x 96 DPI) URL: http:/mc.
com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly .manuscriptcentral.Page 51 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Wind turbine power curves (The symbols represent data sampled from the power curve graphs given by the manufacturer) 361x159mm (96 x 96 DPI) rP Fo URL: http:/mc.
com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly .manuscriptcentral.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 52 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo Total wind turbine energy outputs by wind speed in August 361x159mm (96 x 96 DPI) URL: http:/mc.
manuscriptcentral.Page 53 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo Total wind turbine energy outputs by wind speed for one year 361x159mm (96 x 96 DPI) URL: http:/mc.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly .
manuscriptcentral.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 54 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo Monthly (August) variation of domestic load profile 176x161mm (96 x 96 DPI) URL: http:/mc.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly .
com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly .manuscriptcentral.Page 55 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo Flow chart of optimization process using MOPSO (or NSGAII) 136x194mm (180 x 180 DPI) URL: http:/mc.
manuscriptcentral. or deleted.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 56 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 The link ed image cannot be display ed. renamed.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly . rP Fo Operation strategy of proposed hybrid System 151x174mm (180 x 180 DPI) URL: http:/mc. The file may hav e been mov ed. Verify that the link points to the correct file and location.
correlation coefficient (CC). 187x155mm (96 x 96 DPI) rP Fo URL: http:/mc.manuscriptcentral. Inequality coefficient (IC) vs.Page 57 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 2D Pareto front for the last generation.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly .
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annualized cost of system (ACS).manuscriptcentral.com/gcee ee rR ev ie w On ly . 176x155mm (96 x 96 DPI) rP Fo URL: http:/mc. Correlation coefficient (CC) vs.Page 59 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 2D Pareto front for the last generation.
manuscriptcentral.Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems Page 60 of 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo URL: http:/mc.com/gcee ee 3D Pareto front for the best configuration 211x155mm (96 x 96 DPI) rR ev ie w On ly .
com/gcee ee 3D Pareto front for the best configuration 211x155mm (96 x 96 DPI) rR ev ie w On ly .manuscriptcentral.Page 61 of 61 Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo URL: http:/mc.