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The Cold War was a sustained state of political and military tension between powers in the Western Bloc

(the United States with NATO and others) and powers in the !astern Bloc (the So"iet Union (USS#) and its allies in Warsaw $act)% &istorians ha"e not fully a'reed on the dates but ()*+,())( is common% -t was .cold. because there was no lar'e/scale fi'htin' directly between the two sides althou'h there were ma0or re'ional wars in 1orea and 2ietnam% The Cold War split the temporary wartime alliance a'ainst Na3i 4ermany lea"in' the USS# and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences o"er capitalism and democracy% A deliberately neutral 'roupin' arose with the Non/Ali'ned 5o"ement founded by !'ypt -ndia and 6u'osla"ia7 this faction re0ected association with either the US/led West or the So"iet/led !ast% The two superpowers ne"er en'a'ed directly in full/scale armed combat but they each armed hea"ily in preparation of an all/out nuclear World War ---% !ach side had a nuclear deterrent that deterred an attac8 by the other side on the basis that such an attac8 would lead to total the destruction of the attac8er / the doctrine of mutually assured destruction or 5A9% Aside from the de"elopment of the two sides: nuclear arsenals and deployment of con"entional military forces the stru''le for dominance was e;pressed "ia pro;y wars around the 'lobe psycholo'ical warfare propa'anda and espiona'e and technolo'ical competitions such as the Space #ace% The first phase of the Cold War be'an in the aftermath of the end of the Second World War% The USS# consolidated its control o"er the states of the !astern Bloc while the United States be'an a strate'y of 'lobal containment to challen'e So"iet power e;tendin' military and financial aid to the countries of Western !urope (for e;ample supportin' the anti/Communist side in the 4ree8 Ci"il War) and creatin' the NATO alliance% The Berlin Bloc8ade (()*</()*)) was the first ma0or crisis of the Cold War% With "ictory of the Communist side in the Chinese Ci"il War and the outbrea8 of the 1orean War (()=>/()=?) the conflict e;panded as the USS# and USA competed for influence in @atin America and decoloni3in' states of Africa the 5iddle !ast and Southeast Asia% 5eanwhile the The &un'arian #e"olution of ()=A was brutally crushed by the So"iets% The e;pansion and escalation spar8ed more crises such as the Sue3 Crisis (()=A) the Berlin Crisis of ()A( the Cuban missile crisis of ()AB% Collowin' this last crisis a new phase be'an that saw the Sino/So"iet split complicate relations within the Communist sphere while US allies particularly Crance demonstrated 'reater independence of action% The USS# crushed the ()A< $ra'ue Sprin' liberali3ation pro'ram in C3echoslo"a8ia and the 2ietnam War (()==,()+=) ended with a defeat of the US/bac8ed #epublic of South 2ietnam promptin' further ad0ustments%

Ori'ins of the term

At the end of World War -- !n'lish author and 0ournalist 4eor'e Orwell used cold war as a 'eneral term in his essay .6ou and the Atomic Bomb. published October () ()*= in the British newspaper Tribune% Contemplatin' a world li"in' in the shadow of the threat of nuclear warfare Orwell wroteD Cor forty or fifty years past 5r% &% 4% Wells and others ha"e been warnin' us that man is in dan'er of destroyin' himself with his own weapons lea"in' the ants or some other 're'arious species to ta8e o"er% Anyone who has seen the ruined cities of 4ermany will find this notion at least thin8able% Ne"ertheless loo8in' at the world as a whole the drift for many decades has been not towards anarchy but towards the reimposition of sla"ery% We may be headin' not for 'eneral brea8down but for an epoch as horribly stable as the sla"e empires of antiEuity% Fames Burnham:s theory has been much discussed but few people ha"e yet considered its ideolo'ical implicationsGthat is the 8ind of world/"iew the 8ind of beliefs and the social structure that would probably pre"ail in a state which was at once unconEuerable and in a permanent state of .cold war. with its nei'hbours%H(I -n The Obser"er of 5arch (> ()*A Orwell wrote that .HaIfter the 5oscow conference last 9ecember #ussia be'an to ma8e a :cold war: on Britain and the British !mpire%.HBI The first use of the term to describe the post,World War -- 'eopolitical tensions between the USS# and its satellites and the United States and its western !uropean allies is attributed to Bernard Baruch an American financier and presidential ad"isor%H?I -n South Carolina on April (A ()*+ he deli"ered a speech (by 0ournalist &erbert Bayard Swope)H*I sayin' .@et us not be decei"edD we are today in the midst of a cold war%.H=I Newspaper reporter/columnist Walter @ippmann 'a"e the term wide currency with the boo8 The Cold War7 when as8ed in ()*+ about the source of the term he referred it to a Crench term from the ()?>s la 'uerre froide%H At the end of World War -- !n'lish author and 0ournalist 4eor'e Orwell used cold war as a 'eneral term in his essay .6ou and the Atomic Bomb. published October () ()*= in the British newspaper Tribune% Contemplatin' a world li"in' in the shadow of the threat of nuclear warfare Orwell wroteD Cor forty or fifty years past 5r% &% 4% Wells and others ha"e been warnin' us that man is in dan'er of destroyin' himself with his own weapons lea"in' the ants or some other 're'arious species to ta8e o"er% Anyone who has seen the ruined cities of 4ermany will find this notion at least thin8able% Ne"ertheless loo8in' at the world as a whole the drift for many decades has been not towards anarchy but towards the reimposition of sla"ery% We may be headin' not for 'eneral brea8down but for an epoch as horribly stable as the sla"e empires of antiEuity% Fames Burnham:s theory has been much discussed but few people ha"e yet considered its ideolo'ical implicationsGthat is the 8ind of world/"iew the 8ind of beliefs and the social structure that

would probably pre"ail in a state which was at once unconEuerable and in a permanent state of .cold war. with its nei'hbours%H(I

There is disa'reement amon' historians re'ardin' the startin' point of the Cold War% While most historians trace its ori'ins to the period immediately followin' World War -- others ar'ue that it be'an towards the end of World War - althou'h tensions between the #ussian !mpire other !uropean countries and the United States date bac8 to the middle of the ()th century%H+I As a result of the ()(+ Bolshe"i8 #e"olution in #ussia (followed by its withdrawal from World War -) So"iet #ussia found itself isolated in international diplomacy%H<I @eader 2ladimir @enin stated that the So"iet Union was surrounded by a .hostile capitalist encirclement. and he "iewed diplomacy as a weapon to 8eep So"iet enemies di"ided be'innin' with the establishment of the So"iet Comintern which called for re"olutionary uphea"als abroad%H)I SubseEuent leader Foseph Stalin who "iewed the So"iet Union as a .socialist island. stated that the So"iet Union must see that .the present capitalist encirclement is replaced by a socialist encirclement%.H(>I As early as ()B= Stalin stated that he "iewed international politics as a bipolar world in which the So"iet Union would attract countries 'ra"itatin' to socialism and capitalist countries would attract states 'ra"itatin' toward capitalism while the world was in a period of .temporary stabili3ation of capitalism. precedin' its e"entual collapse%H((I 2arious e"ents before the Second World War demonstrated the mutual distrust and suspicion between the Western powers and the So"iet Union apart from the 'eneral philosophical challen'e the Bolshe"i8s made towards capitalism%H(BI There was Western support of the anti/ Bolshe"i8 White mo"ement in the #ussian Ci"il War H+I the ()BA So"iet fundin' of a British 'eneral wor8ers stri8e causin' Britain to brea8 relations with the So"iet Union H(?I Stalin:s ()B+ declaration of peaceful coe;istence with capitalist countries .recedin' into the past .H(*I conspiratorial alle'ations durin' the ()B< Sha8hty show trial of a planned British/ and Crench/led coup d:Jtat H(=I the American refusal to reco'ni3e the So"iet Union until ()??H(AI and the Stalinist 5oscow Trials of the 4reat $ur'e with alle'ations of British Crench Fapanese and Na3i 4erman espiona'e%H(+I &owe"er both the US and USS# were 'enerally isolationist between the two world wars% The Soviet Union initially signed a non-aggression pact with Germany. But after the German Army invaded the Soviet Union in June 1 !1 and the Japanese "om"ed #earl $ar"or in %ecem"er 1 !1& the Soviet Union and the Allied powers formed an alliance of convenience. Britain signed a formal alliance and the United States made an informal agreement. 'n wartime& the United States supplied "oth Britain and the Soviets through its (end-(ease #rogram.)1 * $owever& Stalin remained highly suspicious and "elieved that the British and the Americans had conspired to ensure the Soviets "ore the "runt of the fighting against +a,i Germany. According to this view& the -estern Allies had deli"erately delayed opening a second anti-German front in order to step in at the last moment and

shape the peace settlement. Thus& Soviet perceptions of the -est left a strong undercurrent of tension and hostility "etween the Allied powers

Be'innin's of the Cold War (()*+,=?) Cominform and the TitoStalin split
-n September ()*+ the So"iets created Cominform the purpose of which was to enforce orthodo;y within the international communist mo"ement and ti'hten political control o"er So"iet satellites throu'h coordination of communist parties in the !astern Bloc%H=)I Cominform faced an embarrassin' setbac8 the followin' Fune when the Tito,Stalin split obli'ed its members to e;pel 6u'osla"ia which remained Communist but adopted a non/ali'ned position%HA>I

.uropean military alliances.

By ()*+ US president &arry S% Truman:s ad"isers ur'ed him to ta8e immediate steps to counter the So"iet Union:s influence citin' Stalin:s efforts (amid post/ war confusion and collapse) to undermine the US by encoura'in' ri"alries amon' capitalists that could precipitate another war%HA(I -n Cebruary ()*+ the British 'o"ernment announced that it could no lon'er afford to finance the 4ree8 monarchical military re'ime in its ci"il war a'ainst communist/led insur'ents% The American 'o"ernment:s response to this announcement was the adoption of containment HABI the 'oal of which was to stop the spread of communism% Truman deli"ered a speech that called for the allocation of K*>> million to inter"ene in the war and un"eiled the Truman 9octrine which framed the conflict as a contest between free peoples and totalitarian re'imes%HABI !"en thou'h the insur'ents were helped by Fosip Bro3 Tito:s 6u'osla"ia H(AI US policyma8ers accused the So"iet Union of conspirin' a'ainst the 4ree8 royalists in an effort to e;pand So"iet influence%HA?I !nunciation of the Truman 9octrine mar8ed the be'innin' of a US bipartisan defense and forei'n policy consensus between #epublicans and 9emocrats focused on containment and deterrence that wea8ened durin' and after the

2ietnam War but ultimately persisted thereafter%HA*IHA=I 5oderate and conser"ati"e parties in !urope as well as social democrats 'a"e "irtually unconditional support to the Western alliance HAAI while !uropean and American Communists paid by the 14B and in"ol"ed in its intelli'ence operations HA+I adhered to 5oscow:s line althou'h dissent be'an to appear after ()=A% Other critiEues of consensus politics came from anti/2ietnam War acti"ists the CN9 and the nuclear free3e mo"ement%H

Marshall Plan and Czechoslovak coup d'tat

n early ()*+ Britain Crance and the United States unsuccessfully attempted to reach an a'reement with the So"iet Union for a plan en"isionin' an economically self/sufficient 4ermany includin' a detailed accountin' of the industrial plants 'oods and infrastructure already remo"ed by the So"iets%HA)I -n Fune ()*+ in accordance with the Truman 9octrine the United States enacted the 5arshall $lan a pled'e of economic assistance for all !uropean countries willin' to participate includin' the So"iet Union%HA)I The plan:s aim was to rebuild the democratic and economic systems of !urope and to counter percei"ed threats to !urope:s balance of power such as communist parties sei3in' control throu'h re"olutions or elections%H+>I The plan also stated that !uropean prosperity was contin'ent upon 4erman economic reco"ery%H+(I One month later Truman si'ned the National Security Act of ()*+ creatin' a unified 9epartment of 9efense the Central -ntelli'ence A'ency (C-A) and the National Security Council (NSC)% These would become the main bureaucracies for US policy in the Cold War%H+BI Stalin belie"ed that economic inte'ration with the West would allow !astern Bloc countries to escape So"iet control and that the US was tryin' to buy a pro/US re/ali'nment of !urope%H=)I Stalin therefore pre"ented !astern Bloc nations from recei"in' 5arshall $lan aid%H=)I The So"iet Union:s alternati"e to the 5arshall plan which was purported to in"ol"e So"iet subsidies and trade with central and eastern !urope became 8nown as the 5oloto" $lan (later institutionali3ed in Fanuary ()*) as the Comecon)%H(AI Stalin was also fearful of a reconstituted 4ermany7 his "ision of a post/war 4ermany did not include the ability to rearm or pose any 8ind of threat to the So"iet Union%

Berlin Blockade and airlift

The United States and Britain mer'ed their western 4erman occupation 3ones into .Bi3onia. (Fanuary ( ()*+ later .Tri3onia. with the addition of Crance:s 3one April ()*))%H+)I As part of the economic rebuildin' of 4ermany in early ()*< representati"es of a number of Western !uropean 'o"ernments and the United States announced an a'reement for a mer'er of western 4erman areas into a federal 'o"ernmental system%H<>I -n addition in accordance with the 5arshall $lan they be'an to re/industriali3e and rebuild the 4erman economy includin' the introduction of a new 9eutsche 5ar8 currency to replace the old #eichsmar8 currency that the So"iets had debased%H<(I

Shortly thereafter Stalin instituted the Berlin Bloc8ade (Fune B* ()*< , 5ay (B ()*)) one of the first ma0or crises of the Cold War pre"entin' food materials and supplies from arri"in' in West Berlin%H<BI The United States Britain Crance Canada Australia New Lealand and se"eral other countries be'an the massi"e .Berlin airlift. supplyin' West Berlin with food and other pro"isions

NAT !e"innin"s and #adio $ree %urope

Britain& $rance& the 'nited States& Canada and ei"ht other (estern %uropean countries si"ned the North Atlantic Treat) of April *+,+& esta!lishin" the North Atlantic Treat) r"anization -NAT ./0123 That Au"ust& the first Soviet atomic device (as detonated in Semipalatinsk& 4azakh SS#/0*53 $ollo(in" Soviet refusals to participate in a 6erman re!uildin" effort set forth !) (estern %uropean countries in *+,7&072307+3 the 'S& Britain and $rance spearheaded the esta!lishment of 8est 6erman) from the three 8estern zones of occupation in April *+,+/09,30+23 The Soviet 'nion proclaimed its zone of occupation in 6erman) the 6erman :emocratic #epu!lic that cto!er/09,3

5edia in the !astern Bloc was an or'an of the state completely reliant on and subser"ient to the communist party with radio and tele"ision or'ani3ations bein' state/owned while print media was usually owned by political or'ani3ations mostly by the local communist party% H)(I So"iet propa'anda used 5ar;ist philosophy to attac8 capitalism claimin' labor e;ploitation and war/mon'erin' imperialism were inherent in the system%H)BI Alon' with the broadcasts of the British Broadcastin' Corporation and the 2oice of America to Central and !astern !urope H)?I a ma0or propa'anda effort be'un in ()*) was #adio Cree !uropeM#adio @iberty dedicated to brin'in' about the peaceful demise of the Communist system in the !astern Bloc%H)*I #adio Cree !urope attempted to achie"e these 'oals by ser"in' as a surro'ate home radio station an alternati"e to the controlled and party/dominated domestic press%H)*I #adio Cree !urope was a product of some of the most prominent architects of America:s early Cold War strate'y especially those who belie"ed that the Cold War would e"entually be fou'ht by political rather than military means such as 4eor'e C% 1ennan%

4orean 8ar
ne of the more si"nificant impacts of containment (as the out!reak of the 4orean 8ar/ ;n <une *+12& 4im ;l=sun"'s North 4orean People's Arm) invaded South 4orea/0*293 <oseph Stalin >planned& prepared& and initiated> the invasion&0*2,3 creatin" >detailed 0(ar3 plans> that (ere communicated to the North 4oreans/0*2130*2530*2?30*273 To Stalin's surprise&0*53 the 'N Securit) Council !acked the defense of South 4orea& thou"h the Soviets (ere then !o)cottin" meetin"s in protest that Tai(an and not Communist China held a permanent seat on the Council/0*2+3 A 'N force of personnel from South 4orea& the 'nited States& the 'nited 4in"dom& Turke)& Canada& Colom!ia& Australia& $rance& South Africa& the Philippines& the Netherlands& Bel"ium& Ne( @ealand and other countries Aoined to stop the invasion/

Amon' other effects the 1orean War 'al"anised NATO to de"elop a military structure%H(((I $ublic opinion in countries in"ol"ed such as 4reat Britain was di"ided for and a'ainst the war%

Berlin Crisis of *+5*

The Berlin Crisis of ()A( was the last ma0or incident in the Cold War re'ardin' the status of Berlin and post,World War -- 4ermany% By the early ()=>s the So"iet approach to restrictin' emi'ration mo"ement was emulated by most of the rest of the !astern Bloc%H(AAI &owe"er hundreds of thousands of !ast 4ermans annually emi'rated to West 4ermany throu'h a .loophole. in the system that e;isted between !ast and West Berlin where the four occupyin' World War -powers 'o"erned mo"ement%H(A+I The emi'ration resulted in a massi"e .brain drain. from !ast 4ermany to West 4ermany of youn'er educated professionals such that nearly B>N of !ast 4ermany:s population had mi'rated to West 4ermany by ()A(%H(A<I That Fune the So"iet Union issued a new ultimatum demandin' the withdrawal of Allied forces from West Berlin%H(A)I The reEuest was rebuffed and on Au'ust (? !ast 4ermany erected a barbed/wire barrier that would e"entually be e;panded throu'h construction into the Berlin Wall effecti"ely closin' the loophole%

Sino=American rapprochement
As a result of the Sino/So"iet split tensions alon' the Chinese,So"iet border reached their pea8 in ()A) and United States $resident #ichard Ni;on decided

to use the conflict to shift the balance of power towards the West in the Cold War%HB>+I The Chinese had sou'ht impro"ed relations with the Americans in order to 'ain ad"anta'e o"er the So"iets as well% -n Cebruary ()+B Ni;on announced a stunnin' rapprochement with 5ao:s ChinaHB><I by tra"elin' to Bei0in' and meetin' with 5ao Ledon' and Lhou !nlai% At this time the USS# achie"ed rou'h nuclear parity with the United States7 meanwhile the 2ietnam War both wea8ened America:s influence in the Third World and cooled relations with Western !urope%HB>)I Althou'h indirect conflict between Cold War powers continued throu'h the late ()A>s and early ()+>s tensions were be'innin' to ease%

Cinal years (()<=,)()

6or!achev reforms
By the time the comparati"ely youthful 5i8hail 4orbache" became 4eneral Secretary in ()<= HBB=I the So"iet economy was sta'nant and faced a sharp fall in forei'n currency earnin's as a result of the downward slide in oil prices in the ()<>s%HB=?I These issues prompted 4orbache" to in"esti'ate measures to re"i"e the ailin' state%HB=?I An ineffectual start led to the conclusion that deeper structural chan'es were necessary and in Fune ()<+ 4orbache" announced an a'enda of economic reform called perestroi8a or restructurin'%HB=*I $erestroi8a rela;ed the production Euota system allowed pri"ate ownership of businesses and pa"ed the way for forei'n in"estment% These measures were intended to redirect the country:s resources from costly Cold War military commitments to more producti"e areas in the ci"ilian sector%HB=*I 9espite initial s8epticism in the West the new So"iet leader pro"ed to be committed to re"ersin' the So"iet Union:s deterioratin' economic condition instead of continuin' the arms race with the West%H(B(IHB==I $artly as a way to fi'ht off internal opposition from party cliEues to his reforms 4orbache" simultaneously introduced 'lasnost or openness which increased freedom of the press and the transparency of state institutions%HB=AI 4lasnost was intended to reduce the corruption at the top of the Communist $arty and moderate the abuse of power in the Central Committee%HB=+I 4lasnost also enabled increased contact between So"iet citi3ens and the western world particularly with the United States contributin' to the acceleratin' dJtente between the two nations%

Soviet repu!lics !reak a(a)

-n the USS# itself 'lasnost wea8ened the bonds that held the So"iet Union to'etherHBA=I and by Cebruary ())> with the dissolution of the USS# loomin' the Communist $arty was forced to surrender its +?/ year/old monopoly on state power%HB+*I At the same time freedom of press and dissent allowed by 'lasnost and the festerin' .nationalities Euestion. increasin'ly led the Union:s component republics to declare their autonomy from 5oscow with the Baltic states withdrawin' from the Union entirely%HB+=I

Soviet dissolution
4orbache":s permissi"e attitude toward Central and !astern !urope did not initially e;tend to So"iet territory7 e"en Bush who stro"e to maintain friendly relations condemned the Fanuary ())( 8illin's in @at"ia and @ithuania pri"ately warnin' that economic ties would be fro3en if the "iolence continued%HB+AI The USS# was fatally wea8ened by a failed coup and a 'rowin' number of So"iet republics particularly #ussia who threatened to secede from the USS#% The Commonwealth of -ndependent States created on 9ecember B( ())( is "iewed as a successor entity to the So"iet Union but accordin' to #ussia:s leaders its purpose was to .allow a ci"ili3ed di"orce. between the So"iet #epublics and is comparable to a loose confederation%HB++I The USS# was declared officially dissol"ed on 9ecember B= ())(%

!ffects of the Cold War

Collowin' the Cold War #ussia cut military spendin' dramatically% #estructurin' of the economy left millions throu'hout the former So"iet Union unemployed%HB+)I The capitalist reforms culminated in a recession more se"ere than the US and 4ermany had e;perienced durin' the 4reat 9epression%HB<>I The aftermath of the Cold War continues to influence world affairs%H(BI After the dissolution of the So"iet Union the post,Cold War world is widely considered as unipolar with the United States the sole remainin' superpower%HB<(IHB<BIHB<?I The Cold War defined the political role of the United States in the post,World War -- worldD by ()<) the US held military alliances with => countries and had =BA >>>HB<*I troops posted abroad in do3ens of countries with ?BA >>> in !urope (two/thirds of which in west 4ermany)HB<=I and about (?> >>> in Asia (mainly Fapan and South 1orea)%HB<*I The Cold War also mar8ed the 3enith of peacetime military/industrial comple;es especially in the US and lar'e/scale military fundin' of science%HB<AI These comple;es thou'h their ori'ins may be found as early as the ()th century ha"e 'rown considerably durin' the Cold War% The military/industrial comple;es ha"e 'reat impact on their countries and help shape their society policy and forei'n relations%HB<+I 5ilitary e;penditures by the US durin' the Cold War years were estimated to ha"e been K< trillion while nearly (>> >>> Americans lost their li"es in the 1orean War and 2ietnam War%HB<<I Althou'h the loss of life amon' So"iet soldiers is difficult to estimate as a share of their 'ross national product the financial cost for the So"iet Union was far hi'her than that incurred by the United States%HB<)I -n addition to the loss of life by uniformed soldiers millions died in the superpowers: pro;y wars around the 'lobe most notably in Southeast Asia%HB)>I 5ost of the pro;y wars and subsidies for local conflicts ended alon' with the Cold War7 interstate wars ethnic wars re"olutionary wars as well as refu'ee and displaced persons crises ha"e declined sharply in the post,Cold War years%HB)(I The aftermath of Cold War conflict howe"er is not always easily erased as many of the economic and social tensions that were e;ploited to fuel Cold War competition in parts of the Third World remain acute%H(BI The brea8down of state control in a number of areas formerly ruled by Communist 'o"ernments has produced new ci"il and ethnic conflicts particularly in the former 6u'osla"ia%H(BI -n Central and !astern !urope the end of the Cold War has ushered in an era of economic 'rowth and an increase in the number of liberal democracies while in other parts of the world such as Af'hanistan independence was accompanied by state failure%

&istorio'raphy of the Cold War As soon as the term .Cold War. was populari3ed to refer to post/war tensions between the United States and the So"iet Union interpretin' the course and ori'ins of the conflict has been a source of heated contro"ersy amon' historians political scientists and 0ournalists% HB)BI -n particular historians ha"e sharply disa'reed as to who was responsible for the brea8down of So"iet,US relations after the Second World War7 and whether the conflict between the two superpowers was ine"itable or could ha"e been a"oided%HB)?I &istorians ha"e also disa'reed on what e;actly the Cold War was what the sources of the conflict were and how to disentan'le patterns of action and reaction between the two sides%H(BI Althou'h e;planations of the ori'ins of the conflict in academic discussions are comple; and di"erse se"eral 'eneral schools of thou'ht on the sub0ect can be identified% &istorians commonly spea8 of three differin' approaches to the study of the Cold WarD .orthodo;. accounts .re"isionism. and .post/re"isionism.%HB<AI .Orthodo;. accounts place responsibility for the Cold War on the So"iet Union and its e;pansion further into !urope%HB<AI .#e"isionist. writers place more responsibility for the brea8down of post/war peace on the United States citin' a ran'e of US efforts to isolate and confront the So"iet Union well before the end of World War --%HB<AI .$ost/re"isionists. see the e"ents of the Cold War as more nuanced and attempt to be more balanced in determinin' what occurred durin' the Cold War%HB<AI 5uch of the historio'raphy on the Cold War wea"es to'ether two or e"en all three of these broad cate'ories%

The /egency pu"lic school 'nternal assessment Term 2013-2014 Subject:- Social studies Topic:- The cold war FROM :!M":-#!$! T%&R '(!SS:- )*+, )!, RO(( O:- 12

- would li8e to e;press my special than8s of 'ratitude to my teacher (Name of the teacher) as well as our principal (Name of the principal)who 'a"e me the 'olden opportunity to do this wonderful pro0ect on the topic (Write the topic name) which also helped me in doin' a lot of #esearch and i came to 8now about so many new thin's - am really than8ful to them% Secondly i would also li8e to than8 my parents and friends who helped me a lot in finali3in' this pro0ect within the limited time frame%

The 0old -ar was a war that literally wasn1t your typical war. There weren1t any fighter planes flying over countries dropping "om"s& no tan2s no ground troops& no actually deployment of missile& and no ground troops. $owever there were a stoc2pile of nuclear weapons& money was "eing spent li2e an actually -ar was "eing fought& propaganda& and there were two superpower enemies "ut no actually fighting occurred. The 0old -ar was a "ig arms race that was started after -orld -ar '' "etween the United States and the Soviet Union 3USS/ or modern day /ussia4. This war causes a "ipolar system in the world where there were two dominant powers fighting to "ecome the dominant power. The 0old -ar was a real complicated war "ecause it was more a fight a"out ideology& %emocracy and 0ommunism. The United States& after -orld -ar '' was trying to promote it democratic ideology to the entire world. The other superpower that "enefited from -orld -ar ''& the Soviet Union& tried to also spread their communist idea throughout .urope and the rest of the world. The two clashes of ideologist cause a war of competition "etween the two countries. The 0old -ar caused a

split "etween .ast and -est and the United States and /ussia competed.

Bi"liography & www.wi2ipedia .com &

8ildlife of ;ndia
'ndia has the largest wild population of tigers in the world.The most endangered 'ndian top predator of 5616& the dhole is on edge of e7tinction. (ess than 5866 mem"ers of the species remain in the world. Snowleopard is an endangered species found along the $imalayas

The wildlife in -ndia comprises a mi; of species of different types of or'anisms%H(I Apart from a handful of the ma0or farm animals such as cows buffaloes 'oats poultry and sheep -ndia has an ama3in'ly wide "ariety of animals nati"e to the country% -t is home to Ti'ers @ions @eopards $ythons Wol"es Co;es Bears Crocodiles #hinoceroses Camels Wild do's 5on8eys Sna8es Antelope species 9eer species "arieties of bison and not to mention the mi'hty Asian elephant% The re'ion:s rich and di"erse wildlife is preser"ed in <) national par8s (< Bio reser"es and *>>O wildlife sanctuaries across the country%-ndia has some of the most biodi"erse re'ions of the world and hosts three of the worldPs ?* biodi"ersity hotspots , or treasure/houses , that is the Western 4hats the !astern &imalayas and -ndo/ Burma%HBI Since -ndia is home to a number of rare and threatened animal species wildlife mana'ement in the country is essential to preser"e these species%H?I Accordin' to one study -ndia alon' with (+ me'a di"erse countries is home to about A>/+>N of the world:s biodi"ersity% H*I -ndia lyin' within the -ndomalaya eco3one is home to about +%AN of all mammalian (B%AN of a"ian A%BN of reptilian and A%>N of flowerin' plant species%H=I 5any ecore'ions such as the shola forests also e;hibit e;tremely hi'h rates of endemism7 o"erall ??N of -ndian plant species are endemic%HAIH+I -ndia:s forest co"er ran'es from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman -slands Western 4hats and Northeast -ndia to the coniferous forest of the &imalaya% Between these e;tremes lie the sal/dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern -ndia7 tea8/dominated dry deciduous forest of central and southern -ndia7 and the babul/ dominated thorn forest of the central 9eccan and western 4an'etic plain%H<I -mportant -ndian trees include the medicinal neem widely used in rural -ndian herbal remedies% The pipal fi' tree shown on the seals of 5ohen0o/daro shaded the 4autama Buddha as he sou'ht enli'htenment% 5any -ndian species are descendants of ta;a ori'inatin' in 4ondwana to which -ndia ori'inally belon'ed% $eninsular -ndia:s subseEuent mo"ement towards and collision with the @aurasian landmass set off a mass e;chan'e of species% &owe"er "olcanism and climatic chan'e B> million years a'o caused the e;tinction of many endemic -ndian forms%H)I Soon thereafter mammals entered -ndia from Asia throu'h two 3oo'eo'raphical passes on either side of the emer'in' &imalaya%H<I As a result amon' -ndian species only (B%AN of mammals and *%=N of birds are endemic contrastin' with *=%<N of reptiles and ==%<N of amphibians%H=I Notable endemics are the Nil'iri leaf mon8ey and the brown and carmine Beddome:s toad of the Western 4hats%

Cauna of -ndia
The endan'ered Blac8 buc8 at the Undyin' National $ar8 within the Chennai metropolis One of the world:s rarest mon8eys 4ee:s 4olden @an'ur typifies the precarious sur"i"al of much of -ndia:s me'a fauna% -ndia is home to se"eral well/8nown lar'e mammals includin' the Asian !lephant Ben'al Ti'er Asiatic @ion @eopard Sloth Bear and -ndian #hinoceros% Some other well/8nown lar'e -ndian mammals areD un'ulates such as the rare Wild Asian Water buffalo common 9omestic Asian Water buffalo 4ail 4ar and se"eral species of deer and antelope% Some members of the do' family such as the -ndian Wolf Ben'al Co; and 4olden Fac8al and the 9hole or Wild 9o's are also widely distributed% &owe"er the dole also 8nown as the whistlin' hunter is the most endan'ered top -ndian carni"ore and the &imalayan Wolf is now a critically endan'ered species endemic to -ndia%Hcitation neededI -t is also home to the Striped &yena 5acaEues @an'uors and 5on'oose species%

The need for conser"ation of wildlife in -ndia is often Euestioned because of the apparently incorrect priority in the face of direct po"erty of the people% &owe"er Article *< of the Constitution of -ndia specifies that .The state shall endea"our to protect and impro"e the en"ironment and to safe'uard the forests and wildlife of the country. and Article =(/A states that .it shall be the duty of e"ery citi3en of -ndia to protect and impro"e the natural en"ironment includin' forests la8es ri"ers and wildlife and to ha"e compassion for li"in' creatures%.H((I @ar'e and charismatic mammals are important for wildlife tourism in -ndia and se"eral national par8s and wildlife sanctuaries cater to these needs% $ro0ect Ti'er started in ()+B is a ma0or effort to conser"e the ti'er and its habitats%H(BI At the turn of the B>th century one estimate of the ti'er population in -ndia placed the fi'ure at *> >>> yet an -ndian ti'er census conducted in B>>< re"ealed the e;istence of only ( *(( ti'ers% B>(> Ti'er census re"ealed that there are (+>> ti'ers left in -ndia%H(?I The passin' of the Corest #i'hts Act by the -ndian 'o"ernment in B>>< has been the final nail in the coffin and has pushed the -ndian ti'er to the "er'e of e;tinction% 2arious pressures in the later part of the B>th century led to the pro'ressi"e decline of wilderness resultin' in the disturbance of "iable ti'er habitats% At the -nternational Union for the Conser"ation of Nature and Natural #esources (-UCN) 4eneral Assembly meetin' in 9elhi in ()A) serious concern was "oiced about the threat to se"eral species of wildlife and the shrin8a'e of wilderness in -ndia% -n ()+> a national ban on ti'er huntin' was imposed and in ()+B the Wildlife $rotection Act came into force% The framewor8 was then set up to formulate a pro0ect for ti'er conser"ation with an ecolo'ical approach% @aunched on ( April ()+? $ro0ect Ti'er has become one of the most successful conser"ation "entures in modern history% The pro0ect aims at ti'er conser"ation in specially constituted :ti'er reser"es: which are representati"e of "arious bio/ 'eo'raphical re'ions fallin' within -ndia% -t stri"es to maintain a "iable ti'er population in their natural en"ironment% Today there are ?) $ro0ect Ti'er wildlife reser"es in -ndia co"erin' an area more than of ?+ +A( 8mQ% $ro0ect !lephant thou'h less 8nown started in ())B and wor8s for elephant protection in -ndia%H(*I 5ost of -ndia:s rhinos today sur"i"e in the 1a3iran'a National $ar8%

#ecent eBtinctions
Illustration of a Himalayan Quail from A. O. Hume's work. Last seen in 1876

The e;ploitation of land and forest resources by humans alon' with huntin' and trappin' for food and sport has led to the e;tinction of many species in -ndia in recent times% These species include mammals such as the -ndianMAsiatic Cheetah Wild Lebu Fa"an #hinoceros and Sumatran #hinoceros%H(=I While some of these lar'e mammal species are confirmed e;tinct there ha"e been many smaller animal and plant species whose status is harder to determine% 5any species ha"e not been seen since their description% Some species of birds ha"e 'one e;tinct in recent times includin' the $in8/headed 9uc8 (#hodonessa caryophyllacea) and the &imalayan Ruail (Ophrysia superciliosa)% A species of warbler Acrocephalus orinus 8nown earlier from a sin'le specimen collected by Allan Octa"ian &ume from near #ampur in &imachal $radesh was redisco"ered after (?) years in Thailand.

The /egency pu"lic school 'nternal assessment Term 2013-2014 Subject:- -eo.raph/ Topic:- wildli0e o0 *1dia

!M":#!$! T%&R '(!SS:- )*+, )!, RO(( O:- 12

-ildlife conservation efforts in 'ndia& The -ildlife in 'ndia is a mi7 of species of different types of organisms. Apart from a handful of the ma9or farm animals such as cows& "uffaloes& goats& poultry and sheep& 'ndia has an ama,ingly wide variety of animals native to the country. -ildlife 0onservation Tour +ature has always helped in flourishing the man2ind. But this isn1t a"out what nature gives to you& its what you& as a human "eing give "ac2 in return. The natural pro9ects and programmes started "y the 'ndian government such as

#ro9ect Tiger& +ature 0amps and Ju-ildlife traditionally refers to nondomesticated verte"rates& "ut has come to "roadly reference to all wild plants& animals and other organisms. %omesticating wild plant and animal species for human "enefit has occurred many times all over the planet& and has a ma9or impact on the environment.