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Hydrogne Internal Combustion Engine

Mr.Yusuf Mulani Ms. Tejashri Khochare Collge of Engineering, andhar!ur.

ABSTRACT Hydrogen as a fuel in internal combustion engines is a solution for the near future to realize zero CO2 emissions for traffic applications. The hydrogen fuelled IC engine is ready for that. The storage and production of hydrogen, and to build the are necessary the real This paper gi es an o er ie& of the de elopment of hydrogen fuelled IC engines by the most important car manufactures (.ord, /0+,*. This o er ie& indicates the e olution in the de elopment of hydrogen fuelled engines (different generation of engines*. 1ey +ords2 climate change, carbon dio3ide, hydrogen, technological change, internal Combustion engines, fuel cells. infrastructure, about "## million. To replace them in a relati ely short time by fuel cells is impossible. There are se eral reasons for con erting the gasoline, diesel or natural gas engines to hydrogen fuelled internal combustion engines.

shortcomings in the general use of hydrogen in IC engines. Hydrogen-burning internal combustion engines trace their roots back to some of the ery earliest de elopments in internal combustion engine de elopment. In !"#$ Isaac de %i as built the first hydrogen internal combustion engine, and although the design had serious fla&s, it &as a more than '# years ahead of the de elopment of gasoline internal combustion engines (Taylor !)"'*. +hen talking about hydrogen as a fuel for traffic applications, most people make the link to fuel cells. +hy, +hy not a more realistic link to internal combustion engines, -t the moment the estimation of the number of motor ehicles is

"igure#. Hydrogen ICE

o)er the *orld today is ./ million barrels, of *hich about 0/ !er cent is used in communications and trans!ortation. In this sort of consum!tion, about 1/23/ !er cent is for automobile use. That is to say, auto !etroleum constitutes about 40 !er cent of I. I$T%&'(CTI&$ the *hole !etroleum consum!tion. A. Pollution is Global issue E)eryday radios, ne*s!a!ers, tele)isions and the internet *arn us of energy e+haustion, atmos!heric !ollution and climate *arming. ,fter fe* hundred years of industrial de)elo!ment, *e are facing these globality !roblems *hile at the same time *e maintain a high standard of li)ing. The most im!ortant !roblem *e are faced *hich is *hether *e should go for continuous de)elo!ment or die. Coal, !etroleum, natural gas, *ater and nuclear energy are fi)e main energy resources that ha)e !layed im!ortant roles and ha)e been *idely used by human beings. B. Statistics of pollution -tatistics sho* that, the daily consum!tion of !etroleum all ,t the same time as these fuels are burnt, !oisonous materials such as 0// million tones of carbon mono+ides 8C&9, #// million tones :1; of hydro carbons 8HC9, 00/ In accordance *ith this calculation. 'aily consum!tion of !etroleum by automobiles all o)er the *orld is o)er t*o million tones
"igure5. C&5 Emission by )arious sectors 6y #77/25/4/

million tones of carbon8C9, 0/ million tones of nitrogen o+ides 8$&+9 are emitted into the atmos!here e)ery year, se)erely !olluting the atmos!here. C. Global Energy in Transition

T*o moti)ators for the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier today are@ #9 To !ro)ide a transition strategy from hydrocarbon fuels to a carbonless society and 59 To enable rene*able energy sources II. C&M6(-TIAE
%& E%TIE-

&" HY'%&<E$
A. Wide Range of Flammability Hydrogen has a *ide flammability range in
"igure4. The age of energy gases2 <lobal energy system

com!arison *ith all other fuels. ,s a result, hydrogen can be combusted in an internal combustion engine o)er a *ide range of fuel2air mi+2tures. , significant ad)antage of this is that hydrogen can run on a lean mi+ture. , lean mi+ture is one in *hich the amount of fuel is less than the theoretical, stoichiometric or chemically ideal amount needed for combustion *ith a gi)en amount of air. This is *hy it is fairly easy to get an engine to start on hydrogen. B. ig! Auto ignition Temperature Hydrogen has a relati)ely high auto ignition tem!erature. This has im!ortant im!lications *hen a hydrogen2air mi+2ture is com!ressed. In fact, the auto ignition tem!erature is an

This gra!h sho*s the history of our energy use. =e started out *ith solid fuel such as *ood and then coal. The use of solid fuel is declining. The li>uid fuel essentially !etroleum started in about #7// and is near the ma+imum no*. In recent times gaseous fuel is becoming more and more im!ortant. "rom early times till no*, *e can notice that each successi)e fuel has more hydrogen and less carbon. In other *ords H?C ratio is increasing. &ne can therefore !redict that hydrogen is ine)itable and the H?C ratio *ill go to infinity. Technological


rather than de!letion, is dri)ing these changes

im!ortant factor in determining *hat engine com!ression can use, rise ratio. ratio since an the

This means that hydrogen engines can more closely a!!roach the thermodynamically ideal engine cycle. ,t leaner mi+tures, ho*e)er, the flame )elocity decreases significantly. ". ig! "iffusi#ity Hydrogen has )ery high diffusi)ity. This ability to dis!erse in air is considerably greater than gasoline and is ad)antageous for t*o main reasons. "irstly, it facilitates the forma2tion of a uniform mi+ture of fuel and air E. Clean ydrogen Economy

tem!erature com!ression E>uation@

during The

com!ression is related to the tem!erature rise is sho*n by the B 2# T5 CT# 8A#?A59 8#9 =here@ A#?A5 C the com!ression ratio T# C absolute initial tem!erature T5 C absolute final tem!erature B C ratio of s!ecific heats The tem!erature may not e+ceed hydrogenDs auto ignition tem!erature *ithout causing !remature ignition. Thus, the absolute final tem!erature limits the com!ression ratio. The high auto ignition tem!erature of hydrogen allo*s larger


Hydrogen production H2 (ga ! Hydrogen torage
E %ig%'pre ure cryogenic tan( E c%e"ica# reaction

com!ression ratios to be used in a hydrogen engine than in a hydrocarbon engine. C. ig! Flame Speed Hydrogen has high flame s!eed at stoichiometric ratios. (nder these conditions, the hydrogen flame s!eed is nearly an order of magnitude higher 8faster9 than that of gasoline. III. HY'%&<E$ IC E$<I$E 'E-I<$
*C or Hy+rid engine H2)O2 Fue# ce##

H2 (co"pre ed!

H2 (#i$uid!

H ( o#id c%e"ica# !

Hydrogen uti#i&ation

,ero-e"i ion .e%ic#e

A. Engine "esign The most effecti)e means of





eliminating !re2ignition. Hydrogen fuel deli)ery system can be broFen do*n into three main ty!es@ central injection 8or GcarburetedH9, !ort

controlling for hydrogen



injection and direct injection. Central and !ort fuel deli)ery systems injection forms the fuel2air mi+ture during the intaFe stroFe. In the case of central injection or a carburetor, the injection is at the inlet of the air intaFe manifold. In the case of !ort injection, it is injected at the inlet !ort.

FnocF is to re2design the engine use, s!ecifically the

"igure.. Hy2I.C E

combustion chamber ,nd the cooling system. , disF2 sha!ed combustion chamber 8*ith a flat !iston and chamber ceiling9 can be used to reduce turbulence *ithin the chamber. The disF sha!e lo* hel!s, radial to and !roduce





tangential )elocity com!onents and does not am!lify inlet s*irl during com!ression. -ince unburned hydrocarbons are not a concern in hydrogen engines, a large bore2to2stroFe ratio can be used *ith this engine. To accommodate the *ider range of flame s!eeds that occur o)er a greater range of e>ui)alence ratios, t*o s!arF !lugs are needed. The cooling system must be de2signed to !ro)ide uniform flo* to all locations that need cooling. B. Fuel "eli#ery system ,da!ting or re2designing the fuel deli)ery system can be

Carbureted Systems The sim!lest method of deli)ering fuel to a hydrogen engine is by *ay of a carburetor or central injection system. This system has ad)antages for a hydrogen central engine. injection "irstly, does not

re>uire the hydrogen su!!ly !ressure to be as high as for other methods. -econdly, central injection or carburetors are used on gasoline engines, maFing it easy to con)ert a standard gasoline engine to hydrogen or a gasoline?hydrogen engine.

manifold at any one time, any !re2ignition is less se)ere. The inlet su!!ly !ressure for !ort injection tends to be higher than for carbureted or central injection systems, but less than for direct injection systems.
"igure0. 'irect Injection -ystem

The disad)antage of central injection is that it is more susce!tible and bacFfires. the to The irregular greater manifold combustion due to !re2ignition amount of hydrogen?air mi+ture *ithin ignition. ". Port $n%ection Systems The !ort injection fuel deli)ery system injects fuel directly into the intaFe manifold at each intaFe !ort, rather than dra*ing fuel in at a central !oint. Ty!ically, the hydrogen is injected into the manifold after the beginning of the intaFe stroFe. ,t this !oint conditions are much less se)ere and the !robability for !remature ignition is reduced. In !ort injection, the air is injected se!arately at the beginning of the intaFe stroFe to dilute the hot residual gases and cool any hot s!ots. -ince less gas 8hydrogen or air9 is in the E. "irect $n%ection Systems More so!histicated hydrogen engines use direct injection into the combustion cylinder during the com!ression stroFe. In direct injection, the intaFe )al)e is closed *hen the fuel is injected, com!letely a)oiding during bacFfire !remature the into intaFe the ignition stroFe. intaFe
"igure I. Electronic "uel Injector


com!ounds the effects of !re2

Conse>uently the engine cannot manifold. The !o*er out!ut of a

direct injected hydrogen engine is 5/J more than for a gasoline engine and .5J more than a hydrogen carburetor. =hile direct injection sol)es the !roblem of !re2ignition in the intaFe manifold, it does not necessarily !re)ent !re2ignition *ithin the combustion chamber. In addition, due to the reduced mi+ing time of the air and fuel in a direct inject2tion engine, the air?fuel mi+ture can be non2 homogenous. -tudies ha)e suggested this can lead to higher $&+ emissions than the non2direct injection systems. engine using a

CranFcase )entilation is e)en more im!ortant for hydrogen engines engines. ,s *ith gasoline engines, unburnt fuel can see! by the !iston rings and enter the cranFcase. -ince hydrogen has a lo*er energy ignition limit than gasoline, any unburnt hydrogen entering the cranFcase has a greater from chance of igniting. through Hydrogen should be !re)ented accumulating )entilation. than for gasoline

Ignition *ithin the cranFcase can be just a startling noise or result in engine fire. =hen hydrogen ignites *ithin the cranFcase, a sudden !ressure rise occurs. To relie)e this !ressure, a !ressure relief )al)e must be installed on the )al)e co)er. , ty!ical !ressure relief )al)e installation is sho*n in "igure 3

'irect injection systems re>uire a higher fuel rail !ressure than the other methods.

"igure 1. Injection

Cryogenic !ort

F. Cran&case 'entilation

"igure 3. ressure %elief Aal)e on engine CranFcase

E+haust gases can also see! by the !iston rings into the cranFcase. -ince hydrogen e+haust is *ater )a!or, *ater can condense in the cranFcase *hen !ro!er )entilation is not !ro)ided. The mi+ing of *ater into the cranFcase oil reduces its lubrication ability, resulting in a higher degree of engine *ear. G. T!ermal Efficiency The theoretical thermodynamic efficiency of an &tto cycle engine is based on the com!ression ratio of the engine and the s!ecific2heat ratio of the fuel as sho*n in the e>uation@ KthC#2#?8A#?A59LB2# 859 =here@ A#?A5 C the com!ression ratio B C ratio of s!ecific heats Kth C theoretical thermodynamic efficiency The higher the com!ression ratio and?or the s!ecific2heat ratio, the higher the indicated thermodynamic efficiency of the engine. The com!ression ratio limit of an engine is based on the fuelDs resistance to FnocF. , lean hydrogen mi+ture is less susce!tible to FnocF than con)entional gasoline and

therefore can tolerate higher com!ression ratios. The s!ecific2heat ratio is related to the fuelDs molecular structure. The less com!le+ the molecular structure, the higher the s!ecific2heat ratio. Hydrogen 8B C #..9 has a much sim!ler molecular gasoline structure and therefore than its

s!ecific2heat ratio is higher than that of con)entional gasoline 8B C #.#9. E. Emissions


combustion *ith


hydrogen !roduct@


!roduces *ater as its only

5H5 M &5 C 5H5& 849

The combustion of hydrogen *ith air ho*e)er cans also !ro2 duce nitrogen o+ides 8$&+9 H5 M &5 M $5 C H5& M $5 M $&+ 8.9 The o+ides of nitrogen are created due to the high tem!eratures generated *ithin the combustion chamber during combustion. This high tem!erature causes some of the nitrogen in the air to combine *ith the o+ygen in the air. The amount of $&+ formed de!ends on@ E The air?fuel ratio

E The engine com!ression ratio E The engine s!eed E The ignition timing 6ore -troFe

A. Tec!nical "ata for B(W Researc! Engine 3I mm 3I mm .77.I cmO Aariable, !resently #/.0P# #// bar 7.0 mm?7.0 mm =et ,!!ro+. 5I/ Fg
Table #. Engine -!ecification

-*e!t )olume Com!ression Ma+. cylinder !ressure Ma+. )al)e lift III. C,-E -T('Y &" 6M= HY'%&<E$ 1 Cylinder liners 'ry *eight

"igure 7. 6M= Hydrogen 1

B. Emission from t!e ydrogen $C Engine compare )it! Gasoline Engine "ig.#/ illustrates a ty!ically $&+ cur)e relati)e to !hi for a hydrogen engine. , similar gra!h including other emissions is sho*n in "ig## for gasoline

The Hydrogen 1 is based on the long2*heelbase )ersion of the current 6M= 1 -eries model. There are scarcely any )isible changes to the body, but a number of com!onents ha)e been ne*ly de)elo!ed on account of the )ehicleDs higher *eight and the need to handle the hydrogen fuel .The su!er insulated li>uefied hydrogen tanF is entirely ne*, as are se)eral *eight2o!timiNed body areas of com!osite construction using carbon2fiber reinforced !lastic 8C% 9 and steel :#;.

"igure #/. Emission from Hy2 ICE.

)ehicles, in)ol)ing both technological im!ro)ements so it is com!etiti)e *ith gasoline2 based alternati)es as *ell as im!lementing a hydrogen fueling infrastructure. QooFing beyond those similarities, distinctions >uicFly arise due to the nature of the hydrogen ICE
"igure##. Emission from <asoline Engine

technology that differentiates it from fuel cell and gasoline )ehicles. This !a!er has indicated the ad)antages of hydrogen as a fuel for s!arF ignited internal combustion engines and has sho*n that the hydrogen engine is gro*ing u!. ,n o)er)ie* is gi)en of the de)elo!ment by car manufacturers and also of the research at the laboratory of Trans!ort Technology

,s "ig. ##. -ho*s, the $&+ for a gasoline engine is re2duce as !hi decreases 8similar to a hydrogen engine9. Ho*2e)er, in a gasoline engine the reduction in $&+ is com!romised by an increase in carbon mono+ide and hydrocarbon.

IA. C&$CQ(-I&$Much liFe hydrogen fuel cell )ehicles, hydrogen ICE )ehicles !resent a considerable !romise@ the chance to im!ro)e energy security and reduce carbon dio+ide emissions by *eaning the light duty )ehicle sector off of gasoline. ,nd much liFe hydrogen "CAs, there are significant barriers to the ado!tion of hydrogen ICE A. %E"E%E$CE-

:#; 6M= Hydrogen 1@ the first !remium saloon *ith a bi)alent IC engine. :5; ,ce)es -.M. and -mith R.%.@ Hybrid and con)entional hydrogen engine )ehicles :4; ***.ho*stuff* :.; ***.metacra* :0; *** :I; ***