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RA41209EN10GLA0

LTE Performance Simulations


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LTE RPESS
LTE Performance Simulations
RA41209EN10GLA0
LTE Performance Simulations
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Nokia Siemens Networks Academy
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LTE Performance Simulations
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Module Objectives
After completing this module, the participant should be able to:
Compare expected LTE spectral efficiency, latency, cell
range and peak data rates with other mobile technologies.
Examine LTE Link Level Simulation
Review the comparison between LTE Reuse factor 1 & 3
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Module Contents
Spectral Efficiency
Latency Evolution
Cell Range
Peak Data Rates
TDD Performance
Performance Evolution
LTE Link Level Simulation
LTE Reuse 1 vs. Reuse 3 Comparison (FREAC dynamic
system simulator used)
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Module Contents
Spectral Efficiency
Latency Evolution
Cell Range
Peak Data Rates
TDD Performance
Performance Evolution
LTE Link Level Simulation
LTE Reuse 1 vs. Reuse 3 Comparison (FREAC dynamic
system simulator used)
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Downlink Spectral Efficiency
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
UTRA baseline E-UTRA 2x2
b
p
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/
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Alcatel-Lucent
Ericsson
Huawei
InterDigital
Motorola
NEC
Nortel
Nokia-Siemens
Qualcomm
Samsung
Texax Instruments
Average
HSPA
0.53 bps
LTE 1.69
bps
Downlink spectral efficiency shown to be 3 x HSPA R6 (=UTRA baseline),
which was the target of LTE
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Uplink Spectral Efficiency
Uplink spectral efficiency shown to be >2 x HSPA R6, which was the
target of LTE
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
UTRA baseline E-UTRA 1x2
b
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H
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Alcatel-Lucent
Ericsson
Huawei
InterDigital
Motorola
NEC
Nortel
Nokia-Siemens
Qualcomm
Samsung
Texax Instruments
Average
HSPA
0.33 bps
LTE 0.74
bps
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Key Features for LTE Downlink Spectral Efficiency
Compared to HSPA R6
Inter-cell interference rejection combining
or cancellation
MIMO = combined use of 2 tx and 2 rx
antennas
Frequency domain packet scheduling
+10%
+20%
+40%
Total gain up to 3.1x
OFDM with frequency domain
equalization
+20..70%
Compared to single antenna
BTS tx and 2-rx terminal
Not feasible in HSPA due to
cdma modulation
Possible also in HSPA but
better performance in OFDM
solution
Due to orthogonality
Up to 1000 subscribers per LTE node B can be supported (1+1+1 @20 MHz)
ICIC: Way of controlling interference in UL by controlling the PRB range that can be
used by the scheduler. Applied to PUSCH (Allows frequency reuse schemes).
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Spectral Efficiency Relative to 10 MHz
0 %
20 %
40 %
60 %
80 %
100 %
120 %
1.4 MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 20 MHz
Downlink
Uplink
LTE Efficiency vs. Bandwidth
-40% -13% Reference
LTE maintains high efficiency with bandwidth down to 5 MHz
The differences between bandwidths come from frequency scheduling
gain and different overheads
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0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
GSM
EFR
GSM
AMR
GSM
DFCA
WCDMA
CS voice
HSPA R7
VoIP
LTE VoIP
U
s
e
r

p
e
r

M
H
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Voice Spectral Efficiency Evolution from GSM to LTE
15 x more users per MHz with 3GPP LTE than with GSM EFR!
VoIP is the way to go for future voice in mobile systems
CS voice (AMR) VoIP (AMR12.2)
Note also
CS voice
over HSPA
GSM-EFR is a speech coding standard that was developed in order to improve the
quite poor quality of GSM-Full Rate (FR) codec. Working at 12.2 kbit/s the EFR
provides wirelike quality in any noise free and background noise conditions.
3 GPP (R2-073487): Supporting CS over HSPA improvements in user plane latency
and system capacity
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Module Contents
Spectral Efficiency
Latency Evolution
Cell Range
Peak Data Rates
TDD Performance
Performance Evolution
LTE Link Level Simulation
LTE Reuse 1 vs. Reuse 3 Comparison (FREAC dynamic
system simulator used)
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0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
HSPA (10-ms) i-HSPA (2-ms) LTE
ms
Latency Evolution
LTE specs enable
10 ms round trip
time
Approx 15 ms gain
expected from
shorter 2-ms TTI
Internet-HSPA provides further improvement in latency
WiMAX latency expected 30 ms
Reference: DSL can provide <10 ms round trip time
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Module Contents
Spectral Efficiency
Latency Evolution
Cell Range
Peak Data Rates
TDD Performance
Performance Evolution
LTE Link Level Simulation
LTE Reuse 1 vs. Reuse 3 Comparison (FREAC dynamic
system simulator used)
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Suburban indoor
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00
LTE900
LTE2100
LTE2500 FDD
WiMAX 2500 TDD
WiMAX 3400 TDD
km
Uplink
Downlink
Cell Range
Assumptions:
Suburban area
50 m BTS antenna
15 dB indoor loss
95% location probability
Correction factor -5 dB
1.5 m terminal antenna height
Cell range gets shorter at higher frequency and with TDD
Cell range for LTE varies in DL from 3.6 km ( LTE900 FDD) to 1.6 km ( LTE 2500
FDD)
Downlink: 1 Mbps
Uplink: 64 kbps
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Module Contents
Spectral Efficiency
Latency Evolution
Cell Range
Peak Data Rates
TDD Performance
Performance Evolution
LTE Link Level Simulation
LTE Reuse 1 vs. Reuse 3 Comparison (FREAC dynamic
system simulator used)
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Peak Data Rates in Theory
HSPA FDD
4
WiMAX
TDD
1
LTE FDD
8.6 Mbps
4.1 Mbps 7 Mbps
-
8.3 Mbps
29 Mbps - (16.6 Mbps)
58 Mbps
1
Downlink:uplink ratio 29:18
2
Downlink with 64QAM and 5/6 coding
3
Uplink with 16QAM and coding
4
HSPA 3GPP R7 assumed
Uplink
3
HSPA FDD
4
WiMAX
TDD
1
LTE FDD
2x3.5 (1x7) MHz - 28 Mbps -
2x5 (1x10) MHz
-
40 Mbps 43 Mbps
2x10 (1x20) MHz - (80 Mbps) 86 Mbps
Downlink 2x2MIMO
2
= typical bandwidth
2x2.5 (1x5) MHz
35 Mbps
20 Mbps 21 Mbps
- 5.5 Mbps -
2x20 MHz - - 173 Mbps
2x3.5 (1x7) MHz
2x5 (1x10) MHz
2x10 (1x20) MHz
2x2.5 (1x5) MHz
2x20 MHz
-
14 Mbps
-
HSPA and WiMAX peak rates are similar
LTE has highest peak data rates due to
2x20 MHz spectrum
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LTE Peak Data Rates
Downlink: Peak Rate 172 Mbps with 2x2 MIMO and 20 MHz
Modulation coding 1.4 MHz 3.0 MHz 5.0 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz
QPSK 1/2 Single stream 0.7 2.1 3.5 7.0 10.6 14.1
16QAM 1/2 Single stream 1.4 4.1 7.0 14.1 21.2 28.3
16QAM 3/4 Single stream 2.2 6.2 10.5 21.1 31.8 42.4
64QAM 3/4 Single stream 3.3 9.3 15.7 31.7 47.7 63.6
64QAM 4/4 Single stream 4.3 12.4 21.0 42.3 63.6 84.9
64QAM 3/4 2x2 MIMO 6.6 18.9 31.9 64.3 96.7 129.1
64QAM 1/1 2x2 MIMO 8.8 25.3 42.5 85.7 128.9 172.1
64QAM 1/1 4x4 MIMO 16.6 47.7 80.3 161.9 243.5 325.1
Modulation coding 1.4 MHz 3.0 MHz 5.0 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz
QPSK 1/2 Single stream 0.7 2.0 3.5 7.1 10.8 14.3
16QAM 1/2 Single stream 1.4 4.0 6.9 14.1 21.6 28.5
16QAM 3/4 Single stream 2.2 6.0 10.4 21.2 32.4 42.8
16QAM 1/1 Single stream 2.9 8.1 13.8 28.2 43.2 57.0
64QAM 3/4 Single stream 3.2 9.1 15.6 31.8 48.6 64.2
64QAM 1/1 Single stream 4.3 12.1 20.7 42.3 64.8 85.5
64QAM 1/1 V-MIMO (cell) 8.6 24.2 41.5 84.7 129.6 171.1
20 MHz
Uplink: Peak Rate 57 Mbps with 20 MHz and 16QAM
Following overheads not reduced: CRC, L2/L3 headers, IP headers
Following overheads reduced
Synchronization, reference, PBCH, PCFICH, PHICH and 1 PDCCH
symbol
Relative overheads
Reference symbol overhead 9.5% with 2x2 MIMO
PDCCH overhead 7.1% with single symbol (two symbols with 1.4
MHz)
Other overheads <1% with 10 MHz bandwidth
UPLINK
Following overheads not reduced: CRC, L2/L3 headers, IP headers
Following overheads reduced
1 symbol for reference symbol
1 resource block for PUCCH
Relative overheads
Reference symbol overhead 14.3%
PUCCH overhead 2.5%
VIRTUAL MIMO: (multi user MIMO) 2 UEs with 1Tx antenna each can communicate
with an eNodeB simultaneously using the same resource blocks simultaneously ( A
way for operators to increase capacity). As UEs are assumed to be physically distant
from each other the resulting combined transmissions arrive at the eNodeB as
multipath and can be processed in the same way as separate MIMO streams. It
doubles capacity of the UL.
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NSN RL10 DL and UL net data rates
Marketing figure of 86.4 Mbps theoretical for 10MHz BW and 172.8Mbps for
20MHz BWnet PHY peak (assuming single OFDM symbol for PDCCH, reference
symbols for 2 transmit antennas and code rate 1) cannot be demonstrated as
code rate 1 is not defined in 3GPP
DL conditions:
2x2 MIMO with single OFDM symbol for PDCCH and code rate 0.9
Marketing figure of 28.4 Mbps theoretical for 10MHz BW and 56.8Mbps for
20MHz BWnet PHY peak (assuming single PUCCH pair, no sounding, PRACH
every 20 ms and code rate 1) cannot be demonstrated as code rate 1 is not
defined in 3GPP
UL conditions:
single PUCCH pair, no sounding, PRACH every 20 ms and code rate 0.83
DL UL
76.2 Mbps LTE 10 MHz 23.4 Mbps
153 Mbps LTE 20 MHz 47.4 Mbps
Informative:
DL Spectrum Efficiency (loaded network)
R6 HSPA 0.6 bps/Hz/sector --> LTE 1.8 bps/Hz/sector with 2x2 MIMO (c.f. 3GPP 25.913 3-4
times R6 HSPA)
translates to 18 Mbps and 36Mbps average sector throughput for 10MHz and 20MHz
bandwidths respectively in fully loaded macro environment
Informative:
UL Spectrum Efficiency (loaded network)
R6 HSPA 0.33 bps/Hz/sector --> LTE 0.75 bps/Hz/sector with single TX antenna at UE (c.f.
3GPP 25.913 2-3 times R6 HSPA)
translates to 7.5Mbps (10MHz) and15 Mbps (20MHz) average sector throughput in fully
loaded macro environment
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Cell Edge Data Rate Simulations
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Distance from BTS [relative to cell radius, 1=cell edge]
M
b
p
s
LTE 20 MHz
LTE 10 MHz
LTE 5 MHz
HSDPA 5 MHz
Cell edge G-factor = -4 dB
2x2 MIMO
Median (50%) data rate over
the cell area (70% distance)
HSDPA 3.4 Mbps
LTE 10 MHz 8 Mbps
LTE 20 MHZ 16 Mbps
G- factor: own cell to other cell interference value
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Module Contents
Spectral Efficiency
Latency Evolution
Cell Range
Peak Data Rates
TDD Performance
Performance Evolution
LTE Link Level Simulation
LTE Reuse 1 vs. Reuse 3 Comparison (FREAC dynamic
system simulator used)
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TDD Performance
FDD has better coverage than TDD
When coming closer to cell edge, TDD tries to increase bandwidth earlier as Tx
time is reduced
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Module Contents
Spectral Efficiency
Latency Evolution
Cell Range
Peak Data Rates
TDD Performance
Performance Evolution
LTE Link Level Simulation
LTE Reuse 1 vs. Reuse 3 Comparison (FREAC dynamic
system simulator used)
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1.3/0.4
1.4 20
MHz
see HSPA
R6 & R8
5 MHz Bandwidth 5 MHz
Performance Evolution
PS only, VoIP
Broadband
PS and CS
over HSPA
Broadband
PS
Services
1.7/0.7
173/58
Mbps
10-20 ms
LTE
2
0.5
3
/0.3
Spectral efficiency
Mbps/MHz/cell DL/UL
see HSPA
R6 & R7/R8
14/5.7
Mbps
Peak data rate DL/UL
25 ms 40-60 ms
I-HSPA HSPA R6
CS and high
speed PS
0.2/0.2
384/384
kbps
100-200
ms
WCDMA
5 MHz
Broadband
PS and CS
over HSPA
43
4
/11.5
Mbps
HSPA
R7/R8
5-10 MHz
unpaired (TDD)
PS only,
VoIP
1.4/0.6
40/10
Mbps
30-50 ms
WIMAX
1
Flat
Flat
RNC
based
Architecture
RNC
based
RNC based Flat
63/48
(DL/UL)
Flat for S
27
3
/17
(DL/UL)
Voice efficiency
User/MHz/Cell
18
36/25
(DL/UL)
see HSPA
R6 & R7/R8
see HSPA
R6 & R7/R8
20
1
DL/UL ratio=29:18, with 2x2 MIMO @ 10 MHz TDD
2
with 2x2 MIMO @ 20 MHz
Latency 25-35 ms
3
With Rake receiver terminals
4
28Mbps with Rel7, 43Mbps with Rel8
HSPA R7/R8: values for 2x2 MIMO and 64 QAM
Latency for HSPA Rel 6 with 10ms TTI, 2 ms TTI considered for REl7/Rel8
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Module Contents
Spectral Efficiency
Latency Evolution
Cell Range
Peak Data Rates
TDD Performance
Performance Evolution
LTE Link Level Simulation
LTE Reuse 1 vs. Reuse 3 Comparison (FREAC dynamic
system simulator used)
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Link Simulations and Mapping are used to support System
Level Simulator
Mapping Functions
SINRoBER ( C/I, Fade ) BLER
C/I, Fade
BER, BLER
The link simulator is run one
time to generate the
mapping functions
SINRoBER and BERoBLER.
The network simulator uses
SINRoBER and BERoBLER
in subsequent simulations.
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Typical Example of Supported Features of Link Level
Simulator for LTE
SC-FDMA uplink, OFDMA downlink
short and long CP format
UTRA Rel-6 Turbo Code and Rate Matching
HARQ
RX/TX diversity (MRC, Alamouti)
MIMO, 2x2 spatial multiplexing; (ZF, MMSE, sphere
decoder)
Realistic channel estimation and realistic noise power
estimation
real like RF processing
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Typical link level results example BLER-SNR curves
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Module Contents
Spectral Efficiency
Latency Evolution
Cell Range
Peak Data Rates
TDD Performance
Performance Evolution
LTE Link Level Simulation
LTE Reuse 1 vs. Reuse 3 Comparison (FREAC dynamic
system simulator used)
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SINR Distribution
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
-15.0 -10.0 -5.0 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0
[dB]
c
d
f

%
10MHz Reuse 1 (Reference) 5MHz Reuse3 (Reference) 5MHz Reuse1(Reference)
10MHz Reuse 1 (Large) 5MHz Reuse3 (Large) 5MHz Reuse 1 (Large)
Impact of Reuse on SINR Distributions
5 MHz Reuse 3 provides a better SINR distribution (less interference):
8 dB better than 5 & 10 MHz Reuse 1, reference case (50 percentile)
Large Scenario causes a degradation in SINR compared to reference case
2-3dB at 50 percentile
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LTE BW (10 & 5 MHz) & freq. reuse (R3 & R1) user
throughput comparison
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
1
0
M
H
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_
R
1
_
M
a
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1
_
l
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d
1
0
0
%
5
M
H
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_
R
3
_
M
a
c
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o
1
_
l
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a
d
1
0
0
%
5
M
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R
1
_
M
a
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o
1
_
l
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1
0
0
%
1
0
M
H
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R
1
_
L
a
r
g
e
M
a
c
r
o
_
lo
a
d
1
0
0
%
5
M
H
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R
3
_
L
a
r
g
e
M
a
c
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o
_
l
o
a
d
1
0
0
%
5
M
H
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R
1
_
L
a
r
g
e
M
a
c
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o
_
l
o
a
d
1
0
0
%
5% user throughput [kbps/s]
50% user throughput [kbits/s]
"95% user throughput [kbits/s]
mean user throughput [kbits/s]
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18.98
12.61
8.75
6.37
14.08
9.06
8.18
5.01
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
15MHz Reuse1 10MHz Reuse 1 5MHz Reuse3 5MHz Reuse1
M
b
p
s
Reference Case Large Case
Executive Summary Cell Capacity
Best Spectral Efficiency with 15MHz
R1
5 MHz Reuse 3 provides a capacity gain
relative to 5 MHz Reuse 1
15 MHz Reuse 1 provides a gain relative to 5
MHz Reuse 3
* Capacity is based Link level results for SIMO 1Tx2Rx configuration
Downlink
Capacity (Mbps)
15MHz Reuse1 10MHz Reuse 1 5MHz Reuse3 5MHz Reuse1
Reference Case 18.98 12.61 8.75 6.37
Large Case 14.08 9.06 8.18 5.01
Delta (%) 25.85% 28.15% 6.49% 21.31%
Delta (Mbps) 4.91 3.55 0.57 1.36
SE
(bps/Hz/sector)
Reference Case
1.27 1.26 0.58 1.27
SE
(bps/Hz/sector)
Large Case
0.94 0.91 0.55 1.00
15 MHz Reuse 1 suffers more with Large scenario vs Original
25.8% vs 6.5%,
BUT capacity still higher than 5MHz Reuse 3
14.1Mbps vs 8.2Mbps
For same total Bandwidth
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Executive Summary
Objective
Compare the Performance of Reuse 1 vs. Reuse 3 configurations
Same total bandwidth in both configurations
Compare Impact of different cell size on the performance
Methodology
SINR from Dynamic Network Simulator
Standard Hexagonal 57 Cells scenario based on 3GPP Macro Case 1
Reference Scenario: 3000m ISD, Large Scenario: 7200m ISD (4x size factor)
Antenna configuration: 1Tx2Rx(MRC) with TxPower 60W
Capacity based on Full Buffer traffic model and 100% load
10MHz R1, 5MHz R1, 5MHz R3 simulated, 700MHz Band
Conclusions
5MHz R3 vs 5MHz R1
27% to 37% gain for 3 times more spectrum
15MHz R1 vs 5MHz R1
67% to 64% gain with 3 times more spectrum
4x Larger Inter Site Distance Scenarios
Higher Throughput degradation respect to reference with R1.
Still 42% Higher Throughput with 15MHz R1 than 5MHz R3