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Introduction to ILWIS 3.


Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

ILWIS is an acronym for the Integrated Land and Water Information System . It is a Geographic Information System GIS! "ith Image Processing capa#i$ities. ILWIS has #een de%e$oped #y the Internationa$ Instit&te for Aerospace S&r%ey and Earth Sciences ITC!' Enschede' The (ether$ands. As a GIS and Remote Sensing pac)age' ILWIS a$$o"s yo& to inp&t' manage' ana$y*e and present geo+graphica$ data. ,rom the data yo& can generate information on the spatia$ and tempora$ patterns and processes on the earth s&rface. Geographic Information Systems are no"adays indispensa#$e in many different fie$ds of app$ications to assist in the decision ma)ing process. -ost decisions are inf$&enced #y some facts of geography. What is at a certain $ocation. Where are the most s&ita#$e sites. Where' "hen and "hich changes too) p$ace. Here are some e/amp$es. + In $and &se p$anning' GIS is &sed to e%a$&ate the conse0&ences of different scenarios in the de%e$opment of a region. + In geo$ogy' GIS is &sed to find the most s&ita#$e p$aces for mining' or to determine areas s&#1ect to nat&ra$ ha*ards. + Areas that may #e affected #y po$$&tion are ana$y*ed &sing GIS f&nctions. + E/tensions of cities are p$anned' #ased on ana$ysis of many spatia$ and tempora$ patterns' etc. In order to #e a#$e to ma)e the right decisions' access to different sorts of information is re0&ired. The data sho&$d #e maintained and &pdated and sho&$d #e &sed in the ana$ysis to o#tain &sef&$ information. In this process ILWIS can #e an important too$. This chapter is intended to introd&ce yo& to ILWIS' and specifica$$y to the &ser interface. 2o& "i$$ $earn ho" to start ILWIS' the f&nctions of the -ain "indo" and ho" to open maps and ta#$es. ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

1.1 Starting ILWIS

Figure 1.1: The ILWIS -ain "indo".

To start ILWIS' do&#$e+c$ic) the ILWIS icon on the des)top. After the opening screen yo& see the ILWIS Main window see ,ig&re 1.1!. ,rom this "indo" yo& can manage yo&r data and start a$$ operations. The ILWIS -ain "indo" consists #y defa&$t! of a Title bar' a Menu bar' a Standard toolbar' an Object selection toolbar' a Command line' a Catalog' a Status bar and an Operations/Navigator pane "ith an Operation-tree' an Operation-list and a Navigator. There is a possi#i$ity that the right+centra$ part i.e. the Cata$og! of the -ain "indo" on yo&r screen does not $oo) e/act$y the same as sho"n in ,ig&re 1.1. This may #e d&e to the fact that yo& ha%e another system config&ration and3or that d&ring the insta$$ation of ILWIS yo& decided to copy the data fi$es to a different directory than the standard start+&p directory C45ILWIS 6.7 8ata5.

IL WIS 3.0 User s Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

1.1.1 The Navigator

9efore contin&ing "ith the e/ercises yo& first need to change to the s&#directory C45ILWIS 6.7 8ata5:sers G&ide5Chapter71' "here the data fi$es for this chapter are stored.

ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

2o& can &se the Navigator ,ig&re 1.;! to change the c&rrent dri%e and "or)ing directory.

Figure 1.2: The ILWIS (a%igator.

$ C$ic) the "ord (a%igator in the <perations3(a%igator pane.

The (a%igator $ists a$$ dri%es and directories i.e. fo$ders! in a tree str&ct&re. The (a%igator a$so has a History to easi$y ret&rn to pre%io&s$y %isited dri%es and directories.



$ C$ic) on the dri%es and fo$ders in the (a%igator &nti$ yo& are in the directo+
ry "here the data for this chapter has #een stored. 9y defa&$t the data is $ocated in C45ILWIS 6.7 8ata5:sers G&ide5Chapter71. If yo& are in the correct directory C45ILWIS 6.7 8ata5:sers G&ide5Chapter71 yo& "i$$ see' that the right hand side of the -ain "indo"' $oo)s e/act$y the same as ,ig&re 1.6. This part of the -ain "indo"' in "hich maps' ta#$es and other ILWIS o#1ects in the "or)ing directory are disp$ayed each "ith its o"n type of icon' is ca$$ed the Catalog. When yo& do&#$e+c$ic) an o#1ect in the Cata$og' it "i$$ #e disp$ayed.

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

Figure 1.3: E/amp$e of a Cata$og of the ILWIS -ain "indo".

The fo$$o"ing o#1ects' re$ated to the area s&rro&nding the city of Cocha#am#a in 9o$i%ia' can #e seen4 Cocha#am#a A coordinate system' containing the definition of the coordinate system the minim&m and ma/im&m coordinates of the st&dy area and optiona$$y the map pro1ection! &sed for the maps of the Cocha#am#a area= Land&se A domain' $isting names of the mapping &nits in the Land&se map and the Land&se ta#$e= Land&se A polygon map containing $and &se &nits in the st&dy area the city of Cocha#am#a and s&rro&ndings in 9o$i%ia!= Land&se A representation' containing the co$or assignments of the mapping &nits in the Land&se map= Land&se An attribute table containing information on the $and &se &nits= >ie"681 e/p$aining the content of the raster map >ie"681= >ie"681 A raster map' containing a three dimensiona$ pict&re of the st&dy area= >ie"681 A representation' containing the co$or assignments of the pi/e$s in raster map >ie"68; >ie"68; >ie"68; A domain, raster map and representation of another 68 pict&re >ie"68;. ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide % IL WIS 3.0 User s Guide

A domain'

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

,or a comp$ete $ist of ILWIS o#1ects and their icons' see the s&mmary of section 1.1 or the ILWIS He$p topic 9asic concepts' ILWIS o#1ects and icons.

$ C$ic) the C&stomi*e Cata$og #&tton

usto&i'ing the ata!og

in the

1.1 and 1.A! ,ig&res of the -ain "indo". The C&stomi*e Cata$og sheet is opened. Standard too$#ar

To sho" on$y maps and ta#$es in the Cata$og4 and 4 The o#1ect Se$ection ta# contains a $ist #o/ in "hich the o#1ect types that are sho"n in the Cata$og appear high$ighted. 2o& i.e. the

$ <n the o#1ect Se$ection ta#' se$ect the first o#1ect type

Raster -ap!' )eep the $eft mo&se #&tton pressed and mo%e the mo&se pointer to the $ast o#1ect yo& "ant to se$ect i.e. the Ta#$e!. $ Re$ease the mo&se #&tton and c$ic) <B. see that all ILWIS o#1ects are se$ected. To sho" on$y the map and ta#$e o#1ects' i.e. the o#1ects "ith the icons ' ' ' 2o& "i$$ see that the Cata$og has changed and that no" on$y the map and ta#$e o#1ects are sho"n in the c&rrent Cata$og. The ILWIS -ain "indo" may sho" more

than one Cata$og. 2o& can th&s )eep yo&r data organi*ed in different directories.

$ Position the mo&se pointer on an o#1ect' for e/amp$e on po$ygon map

Land&se. A description of this map "i$$ appear on the Stat&s #ar ,ig&re 1.@! of the -ain "indo".

2o& can open another Cata$og #y c$ic)ing the (e" Cata$og #&tton
Cata$og command on the Windo" men& of the -ain "indo".

in the

Standard too$#ar and se$ecting a ne" directory. 2o& can a$so se$ect the (e"

1.1.3 Tit!e (ar and )enu (ar

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0 The Title bar ,ig&re 1.C! sho"s the name of the c&rrent$y acti%e Cata$og. 2o& can mo%e a "indo" to another position on the screen #y dragging that "indo"Ds Tit$e #ar to another position.
Figure 1.%: Tit$e #ar of the ILWIS -ain "indo".

ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

The Menu bar ,ig&re 1.E! can #e &sed for e/amp$e to start an operation. The ILWIS -ain "indo" has si/ men&s4 ,i$e' Edit' <perations' >ie"' Windo" and He$p.
Figure 1.*: The -en& #ar of the -ain "indo".

men& contains commands for a$$ ILWIS operations' "hich are gro&ped. The triang$es to the right of the commands on a men& indicate that there is another cascading men&. $ Position the mo&se pointer on the command Image Processing. A s&#men& appears. $ Se$ect the ,i$ter command. The ,i$tering dia$og #o/ is opened. In this dia$og #o/ yo& can se$ect among other things the inp&t maps for an operation.

$ C$ic) <perations in the -en& #ar. The <perations men& is opened. The

$ C$ose the dia$og #o/ #y c$ic)ing the Cance$ #&tton. $ <pen some more men&s and ha%e a $oo) at their contents. The Stat&s #ar
at the #ottom of the -ain "indo"! gi%es short e/p$anations.

1.1.% The +,eration-tree and +,eration-!ist

Let &s no" concentrate on the another part of the ILWIS -ain "indo". The Operation-tree and the Operation-list ,ig&re 1.F! are $ocated on the first t"o ta#s in the <perations3(a%igator pane' #y defa&$t a$ong the $eft+hand side of the -ain "indo". + The <peration+tree pro%ides a tree str&ct&re for all ILWIS operations' simi$ar to the <perations men&. + The <peration+$ist contains an alphabetic list of a$$ ILWIS operations. In the <peration+tree as "e$$ as in the <peration+$ist each item is preceded #y an icon. The icon indicates the o&tp&t data type of the operation. 9y do&#$e+c$ic)ing an operation' the operation "i$$ #e started. We "i$$ do this $ater.

Figure 1..: ILWIS <peration+tree $eft! and ILWIS <peration+$ist right!.

IL WIS 3.0 User s Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

$ In the <peration+tree' do&#$e+c$ic) Image Processing' or c$ic) on the G in front of the

Image Processingicon ' to e/pand the Image Processing tree.

$ Position the mo&se pointer on one of the operations' for e/amp$e on the
,i$ter operation.

1.1.* Status (ar

When the mo&se pointer is positioned on an operation' the Status bar ,ig&re 1.@!' $ocated at the #ottom of the -ain "indo"' sho"s a short description of that operation.
Figure 1./: The Stat&s #ar of the ILWIS -ain "indo".

To get more information on an operation4 A Conte/t+sensiti%e men& is a men&' "hich gi%es on$y those men& commands that are

$ In the <peration+$ist' c$ic) "ith the right mo&se #&tton on an operation and se$ect
a short e/p$anation of the operation.

He$p from the conte/t+sensiti%e men&. An Additiona$ He$p "indo" appears "ith

$ 2o& can c$ose the Additiona$ He$p "indo" again #y pressing the C$ose #&t+ton
do&#$e+c$ic)ing tro$+men& icon .the con+ in the Tit$e #ar of the He$p "indo" or #y

The Stat&s #ar a$so gi%es short information "hen yo& mo%e the mo&se pointer o%er a men& command' o%er a #&tton in the Too$#ar or o%er an o#1ect in the Cata$og. app$ica#$e to the moment yo& &se the right mo&se #&tton= th&s yo& "i$$ get a different

$ In the Cata$og' c$ic) "ith the right mo&se #&tton on po$ygon map Land&se
to get a conte t-sensitive menu. men& depending on "here and "hen yo& &se the right+mo&se #&tton. ,or e/amp$e' if yo& &se the right mo&se #&tton on a po$ygon map' the conte/t+sensiti%e men& "i$$ on$y sho" the operations "hich can #e app$ied on po$ygon maps. Conte/t+sensiti%e men&s are shortc&ts for norma$ men& commands.

1.1.. Too!(ars o0 the )ain 1indo1

2o& "i$$ go #ac) to the -ain "indo" to see three more items. 9e$o" the men&' yo& find t"o too$#ars4 + The Standard too$#ar + The <#1ect se$ection too$#ar ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

The Standard too!(ar

Figure 1.3: Standard too$#ar of the ILWIS -ain "indo".

The Standard toolbar ,ig&re 1.A! pro%ides shortc&ts for some reg&$ar$y &sed men& commands.

The Standard too$#ar has the fo$$o"ing #&ttons4

(e" Cata$og <pen -ap <pen Pi/e$ Information Copy Paste 8e$ete Properties C&stomi*e Cata$og List 8etai$s cd..

When yo& $ea%e the mo&se pointer for a short period of time on top of a #&tton a ToolTip "i$$ appear "ith the name of the #&tton3men& command that it "i$$ perform. A$so the Stat&s #ar gi%es some information on the "or)ing of the #&tton. So far' yo& ha%e &sed the C&stomi*e Cata$og #&tton . <ther #&ttons that yo& "i$$ pro#a#$y &se fre0&ent$y are4 List. Sho" the o#1ects in the c&rrent Cata$og as a list of icons and o#1ect names. 8etai$s. Sho" the details of the o#1ects in the c&rrent Cata$og in a ta#$e+$i)e form. This "i$$ #e e/p$ained in more detai$ in chapter ;.

Figure 1.44 The <#1ect se$ection too$#ar.

The +(2ect se!ection too!(ar

IL WIS 3.0 User s Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0 The Object selection toolbar ,ig&re 1.H! a$$o"s yo& to specify the o#1ect types that yo& "ish to see in the c&rrent Cata$og. <n$y the o#1ect types of "hich the #&tton appears down "i$$ #e sho"n. ,or a $ist of a$$ ILWIS o#1ect types and icons' see the s&mmary of section 1.1. The first #&tton' the ILWIS #&tton ' is &sed to hide a$$ o#1ects after "hich yo& can c$ic) specific o#1ect #&ttons' to sho" on$y these o#1ect types!' or to sho" a$$ o#1ect types. To add

ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

coordinate system Cocha#am#a to the Cata$og4

$ Press the Coordinate Systems #&tton

Coordinate se$ection too$#ar. system Cocha#am#a is no" added to the Cata$og. To hide the coordinate system again4

in the <#1ect

$ C$ic) the Coordinate Systems #&tton again.

1.1./ The o&&and !ine

The $ast item "e "i$$ disc&ss no" is the Command line ,ig&re 1.17!.
Figure 1.10: The ILWIS Command $ine.

,or #eginners' the Command $ine is not so important yet. 2o& can &se the Command $ine to type -apCa$c form&$as "hen yo& "ant to ca$c&$ate "ith raster maps chapter @! #&t a$so operations $i)e ,i$ter' etc.! can #e performed #y typing an e/pression on the Command $ine see chapter 1;!. The Command $ine has a History. 2o& can &se4 + the Arro" :p )ey of yo&r )ey#oard to retrie%e pre%io&s$y &sed e/pressions and commands= + the Arro" 8o"n )ey to scro$$ for"ards again' and + the Arro" 8o"n #&tton at the right hand side of the Command $ine to open a $ist of

$ <pen the He$p men&.

pre%io&s$y &sed commands and e/pressions.

1.1.3 Getting he!,

The ILWIS He$p a$$o"s yo& to o#tain information from any point "ithin the program. The He$p men& differs per "indo". In the -ain "indo" the He$p men& has

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0 many options= "e "i$$ e/p$ain a fe" of them no"4 + He$p on this Windo". 2o& o#tain he$p on the c&rrent "indo". 8epending on the "indo" from "hich yo& se$ect this he$p option' yo& can get he$p on the -ain "indo"' the map "indo"' the ta#$e "indo"' the pi/e$ information "indo"' etc. + Re$ated Topics.When this men& option is se$ected a dia$og #o/ appears "ith a $ist of topics that are re$ated to the c&rrent "indo". + Contents. 8isp$ays the He$p Contents. 9y c$ic)ing the $in)s in the ta#$e of contents yo& can go to any he$p topic yo& $i)e.

ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

+ Inde/. The Inde/ page of the ILWIS He$p is disp$ayed. Type a )ey"ord or c$ic) any )ey"ord in the $ist on "hich yo& "ish to get he$p. + Search. The ILWIS He$p %ie"er is opened "ith the Search ta# se$ected. Type some characters' a "ord' or a phrase on "hich yo& "ant to o#tain he$p and press Enter or c$ic) the List Topics#&tton to get a $ist of topics. In the Se$ect topic $ist #o/ se$ect the topic yo& "ant to disp$ay and c$ic) the 8isp$ay #&tton or press Enter . + 9asic Concepts.Gi%es an o%er%ie" of the #asic concepts of ILWIS. These

$ ,rom the He$p men&' se$ect the command He$p on this Windo". The
ILWIS He$p %ie"er ,ig&re 1.11! is opened and the he$p topic -ain Windo"' Contents is sho"n.

$ C$ic) the hyper$in) Introd&ction. The ILWIS He$p %ie"er refreshes and dis+
p$ays the topic -ain "indo"4 Introd&ction' in "hich a$$ parts of the -ain "indo" are e/p$ained.

$ C$ic) any of the $in)s. Another topic appears e/p$aining yo& more. concepts "i$$ #e treated in chapter ; of the :serDs G&ide.

Figure 1.11: The ILWIS HT-L He$p %ie"er.


IL WIS 3.0 User s Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

The ILWIS HT-L He$p %ie"er ,ig&re 1.11! has three parts4 +a Topic pane that sho"s the topic the &ser has se$ected= +a (a%igation pane "ith C ta#s4 a Contents ta#' an Inde/ ta#' a f&$$+te/t Search ta#' and a ,a%orite ta#= +a Too$#ar "hich a$$o"s &sers to Sho" or Hide the (a%igation pane' to mo%e ,or"ard to the ne/t topic or 9ac) to the pre%io&s topic' to go to the

ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

Home3Contents Page topic' and to adapt the ,ont si*e' to Print topics and to change the <ptions.

To find a He$p topic' c$ic) one of the fo$$o"ing ta#s in the he$p "indo"4 + To #ro"se thro&gh topics #y category' c$ic) the Contents ta#. + To see a $ist of inde/ entries' c$ic) the Inde/ ta# and then either type a "ord or scro$$ thro&gh the $ist. + To search for "ords or phrases that may #e contained in a he$p topic' c$ic) the

$ :se the #ro"se #&ttons 9ac) and ,or"ard to go page #y page thro&gh the He$p. $ Practice a #it more "ith the ILWIS He$p. When yo& ha%e finished' c$ose the
He$p "indo" #y do&#$e+c$ic)ing the Contro$+men& icon

in the Tit$e #arof the He$p %ie"er.

Search ta#. In the $eft of the He$p "indo"' c$ic) the topic' inde/ entry' or phrase to disp$ay the corresponding topic in the Topic pane.

Su&&ar5: the )ain 1indo1 o0 ILWIS When yo& start ILWIS' the first thing yo& "i$$ see after the opening screen is the ILWIS -ain "indo". ,rom this "indo" yo& can manage yo&r data' start a$$ operations and se$ect a$$ data. The -ain "indo" contains the fo$$o"ing items4 +A Catalog $ists the a%ai$a#$e maps' ta#$es and other ILWIS o#1ects in the c&rrent "or)ing directory. When yo& do&#$e+c$ic) an o#1ect' the o#1ect "i$$ #e opened. When yo& c$ic) an o#1ect "ith the right mo&se #&tton' yo& can choose to start an app$ication "ith the se$ected o#1ect as inp&t. The ILWIS -ain "indo" can sho" one or more Cata$og s!. + The ILWIS that can #e raster maps po$ygon systems maps o#1ect types and their icons sho"n in a Cata$og are4 georeferences coordinates histograms of segment maps

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0 raster maps point maps ta#$es map $ists o#1ect co$$ections $ayo&ts o#1ects domains representations histograms of po$ygon maps histograms of segment maps histograms of point maps samp$e sets map %ie"s t"o+dimensiona$ ta#$es matrices annotation te/t &ser+defined! fi$ters &ser+defined f&nctions scripts

ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

+ The Operation-tree pro%ides a tree str&ct&re for a$$ ILWIS operations' simi$ar to the <perations men&. + The Operation-list contains an a$pha#etic $ist of a$$ ILWIS operations. Each opera+ tion is preceded #y an icon= the icon indicates the o&tp&t data type of the operation. + The Navigator pro%ides a tree str&ct&re for a$$ dri%es and directories and has a his+ tory of recent$y %isited dri%es and directories. + The Title bar is a$"ays $ocated at the top of the "indo". It sho"s the name of the "indo" and can #e &sed to mo%e the "indo" on the screen. + The Menu bar can #e &sed to start an operation' to create or edit o#1ects' to %ie" the properties of an o#1ect' etc. + The Standard toolbar pro%ides shortc&ts for reg&$ar$y &sed men& commands s&ch as C&stomi*e Cata$og' List38etai$s >ie"' etc. + The Object selection toolbar can #e &sed to se$ect the o#1ect types that sho&$d #e %isi#$e in the c&rrent$y acti%e Cata$og. + The Command line is main$y &sed to type ca$c&$ations -apCa$c! and e/pressions i.e. perform operations!. + The Status bar gi%es short information on the item on "hich the mo&se pointer is $ocated4 a men& command' a #&tton in the Too$#ar' an o#1ect in the Cata$og' an operation in the <peration+$ist or the <peration+tree' etc. + The !"#!S $elp a$$o"s yo& to o#tain he$p information from any point "ithin the program. The ILWIS He$p %ie"er has a Topic pane' a (a%igation pane and a Too$#ar.


IL WIS 3.0 User s Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

1.2 6is,!a5ing geogra,hic data

Geographic data are organi*ed in a geographic data#ase. This data#ase can #e considered as a co$$ection of spatia$$y referenced data that acts as a mode$ of rea$ity. There are t"o important components of geographic data ,ig&re 1.1;!4 the geographic position and the attributes' entities or properties. In other "ords' spatial data "here is it.! and attribute data "hat is it.! are disting&ished. In the e/amp$e of ,ig&re 1.1;' yo& can see that "e ha%e a %ery simp$ified! map on one side and a ta#$e on the other. -aps are considered spatia$ data' since the information they contain is direct$y re$ated to certain $ocations on the earthDs s&rface. The $ocation of the &nits A' , and G are specified "ith respect to their I and 2 coordinates. Ta#$es' on the other hand' do not contain direct information on a $ocation. They contain descripti%e information in this case the names of the $and &se types and the %a$&e of the $and in monetary &nits!. If "e "o&$d on$y ha%e the ta#$e' the data "o&$d not #e &sef&$' since "e donDt )no" "here the &nits are $ocated. If "e "o&$d on$y ha%e the map' "e sti$$ donDt )no" anything a#o&t the &nits. In a Geographic Information System GIS! $i)e ILWIS' the $in) #et"een spatia$ and attri#&te data is the )ey to get

Figure 1.12: Spatia$ and non+spatia$ data in ILWIS.

rea$ information. <n$y #y com#ining spatia$ and attri#&te data "e can get ans"ers to 0&estions s&ch as4 Where are the $and &se &nits "ith a %a$&e more than ;E7. In the fo$$o"ing pages "e "i$$ sho" yo& ho" to disp$ay spatia$ data and attri#&te data in ILWIS. We "i$$ introd&ce yo& to the map "indo" and yo& "i$$ practice disp$aying a map. The map to #e disp$ayed is the po$ygon map Land&se that sho"s the different $and &se types in the Cocha#am#a area in 9o$i%ia. This map "as digiti*ed from a paper map. A polygon map is a %ector data o#1ect containing c$osed areas inc$&ding the #o&ndaries ma)ing &p the areas' "hich in this case represent $and &se &nits. In ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0 chapter ; there "i$$ #e a more detai$ed e/p$anation a#o&t po$ygon maps.

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

$ Press the po$ygon map #&tton

appears see ,ig&re 1.16!.

in the <#1ect se$ection too$#arto sho" the po$ygon maps again and do&#$e+c$ic) the po$ygon map Land&se in the Cata$og. The 8isp$ay <ptions + Po$ygon -apdia$og #o/

Figure 1.13: E/amp$e of a 8isp$ay <ptions + Po$ygon -ap dia$og #o/.

ILWIS dia!og (o7es A dialog bo a$$o"s the &ser to enter the information re0&ired #y ILWIS to carry o&t an operation. 8ia$og #o/es differ depending on the app$ication yo& are performing. The dia$og #o/' "hich is disp$ayed no"' is &sed to specify ho" yo& "ant to disp$ay a po$ygon map. In genera$' an ILWIS dia$og #o/ can ha%e feat&res s&ch as4
Tit$e #ar. Sho"s the name of the dia$og #o/ and can #e &sed to mo%e the dia$og #o/ on the screen. In this case the tit$e is4 8isp$ay <ptions + Po$ygon -ap. Te/t #o/. A sma$$ #o/' "hich can #e &sed for typing te/t or %a$&es. The dia$og #o/ sho"n on yo&r screen contains a Te/t #o/ in "hich yo& can specify the 9o&ndary Widthof the $and &se &nits $ines.

ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide 1% IL WIS 3.0 User s Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

8rop+do"n $ist #o/. A sma$$ #o/ "ith an Arro" 8o"n #&tton ' "hich a$$o"s yo& to

se$ect items. A $ist' inc$&ding the a%ai$a#$e data' "i$$ #e disp$ayed "hen the arro" #&tton or $ist #o/ is c$ic)ed. The #&tton on the right hand side is the create button. The Create #&tton can #e &sed to create an o#1ect "hen the $ist e/c$&des a

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

proper o#1ect. When yo& c$ic) the Create #&tton' the program proceeds to a ne" dia$og #o/. The dia$og #o/ in ,ig&re 1.16 contains t"o $ist #o/es4 one in "hich yo& can specify the co$or of the #o&ndary $ines of the $and &se &nits 9o&ndary Co$or!' and another Representation! in "hich yo& can indicate the co$or of the &nits themse$%es. These co$ors are stored in an o#1ect ca$$ed representation see section ;.C!.
Chec) #o/. This is a sma$$ s0&are in the dia$og #o/' "hich a$$o"s yo& to se$ect or c$ear an option. The 8isp$ay <ptions J Po$ygon -apdia$og #o/ has fi%e chec) #o/es. When yo& se$ect the Info chec) #o/' yo& "i$$ #e a#$e to read information a#o&t the meaning of the $and &se &nits' once the map is disp$ayed. The second #o/ Sca$e Limits a$$o"s yo& to define the sca$e $imits of the map. The third chec) #o/ -as) a$$o"s yo& to se$ecti%e$y disp$ay some $and &se types. If the fo&rth #o/' 9o&ndaries <n$y is se$ected' on$y the #o&ndaries of the $and &se &nits "i$$ #e sho"n. ,ina$$y' the fifth #o/' Attri#&te' can #e se$ected if yo& "ant to disp$ay an attri#&te %a$&e from a

ta#$e connected to the map' instead of the $and &se &nits themse$%es. Command #&ttons are &sed to initiate an action. The <B' Cance$' and He$p are common command #&ttons.
<B #&tton4 "hene%er yo& c$ic) the <B #&tton or press Enter on the )ey#oard! the

dia$og #o/ is c$osed and the action "i$$ #e e/ec&ted.

Cance$ #&tton4 "hen yo& c$ic) the Cance$ #&tton or press Esc on the )ey#oard! the

dia$og #o/ is c$osed and the action is cance$ed.

He$p #&tton4 "hen yo& c$ic) the He$p #&tton or press ,1 on the )ey#oard! conte/t+

sensiti%e he$p information "i$$ #e disp$ayed. Conte t-sensitive help means he$p dea$ing "ith the specific dia$og #o/. <ption #&ttons. <ption #&ttons can #e seen as circ$es and represent a gro&p of m&t&a$$y e/c$&si%e options. The se$ected option #&tton contains a #$ac) dot. 2o& can se$ect one option at a time. Se$ecting another <ption #&tton' c$ears the other. As yo& can see' ILWIS gi%es s&ggestions for options in the dia$og #o/' "hich are ca$$ed the de%aults&

To se$ect a chec) #o/ or an <ption #&tton c$ic) the chec) #o/ or press the
Space#ar. If the name of the option or chec) #o/ has an &nder$ined $etter' yo&

can se$ect the <ption #&tton or chec) #o/ #y pressing and ho$ding do"n the A$t+ )ey "hi$e typing the &nder$ined $etter.

$ Se$ect the chec) #o/ 9o&ndaries <n$y. (o" yo& "i$$ see that the contents
ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide of the "ho$e dia$og #o/ changes. If yo& on$y "ant to sho" the #o&ndary $ines of the &nits' no inp&t is needed anymore on ho" yo& "ant to

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

disp$ay the &nits themse$%es. The contents of the dia$og #o/ depends on the inp&t of the &ser. That is "hy "e ca$$ it conte t-sensitive.

$ Se$ect the drop+do"n $ist #o/ 9o&ndary Co$or. 2o& "i$$ see a $ist "ith a$$
different types of co$ors that yo& can se$ect.

$ Practice some more "ith the different options in the dia$og #o/. After that'
change a$$ options again so that they are the same as in ,ig&re 1.16. Then confirm yo&r inp&t #y c$ic)ing the <B #&tton or #y pressing Enter .

8 &a, 1indo1

2o& can mo%e thro&gh the %ario&s options "ithin a dia$og #o/ #y &sing the Ta#+ )ey or the ShiftGTa#+)eys on the )ey#oard.

The po$ygon map Land&se is disp$ayed in a map "indo" see ,ig&re 1.1C!. A$$ maps in ILWIS are disp$ayed in a map "indo". The map "indo" has many simi$ar feat&res as the -ain "indo" of ILWIS' "hich "e ha%e seen #efore. It consists #y defa&$t of a4
Tit$e #ar4 $ocated at the top of the map "indo". The Tit$e #ar sho"s the name of the

"indo" and can #e &sed to mo%e the map "indo".

-en& #ar4 $ocated 1&st #e$o" the Tit$e #ar. A map "indo" has E men&s4 ,i$e' Edit' Layers' <ptions and He$p. Too$#ar4 $ocated 1&st

pro%ides shortc&ts commands. The the fo$$o"ing

Entire -ap Redra" -eas&re Pan Koom In 8istance

#e$o" the -en& #ar. The Too$#ar for some reg&$ar$y &sed -en& Too$#ar of the map "indo" has #&ttons4
Koom <&t (orma$ Add Layer Remo%e Layer Sa%e >ie"

Sca$e #o/4 Te/t #o/ in "hich yo& can type the sca$e on "hich the map s! sho&$d #e

Layer -anagement pane4 The $eft centra$ part of the map "indo" disp$ays the $ayers


IL WIS 3.0 User s Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0 maps! that are added to the map "indo" and the $egend of each map. In the Layer -anagement pane' yo& can for instance change the order of the $ayers that are disp$ayed. The Layer -anagement pane "i$$ #e e/tensi%e$y treated in the ne/t chapter.
-ap %ie"er4 The right centra$ part of the map "indo" "here the maps are disp$ayed.

ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

Stat&s #ar4 $ocated at the #ottom of the "indo". The Stat&s #ar disp$ays
Tit$e #ar Contro$ men& icon -en& #ar Too$#ar C$ose #&tton -a/imi*e #&tton -inimi*e #&tton Sca$e #o/

Layer -anagement pane Stat&s #arScro$$ #ar -ap %ie"er Figure 1.1%: An ILWIS -ap "indo".

coordinates in meters and3or geographic coordinates. The map "indo" can #e mo%ed' $i)e a$$ "indo"s' #y acti%ating it and dragging it to

$ -o%e "ith the mo&se pointer to a #order or to a corner of the map "indo".
The mo&se pointer changes into a t"o+headed arro".

$ 8rag

press the $eft mo&se #&tton and ho$d it do"n! the #order or corner &nti$ the "indo" has the si*e yo& "ant and re$ease the $eft mo&se #&tton. The map "indo" has #een resi*ed. $ -a/imi*e the map "indo" #y c$ic)ing the -a/imi*e #&tton in the &pper right corner of the "indo".

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0 another position. The si*e of the map "indo" can #e changed in se%era$ "ays.

ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

When yo& "ant to st&dy detai$s of the map' the *ooming possi#i$ity can #e &sed.

$ C$ic) the Koom In #&tton in the Too$#ar to *oom in on a se$ected area. $ -o%e the c&rsor no" in the shape of a magnifying g$ass! to the first corner

of the area that has to #e disp$ayed in detai$ and c$ic) on the $eft mo&se #&t+ ton. Beep the mo&se #&tton do"n and drag the c&rsor a $itt$e #it to the sec+ond corner of the area of interest= then re$ease the mo&se #&tton. (o" the se$ected area "i$$ appear en$arged. 2o& can a$so c$ic) in the map "indo" to *oom in.

$ To roam thro&gh the map on "hich yo& *oomed in' &se the Pan #&tton

or &se the Left3Right3:p38o"n scro$$ #o/es in the hori*onta$ or the %ertica$ scro$$ #ar. $ A fast scro$$ can a$so #e achie%ed #y dragging the scro$$ #o/es in the scro$$ #ars Left3Right or :p38o"n' or #y c$ic)ing in the scro$$ #ar itse$f. $ Se$ect the Koom <&t #&tton in the Too$#ar and c$ic) repeated$y! in the map to *oom o&t.

$ C$ic) the Entire -ap#&tton

to sho" the entire

map in the map "indo" again.

Another "ay to *oom in or o&t is #y re+sca$ing the map.

$ Acti%ate the Sca$e #o/ "hich is #y defa&$t $ocated ne/t to the Too$#ar of
the map "indo" and type another sca$e factor for the map e.g. 14;77777! and press Enter .

(e/t' "e "i$$ pay attention to another part of the map "indo"4 the Stat&s #ar' "hich can #e fo&nd at the #ottom of the map "indo". If yo& mo%e "ith the mo&se pointer o%er the map' yo& "i$$ see that the Stat&s #ar disp$ays the position of the mo&se pointer in the map. To specify the position in an a#so$&te "ay a coordinate system is &sed. There are many different coordinate systems in &se aro&nd the "or$d. Coordinates can #e disp$ayed in t"o "ays4 + as metric coordinates I'2!' or as + geographic coordinates $atit&de' $ongit&de!.


IL WIS 3.0 User s Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0 The Stat&s #ar disp$ays the coordinates in meters and3or geographic coordinates. ,irst' the I' 2 %a$&es of metric coordinates are gi%en= these are fo$$o"ed #y the degrees' min&tes and seconds of the $atit&de and $ongit&de i.e. geographic coordinates!.

ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

$ C$ic) the (orma$ #&tton in the Too$#ar to go #ac) to the norma$ %ie". $ -o%e the mo&se pointer thro&gh the map and %erify in the Stat&s #ar that

the I %a$&es increase "hen going to the right of the map to"ards the east!' and the 2 coordinates increase "hen going to the top of the map to"ards the north!.

$ Try to $ocate the mo&se pointer on the fo$$o"ing I and 2 coordinates4

ILA766AC' and 2LA7@CA@@' and find the corresponding $atit&de and $ongi+ t&de. With the -eas&re 8istance #&tton it is easy to meas&re the distances and the ang$e #et"een t"o points. The 8istance message #o/ "i$$ state4 ,rom4 the I2+coordinate of the point "here yo& started meas&ring=

$ C$ic) the -eas&re 8istance #&tton

Too$#ar <ptions

in the of the map "indo"' or choose the -eas&re 8istance command from the men&. $ Locate the mo&se pointer some"here in the map' and press the $eft mo&se #&tton. -o%e to another point' "hi$e )eeping the $eft mo&se #&tton pressed. When yo& re$ease the mo&se #&tton a message #o/ appears. To4 the I2+coordinate of the point "here yo& ended meas&ring= 8istance on map4 the distance in meters #et"een starting point and end point ca$c&$ated in a p$ane= A*im&th on map4 the ang$e in degrees #et"een starting point and end point re$ated to the grid north= E$$ipsoida$ 8istance4 the distance #et"een starting point and end point ca$c&$ated o%er the e$$ipsoid= E$$ipsoida$ A*im&th4 the ang$e in degrees #et"een starting point and end point re$ated to the tr&e (orth' i.e. direction re$ated to the meridians as %isi#$e in the gratic&$e! of yo&r pro1ection= Sca$e ,actor4 direct indicator of sca$e distortion' i.e. the ratio #et"een distance on the map3tr&e distance.

$ C$ic) <B in the 8istance #o/ and c$ic) the (orma$ #&tton in the Too$#ar
to go #ac) to the norma$ %ie".

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

The contents o0 the &a,: do&ain 2o& can o#tain information on the map contents simp$y #y pressing the $eft mo&se

$ Press the $eft mo&se #&tton on different &nits in the map to find o&t "hat
they represent.

$ ,ind the $and &se c$ass aro&nd the $ocation4 ILA71A67 and 2LA7AH;A6.
#&tton on any of the co$ored &nits in the map.


As yo& can see' the &nits of the Land&se map are descri#ed #y c$asses' "ith names s&ch as ,orest' Grass$and' 9are roc)' La)e' etc. The $ist of a$$ c$ass names that can occ&r in a map is ca$$ed in ILWIS a domain. A domain defines the possi#$e contents of a map' a ta#$e' or a co$&mn. In other "ords' "hat do the items in a map' ta#$e or

$ -a)e the ILWIS -ain "indo" acti%e. If the -ain "indo" is %isi#$e on the
screen' then yo& can 1&st c$ic) any part of the -ain "indo". If the -ain "in+ do" is not %isi#$e anymore' c$ic) the ILWIS #&tton on the Windo"s Tas)#arat the #ottom of yo&r screen. $ -a)e a$$ the o#1ects %isi#$e #y c$ic)ing the ILWIS #&tton

$ 8o&#$e+c$ic) the domain Land&se in the Cata$og of the -ain "indo".

co$&mn mean. Are they c$asses s&ch as $and &se c$asses!' or %a$&es or something e$se. The domain concept is %ery essentia$ in ILWIS' and "e "i$$ therefore come #ac) to it in chapter ;. The f&$$ $ist of c$ass names of the $and &se &nits can #e seen in the Layer -anagement pane of the map "indo" "hen the map is disp$ayed' #&t yo& can a$so open the domain of the po$ygon map Land&se yo&rse$f.

in the <#1ect se$ection too$#ar.

$ C$ose the 8omain C$ass editor #y c$ic)ing the Contro$+men& icon

and se$ect C$ose. The 8omain C$ass editor is opened. The Tit$e #ar reads4 8omain C$ass MLand&seN +ILWIS. As yo& can see' the domain $ists a$$ possi#$e c$ass names of the map. It is simp$y a $ist of a$$ $and &se types' "hich can occ&r in the map. Since these are different c$asses' "e spea) of a class domain. In chapter ; yo& "i$$ a$so see some other domain types. ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide 20 IL WIS 3.0 User s Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0 We started this $esson #y e/p$aining the difference #et"een spatia$ and non+spatia$ or attri#&te! data. ,rom the map "indo"' "e can a$so o#tain information on attri#&tes' re$ated to the different $and &se &nits of the map' "hich is disp$ayed.

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

$ In the map "indo"' do&#$e+c$ic) "ith the $eft mo&se #&tton a &nit in the
po$ygon map Land&se. (o" yo& "i$$ see a sma$$ "indo" appearing "ith the tit$e Attri#&tes. Inside the "indo" yo& "i$$ see t"o $ines. The first $ine contains the $and &se c$ass name of the &nit yo& c$ic)ed' and the second $ine contains the "ord Land%a$&e fo$$o"ed #y a n&m#er' "hich is the a%erage monetary %a$&e of this $and &se type. The $ine "ith Land%a$&e information is a $ine from an attri#&te ta#$e Land&se' "hich is $in)ed to the map. Let &s $oo) no" in more detai$ to ta#$es' #&t first c$ose the map "indo".

$ C$ose the map "indo" #y opening the ,i$e men& in the map "indo" and
choose E/it' or c$ic) the C$ose #&tton map "indo". 8 ta(!e 1indo1

in the

We "i$$ finish this chapter #y sho"ing yo& ho" to disp$ay attri#&te data.

$ In the Cata$og' do&#$e+c$ic) the ta#$e Land&se.

The ta#$e Land&se is no" disp$ayed in a ta#$e "indo" ,ig&re 1.1E!. As yo& can see from ,ig&re 1.1E' a ta#$e "indo" contains many of the feat&res "e ha%e a$ready seen in the -ain "indo" and in the map "indo". It has a Tit$e #ar' a -en& #ar "ith the men& options4 ,i$e' Edit' Co$&mns' Records' Graphs' >ie" and He$p and a Too$#ar "ith the #&ttons4
Copy Paste 8e$ete Print Properties :pdate a$$ (e" Graph Windo" Goto ,irst Record Goto Pre%io&s Record Goto Record Goto (e/t Record co$&mns Goto Last Record

ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

Too$#ar Contro$ men& icon Record %ie" #&tton

Tit$e #ar

Co$&mn properties #&tton

C$ose #&tton -a/imi*e #&tton -inimi*e #&tton

Command $ine

Statistics pane Stat&s #ar Figure 1.1*: An ILWIS ta#$e "indo". Sp$it #ar

Scro$$ #arTa#$e %ie"er

,&rthermore' there is a Command $ine' a Ta#$e %ie"er' a Sp$it #ar "ith the Statistics Pane #e$o" it and a Stat&s #ar. The ta#$e contains t"o co$&mns. The $eft co$&mn' in gray co$or' has no header. If yo& $oo) c$ose$y to the names in this $eft co$&mn yo& "i$$ remem#er that those are the names that yo& ha%e seen a$so in the map Land&se. This is again the domain= a domain can th&s define the contents of a map' #&t a$so the contents of a ta#$e. (e/t to the $eft gray co$&mn containing the domain items' the ta#$e has one more co$&mn' ca$$ed Land%a$&e. This co$&mn is an attri#&te co$&mn that contains the a%erage %a$&e of the $and in ficti%e monetary %a$&es. As yo& can see' this co$&mn contains %a$&es.

$ 8o&#$e+c$ic) the Co$&mn header "ith the name Land%a$&e on it. The
Co$&mn Propertiesdia$og

#o/ ,ig&re 1.1F! appears.


IL WIS 3.0 User s Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

Figure 1.1.: E/amp$e of a Co$&mn Properties dia$og #o/.

This dia$og #o/ contains information on co$&mnLand%a$&e. The dia$og #o/ sho"s for instance the domain of co$&mn Land%a$&e4 8efa&$t >a$&e 8omain. The ne/t $ine gi%es the >a$&e Range of co$&mn Land%a$&e4 #et"een 7 and 17777. The act&a$ %a$&es in the co$&mn are a$so sho"n4 -inim&m4 E7' -a/im&m4 1777.

$ C$ic) the Cance$ #&tton to c$ose the Co$&mn Propertiesdia$og #o/.

Information on the -inim&m -in! and -a/im&m -a/! %a$&es in the co$&mn' together "ith the A%erage A%g!' Standard 8e%iation St8! and S&m of the co$&mn' is %isi#$e in the Statistics Pane in the $o"er part of ta#$e Land%a$&e. 2o& "i$$ no" practice "ith the %ario&s items re$ated to the disp$ay of ta#$es. ,irst "e "i$$ sho" yo& ho" to s"itch #et"een Ta#$e >ie" in "hich yo& "i$$ see the ta#$e ordered in s&ch a "ay that the information of one record is disp$ayed in different co$&mns! and Record >ie" in "hich yo& "i$$ see on$y the information re$ated to one record!4

$ In the ta#$e "indo"' c$ic) a Record #&tton' for e/amp$e the Record #&tton
ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide Grass$and the $eft gray #&tton "ith the name Grass$and on it!. A sma$$ Record >ie""indo" appears. It sho"s the c&rrent record

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

Grass$and! and the attri#&te %a$&e s! "e ha%e for this &nit in this case on$y the Land%a$&e!. $ In the Too$#ar of ta#$e Land&se' c$ic) the Goto (e/t Record#&tton or the Goto Last Record#&tton to go to the ne/t or to the $ast record respecti%e$y.

$ C$ic) the Goto Pre%io&s Record#&tton $ C$ic) the Goto Record#&tton

record in the ta#$e.

or the Goto ,irst Record#&t+ton the pre%io&s record or to the first record respecti%e$y.

to go to

to go to a specific

9y defa&$t' data in a ta#$e are sorted on the domain of the ta#$e. The records of a ta#$e can a$so #e sorted on one of the co$&mns in the ta#$e. 9y c$ic)ing the Co$&mn option in the dia$og #o/' yo& can se$ect the co$&mn "hich

$ <pen the Co$&mns men& and se$ect the Sort command. The Sort dia$og #o/
is opened. yo& "ish to sort. The record order of the ta#$e "i$$ change as "e$$.

$ In the Sort dia$og #o/' se$ect the Co$&mn option' and then se$ect co$&mn
Land%a$&e from the drop+do"n $ist #o/. Accept the Sort <rder Ascendingand c$ic) <B. (o" the ta#$e is ordered ascending$y according to the %a$&es in the co$&mn Land%a$&e.

$ Resort the ta#$e &sing the Record se0&ence8omain.

$ ,rom the ,i$e men&' se$ect E/it or do&#$e+c$ic) the Contro$+men& icon
of the ta#$e "indo".

In chapter E many more options of the ta#$e "indo" are treated. ,or no"' c$ose the ta#$e. Su&&ar5: dis,!a5ing &a,s and ta(!es In this section yo& ha%e $earned4 + Ho" to &se dia$og #o/es4 Ho" to enter parameters to define the "ay in "hich a


IL WIS 3.0 User s Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0 map is disp$ayed. + The #asics of a map "indo"4 Ho" to open a map= the different components of a map "indo"4 Tit$e #ar' -en& #ar' Too$#ar' -ap %ie"er' Layer -anagement Pane' Stat&s #ar= to resi*e a map "indo"= to *oom in and to *oom o&t= to read the coordinates of a map coordinate system!= to )no" the contents of a map domain!.

ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

+ The #asics of a ta#$e "indo"4 Ho" to open a ta#$e= the different components of a ta#$e "indo"4 Tit$e #ar' -en& #ar' Too$#ar' Command $ine' Ta#$e %ie"er' Sp$it #ar' Statistics Pane' Stat&s #ar= the fact that contents of a ta#$e are defined #y the domain of the ta#$e= the fact that co$&mns a$so ha%e a domain. The disp$ay of an entire ta#$e i.e. Ta#$e >ie"!' or on$y the contents of a certain record i.e. Record >ie"!= to sort a ta#$e.

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0

1.3 The ocha(a&(a area

9efore "e "i$$ ha%e a more detai$ed $oo) at the main concepts of ILWIS in the ne/t chapter' it is may#e good to introd&ce yo& to the st&dy area from "hich most of the

$ In the Cata$og' do&#$e+c$ic) raster map >ie"681. The 8isp$ay <ptions J

Raster -apdia$og

#o/ is opened.

$ C$ic) <B.
data for the ILWIS :serDs G&ide are ta)en4 the Cocha#am#a area.

$ Koom in on the right+hand side of the pict&re

Cocha#am#a city!.

The pict&re "hich is disp$ayed is a three dimensiona$ %ie" of the Cocha#am#a area. This pict&re "as made #y the 8isp$ay 68 operation "hich "i$$ #e treated in chapter 17' &sing a 8igita$ E$e%ation -ode$ 8E-! and a ,a$se Co$or Composite ,CC! deri%ed from Landsat T- #ands.

Cocha#am#a city is a fast gro"ing center "ith a pop&$ation of appro/imate$y 677'777. The city is $ocated in the Andean region of 9o$i%ia' at an e$e%ation of a#o&t ;F77

$ C$ose the map >ie"681' and open raster map . Ha%e a $oo) at it' and c$ose it
"hen yo& ha%e finished. meters a#o%e sea $e%e$. It is $ocated in a $arge %a$$ey' #ordered on the northern side #y steep mo&ntains' rising &p to an e$e%ation of CE77 meters. The northern part of the city is $ocated on the a$$&%ia$ fans at the foot of the mo&ntains. 8&e to the high+intensity rainfa$$ in the period (o%em#er+Oan&ary' the mo&ntain area is s&#1ected to $ands$ides and soi$ erosion' and the city itse$f occasiona$$y s&ffers from f$ashf$oods on the a$$&%ia$ fans. These processes affect the $oca$ farmers' and a$so hinder the e/pansion of the city. A more detai$ed 68 %ie" of the city of Cocha#am#a itse$f' made from a scanned ILWIS 3.0 Users Guide 2. IL WIS 3.0 User s Guide

Introduction to ILWIS 3.0 aeria$ photograph' is a$so a%ai$a#$e.