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Biology SPA Theme: Human Processes Chapter 5: Nutrition in Man

5.1 - Digestion 1.Digestion

- Process where large molecules (of food substances) are broken down into smaller, soluble and diffusible molecules Physical Digestion -> Mechanical breakdown of food into smaller substances a. Mastication of teeth - Breaking up food into smaller substance -> Increases surface area for enzyme action b. Emulsication - Big fat molecules are emulsied to smaller fat globules by bile -> Increases surface area for lipase action Chemical Digestion -> Enzymatic hydrolysis of food substances - Lipase digests fat globules into fatty acids and glycerol - Amylase digests starch into maltose

2.Alimentary Canal


Biology SPA Theme: Human Processes Chapter 5: Nutrition in Man

Organ Mouth Function a. Teeth - Mastication b. Saliva - Digests starch into maltose (Alkaline) c. Tongue - Rolls food into bolus Enzymes Present Salivary amylase - Produced by salivary glands Salivary amylase


Carries food to the stomach via peristalsis movement - Involuntary rhythmic contractions of circular and longitudinal muscles a. Mixes food with gastric juice to form chyme - Protein is digested/hydrolyse into polypeptides b. Hydrochloric acid - Provides acidic medium to convert inactive pepsinogen into pepsin - Stops action of amylase c. Mucin - Protects stomach wall against enzyme action and acid a. Intestinal Walls secrete intestinal juices b. Absorption of food substances via active transport and diffusion ** Alkaline medium - Enzyme action ** Chyme stimulates secretion of intestinal juice, pancreatic juice and bile from gall bladder

Stomach - Pyloric sphincter

a. Pepsinogen (inactive) pepsin (active) b. Prorennin (Inactive) rennin (active) Intestinal juices: - Maltase - Lactase - Sucrase - Erepsin - Enterokinase - Lipase

Small Intestine - Duodenum - Ileum (Absorption)

Liver - Hepatic portal vein - Hepatic vein - Hepatic artery

a. Detoxication of alcohol b. Secretes bile for emulsication of fats into fat

globules c. Regulate blood glucose concentration via

inter-conversion of glycogen to glucose d. De-animation of excess amino acids into

urea e. Iron storage from breakdown of haemoglobin and hormones


a. Secretes pancreatic juice b. Regulation of blood glucose level - Detects change to blood glucose level - Insulin and glucagon produced by Islet of Langerhans

Pancreatic juice: - Amylase - Lipase - Trypsinogen - Trypsin


Biology SPA Theme: Human Processes Chapter 5: Nutrition in Man

3. Chemical Digestion in alimentary canal
Organ Mouth (Carbohydrates digestion) Esophagus Conditions Alkaline (Saliva) Chemical Digestion Salivary amylase digests/hydrolyse starch into maltose


Salivary amylase continues to digest starch into maltose Pepsinogen converted to pepsin via hydrochloric acid - Digests proteins into polypeptides Prorennin converted to rennin via hydrochloric acid - Digests/hydrolyse soluble milk proteins (Caseinogen) into insoluble milk proteins (Casein)

Stomach (Protein digestion)

Acidic (HCl)

Small Intestine (Duodenum) (Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fat digestion)

Alkaline (Intestinal, pancreatic juices)

- Pancreatic amylase digests/hydrolyse starch into maltose - Maltase digests/hydrolyse maltose into glucose - Lactase digests/hydrolyse lactose into glucose and galactose - Sucrase digests/hydrolyse sucrose into glucose and fructose - Trypsinogen is converted to trypsin by enterokinase - Trypsin digests/hydrolyse proteins into polypeptides - Erepsin digests/hydrolyse polypeptides into amino acids - Bile emulsies fat into fat globules - Lipase digests/hydrolyse fat globules into fatty acids and glycerol


Biology SPA Theme: Human Processes Chapter 5: Nutrition in Man

5.2 - Absorption and Assimilation 1.Absorption
- Uptake of water, nutrients and minerals by cells through their cell surface membrane - Via diffusion or active transport Eg. Glucose, Amino acids, Fatty acids - Takes place in the ileum of the small intestine

2. Structure of Villi and Alveoli

Villi Similarities Alveoli Rich network of blood capillaries - Increases surface area for faster rate of diffusion - Constantly transport absorbed substances away -> Maintains concentration gradient for continuous diffusion of substances Numerous villi in small intestine and alveoli in lungs - Increases surface area for faster rate of diffusion Thin walls (One-cell thick epithelium for villi, alveolus wall) - Reduce diffusion distance of substances - Increases rate of diffusion Differences Blood capillaries are inside the villi Absorbs digested food substances Each villi bears micro-villi to further increase surface area Villi contains many mitochondria in cells - Energy used in active transport Blood capillaries surrounds alveoli Diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide Thin lm of liquid around aveoli - Allow oxygen to dissolve in liquid before diffusion Alveoli cells have little mitochondria - Only diffusion of gases occur

3a. Absorption of glucose, minerals, amino acids

- Diffuses through the one-cell thick epithelium wall of villi into blood capillaries - Transported to liver via hepatic portal vein - Hepatic vein transport substances from liver to heart

b.Absorption of fatty acids and glycerol

- Glycerol diffuses into epithelium - Fatty acids combine with bile salts to form colloidal particles before diffusing into epithelium -> Colloidal particles are coated with proteins before diffusing into lacteal - Glycerol combines with colloidal particles and lymph to form chyle - Transported to heart via lymphatic system

Biology SPA Theme: Human Processes Chapter 5: Nutrition in Man

4.Large intestine
- Absorption of water and mineral salts - Undigested food and unabsorbed food are carried via peristalsis movement in large intestine Structure: Caecum, Ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, rectum Faeces: Bacteria, dead cells, bre

a. Glucose - Used by cells in tissue respiration -> Release energy for growth and formation of protoplasm - Excess glucose converted to glycogen and stored in liver b. Fats - Structural components of cell membrane - Excess fats stored in adipose tissues -> Insulating layer -> Energy reserves (Body oxidises fats when blood glucose level is low [Glucagon]) c. Proteins - Making of protoplasm - Formation of hormones (Insulin, Glucagon, ADH) and enzymes - Excess amino acids are de-animated

De-animation of excess amino acids:

- Protein hydrolysed to form carbon residue and animo acids - Amino acids de-animated to form ammonia (toxic to cells) - Ammonia is converted to urea (non-toxic) -> Urea excreted in urine - Carbon residue converted to glucose - Excess glucose stored as glycogen


Biology SPA Theme: Human Processes Chapter 5: Nutrition in Man

5.3 - Alcohol 1.Effects of alcohol on nervous system
- Alcohol is a depressant drug -> Slows down brain function - Blurred vision - Poor muscular contractions - Poor judgement -> Leads to automobile accidents - High levels of intoxication paralyse medulla oblongata -> Controls heartbeat and breathing -> Results in death - Reduces one self-control - Alcoholics experiences withdrawal systems

2.Effects of alcohol on digestive system

- Alcohol stimulates acid secretion in stomach -> Gastric ulcers - Cirrhosis of liver - Liver cells are destroyed -> Liver Haemorrhage - Liver failure and death