Ethos (/€i•€‚s/ or /€i•€oƒs/) is a Greek word meaning "character" that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology. The Greeks also used this word to refer to the power of music to influence its hearer's emotions, behaviours, and even morals. Early Greek stories of Orpheus exhibit this idea in a compelling way. The word's use in rhetoric is closely based on the Greek terminology used by Aristotle in his concept of the three artistic proofs.
Etymology and origin
Ethos (•€‚ƒ, „€‚ƒ, plurals: ethe (…€†), ethea (…€‡ˆ)) is a Greek word originally meaning "accustomed place" (as in …€‡ˆ ‰ŠŠ‹Œ "the habitat of horses", Iliad 6.511), "custom, habit", equivalent to Latin mores. Ethos forms the root of ethikos (•€Ž••ƒ), meaning "moral, showing moral character". Used as a noun in the neuter plural form ta ethika (‘’ •€Ž•“), used for the study of morals, it is the origin of the modern English word ethics.
Ethos can simply mean the disposition, character, or fundamental values particular to a specific person, people, corporation, culture, or movement. The Ethos refers to the spirit which motivates the ideas and customs. As T.S. Eliot wrote, "The general ethos of the people they have to govern determines the behavior of politicians." One historian noted that in the 1920s, "The ethos of the Communist party dominated every aspect of public life in Soviet Russia." Ethos may change in response to new ideas or forces. Ideas of economic modernisation imported from the West in the 1930s brought about in Jewish settlements in Palestine "the abandonment of the agrarian ethos and the reception of...the ethos of rapid development".
In rhetoric, ethos is one of the three artistic proofs (pistis (Š”•‘Žƒ)) or modes of persuasion (other principles being logos and pathos) discussed by Aristotle in 'Rhetoric' as a component of argument. Speakers must establish ethos from the start. This can involve "moral competence" only; Aristotle however broadens the concept to include expertise and knowledge. Ethos is limited, in his view, by what the speaker says. Others however contend that a speaker's ethos extends to and is shaped by the overall moral character and history of the speaker„that is, what people think of his or her character before the speech is even begun (cf Isocrates). According to Nedra Reynolds, Professor of Writing & Rhetoric, "ethos, like postmodern subjectivity, shifts and changes over time, across texts, and around competing spaces" (Reynolds 336). However, Reynolds additionally discusses how one might clarify the meaning of ethos within rhetoric as expressing inherently communal roots. This stands in direct opposition to what she describes as the claim "that ethos can be faked or 'manipulated'" because individuals would be formed by the values of their culture and not the other way around (Reynolds 336). While its meaning and application within literature might differ over time, this classical interpretation persists. There are three categories of ethos. – phronesis - practical skills & wisdom – arete - virtue, goodness – eunoia - goodwill towards the audience In a sense, ethos does not belong to the speaker but to the audience. Thus, it is the audience that determines whether a speaker is a high- or a low-ethos speaker. Violations of ethos include: – The speaker has a direct interest in the outcome of the debate (e.g. a person pleading innocence of a crime);
which all influenced characters to be more formal and simple. these are fused together throughout the play. Another aspect stated by Garet is that tragedy plays are composed of language. Garet discusses. Several other aspects of the character element in ancient Greek tragedy are worth noting. Yet another means of looking at character.Ethos – The speaker has a vested interest or ulterior motive in the outcome of the debate. This would mean that most of the information about the character centers around one main quality or viewpoint. and the use of masks. necessary use of the chorus. – The speaker has no expertise (e. and the interactions of these three components. Another principle he states is the importance of these three components… effect on each other. as well as the plot. or the reader is left confused about the character. Garet makes three more observations about character in Greek tragedy. He does this by discussing Aristotle…s statements about plot and character in his Poetics: that plot can exist without character. in regard to this trait. To support this.g. is the fact that either because of contradictory action or incomplete description. a lawyer giving a speech on space flight is less convincing than an astronaut giving the same speech). Examples of this might be the Eumenides as vengeance. Murray clarifies that strict constancy is not always the rule in Greek tragedy characters. This limited the character. and action. begins to doubt her cause and plead for mercy as she is led to her execution. small number of characters limiting interaction. However. even though she strongly defies Creon in the beginning of the play. or character. according to Tycho von Wilamowitz and Howald.Wikipedia:Avoid weasel words One of these. or type-caste. Though recent work has found support for the existence of the three dimensions identified above. with attention being only focused on the section at hand. large outdoor theatres. Completely dismissing an argument based on any of the above violations of ethos is a formal fallacy. The first is an abundant variety of types of characters in Greek tragedy. The term "source credibility" has been used as the construct examined in the social sciences. His second observation is that the reader or viewer…s need for characters to display a unified identity that is similar to human nature is usually fulfilled. in Greek tragedy. Thirdly. and only enough so that their actions can be understood. to the already well-known myth from which the material of the play was taken. Murray also declares that the inherent characteristics of Greek tragedies are important in the makeup of the characters. Augustus Taber Murray also examines the importance and degree of interaction between plot and character. work from the 1950s through the 1980s consistently revealed two dimensions (competence and character) with other dimensions such as dynamism found only when broad approaches equating credibility with "person perception" were taken. instead of round. The other characteristic is the relatively short length of most Greek plays. which C. the reader could also view the character as a symbol.
. This point of view also holds that the different figures in a play are only characterised by the situation surrounding them. or Clytemnestra as symbolizing ancestral curse. These include the single unchanging scene.
Character in Greek tragedy
The ways in which characters in Greek tragedies were constructed is important when considering ethos. characters in tragedies include incongruities and idiosyncrasies. One of these is the fact that tragedy characters were nearly always mythical characters. This idea is maintained by the theory that the play is meant to affect the viewer or reader scene by scene. One method of reconciling this would be to consider these characters to be flat. the character cannot be viewed as an individual. is the idea that characterisation is not important. rendering the dismissal of the argument invalid. This limited the scope of the play and characterization. Augustus Taber Murray explains that the depiction of a character was limited by the circumstances under which Greek tragedies were presented. He explains that action normally determines the major means of characterisation. character. so that the characters were defined by one overriding motivation toward a certain objective from the beginning of the play. the important repercussion of this being character…s impact on action. he points out the example of Antigone who. Comparable to the flat character option.
1934-1938. (Stansbury-O…Donnell. says that the main way Aristotle considered poetry and visual arts to be on equal levels was in character representation and its effect on action. 250. 53-54. Eliot. †The activity of these artists is to be judged worthy and useful above all because exposure of their work is beneficial to the polis.  Garton (1957).  Garton (1957). 247. Murray does. A people's tragedy: the Russian Revolution. 247-248. instead of the actual suicide scene. the most memorable things about tragedy plays are often the characters.  Garton (1957). referred to generally as pictorial narrative. 1 T. agreeing with Stansbury-O…Donnell…s statement. this was the reason for the representation of character. 177. in public paintings and sculptures.  Garton (1957). however.  Castriota (1992)."
Character. also appears in the visual art of famous or mythological ancient Greek events in murals.. Because of this. (Stansbury-O…Donnell.  Castriota (1992). 12. (Stansbury-O…Donnell. 175) David Castriota. Murray maintains that Aristotle did not mean that complicated plot should hold the highest place in a tragedy play. Vol. Stansbury-O…Donnell states that pictorial narratives often had ethos as its focus. However. "Music in the Western World: A History in Documents" (1984) p. 178) Professor Mark D. 10. Castriota explains that ancient Greek art expresses the idea that character was the major factor influencing the outcome of the Greeks… conflicts against their enemies. 15#2. or ethos.‡ Castriota also explains that according to Aristotle.  Castriota (1992).
. 248ˆ249. in pictorial narrative
Ethos. and so character is secondary to plot. Stansbury-O…Donnell gives an example of this in the form of a picture by the ancient Greek artist Exekia which shows the Greek hero Ajax planting his sword in the ground in preparation to commit suicide. Piero and Taruskin.  Murray (1916). Richard. 54-56. or ethos.  Murray (1916). more often than not. simple and therefore not a major point of tragic interest. Murray conjectures that people today do not accept Aristotle…s statement about character and plot because to modern people.) Additionally.Ethos but character cannot exist without plot. on pottery. or character.  Murray (1916). pp. just as effectively as poetry or drama can. and was therefore concerned with showing the character…s moral choices. 80ˆ103  Murray (1916). The idea of a Christian society (1940) p.S.  Garton (1957). 53. 59. "Reception of the Developmental Approach in the Jewish Economic Discourse of Mandatory Palestine.. In order to portray the character…s choice.  Garton (1957). This characterisation portrayed men as they ought to be. 25 Orlando Figes. 250-251. 248. 682 Afrie Krampf. †ethos was the essential variable in the equation or analogy between myth and actuality. without at least a skeleton outline of plot.  Murray (1916).‡
    Weiss. and sculpture. the pictorial narrative often shows an earlier scene than when the action was committed. The way in which the subject and his actions are portrayed in visual art can convey the subject…s ethical character and through this the work…s overall theme. Summer 2010. Castriota also maintains about Aristotle…s opinion that †his interest has to do with the influence that such ethical representation may exert upon the public.‡ Accordingly. 52. Aristotle even praised the ancient Greek painter Polygnotos because his paintings included characterization. This is because the plot was. which is the same as Aristotle…s idea of what ethos or character should be in tragedy. concede that Aristotle is correct in that "There can be no portrayal of character . 1891-1924 (1996) p." Israel Studies. 11.
org/stable/465805). New York. Communication Monographs 41 (4): 309ˆ316. C. JSTOR— 282827 (http://www. pp. Rhetoric Review 11 (2): 325ˆ338.0.0. Ethos. or if not His.—58ˆ63. JSTOR. Bernard. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 47: 51ˆ64. 77. S. (1957). doi: 10.2307/282827 (http://dx." Rhetoric Review. Part 2. 2007.org/10. Myth.1080/07350199309389009 (http://dx. David. (http://links. "Plot and Character in Greek Tragedy". Character as a Subversive Force in Shakespeare: the history and Roman plays.doi.—247ˆ254. "Aristotle on Habit and Character: Implications for the Rhetoric".doi. Arthur B. Michael. "Ethos as Location: New Sites for Discursive Authority". Vol.1080/ 03637757409375855).jstor. (1974). †Characteristics in Greek Tragedy. CO. – Reynolds. No. London: Associated University Presses Inc. – Garton.Ethos
– Castriota.jstor.org/sici?sici=0075-4269(1957)77<247:CIGT>2.2-O) – Grazia. (http://links. doi: 10. Someone Else's. – Miller.‡ The Journal of Hellenic Studies.
– – The dictionary definition of ethos at Wiktionary Media related to Ethos at Wikimedia Commons
. Hamlet without Hamlet. Nedra (1993).doi. and Actuality: Official Art in Fifth-Century B. JSTOR..org/10. – Murray. (Sep.org/sici?sici=0735-0198(198209)1:1<58:ACOEOI>2.jstor. 1982). Margreta. – Paris.C.CO.1080/07350199309389009).2307/282827). JSTOR— 465805 (http://www. Augustus Taber (1916). Vol. 1.org/10. Athens.jstor. pp. "Aristotle's Concept of Ethos.1080/03637757409375855 (http://dx.2-W). 1. doi: 10. 1992. – Halloran.org/stable/282827). London: University of Wisconsin Press. 1991. NY: Cambridge.
Aeusoes1. Patroklis. Gregbard. Discospinster. DionysosProteus. Boulevardier. BiT. Frazzydee. Evb-wiki. Drizzt103. Marauder40. based on original logo tossed together by Brion Vibber file:Commons-logo. Rjwilmsi. Groggory. Materialscientist.org/w/index. Andrew Lancaster. Aorwing. Elizabeth Gordon. Punk4khrist. Meelar.org/w/index. Gaius Cornelius. Stephenb. RxS.Article Sources and Contributors
Article Sources and Contributors
Ethos —Source: http://en. Lambiam. Chicago god. Rjensen. Licenses and Contributors
file:Wiktionary-logo-en. Xkrebstarx. FF2010. Ricardiana. CWii. Arthurian Legend. HereToHelp. Timhowardriley. Pinkadelica. Mike Shepherd. Defscanguci. Nbarth. Waldir.wikipedia. DVD R W.php?title=File:Commons-logo. Vanished user 39948282. Canderson7. Dorem˜tzwr.bedi. Aethralis. Geogre. Deflective. UNIT A4B1.svg —Source: http://en.org/licenses/by-sa/3. 329 anonymous edits
Image Sources. Aldebaran 2. Wragge. Omnipedian. Iwpoe. Susfele. Wikimasterforever. NTK. Tide rolls. Silversilentvoice. Pigman. Meclee. Alphachimp. Pascalvenier. InverseHypercube. Deor. NawlinWiki. Bugo30. Doktor Waterhouse.wikipedia. Some jerk on the Internet. Hudsonboy111. Rallette. Dawn Bard. FieldMarine. NantucketNoon. Loodog. ESkog. Gtrmp. Ted87. Edgar181. Tohd8BohaithuGh1. Charles Matthews. David Schaich. Tomisti. Rakunited14. Trixi72. Bulldog73.svg —License: logo —Contributors: Anomie
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Mild Bill Hiccup. Benzband. Frze. Ndaco. Enviroboy. Francs2000.org/w/index. Jcbarr. Zntrip. Ayush Samantroy. Lugia2453. Silverine. JGC. Bassamh. Dburnsii. Hemlock Martinis. TreasuryTag. George100. Przykuta. Ronhjones. Kuru. Squidwiggle.php?oldid=591927173 —Contributors: 2012Olympian. Zzuuzz. Omc. AdjustShift.svg —License: Public Domain —Contributors: Vectorized by . Maxis ftw. Halaqah. The Vintage Feminist. JohnnyMyself. Rishi. Flowerpotman. Cometstyles. Nohat. Evercat. Slysplace. John. NerdyNSK.svg —Source: http://en.0/
. Caster23. Bobo192. Magioladitis. Electriccatfish2. Lorielle. AMERICAFUCKYEA!. Mjb. Ig0774. JForget.php?title=File:Wiktionary-logo-en. Woohookitty. Hmmwhatsthisdo. Xiagu. Dbachmann. Bluezy. Pstanton. EagerToddler39. SchreyP. Izmaelt. Wolfdog.wikipedia.0 //creativecommons. Philip Trueman. Omnipaedista. Kintetsubuffalo.