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The Messapic Klaohizis Formula Author(s): Ruth Moore Bechtel Reviewed work(s): Source: Language, Vol. 13, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1937), pp. 177-185 Published by: Linguistic Society of America Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/409125 . Accessed: 26/01/2013 04:42
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in Prae-Italic Dialects of Italy. 86. it is necessary to examine the word carefully in every context in which it occurs. it seems to me. as I shall later explain. while 474 opens with a partial version of the same.THE MESSAPIC KLAOHIZIS FORMULA RUTH MOORE BECHTEL The words klaohizis (or klaohi) veinas (or venas) den0avanoccur in two inscriptions.i in what seems to be an opening formula. First of all we must settle a very fundamental point-whether klohizis should be regarded as a noun or a verb. The full formula occurs in 371 and 436 b.268 ff. In 371 the actual reading is not klaohizis. But since these transcriptions are the work of different copyists. but at the date at which the transcriptions were made. which are generally terse and concise. In order to do so. 3 Ibid. 177 This content downloaded on Sat. Ribezzo's attempt at translating the word as a noun. In 476 klohizis odatis ozar and 515 klohizis avilos Gotorridas ana aprodita apaogrebis it might equally well be regarded as either. as to others. so that it is attested only in transcription. Klohizis by itself occurs in 476 and 515. for altering the reading. and since the three words of the formula have been preserved in several independent sources. In 548 1 The references for the Messapic words and forms are. that they may be regarded as trustworthy authorities. all three inscriptions in which this formula occurs have been lost or destroyed. knowledge of Messapic was hardly sufficiently advanced for them to have been forged-they are far too convincing as Messapic. Unfortunately. 2. to the edition of the Messapic inscriptions by Whatmough. Ribezzo regards it as a noun with the meaning 'princeps'.3 seems very awkward. and I can see no reason. 'I1 sovrano imperante alla citth'. seems very unusual in official documents. but such tautology as we get from his version of 371. the reading of which is doubtful and will be considered later in some detail. When we come to 474. The authenticity of these inscriptions has often been impugned. namely 371 and 436 b. in 474 a 1 we find only klaohizis denO-n. 2 La lingua degli antichi Messapii 85. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but klaohi. with a lacuna which some scholars fill in with -avaso as to give denGavan. unless otherwise specified.2 'Noster princeps regnans dux'.

For the formation we may compare also Alb.87. Skt. in a recent discussion of the Basta inscription (548). however. and s. 14 G. which he interprets as 'audi Iupiter'. there is no construction for a possessive pronominal adjective. 9 RhM 40. ant. ipse.to the locative *syei-. and possibly Latin vidisti. we might explain veinas as a pronoun of identity. 6 IF 5. built up by adding -no.178 RUTH MOORE BECHTEL he has to resort to a personification. vete 'same' < *sye-ti.5 The base is presumably *qley-.< *sY-). 6 See PID 2. in the West Greek 4 Ibid. ]eina.in Messapic. with a meaning 'noster'. built up by adding the suffix -no. Veinas is explained by Ribezzo" as a formation based on IE yei-. fadein. it seems to me that we get a much better explanation of all the inscriptions involved by following Torp in taking klohizis as a verb. 'rogi < IE kleu-si. svayam 'self'. 8 IF 54. Wb. avigat. Skt. in-khn (kh. an h to indicate the hiatus. *kl. In Homer.4 OIr.601 ff.to the locative *syei-. BB 8. 101. semantically equivalent to Gk. On the one hand. the optative element i. also Deecke9) as the equivalent of Skt. which would become *klao-. Alb. 75.l a form comparable to Goth.153.197. 468.'3 This meaning would fit very well in the inscription of Basta. the sign of the sigmatic aorist (written z). 13 See IF 5. Whatmough in HSCP 42. That the base *sye might be expected to give rise to a reflexive meaning rather than that of the pronoun of identity should not constitute an overwhelming objection to this view when we consider the state of affairs existing in some of the Greek dialects. the ending of the second singular. Torp explained it as a possessive adjective 'suus'. meina. But it seems to me that I have elsebrought forward sufficient evidence to prove that intervocalic s where"1 was preserved in Messapic. The form might otherwise be regarded as an is aorist like the Sanskrit aniqur. 11 Ling. Goth. taking klohi (cf. 12 This content downloaded on Sat.formant. 7 Hirt. cf. 'La Sovranita civica'. 11. I have two alternative suggestions to offer. 10 LANG. Arm.142. Meyer.129-139. weis.192. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .8 divides klohizis into two words klohi zis. vaydm. Indogermanische Grammatik 4. abr6sand Lat.6 To this is added an -i.249. Mess.200.4 Nor does there seem to be a parallel for such a nominal formation. d. In this formula. fein.7 Krahe. On the whole.

tion between the two ideas.ine. suavis. There is also a group of Venetic words which may perhaps be taken into consideration. certain of the Greek dialects dropped the first element. e. Gk. sve. would come from *suei-enos..2876. (169).s compare AMrcov IG 12.MESSAPICKLAOHIZIS FORMULA 179 dialects. Die Griechischen Dialekte 1. ir. Claflin.n.."6 In the second half of veinas we might recognize the old pronominal stem *eno-. see also Buck. where we find the identity-pronoun abrbs used as reflexive'5. " LANG..6e.g. However. roXul'. and in Arcadian. e.23-34. which are apparently all proper names. With Ven.7. it must be admitted that there is only one piece of direct evidence. rios OCS onu. Skt. ve.205. serenus. ands. For both these meanings it is necessary to prove that IE su.5. we have a parallel for this close conne.intact. In the Venetic inscriptions we have ven. Lesb.151-3. Delph. Ve. with Ve. Skt. cf. is that they are based on the same stem *sye-.n. and-.Dor.21.became yin Messapic. It is interesting to note in this connection that in Greek the pronoun of identity is a very productive element in the formation of proper names. also used as an element in the formation of proper names. cit. While Latin sometimes retained the group *su.r. 12. inscc. Greek Dialects 94.noni. In 169 tola. and the gens Vennonia CIL 5.ine.. as it is based chiefly on a Locrian form which is considered doubtful by Bechtel. ve.. and Gk. "1 See Bechtel."7 might be taken as a second proper name cognate with Gk. KeZVoS < E + Ke-EVOS. as suggested by E. then. Syll. 6r"s < * FoarLs. This content downloaded on Sat. p. and in the accusative singular neuter to Hom.s (161). svepis. cf. svaipis.a tola. It is quite reasonable to suppose that Messapic. Abrias Ditt. A second possibility involves the stem *sye/o which gave rise in the locative singular feminine to Osc. sometimes simplified it to s. Glotta 18. 8YZea. ToXaTosIG 9.IE *teld-.s Abr'as. svdr-. equivalent in meaning to Osc.1. however. and would be nominative singular masculine. it must be admitted.g. 2. F. is not beyond question.299.a. Cret.2. svai. svaipis. < re-evos. found in Lith. which shows many affinities with the western Greek dialects. In itself the development is not at all unlikely. also von Blumenthal.872. 16 Op. rTLS 'whosoever'. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The form FTrerLOae in 392 seems to contain a form equivalent to Gk. This latter derivation. 241. 398.s (144).r. My theory about these Venetic words. Veinas. if not a verb.. f (Hom.noni. Fe) and a sigmatic aorist rerwae. should show the same development of this consonant group. and dial. and in Latin sources Vennum CIL 5. Umbr.

and should prefer to consider venas erroneous. is chiefly used predicatively. Gk.formant seen in Lat. with Skt. since emendation in the case of an inscription which we no longer possess can at best be highly conjectural. It would seem. Gdr. namely.I&Xaapa.20 One serious objection to this explanation was pointed out to me by Professor Franklin Edgerton.2 1.223). However. m4 na kakcid drftavan 'no one has seen me'. It would not be necessary to assume a locative *syei-. which is a secondary derivative formed from the passive participle by adding the possessive suffix -vant-. separating these forms from veinan in the Basta inscription. e. compare Messapic Lixidar. The word maxetlon which follows ven. patram. But Krahe stops short with this word and which follows it in both 371 and 436 b. -FEvrloss of final -t as in Sanskrit. p6c(u)lum.. -vant-. 1934). except for one occurrence in the Atharvaveda (9.381. and 18 The Vocalism of Messapic 10 (Harvard. Brugmann. dominus. cf.) that venas like zis is a divinity = Lat.g. Sanskrit Grammar 344. is found only in Classical Sanskrit.g.19 Den0avan was explained by Ribezzo as a participle with suffix *-Yent-.. The verb would then be omitted. It would then be a structure analogous •vro-v). for the form might be built up from the simple stem *see-. I am very dubious about the advisability of separating these forms from veinan in the inscription of Basta. and might be derived from IE . without copula expressed. that the -vant. takes no account of denOavan 20 Whitney. Ribezzo's explanation of the formation I am inclined to accept.n. tat krtdvan'having done that'. This participle. for which he accepts Torp's explanation. Venus. plus the common IE -tlo. like the form dentan 558. I should prefer to connect it. -vant.88 f. Peter Fishman. but do not agree with him in assigning it to that base.3 (= to the with the base *dhg-. with the meaning of the last.'" maintains that i should not be restored to read veinas in 371.participle in Sanskrit. of the base *deme/o seen in Lat. This content downloaded on Sat. in his dissertation on the vocalism of Messapic. but this is by no means unusual in dedicatory formulae. in this inscription would then denote the dedicatory offering. which has the meaning and construction of a perfect active.(Walde-Pokorny 1. In any case.participle. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . to be a later development. gIxl. Tizaopar. it is rather futile to argue about the reading here. 1' Mention should be made of Krahe's recent suggestion (IF 54. Both of my interpretations are possible even if this reading be accepted.6. and has the value of a personal verb form in past time. therefore. e. He prefers to read venas here as in 436.180 RUTH MOOREBECHTEL For names ending in -ar. M&xolaL.probably *magh. Skt. Dassinar.38).r.a tola.

It remains now to see how this explanation works out with the inscriptions involved. If we take veinas as an identity-pronoun. 264. part. veinan aran in the Basta inscription might be rendered 'whatsoever land'. I can see no reason why we could not assume a parallel development of this structure in Messapic. Lat.MESSAPIC KLAOHIZIS FORMULA 181 not an ancient IE inheritance.. On the other hand.of which the perf.v. inserinuntur-seems to me to point to a series of nasal presents existing in colloquial speech alongside of the classical forms. Moreover. hold of importance'. her landed property. cited as a nasal present in Meillet-Ernout22 and by Sturtevant. 819.'consider. s. would be *denta.).2 2.2. Non. The base *dh&-. Sanskrit gives us a perfect parallel for the syntax. Sommer. solinunt. As an example of the same base with -ne/lo. an emphatic heading to attract the attention and interest of the passerby. ap. Brugmanns1 held that the type kyrtavantgave rise to the frequent classical Sanskrit perfect participle active during the Vedic period.und Formenlehre.. ferinunt. pass.e.24 or analogy (situs : sinunt = datus : danunt). which is 21Gdr. i.25 The fact that we have a number of other similar forms-prodinunt. Naev. 22Dict. <*dant-unt. nequinont. redinunt. Den0avan would be a participle of this type from a nasal extension of the base *dhg-. would be appropriate here. Goth. i. Lateinische Laut. Pacuv.e. explenunt. standan.g. whosoever is concerned'.7 (150 B. 97. found in both Latin facio and Greek rT16lqy. exclusive of other kinds. 371 is the inscription of Monopoli. regard. i. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . No. e. 176. and *do(y). danunt (Plaut. we take veinas as the indefinite relative. veinan aran in the Basta inscription might be rendered 'the land itself'. Kritische Erlauterungen 132.e.169 f. all the land she has. on the other hand. One of them. as we shall see when we proceed to a translation of the phrase as a whole.633. obinunt.1. developed many different shades of meaning. we would translate 'Hear. With this meaning. 207. 23 LANG.suffix we may cite Arm. This content downloaded on Sat. other heavy monosyllabic bases with suffixed nasal element are *sta-. If.C. CIL 1. 26 7. Danunt.2 3..23 is otherwise variously explained as the result of dissimilation.. Etym. we may translate as follows: 'Hear! You yourself are concerned'. e.463.with its extensive cognates in Indo-European languages. In that case. even if this point be waived. 'This is your own concern'.1531.2. do.g. dnem 'I place'. 24Brugmann. As we have seen. Capt.. Gdr. Caecil.

388.. Hitt. ant.28 26 27 Ling. of -nt-. cf. cf.2 65. 'urbi'. valdian: acc. 28 Sturtevant. CIL 9. or a proper name.is attested by Skt. 1803. also Licovius CIL 3. or aor. of proper name in apposition with invinta and valdian. prefix hi-. published at Naples in 1773. For other related names see Krahe. -ao-.20. Cosinius. cf. and Whatmough. impv. invitus. -di. Goth waldan < *Valdh-. 1968. nom. cf. hidita: 3 sg. mid. cf. with Gk. Pael. Dassinar for Dassinaris. 245. 66. PID 2. 3. but some corrections have been made which seem unnecessary to me. tIeat. audi). valeo. Num. 1805. impf. which is what we should expect (*-ey. Pacim. adhdyi. cf. 1506. for which we have a parallel in 474 a 3.stem. This content downloaded on Sat. Kosinin: acc. 103. Valerius. Mess. masc. d.5625.(as in Lat. with samprasarana as in Osc. vtti.182 RUTH MOOREBECHTEL now known only from the very unsatisfactory printed copy of Nardelli. Aalcaxos Thuc. sg. PN-Lex.extension. with adv. almost certainly a proper name. Lat.. and Liconius CIL 9.with formant -tdt. without the inflexional ending. Licinius CIL 9. tiya-.1861. 67.either an epithet 'dux'. sg.perhaps represents the reduced grade of *dhei-. dat. masc. why change klaohi to klaohizis? Klaohi gives us a perfectly good 2 sg.extension of the base *teut-. &IreXETO with apocopated form of the preposition. Skt. Lith. sg. (like Lat.. masc. of -/o. perhaps Xaawv& (note xxviii. fem. Valdes: nomen. termination -os. 85. valdza. of a noun formed on the base *Mei-. HG 96. pahexita: Ribezzo suggested that this is equivalent to Gk. tais 'he placed'.'infestum'.> Mess. with prefix in. pres. adhimahi. invitati: dat." tooitinai: nomen. cf. sg.26 It is probably genitive case written in an abbreviated style. probably cognate with Lat. The text has no doubt been much corrupted in transmission. nom. sg.422. Gk. of -ina. For instance.1455. and I offer here what might be termed an eclectic rendering. sg.of *yei-. dheyur. Taimakos: nomen. both of which are found in Messapic territory. 'bellum'. masc. Perhaps it is a mistake for *taot-inai. from IE Ohe/o-. i. Tarentine baqtaxos Head.292). veritas). Lixidar is probably a proper name. *veid. invinta: acc. Many obscure points have been cleared up through the labours of Torp.e. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . -5-). Ribezzo.-loc. dheyam. Valesus. masc. The diphthongal form of the base *dhg. Hist.

for which we have one certain example. admah.9).1329 b. ant. ioeinai: dat. Ribezzo thought it had something to do with the creation or selection of a civic body. masc. Osc. but from *uedh-or *syedh-. with the meaning 'senate or gerousia'. Skt. 8Ovos does not come from *edh-. toatas: probably a mistake or misspelling of taotas. populus'. of stem in 5u-.276 ff. jatnas. but von Blumenthal's recent suggestion that the inscription be divided as follows: Laidehi Abas logetibas'Laidii Abae manibus' seems more satisfactory to me. militibus'. F). were among the earliest peoples to establish the custom of common meals: Kal r T av••irLa Ka~raorT^oaLrpcrwvc. aiz.10. and was said to have been afterwards cut up and used as building stone. aison: acc. cf. fem. Lat. Let us now examine No.MESSAPIC KLAOHIZIS FORMULA 183 Issinom: gen.). Gk. I have elsewhere31distinguished two forms of the dative plural in Messapic-one ending in -bas. There were in existence two copies of the inscription.129-39. Issa. urbs. A possible interpretation was suggested to me by the statement of Aristotle. It appears to be a civic document also. senex. with -in.C. The inscription was discovered in 1847 at Carovigno.32 the other end29 Ling. Vincenzo Andriani of Carovigno. of which this may be an ethnicon. The chief Taimakos warded off the enemy chief Cosinius. totOebis appears to be dative plural of a noun *totfes < *totros. 'iuvenibus. touta 'civitas. 30o Laidehiabas in the same inscription has also been taken as a dative plural (by Kretschmer. tuticus. Glotta 12. December. Pol. Mess. 1936. and as for the second. ennan. son of Lichidar. 32 asIn a paper read before the Linguistic Society. with oe Lith. edra. 'Hear ye. the two letters being very similar in the Messapic alphabet (E. He dedicated to the city the spoils of the militia of the state of the Issini'. I have shown elsewhere30that initial s is preserved in Messapic. sg. probably a mistake for ov. Ribezzo explained as from either *edhna : Gk. of -d.jilrpws. IE *ieu-. senium. of consonant stem *teut. like Gk. 436. that the inhabitants of south Italy in general. gen. Gk. cf. Goth. 4. iuvenis 'militia'.or *senia : Lat. 103. sg. probably cognate with Latin aes. plur.'civitas'. This content downloaded on Sat. whoso is concerned. ioues *uyuen-.29 But as for the first suggestion. '6eaya. and the Messapians in particular. is mentioned by Caesar (B. We might then derive enna from *ed-na. in warfare. Lith. ippws. d. f0vos. LANG. 3. both made by Dr. Lat. Umbr.stem. The first word after the introductory formula. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .cf. aeris. sg.extension. a Dalmatian town. logetibasin 526. 11.

d. It "3Whatmough. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Probably -nt.as in Oscan.10. vale~abis (442. impf. cf. #abppLov Hesych.24.Hesxeorris son of Hestorius. cf. masc. of noun formed on base *teut.3. As for the medial e in this form. 34PID 3. perhaps an extension and compound of *d5.Y 3 palanaindai: plur. Umbr. Lat. which is represented by two fairly well-attested forms.' No. Next follows a list of people in different localities. *d9-. Aratames : artahiaihi. and was preserved for a time in the private collection of the Archbishop Annibale de Leo of Brindisi. There seems to be anaptyxis between I and n. Gk. each of whom was responsible for the arrangements in his particular town or locality. Barium. fvp&b0rv'o1Ko0Ev 'builder'. mid. PID 3. The original is thought to have been destroyed during the French occupation of Brindisi in the early part of the nineteenth century. teremniss. A copy of the insciiption is still preserved among the papers of Ortensio de Leo. if that be considered a difficulty. admoveto'. -Evvro. Istr. This content downloaded on Sat. Dazet Hastorius Hanaius (either of the last two might be regarded as the patronymic). and for the citizens at Azetium let Xlannatas Mareolles and at Uzentum Taimakos Teinnatainnes of Barium make provision. but also Madius lettis son of Dazet. Magn. plate II (1848) from a copy which he saw in 1846.5). pello < *pel-no. serving as imperative from base *pel-. 36 This new word division was suggested by Fishman 150. although in Messapic there is such frequent alternation of d and t that in some cases at least the pronunciation of media and tenuis appears to have approximated very closely. Lapricius. Barra. Tea. 20. and the form at present under discussion.72..has become -nd. . 389. or perhaps even a proper name) established common meals. with the meaning Et. adazinnota: 3 sg. Borrahetis: a proper name serving as a cognomen to indicate either place of origin. Mommsen published it for the first time in Ann.33 totor: nom. As sporadic instances of this phenomenon in Messapic we may perhaps cite Laparedonas : Dalm. arpeltu 'appellito.with -innota equivalent to Gk. 474 was discovered in 1765 at Brindisi.by addition of suffix -e/or referring either to some municipal official or to a civic body. opt. rdXXw.35Blattius Zarius of Diria and Aiddetis of Uria. sg.184 RUTH MOORE BECHTEL ing in -bis.. cf. Osc. it might easily have been extended to the oblique cases from the nominative *totOes. cf. We may translate somewhat as follows: 'Totor (civic body or official. at Tarentum not only (andaanda) Dazetius son of Hastorus and Zatetius son of Dazius. kiritas : kritaboa. or occupation. mid.

The translation owes much to the successive labours of Torp31and Ribezzo. containing simply the word klaohizis 'Hear ye!'. 86. Mess. mid.3 plur. and vasti would be dative-locative singular with -ei > -i. Denlan would then be identified with dentan in 558.358. as the latter remarks. The only part of our opening formula here. with the three words klaohizis veinas den0avan.in the lacuna.574. We may then translate 'They have decreed for the state'. two versions of this conventional opening formulaa shorter one.3.200. d. ant. who offers a most convincing explanation of the entire inscription except for the opening formula. whosoever is concerned'. 548. 9 PID 2. There are.1. of base *dhU-. root aorist of the base *dhe-.37 culminating in the revision of Whatmough. aor.MESSAPIC KLAOHIZIS FORMULA 185 seems to be a proclamation relating to the collection and disposal of revenue. found in 474 a. it seems better to supply only a. 'for which'. ol 'Hear. 36 IF 5. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 38 PID 2. The reader is referred to Whatmough's exposition for this part of the inscription. taxes or tribute. 515. 'both (copies) A and O hardly allow sufficient space'. and a longer form.1. found in 371 and 436. which we find alone also in 476 and 515.middle voice.38 Both copies read klaohizis denO-n v(a)sti. in which denea = OE0ro. reading denlan vasti. and classified as a 3 plur. 37 Ling. then. then. 476. is the first word klaohizis.-Hear.39 Torp read denea vastin. This content downloaded on Sat. and a list of names of individuals concerned in the collection. you yourself are concerned'. Ribezzo and Whatmough both supply -ava. Then follow the instructions about the yearly payments by the separate vici. however. In the case of this inscription.