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The Messapic Klaohizis Formula Author(s): Ruth Moore Bechtel Reviewed work(s): Source: Language, Vol. 13, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1937), pp. 177-185 Published by: Linguistic Society of America Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/409125 . Accessed: 26/01/2013 04:42
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First of all we must settle a very fundamental point-whether klohizis should be regarded as a noun or a verb. knowledge of Messapic was hardly sufficiently advanced for them to have been forged-they are far too convincing as Messapic. all three inscriptions in which this formula occurs have been lost or destroyed. When we come to 474. Unfortunately. In 476 klohizis odatis ozar and 515 klohizis avilos Gotorridas ana aprodita apaogrebis it might equally well be regarded as either. seems very unusual in official documents. for altering the reading. The authenticity of these inscriptions has often been impugned. Klohizis by itself occurs in 476 and 515. and since the three words of the formula have been preserved in several independent sources.THE MESSAPIC KLAOHIZIS FORMULA RUTH MOORE BECHTEL The words klaohizis (or klaohi) veinas (or venas) den0avanoccur in two inscriptions. it is necessary to examine the word carefully in every context in which it occurs. 2. 2 La lingua degli antichi Messapii 85. as I shall later explain. the reading of which is doubtful and will be considered later in some detail.268 ff. namely 371 and 436 b. in 474 a 1 we find only klaohizis denO-n. unless otherwise specified. In 371 the actual reading is not klaohizis. 'I1 sovrano imperante alla citth'. The full formula occurs in 371 and 436 b.3 seems very awkward. so that it is attested only in transcription. But since these transcriptions are the work of different copyists.2 'Noster princeps regnans dux'. and I can see no reason. Ribezzo's attempt at translating the word as a noun. while 474 opens with a partial version of the same. In 548 1 The references for the Messapic words and forms are. 177 This content downloaded on Sat. but at the date at which the transcriptions were made. 86. to the edition of the Messapic inscriptions by Whatmough. in Prae-Italic Dialects of Italy. 3 Ibid. which are generally terse and concise.i in what seems to be an opening formula. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . with a lacuna which some scholars fill in with -avaso as to give denGavan. In order to do so. as to others. that they may be regarded as trustworthy authorities. but klaohi. it seems to me. Ribezzo regards it as a noun with the meaning 'princeps'. but such tautology as we get from his version of 371.

13 See IF 5. 468.5 The base is presumably *qley-. 14 G.8 divides klohizis into two words klohi zis.192.153. the sign of the sigmatic aorist (written z). however.< *sY-). Mess. taking klohi (cf. In Homer.197. 12 This content downloaded on Sat.6 To this is added an -i. the ending of the second singular.200. Alb. built up by adding -no. vaydm. d. in-khn (kh. an h to indicate the hiatus. Veinas is explained by Ribezzo" as a formation based on IE yei-. which he interprets as 'audi Iupiter'. Skt.142.to the locative *syei-. which would become *klao-. svayam 'self'. 11 Ling. fein.formant. built up by adding the suffix -no. 101. 'rogi < IE kleu-si. there is no construction for a possessive pronominal adjective. weis. Goth. ]eina.4 OIr. ant.to the locative *syei-. also Deecke9) as the equivalent of Skt. On the whole. semantically equivalent to Gk. avigat. 10 LANG.4 Nor does there seem to be a parallel for such a nominal formation. abr6sand Lat. in a recent discussion of the Basta inscription (548). Wb.178 RUTH MOORE BECHTEL he has to resort to a personification. 75. For the formation we may compare also Alb. BB 8. 9 RhM 40. 'La Sovranita civica'. we might explain veinas as a pronoun of identity. On the one hand. it seems to me that we get a much better explanation of all the inscriptions involved by following Torp in taking klohizis as a verb.129-139. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and possibly Latin vidisti. cf. 8 IF 54. 6 IF 5. Skt. meina. 6 See PID 2. with a meaning 'noster'. The form might otherwise be regarded as an is aorist like the Sanskrit aniqur. Indogermanische Grammatik 4. Whatmough in HSCP 42. Arm. But it seems to me that I have elsebrought forward sufficient evidence to prove that intervocalic s where"1 was preserved in Messapic.l a form comparable to Goth. and s. I have two alternative suggestions to offer. fadein. *kl. the optative element i.7 Krahe. Torp explained it as a possessive adjective 'suus'. ipse.601 ff. in the West Greek 4 Ibid.in Messapic. 7 Hirt. That the base *sye might be expected to give rise to a reflexive meaning rather than that of the pronoun of identity should not constitute an overwhelming objection to this view when we consider the state of affairs existing in some of the Greek dialects.87. In this formula. vete 'same' < *sye-ti.249. 11. Meyer.'3 This meaning would fit very well in the inscription of Basta.

ir. However. found in Lith.IE *teld-.s (144).2876.intact. and in the accusative singular neuter to Hom.. It is quite reasonable to suppose that Messapic. which shows many affinities with the western Greek dialects.5. " LANG. This content downloaded on Sat. ve.872. This latter derivation. Cret. and the gens Vennonia CIL 5. then.n. Claflin. Die Griechischen Dialekte 1. "1 See Bechtel. Fe) and a sigmatic aorist rerwae.. KeZVoS < E + Ke-EVOS. It is interesting to note in this connection that in Greek the pronoun of identity is a very productive element in the formation of proper names. equivalent in meaning to Osc.n. (169). ve. ToXaTosIG 9. 6r"s < * FoarLs. where we find the identity-pronoun abrbs used as reflexive'5. f (Hom. serenus. if not a verb. and Gk. My theory about these Venetic words. 16 Op. as suggested by E. we have a parallel for this close conne. Lesb.g.299. ands. < re-evos.1.ine. certain of the Greek dialects dropped the first element. e. and dial. also von Blumenthal. sometimes simplified it to s. 241. cit.a tola. There is also a group of Venetic words which may perhaps be taken into consideration.ine.Dor. Glotta 18.MESSAPICKLAOHIZIS FORMULA 179 dialects. The form FTrerLOae in 392 seems to contain a form equivalent to Gk. Delph. Syll. For both these meanings it is necessary to prove that IE su.a. is not beyond question.21. it must be admitted that there is only one piece of direct evidence. see also Buck."7 might be taken as a second proper name cognate with Gk. rios OCS onu. cf. svdr-. In itself the development is not at all unlikely. In 169 tola."6 In the second half of veinas we might recognize the old pronominal stem *eno-.became yin Messapic.151-3. Abrias Ditt.205..noni.. suavis. 398.r.r. rTLS 'whosoever'. inscc.23-34. While Latin sometimes retained the group *su.. sve. e.tion between the two ideas. 12.s Abr'as. would come from *suei-enos. With Ven. roXul'. should show the same development of this consonant group.g.s compare AMrcov IG 12. Greek Dialects 94. and would be nominative singular masculine. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 2. Skt. with Ve. however. F. Veinas.2.. A second possibility involves the stem *sye/o which gave rise in the locative singular feminine to Osc. also used as an element in the formation of proper names. and in Latin sources Vennum CIL 5. as it is based chiefly on a Locrian form which is considered doubtful by Bechtel. svaipis. svaipis. Umbr. and in Arcadian.noni. Ve. 8YZea.7. svai. cf. is that they are based on the same stem *sye-. In the Venetic inscriptions we have ven. Gk.6e. svepis. p. and-. it must be admitted. Skt. which are apparently all proper names.s (161).

that the -vant. Dassinar. Tizaopar. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . It would then be a structure analogous •vro-v). However.88 f. -vant-.223).19 Den0avan was explained by Ribezzo as a participle with suffix *-Yent-. 1934). e. patram. and has the value of a personal verb form in past time.'" maintains that i should not be restored to read veinas in 371.a tola.(Walde-Pokorny 1.g. This content downloaded on Sat. Sanskrit Grammar 344. Peter Fishman. m4 na kakcid drftavan 'no one has seen me'.381.3 (= to the with the base *dhg-. Gk. 1' Mention should be made of Krahe's recent suggestion (IF 54.formant seen in Lat. The word maxetlon which follows ven. separating these forms from veinan in the Basta inscription.180 RUTH MOOREBECHTEL For names ending in -ar.probably *magh.38). except for one occurrence in the Atharvaveda (9. M&xolaL. but this is by no means unusual in dedicatory formulae. e. which has the meaning and construction of a perfect active. of the base *deme/o seen in Lat.2 1. Both of my interpretations are possible even if this reading be accepted. tat krtdvan'having done that'. But Krahe stops short with this word and which follows it in both 371 and 436 b.participle. He prefers to read venas here as in 436. without copula expressed. with Skt. gIxl. dominus. and should prefer to consider venas erroneous. It would seem.n. takes no account of denOavan 20 Whitney. plus the common IE -tlo. Skt.r. and 18 The Vocalism of Messapic 10 (Harvard. It would not be necessary to assume a locative *syei-.20 One serious objection to this explanation was pointed out to me by Professor Franklin Edgerton. I should prefer to connect it. it is rather futile to argue about the reading here. like the form dentan 558.I&Xaapa. compare Messapic Lixidar.. -vant. with the meaning of the last.) that venas like zis is a divinity = Lat. -FEvrloss of final -t as in Sanskrit.. Gdr.g. namely. which is a secondary derivative formed from the passive participle by adding the possessive suffix -vant-. to be a later development. This participle. and might be derived from IE .6. I am very dubious about the advisability of separating these forms from veinan in the inscription of Basta. for which he accepts Torp's explanation.participle in Sanskrit. p6c(u)lum. since emendation in the case of an inscription which we no longer possess can at best be highly conjectural. Ribezzo's explanation of the formation I am inclined to accept. therefore. in his dissertation on the vocalism of Messapic. is found only in Classical Sanskrit. Venus. In any case. for the form might be built up from the simple stem *see-. but do not agree with him in assigning it to that base. Brugmann. The verb would then be omitted. is chiefly used predicatively. in this inscription would then denote the dedicatory offering. cf.

do.. 371 is the inscription of Monopoli. Danunt.e. inserinuntur-seems to me to point to a series of nasal presents existing in colloquial speech alongside of the classical forms. Naev.2. exclusive of other kinds. 22Dict. danunt (Plaut. all the land she has. we take veinas as the indefinite relative. Den0avan would be a participle of this type from a nasal extension of the base *dhg-.C. would be *denta. standan.g.25 The fact that we have a number of other similar forms-prodinunt. I can see no reason why we could not assume a parallel development of this structure in Messapic. redinunt.23 is otherwise variously explained as the result of dissimilation. 24Brugmann. As an example of the same base with -ne/lo.g. veinan aran in the Basta inscription might be rendered 'the land itself'. whosoever is concerned'.'consider. 176. pass. CIL 1. If.und Formenlehre. regard. i. 264. With this meaning. on the other hand. <*dant-unt.24 or analogy (situs : sinunt = datus : danunt).. even if this point be waived. ferinunt.463. e.with its extensive cognates in Indo-European languages. Sanskrit gives us a perfect parallel for the syntax. 819. The base *dh&-. s. found in both Latin facio and Greek rT16lqy. Brugmanns1 held that the type kyrtavantgave rise to the frequent classical Sanskrit perfect participle active during the Vedic period.2 2. Goth. No.). 207. obinunt. 23 LANG.MESSAPIC KLAOHIZIS FORMULA 181 not an ancient IE inheritance. her landed property. part. This content downloaded on Sat. veinan aran in the Basta inscription might be rendered 'whatsoever land'. Non.633. and *do(y). If we take veinas as an identity-pronoun. dnem 'I place'. would be appropriate here.. ap. Sommer.e. Caecil. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Etym.1. as we shall see when we proceed to a translation of the phrase as a whole.2 3.. i.e. nequinont. Lat. we would translate 'Hear. 97. Capt. an emphatic heading to attract the attention and interest of the passerby.1531. On the other hand. i. solinunt.v. which is 21Gdr. other heavy monosyllabic bases with suffixed nasal element are *sta-. It remains now to see how this explanation works out with the inscriptions involved. One of them. 26 7. we may translate as follows: 'Hear! You yourself are concerned'. As we have seen. 'This is your own concern'. Moreover. Lateinische Laut. cited as a nasal present in Meillet-Ernout22 and by Sturtevant. In that case. Kritische Erlauterungen 132. e. explenunt. Gdr.2. developed many different shades of meaning..of which the perf.suffix we may cite Arm.7 (150 B. Pacuv.169 f. hold of importance'.

. invitati: dat. 66. -di. Many obscure points have been cleared up through the labours of Torp.. valeo. or a proper name.292). both of which are found in Messapic territory. prefix hi-. 388. and Whatmough.-loc. hidita: 3 sg. i. masc." tooitinai: nomen. valdian: acc. from IE Ohe/o-. pahexita: Ribezzo suggested that this is equivalent to Gk. PN-Lex. of proper name in apposition with invinta and valdian. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . fem. Pael. Perhaps it is a mistake for *taot-inai. with prefix in. 103. sg. adhdyi. 85. almost certainly a proper name. invitus. masc. dheyam.is attested by Skt. Valdes: nomen. Goth waldan < *Valdh-.perhaps represents the reduced grade of *dhei-. Taimakos: nomen. perhaps Xaawv& (note xxviii. Valerius. &IreXETO with apocopated form of the preposition. for which we have a parallel in 474 a 3.182 RUTH MOOREBECHTEL now known only from the very unsatisfactory printed copy of Nardelli. Lixidar is probably a proper name. The diphthongal form of the base *dhg. and I offer here what might be termed an eclectic rendering. Ribezzo. of a noun formed on the base *Mei-. sg. termination -os. The text has no doubt been much corrupted in transmission. sg. (like Lat. cf.extension of the base *teut-. but some corrections have been made which seem unnecessary to me.(as in Lat. cf. Lith. vtti. Tarentine baqtaxos Head. For instance. ant. PID 2.with formant -tdt. Pacim. Lat. d. cf. This content downloaded on Sat. cf. with Gk. tais 'he placed'. cf. tiya-.1455. Hitt. Cosinius. CIL 9. Num. nom.5625.either an epithet 'dux'. cf. without the inflexional ending. For other related names see Krahe. Aalcaxos Thuc.26 It is probably genitive case written in an abbreviated style.2 65. Licinius CIL 9.e. valdza. Mess. masc. 245. -ao-. masc. invinta: acc.'infestum'. impf. 1803. mid. Valesus. sg. of -ina. 1968. veritas).> Mess. with adv.422. cf. 3. 'urbi'.1861.of *yei-. Skt. probably cognate with Lat. nom.. 1506.28 26 27 Ling. audi). masc. Hist. sg.stem. of -nt-. why change klaohi to klaohizis? Klaohi gives us a perfectly good 2 sg.extension. 28 Sturtevant. 'bellum'. Kosinin: acc. published at Naples in 1773. sg. Gk. tIeat.20. adhimahi. *veid. or aor. 67. pres. impv. and Liconius CIL 9. dat. of -/o. 1805. with samprasarana as in Osc. which is what we should expect (*-ey. -5-). also Licovius CIL 3. dheyur. HG 96. Dassinar for Dassinaris.

103. There were in existence two copies of the inscription.9). Ribezzo thought it had something to do with the creation or selection of a civic body. fem. gen. aiz. and the Messapians in particular. The chief Taimakos warded off the enemy chief Cosinius. aison: acc. plur. The inscription was discovered in 1847 at Carovigno. I have elsewhere31distinguished two forms of the dative plural in Messapic-one ending in -bas. F). Glotta 12. 4. but von Blumenthal's recent suggestion that the inscription be divided as follows: Laidehi Abas logetibas'Laidii Abae manibus' seems more satisfactory to me. sg.10. that the inhabitants of south Italy in general. senium.129-39. IE *ieu-. 30o Laidehiabas in the same inscription has also been taken as a dative plural (by Kretschmer. cf. with the meaning 'senate or gerousia'. December.32 the other end29 Ling. edra. senex.stem. is mentioned by Caesar (B. We might then derive enna from *ed-na. populus'. both made by Dr. probably a mistake for ov. The first word after the introductory formula. 'iuvenibus.1329 b. Vincenzo Andriani of Carovigno. It appears to be a civic document also. and was said to have been afterwards cut up and used as building stone. of -d. Lat. Umbr. Ribezzo explained as from either *edhna : Gk. admah. Osc. urbs. son of Lichidar. cf. with oe Lith. logetibasin 526. iuvenis 'militia'. Let us now examine No. in warfare.276 ff. toatas: probably a mistake or misspelling of taotas. of stem in 5u-. ant. 1936. a Dalmatian town. Goth.cf.).C. 'Hear ye. This content downloaded on Sat. masc. ennan. with -in. sg. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . '6eaya. Mess. 3. totOebis appears to be dative plural of a noun *totfes < *totros. of consonant stem *teut. A possible interpretation was suggested to me by the statement of Aristotle. the two letters being very similar in the Messapic alphabet (E. ioues *uyuen-. Skt. but from *uedh-or *syedh-. aeris. Issa.or *senia : Lat.jilrpws. 8Ovos does not come from *edh-. and as for the second. tuticus. touta 'civitas. LANG. 436.29 But as for the first suggestion. ioeinai: dat.MESSAPIC KLAOHIZIS FORMULA 183 Issinom: gen. like Gk. d. f0vos. Pol.'civitas'. probably cognate with Latin aes. Gk. whoso is concerned. militibus'. were among the earliest peoples to establish the custom of common meals: Kal r T av••irLa Ka~raorT^oaLrpcrwvc. Gk. He dedicated to the city the spoils of the militia of the state of the Issini'. 32 asIn a paper read before the Linguistic Society. sg. of which this may be an ethnicon. 11. Lith. for which we have one certain example. ippws. Lat. jatnas.extension. I have shown elsewhere30that initial s is preserved in Messapic.

and for the citizens at Azetium let Xlannatas Mareolles and at Uzentum Taimakos Teinnatainnes of Barium make provision. There seems to be anaptyxis between I and n. *d9-. impf. admoveto'. 34PID 3.24. adazinnota: 3 sg. This content downloaded on Sat. mid.. masc. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . cf. As for the medial e in this form. 20. plate II (1848) from a copy which he saw in 1846.Hesxeorris son of Hestorius. vale~abis (442. kiritas : kritaboa. Lat. or perhaps even a proper name) established common meals.3. or occupation.10. Borrahetis: a proper name serving as a cognomen to indicate either place of origin. Osc. Dazet Hastorius Hanaius (either of the last two might be regarded as the patronymic). serving as imperative from base *pel-. Next follows a list of people in different localities. opt. pello < *pel-no.184 RUTH MOORE BECHTEL ing in -bis. and the form at present under discussion. mid. cf.33 totor: nom. d.as in Oscan. It "3Whatmough.has become -nd. #abppLov Hesych.. Umbr.72. although in Messapic there is such frequent alternation of d and t that in some cases at least the pronunciation of media and tenuis appears to have approximated very closely. PID 3. sg. Aratames : artahiaihi.by addition of suffix -e/or referring either to some municipal official or to a civic body. of noun formed on base *teut. teremniss. Magn. Tea. each of whom was responsible for the arrangements in his particular town or locality. if that be considered a difficulty. Istr. and was preserved for a time in the private collection of the Archbishop Annibale de Leo of Brindisi. . at Tarentum not only (andaanda) Dazetius son of Hastorus and Zatetius son of Dazius. which is represented by two fairly well-attested forms. 36 This new word division was suggested by Fishman 150. Probably -nt. fvp&b0rv'o1Ko0Ev 'builder'. cf. Barium.with -innota equivalent to Gk. Mommsen published it for the first time in Ann. A copy of the insciiption is still preserved among the papers of Ortensio de Leo.5). perhaps an extension and compound of *d5. Barra. Lapricius. arpeltu 'appellito. -Evvro.' No.35Blattius Zarius of Diria and Aiddetis of Uria. but also Madius lettis son of Dazet. We may translate somewhat as follows: 'Totor (civic body or official. 474 was discovered in 1765 at Brindisi. 389. it might easily have been extended to the oblique cases from the nominative *totOes. cf. As sporadic instances of this phenomenon in Messapic we may perhaps cite Laparedonas : Dalm.Y 3 palanaindai: plur. with the meaning Et. The original is thought to have been destroyed during the French occupation of Brindisi in the early part of the nineteenth century. rdXXw. Gk.

In the case of this inscription. 'for which'. 548.MESSAPIC KLAOHIZIS FORMULA 185 seems to be a proclamation relating to the collection and disposal of revenue. ant. reading denlan vasti. two versions of this conventional opening formulaa shorter one. is the first word klaohizis. found in 371 and 436. then. found in 474 a.358. taxes or tribute. Then follow the instructions about the yearly payments by the separate vici.3. There are.39 Torp read denea vastin.in the lacuna.38 Both copies read klaohizis denO-n v(a)sti. with the three words klaohizis veinas den0avan. and vasti would be dative-locative singular with -ei > -i. 'both (copies) A and O hardly allow sufficient space'. containing simply the word klaohizis 'Hear ye!'. Denlan would then be identified with dentan in 558. 86. aor. The only part of our opening formula here. and a longer form. it seems better to supply only a.1. Ribezzo and Whatmough both supply -ava. as the latter remarks. ol 'Hear. and classified as a 3 plur. We may then translate 'They have decreed for the state'. 476. in which denea = OE0ro. This content downloaded on Sat. The translation owes much to the successive labours of Torp31and Ribezzo. Mess.-Hear.200. The reader is referred to Whatmough's exposition for this part of the inscription. d. of base *dhU-. whosoever is concerned'. which we find alone also in 476 and 515.574.37 culminating in the revision of Whatmough. root aorist of the base *dhe-.1. you yourself are concerned'. who offers a most convincing explanation of the entire inscription except for the opening formula. 38 PID 2. 26 Jan 2013 04:42:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . then.3 plur. 36 IF 5.middle voice. 515. however. 37 Ling. 9 PID 2. and a list of names of individuals concerned in the collection. mid.