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Hudl Accessories 2

Usually The One Hudl Accessories per Child (OLPC) project aims to supply an incredibly cheap computer for elementary schoolchildren in developing countries. The $100 Laptop, so named simply because of its intended price, can be used as a accessories for hudl and e-book, replacing paper textbooks, notebooks, and pencils, designed at the MIT Media Laboratory. The XO, as it is now officially called, includes a wind-up crank power generator for regions with limited entry to electricity, and Wi-Fi mesh networking functionality that allows computers to "talk" to nearby computers in areas with limited Online access. In 2006, Brazil, Libya, Argentina and Thailand and Nigeria decided to test prototypes prior to the planned large-scale distribution to countless schoolchildren. The argument driving the intended low cost is that 50 % of the cost of existing laptops is profit and the other quarter stems from the excessively top quality of microchip and display, all of these can be eliminated. Most of the ICT community supports the project, including Google, AMD, and Linux. Findings in the Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI)--OLPC's United states precursor, started in 2002--propose that one hudl accessories per child, rather than computer labs with desktops in class, could bring innovation to teaching and learning. The hudl accessories stimulates children's creativity and collaboration, altering classroom dynamics from teacher-centric, unidirectional knowledge transfer to some more inquisitive, interactive process.

N i c h o l a s N e g r o p o n t e ( t h e c o f ounder in the Media Lab, founding father of OLPC, and younger brother of Deputy Secretary of

State John Negroponte) promotes the project by saying, "A nation's most precious natural resource is its children." Kofi Annan announced the UN's strong support for your project on the World Summit about the Information Society in 2005. One of the most interesting is Macedonia in southeastern Europe, although several countries have expressed fascination with engaged in the OLPC project. Macedonia Country Background Macedonia, since its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, has been facing severe political and economic challenges: UN economic sanctions, economic blockage by Greece (which opposed using the name Macedonia to the new state), an inflow of refugees from Kosovo, and armed conflict in a complex multiethnic society. In 1995, the country's real GDP declined to 78.8 percent from the preindependence level, and it has grown only around 2 percent annually inside the subsequent decade. Foreign Direct Investment inflows have amounted into a total of just about 1.7 billion dollars since independence. The official unemployment rates are up to 36 percent. Despite, or perhaps due to these obstacles, Macedonia is uniquely positioned to make use of the $100 accessories for hudl project. ICT Landscape in Macedonia Macedonia has the world's first wireless Internet service covering 99 percent of the populaPtion, thanks to a United States Of America Agency for International Development (USAID) project that installed a nationwide wireless infrastructure interconnecting schools and worked with an entrepreneurial telecom operator to offer you Wi-Fi services across the country. USAID argues that the project has introduced competition among telecom providers, driving down the price tag on broadband Internet access from $150 to $10 a month and increasing Internet penetration rates. As outlined by a newly released survey through the Strategic Marketing and Media Research Institute (SMMRI), household Internet penetration is still only 13 percent, and just 6 percent for families with monthly income of less than 200 euros (the standard monthly income is 160 euros). It is too costly. That is probably the top reasons cited because of not using the Internet at home. The wireless infrastructure, despite its high coverage, remains to be highly underutilized. The details technology sector's impact on other sectors is likewise limited; for instance, manufacturing productivity, measured by output per employee, has shown no improvement from 2000 to 2004, per the State Statistical Office. Many people in Macedonia are hoping that with much cheaper computers and Internet access there will be an increase in productivity in other sectors, as is seen in other countries.

O b j e c t i v e s a n d P o l i c y M e asures It comes with an ongoing discussion happening at the policy level about the simplest way to stimulate economic growth, improve primary education, and address the poverty problem. The XO has become floated by many like a possible cause of all three. The project seeks to leverage a commercially sustainable public-private partnership with a three tiered approach: (1) educational reform, (2) partnership with Internet providers (ISPs), and (3) broader industrial policies for that ICT sector.

Educational Reform In the last 36 months, USAID has supported the development of computer labs to secondary schools. The proposed $100 laptop project would expand the scope of educational reform to primary schools and introduce one accessories for hudl per child, potentially bringing further pedagogical improvements. Called Sugar, is really a fundamental departure through the traditional folder and window-based model since it is based upon an individual-centered "neighborhood" of activities along with other students, the interface accompanying the XO. As an alternative to folders, a "journal" is made automatically as the student works, allowing each student to go back to previous work. This

model resembles more closely how students learn and interact. Although the flexible framework should allow for a broader-based learning model than a single wherein a number of students simply tune in to an individual teacher. Partnership with Internet Companies (ISPs) The standard strategy to introducing the XO (although no country has implemented it yet) is the fact that government would purchase the laptops and distribute them for free. This can be a huge burden for governments, considering the large number of children to pay for, and also the consequent must replace the laptops every three to five years. An alternative approach is to work alongside the nonpublic sector. One proposed investment scheme is by an ISP that can underwrite the fee for the laptops, distribute them at no cost, and charge cheap connection fees. Assuming a very high penetration rate, a $3--5 monthly charge could recoup the price tag on a laptop in 2-3 years. This pricing is still significantly lower than the present lowest market price for monthly internet service in Macedonia ($10), but, granted the actual underutilization of the existing infrastructure, the marginal costs to the ISPs of adding additional users will be minimal. Preliminary financial analysis by an UN-sponsored study group suggests a solid, positive return to have an ISP participating in this plan.

Broader Industrial Policies Large-scale distribution of laptops could reshape the ICT industry in Macedonia. In 2004, the volume of computers sold domestically was just around thirty thousand. Once laptops are distributed to each of Macedonia's 219,000 school children (thus reaching around 30 percent of households) and members of the family begin to have internet connection through the child's hudl accessories, the person base for Internet services would immediately double or triple. This might stimulate local entrepreneurial activities and foreign investment, accelerating development in the ICT sector (ISP, maintenance, contents and software e-commerce, business-to-business services) if a more favorable business environment is successfully established through necessary policy measures in areas like tax structures, company registration processes, and competition policy. Global Implementation

Nearly twelve countries, including Brazil,Nigeria and Thailand, and Uruguay, have committed to getting the XO laptops. However, several countries, including Brazil, can also be exploring classical PCs with regard to their students, including Intel's Classmate PC. In Macedonia, everything is advancing. In 2006, an idea for implementation was discussed with government officials like the deputy prime minister and also the minister of science and education. A taskforce was formed in between the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the government and is also now involving various stakeholders to help the us government assess the way forward. UNDP offices in neighboring countries, including Bosnia, Moldova, and Georgia, have demostrated interests in going for a similar approach. The UNDP regional office in Bratislava is beginning coordination to get a regional initiative. Conclusion The XO has the possibility to revolutionize methods to learning, and stimulate development in ICT and other sectors. By using a public-private partnership approach can help address the poverty issue while and helps to stimulate a stagnant economy in the end. However, for your OLPC project to accomplish its long term goal of dramatically increasing use of computers globally, it should take organizational and institutional innovation. schools, municipalities and Governments and teachers must adjust to an important change in behaviors and assumptions. For your private sector, serving the poorest and staying profitable requires a creative business structure. Furthermore, it is actually eventually as much as children and teachers to ascertain whether the new technology may be well utilized and might catalyze a new type of learning. Educators and policy makers around the globe are eagerly awaiting the outcome. A "dream team" assisted the project: Clea Kaske (John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University (KSG)), Ken Kita (MIT Sloan School of Management), Yosuke Kotsuji (Harvard Business School), Tanya Nahman and Kamille Woodbury (Harvard Graduate School of Education), Kazuhiro Numasawa (Fletcher School, Tufts University), advised by Penelopa Gjurcilova (KSG), Professor Calestous Juma (KSG), and Professor Alex "Sandy" Pentland (MIT Sloan School of Management).