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EPB4053 LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGY TOPIC 1: PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING

1.0 INTRODUCTION This lesson focuses on two key aspects of teaching namely teaching principles and effective teaching. After completing the lesson, you should be able to (a) (b) (c) (d) define teaching, describe qualities of good teaching, explain seven effective teaching principles, and discuss some issues on good and effective teaching.

2.0 DEFINING TEACHING Teaching is the profession of the teacher. It is an act of and imparting knowledge or skills. When one talks about teaching, it actually about    one’s philosophy, style, and attitude toward providing educational experiences for children. an understanding of the psychology behind the task of providing appropriate educational experiences. How individual combine content knowledge and teaching skills with their own abilities, characteristics, and personality to develop what will ultimately be their own pedagogical style.

It is important to note that teachers’ role is to promote learning for all pupils. They are     

committed to students and learning know the subjects they teach how to teach those subjects to students responsible for managing and monitoring student learning, and members of learning communities

It's often about making innocuous jokes. It's about doing your best to keep on top of your field. 0 TEACHING REQUIREMENTS Richard Leblanc (1998). and remembering that each student and class is different Good teaching is about not always having a fixed agenda and being rigid. and being at the leading edge as often as possible. nurturing. York University. It's about deviating from the course syllabus or lecture schedule easily when there is more and better learning elsewhere. having a passion for it. to every student. It's about getting only 10 percent of what you wanted to do in a class done and still feeling good. Table 1: Top Ten requirements of Good Teaching No 1 Requirements Good teaching is as much about passion as it is about reason Good teaching is about substance and treating students as consumers of knowledge Description It's about caring for your craft. Good teaching is also about bridging the gap between theory and practice. 2 3 Good teaching is about listening. It's also about the thankless hours of grading. It's about pushing students to excel. mostly at your own expense. and being professional at all times. often invisible. Effective teaching is not about being locked with both hands glued to a podium or having your eyes fixated on a slide projector while you drone on. like them.3. most importantly to your students. but being flexible. fluid. at the same time. inside and outside of your areas of expertise. Good teaching is about the creative balance between being an authoritarian dictator on the one hand and a pushover on the other. designing or redesigning courses. so that the ice breaks and students learn in a more relaxed atmosphere where you. Good teachers work the room and every student in it. Ontario. They realize that they are the conductors and the class is the orchestra. All students play different instruments and at varying proficiencies It's about being self-deprecating and not taking yourself too seriously. lists the following ten top requirements of a good teaching (see table 1). respecting others. being responsive. questioning. 4 5 Good teaching is also about style 6 Good teaching is about humour 7 Good teaching is about caring. . and conveying that passion to everyone. are human with your own share of faults and shortcomings It's about devoting time. and having the confidence to react and adjust to changing circumstances. reading sources. and developing minds and talents. and preparing materials to still further enhance instruction. experimenting. it's about being human.

York University.0 PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING Mellon University. Effective teaching should also be rewarded. A variety of student characteristics can affect learning – differentiated instruction. Relate your experience in learning English language to those teacher qualities.8 Good teaching is supported by strong and visionary leadership. 9 Good teaching is continually reinforced by an overarching vision that transcends the entire organization -. Good teaching is about having fun. and being recognized and promoted by one's peers. Good teachers practice their craft not for the money or because they have to.from full professors to part-time instructors -. (2011) indicated that following set of principles can make teaching both more effective and more efficient. You are required to demonstrate your understanding of the top ten requirements of good teaching. experiencing pleasure and intrinsic rewards.e. they teach students the content. and poor teaching needs to be remediated through training and development programs. teamwork. assessments. 4. Description Teachers do not just teach the content. and very tangible institutional support -resources. Teaching is more effective and student learning is enhanced when teachers (a) articulate a clear set of learning objectives (i.and is reflected in what is said. Ontario. and funds. Table 2 lists the seven effective principles: Table 2: Principles of Effective Teaching No Effective Teaching Principles 1 Effective teaching involves acquiring relevant knowledge about students and using that the knowledge to improve course design and classroom teaching. but more importantly by what is done. http://honolulu.htm) Task 1: Class discussion.. the knowledge and skills that we expect students to .edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/topten. Good teaching is about mentoring between senior and junior faculty. but because they truly enjoy it and because they want to.hawaii. personnel. 10 (Source: Richard Leblanc. 2 Effective teaching involves aligning the three major components of instruction: learning objectives. Good teachers couldn't imagine doing anything else.

5 Effective teaching involves recognizing and overcoming expert blind spots. demonstrate by the end of a course). students’ backgrounds and experiences. performances) that provide opportunities for students to demonstrate and practice the knowledge and skills articulated in the objectives. discussions. 4 Effective teaching involves prioritizing the knowledge and skills we choose to focus on Don’t be too ambitious.e. the knowledge and skills that we expect students to demonstrate by the end of a course) to give students a clear target to aim for and enables them to monitor their progress along the way. a) Articulate our learning objectives (i.g. and late assignment) in the syllabus and in class allows us to resolve differences early and tends to reduce conflicts and tensions that may arise. Don’t try to do too much in a single lesson. so it is necessary for us to make decisions – sometimes difficult ones – about what we will and will not include in a course. Too many topics work against student learning. case studies.g. (a) recognizing the parameters of the course (e. so that students can see expert thinking in action and ... and (c) implement assessments (e.. b) Be explicit about course policies (e. number of course units). Though it is difficult for experts to do this. tests. class size. labs.g. and (c) determining a set of objectives that can be reasonably accomplished. we need to identify and explicitly communicate to students the knowledge and skills we take for granted. on class participation.. readings) to support these learning objectives by providing goal-oriented practice. (b) setting our priorities for student learning. Being clear about teachers’ expectations and communicating them explicitly helps students learn more and perform better. laptop use.. course position in the curriculum sequence.and instructional activities.g. (b) design instructional activities (e. papers. problem sets. and for instructors to offer targeted feedback that can guide further learning 3 Effective teaching involves articulating explicit expectations regarding learning objectives and policies.

.practice applying it themselves.g. they need to be effective role models for the pupils they teach.uk/schools/education/teaching/) . 5.cmu. moderator. of whatever class. we want to try something new..0 TEACHER PEDAGOGICAL COMPTENECIES What do effective teachers need? They need to:      have knowledgeable in content and skills (subject and content knowledge). challenger. 6 Effective teaching involves adopting appropriate teaching roles to support our learning goals.html) Task 2: Get in groups of three or four. and then use this assessment to plan future teaching and learning activities have high expectations for all their pupils. Teaching requires adapting. the student population has changed.edu/teaching/principles/teaching. race. provide examples based on your experiences as students. . or there are emerging issues in our fields). (Source: http://fass. These roles should be chosen in service of the learning objectives and in support of the instructional activities. The roles we assume as instructors are critical in guiding students’ thinking and behaviour. commentator). Present your views on the effective teaching principles. synthesizer. Knowing what and how to change requires us to examine relevant information on our own teaching effectiveness (Source: http://www. understand and can do.to do this.ac. be able to assess what their pupils know. gender or ability know how to motivate their pupils .kingston.g. We can take on a variety of roles in our teaching (e. Each group selects and explains one of the above teaching principles. 7 Effective teaching involves progressively refining our courses based on reflection and feedback. something is not working. know how to employ the most effective teaching and learning strategies to enable children and young people to make progress (pedagogical knowledge). We need to continually reflect on our teaching and be ready to make changes when appropriate (e.

Dr Western Kentucky University collection) 7.the curriculum that teachers are responsible for teaching. Brophy and Good. but those who feel they must stay in control and ahead of the students at all times. Pintrinch et. Hay McBer. Ranjit Singh Malhi. 8) Aristotle: Teaching is the highest form of understanding.Teachers need to have pedagogical competencies in terms of four components: purpose. 1) John Dewey: Any genuine teaching will result. 6. 2. 2002. 2) Individuals learn in different ways and at varied rates (Corno & Snow.0 REFLECTION Task 3: In groups of 3. 186) 10) Enthusiastic teachers enhance learner motivation and achievement (Borich. 1988. Sederberg and Clark. 9) Competent teaching is a compound of three element: subject matter.al. attitude and style a person brings to teaching.0 CONCLUSION . in someone's knowing how to bring about a better condition of things than existed earlier. students provide comments/opinions on the following teaching quotes. if successful. The tough problem is not in identifying winners: it is in making winners out of ordinary people. 1986. 6) K. Snow and Lohman. 1990) (Source: Dr. Content: the static content . 1. and reflective practical experiences (Holmes Reaport. 2000. and the dynamic content (the knowledge and skills about teaching that a teacher uses to teach). 1984) 3) Learning improves when learners are active participants in the educational process. Purpose: the philosophy. 1979. 3. 2000) 4) Varied instructional strategies help learners to maintain interest and improve performance (Gage and Berliner. reflective practitioners and researchers. 2000) 5) Frank Smith: The teachers who get "burned out" are not the ones who are constantly learning. Individuals learn best by doing ( Berliner. Communication skills: the ability to communicate effectively with four very different audiences: students colleagues parents and the community at large 4. 7) John Roueche: Teachers who cannot keep students involved and excited for several hours in the classroom should not be there. content. systematic knowledge of teaching. which can be exhilarating. Professional development: Teachers as life-long learners. 1986. Patricia Cross: The task of the excellent teacher is to stimulate "apparently ordinary" people to unusual effort. communication and professional development.

and discuss some issues on good and effective teaching. describe qualities of good teaching. At the end of the lesson. “BE A GREAT TEACHER” . you should be able to (a) (b) (c) (d) define teaching.This lesson started with defining the term ‘teaching’. explain seven effective teaching principles . It then focused on two key aspects in teaching namely teaching principles and effective teaching.