i

NIGER DELTA UNIVERSITY
WILBERFORCE ISLAND
BAYELSA STATE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
A PROJECT ON
SCISSOR LIFT DESIGN FOR USE IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY
PRESENTED
BY
MACAULAY OLETU STANLEY
UG/07/0898
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE
AWARD OF A BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING (B.Engr.) DEGREE.
SUPERVISOR: Engr. Dr. E.M. ADIGIO
AUGUST 2012
ii
CERTIFICATION
This is to certify that this project work was carried out and successfully completed by
MACAULAY OLETU STANLEY of the department of mechanical engineering, Niger
Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Amassoma, Bayelsa state, during the 2011/2012
Academic session.
Sign. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25/08/2012 . . . . .
Engr. Dr. E.M. ADIGIO Date
project supervisor
Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25/08/2012. . . .
Engr. Dr. E.M. ADIGIO Date
Head of Department
Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prof. C. J. IGBEKA Date
Dean, Faculty of Engineering
Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Name of External Examiner Date
iii
DEDICATION
This project work is dedicated to all Nigerian Student who are working endlessly to
make the Nation Great, and also not forgetting all Nigeria youths who are willing to be
educated but does not have the opportunity to go to school. This work is also dedicated
to my parents, my uncles whose financial help, prayers, love and care, has been a source
of encouragement all this years. And above all to God almighty.
iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am indeed grateful to God Almighty for his grace and enduring mercies, guidance,
protection, favour throughout this programme.
I also express my gratitude to my project supervisor, Dr. E. M. Adigio for his support
and word of encouragement to me in course of my research.
I also wish to express my gratitude to all the lecturers of the department of mechanical
engineering who took me one course or the other in course of my training, Dr. E.M.
Adigio, Prof. L.A. Salami, Prof. O.O. Oyeameobi, Dr. E.E. Jumbo, Dr. Charles, Dr. Okah-
Avae, Engr. N.A. Yousuo, Engr. M.G. Anomeidei, Engr. A.R.S. Dienagha, Mr. P.Y.
Olisa, Mr. Eremasi, Mr.Amakiri, Mr. ThankGod, Ms. Amos, and many others too
numerous to mention who have imparted me in one way or the other, may God
almighty bless you all.
I also acknowledge my parent Mr. and Mrs. MACAULAY OKOLOSI for their prayer
and support.
Also to all my friends,; Ikue Hope, Eviano Felix, Afriki Preye, Uwazor Moses, Akpekpe
Jirius, William Kenneth, Pena Blaise, my roommate; Michael Obaro, and to all my
entire course mate and others too numerous to mention.
v
CONTENTS
CERTIFICATION........................................................................................................................................ i
DEDICATION........................................................................................................................................... iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT......................................................................................................................... iv
CHAPTER 1 ................................................................................................................................................ 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT.............................................................................................................. 2
1.1.1 PROPOSED SOLUTION.......................................................................................................... 2
1.2 CHALLENGES/DEFICIENCY FACED WITH THE USE OF VARIOUS LIFTING
PLATFORM................................................................................................................................................ 3
1.2.1 HYDRAULIC LIFTING PLATFORM:.................................................................................... 3
1.2 2 ELECTRIC LIFTING PLATFORM.......................................................................................... 5
1.2.3 PNEUMATIC SYSTEM/AIRBAG.......................................................................................... 6
1.2.4 SCISSOR LIFT................................................................................................................................. 6
1.3 AIMS/OBJECTIVES ...................................................................................................................... 7
CHAPTER TWO......................................................................................................................................... 8
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW....................................................................................................................... 8
2.1 LIMITING DEFLECTION IN SCISSOR LIFT ............................................................................ 11
2.3 SUMMARY OF DEFLECTION........................................................................................................ 12
CHAPTER THREE................................................................................................................................... 14
3.0 METHODOLOGY, DESIGN ANALYSIS ....................................................................................... 14
3.1 CONCEPT SELECTION.................................................................................................................... 14
3.1.1 LIFT FRAME................................................................................................................................ 14
3.1.2 SCREW SELECTION.................................................................................................................. 14
3.1.3 BEARING SELECTION.............................................................................................................. 14
3.1.4 LOCKING WHEEL..................................................................................................................... 15
3.1.5 SYSTEM ANALYSIS................................................................................................................... 15
3.1.6 FRAME ......................................................................................................................................... 15
3.2 SCISSOR LIFT FRAME EQUATION............................................................................................... 17
3.2.1 EQUATION OF THE SCISSOR LIFT FRAME........................................................................ 18
vi
3.2.2 EQUATION FOR THE POWER SCREW DESIGN................................................................ 24
3.2.3 NUT DESIGN.............................................................................................................................. 27
3.2.4 BEARING SELECTION.............................................................................................................. 28
3.2.5 SCREW SHAFT STRESS............................................................................................................. 28
3.2.5.1 CRITICAL LOCATIONS..................................................................................................... 28
3.2.5.2 FATIQUE FAILURE OF THE SHAFT............................................................................... 29
3.3 WHEELS.............................................................................................................................................. 29
CHAPTER FOUR..................................................................................................................................... 31
4.0 INPUT SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................................ 31
4.1 STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY OF THE SYSTEM........................................................................... 36
4.2 RESULT AND DISCUSSION........................................................................................................... 37
CHAPTER 5 .............................................................................................................................................. 39
5.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION............................................................................. 39
REFERENCES........................................................................................................................................... 41
APPENDIX.................................................................................................................................................... 43
DRAWINGS.................................................................................................................................................. 43
1
CHAPTER 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION
According to Tredgold (1827), engineering is the act of directing the great source of
power in nature for the use and convenience of man. Engineers, like artist start with
blank sheet of paper on which ideas develop and take conceptualized shapes. In the
ancient time, man applied engineering knowledge to reduce difficult and complex task
to easy and simplified task. Before the invention of weight lifting device such as screw
jack, hydraulic jack, crane, etc., the early man apply a crude way of lifting objects to
great heights through the use of ropes and rollers, which was mostly applied in the
construction industry, where, it was used to raise mortar (cement, sand & water).
After the industrial revolution, with the advent of automobile, the automotive industry
was also faced with the challenge of load lifting, because of the bulkiness of some
automotive parts. The automotive industry deals with various components made of
metal, rubber, ceramics, etc., assembled mechanically to move people and goods from
one place to the other. Because of the interface between the automobile and human
lives, there is need for standardization of its component parts to improve its
performance and efficiency and to reduce failure. For this reason care has to be taken
during production and assembly of its component parts. Many tools and equipment
used in the automotive industry are designed to help the personnel working in a
production facility. Other tools are produced to help the operators of the machine. Such
2
tools include the lifting device, generally called jack. This report presents the study of a
scissors lift for the automotive industry.
1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Automotive parts are mostly made of metal, which is a major reason for its large
weight, and as such requires devices of lifting and displacement of same. In an
automobile production and assembly facility, components have to be raised to certain
heights which could be more convenient to the personnel working on it. When such
device is not available workers are often forced to bend from the waist to access the
components which can lead to strains and major discomforts or even serious injuries
that could affect productivity
Consequently, an assembly table that will be adjustable will be required for use in the
automotive industry to improve the efficiency of personnel working in a production or
assembly facility. In order to do this, a mechanism is recommended to be incorporated
into a table platformwhere the height is adjustable.
1.1.1 PROPOSED SOLUTION
In recent years, various platforms or devices with various means of application have
been produced for use in the automotive industry. The automotive industry have also
experience the influx of various lifting platform, some of which are;
3
Electrically operated lifting device which is operated by the turning effect of electric
motor to drive the gear which will eventually turn a screw shaft to raise or lower
load.
Hydraulic operated lifting platform which utilize the pressure power developed
from hydraulic oil to raise or lower a load.
Pneumatic lifting device which make use of air to create pressure or vacuum to raise
or lower load.
Recent research also shows the use of air bag for raising or lowering load. (Michael
Adel, PE (2008): Understanding Scissors Lift Deflection).
All this lifting devices have contributed greatly to the advancement recently being
experienced in the automotive industry, but most of them are still faced with various
challenges. This report presents a scissors mechanism with a table platform that will be
horizontal at every level. The proposed mechanism is a double scissors for stability.
1.2 CHALLENGES/DEFICIENCY FACED WITH THE USE OF
VARIOUS LIFTING PLATFORM
1.2.1 HYDRAULIC LIFTING PLATFORM:
The hydraulic lift makes use of fluid pressure to produce smooth movement during
lifting. It has some benefits when compared to other lifting device; firstly, its
dependency on power supply is eliminated. Secondly, it allows smooth movement
without jerking due to steady increase in fluid pressure, majority of lift platform in
market make use of hydraulic. Above all it has a high capacity in terms of load lifting.
4
In conclusion, hydraulic lifts are heavier because of the amount of fluid in circulation in
the system, in extreme cold conditions, the fluid can falter or get frozen which might
leads to leakage in hydraulic lines or pipes. The challenges of this system are;
a) It is not economical to the common technician or artesian.
b) It requires trained personnel to operate it.
c) Since it make use of oil, it require a temperature range for it proper storage.
d) It is very difficult to move from place to place due to its complex design.
e) Studies have shown that hydraulic lift that operates on two cylinders at most time
experience delay in one of the cylinder to actuate due to poor cross feeding between
cylinders.
f) Sometime debris from improperly preserved oil block oil tubes and at times
disrupts proper functioning of the system.
g) There is always problem of valve failure.
h) Hydraulic system requires too many accessories to function efficiently.
i) There is risk of slipping while working with hydraulic system, due to leakage that
might emanate from the system.
j) Hydraulic system is not flexible for usage because its component parts are not fully
attach as a whole.
k) There is frequent problem of seal leakage.
l) Aging problem of oil leads to failure in valves and shorter life of pumps.
m) There is problem of accumulation of debris in oil tank.
5
1.2 2 ELECTRIC LIFTING PLATFORM
These lift devices make use of electromagnetic power to raise or lower through the use
of electric motor. The device could be very expensive and there is high probability of
jerking during startup of the device through the torque created by the electric motor.
The device could be put to stand still during electricity/power outage, and there is
potential of electrocution when electric cables are exposed. The challenges of this
system are;
a) Due to frequent raising and lowering of the lift, there is possibility of snapping in
the electric cable which could lead to exposure of the cable and could lead to
electrocution.
b) It requires other accessories to be operated.
c) Electric lift cannot be used where the electric power is fluctuation.
d) It requires trained personnel to operate it successfully.
e) It requires regular maintenance.
f) The electrical control unit must not be exposed to water or higher temperature.
g) Electrically operated solenoid valve could easily get damage during operation
with irregular voltage supply.
h) Over heating in electrical coil could damage the system.
i) Fuses easily blow-out when they are used as safety device.
j) Dirt in electrical system could also lead to malfunctioning of the system.
k) It is expensive to acquire.
6
1.2.3 PNEUMATIC SYSTEM/AIRBAG
This device also operates like the hydraulic device, but it acquires its driving
force/pressure from the air. Testimonies from operators of this device show that the
failure rate of the device is very high due to frequent air leakage during operation as a
result of failure in valves. The challenges of this system are;
a) There is high risk of air leakage.
b) Pneumatic systems are frequent with valve leakage.
c) The air bag is not flexible during usage.
1.2.4 SCISSOR LIFT
A scissor lift is a device used for lifting purposes, its objectives is to make the table
adjustable to desirable height.
A scissor lift provide the most economic dependable and versatile methods of lifting
loads, it has few moving parts, which may only require lubrication. This lift table raises
the load smoothly to any desired height. The scissor lift can be used in combination
with any of the previously mentioned application, i.e. hydraulic, pneumatic or
electrical. In order to reduce the inadequacies of the devices mentioned above, a scissors
mechanism is proposed. This mechanism is incorporated with a power screw and the
top of the scissors is attached a table platform. This device will make use of the power
generated from a power screw to raise or lower a platform manually.
7
1.3 AIMS/OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study is to design a scissors lifting device that can be used in the
automobile sector. The design conditions are to meet the following specifications;
a) The device is limited to an average load of 280 kg
b) The device will have a maximum lift of 150 cm
c) This objective is desirable to be achieved through the rotation of the screw to raise or
lower the scissor platform.
d) The system must be operated on a flat surface.
8
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
A lifting device is a system that allows small force (effort) to overcome a large force or
load (Alexander et al, 1978, Smith, 1981, Nelkon, 1985). There are practically hundreds
of uses for lift tables in manufacturing, warehousing and distribution facilities. The
addition of this device (lift table) makes job faster, safer and easier. Some typical
applications include; machine feeding and off-loading, product assembly, inspection
quality control repair, feeding and offloading conveyor levels. The commonest method
for operating a scissors lift is the use of a power screw. According to Allens et al, (1980)
power screws are devices that provide means for obtaining large mechanical advantage.
Other researchers (Jain, 1988, Shigley and Mischke, 2001) define the power screw as a
device used in converting rotary motion into uniform longitudinal motion
The manually operated scissor lift is a device that makes use of a horizontally placed
power screw to overcome large load through less effort applied on the power screw, by
turning the power screw with the aid of a ratchet handle on one side of the device. The
device is capable of lifting an average load with little effort applied.
One of the most important factors of lift platform is its stability. Knowing that stability
is a source of concern for a lift platform, its positioning should be on a flat surface and
the load should be place or concentrated at the centre of gravity of the table. Other
constraint to be considered is the deflection of the unit. Deflection in scissor lift can be
9
defined as the resulting change in elevation of all parts of a scissor lift assembly,
typically measured from the floor to the top of the platform deck, whenever load is
applied to or removed from the lift (Michael-Adel, 2008). The ANSI MH29.1 safety
requirement for industrial scissor lifts states that All industrial scissor lift will deflect
under load. The industry standard goes on to outline the maximum allowable
deflection base on platform size and number of scissor mechanism within the lift design
(WBC Standards, 1989).
Scissor lift deflection becomes more critical in material handling applications where the
lift must interface with adjoining, fixed elevations, especially when transferring rolling
load. In these cases, it is important that any difference in elevation between adjoining
surfaces during material transfer be minimize or if not totally eliminated.
Before attempting to discuss how to limit scissor lift deflection, it is important to
understand the contributing factors to a lift total deflection. An open or raised scissor
acts very much like a spring would apply a load and it compresses, remove a load and
it expands. Such component within the scissor lift has the potential to store or release
energy when loaded and unloaded (and therefore deflects). There are application-
specific characteristics that may promote deflection, understanding these root causes
helps to pin-point and apply effective measures to limit them
(www.autoquip.com2011).
Leg deflection due to bending is as a result of stress which is driven by the total weight
supported by the legs, scissor leg length, and available leg cross section. The longer the
10
scissors leg length, the more difficult it is to control the bending under load
(www.autoquip.com). Other important component is the platform structure.
Platform bending will increase as the load centre of gravity move away from the centre
(unevenly distributed load) or at an edge (eccentric loading) of the platform. Also as the
scissor open during rising of the lift, the rollers could roll back towards the platform
hinges and create an increasingly unsupported overhung portion of the platform
assembly. Increase platform strength via increase support structure material height
does improve resistance to deflection, but also contributes to an increase collapsed
height of the lift (www.autoquip.com).
The lift base frame is usually placed on the floor and may not experience deflection. For
cases where the scissor lift is mounted to an elevated or portable frame, the potential for
deflection increases. To effectively resist deflection, the base frame must be rigidly
supported from beneath to support the point loading created by the two scissor leg
hinges(www.autoquip.com).
Scissors lifts are assembled with pins at all the hinge points and each pin has a running
clearance the outer diameter of the pin and the inner diameter of its clearance hole or
bushing. The more scissor pairs or pantographs, that are stack on top of each other, the
more pinned connections there are to accommodate movement, or deflection, when
compressing these running clearances under load.
11
Load placement also plays a large role in scissor lift deflection. Off-centre load causes
the scissor lift to deflect differently than with centre or evenly distributed loads. End
load (in line with the scissor) are usually share well between the two scissor leg pairs.
Side load (perpendicular to the scissor) however are not share as well between the
scissor legs pairs, and must kept within acceptable design limits to prevent leg
twist(unequal scissor leg deflection)which in addition to platform movement due to
deflection, often result in poor roller tracking, unequal axle pin wear, and misalignment
of cylinder mounts (www.autoquip.com).
As mention above, degree of deflection is directly related to change in system pressure
and change in component stress as a result of loading and unloading. Scissor lift
typically experiences their highest system pressure and highest stress (and therefore the
highest potential for deflection) with the first 20% of the total available vertical travel
from the fully lowered position (www.autoquip.com).
2.1 LIMITING DEFLECTION IN SCISSOR LIFT
Selecting a lift with design capacity greater than required for the application; most
scissor lift design for duty at higher capacities will experience less stress in all structural
components as well as lower system pressures, at lower, working capacities. Reduced
stresses and pressure always result in reduced deflection.
Avoid transfer of load within the first 20% of lift travel: To minimize stress and
deflection, at transfer elevations, it is critical to design the conveyor or transfer system
12
to ensure that these elevations are above the scissor lifts critical zone of the first 20%
of the lift available travel.
Transfer load over fixed end of the lift platform: First if possible, load should not be
transfer over the sides of a raised scissor lift is much more difficult to control deflection
when the load is not shared equally between the two scissor legs pairs. Load transfer
should be made over the hinge or fixed end of the lift platform to avoid placing
concentrated load on the less supported, over hung end of the platform, provided the
platform is equipped with trapped roller or is otherwise capable of withstanding this
edge loading without risk of platform tipping up or losing contact with the rollers.
Ensure that the based frame is lagged down and fully supported:
First, base frame should be adequately attached to the surface on which they are
mounted. Base frame that are not bolted, welded or otherwise attached to withstand the
upward force created by the eccentric loading of the platform will contribute to
deflection by bending or moving while resisting such forces. Bases must also be rigidly
supported beneath the entire perimeter of the frame in order to withstand without
deflection on the four point loads imposed upon the frame from above by the four
scissor-legs. Two moving roller and two fixed hinge points.
2.3 SUMMARY OF DEFLECTION
Although, there are few literatures on the design of scissors lift, this chapter has
highlighted the features and constraints in the design and fabrication of a prototype
13
unit. ANSI MH29.1 accurately points out that it is the responsibility of the
user/purchaser to advise the manufacturer where deflection may be critical to the
application. It has been noted that there are industrial best practices which can be
applied to reduce the impact or amount of deflection being experienced.
14
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 METHODOLOGY, DESIGN ANALYSIS
In this section all design concepts developed will be discussed and based on evaluation
criteria and process developed followed by a design.
3.1 CONCEPT SELECTION
The design was selected from an already made product in the market with modification
in various parts and section to further enhance the functionality of the design.
3.1.1 LIFT FRAME
A scissor lift design was chosen because of its ergonomics as compared to other heavy
lifting devices in the market. Scissor lift frame are very sturdy and strong with increase
structural integrity.
3.1.2 SCREW SELECTION
The horizontal spindle screw selection was selected from a variety of screw application,
because of its important to the scissor lift, and after much consideration a final decision
would be a square thread.
3.1.3 BEARING SELECTION
The inclusion of a bearing is to reduce the effort required to turn the screw spindle,
knowing that since the device is to be operated manually, it would not be an easy task
15
turning the spindle to either raise or lower load on the platform. The bearing will be
attached to one end of the spindle, while the other end will be attached to a handle.
3.1.4 LOCKING WHEEL
A wheel is attached to the device to enable it to be movable from one place to the other,
but a locking device would also be mounted for safety.
With much attention on the above mentioned design considerations, the optimum aim
is the manufacturability, functionality and the economic availability of the design, in
general its ergonomic advantages.
3.1.5 SYSTEM ANALYSIS
Mathematical model will be developed for all the components of the device and parts of
the design to prove its performance in real sense. The system will be divided into the
following for proper presentation of fact and figures to ease design effort:
a) Frame
b) Screw spindle
c) Wheel
3.1.6 FRAME
The frame is made up of the scissor arms which are acting as the support to the entire
structure. A table bed platform will be at the top of the scissor link arm. Also a similar
bed will be at the bottom of the frame to accommodate the scissor link mechanism
when fully collapsed.
16
Figure 3.1 shows a schematic drawing of a scissor frame with 2-tier and the forces. It has
six possible ways of application of load, but for the scope of this study, only three of
them will be discussed. The alphabet at any particular point is used to identify linear
force but with a subscript to identify where the force is acting on. At each joint there is
also six possible forces and moment, but only few will be taken into consideration
because of the symmetry of various joint and parts of the structure, i.e. reaction forces at
similar but opposite point will also be similar but might be of different direction when
all conditions are met. M will stand for the moment about any point, while will be the
weight inherent in the system (i.e. weight). Also W will be used to represent applied
load i.e. , , & in the X, Y, & Z directions.
Figure 3.1 A Schematic Drawing of a Scissors Lift Showing the Forces
17
3.2 SCISSOR LIFT FRAME EQUATION
For a careful and proper calculation of the reacting force throughout the lift, it will be
proper to begin at the top of the lift where a known magnitude of load is applied. Then
using the principle of static equilibrium, reaction forces at the first level will be gotten.
The forces at the top of the second level will also be known because it is equivalent to
the reaction forces at the first tier, because they are equal and opposite forces. Also
reaction forces at the bottom of the second tier can also be determined.
Figure 3.2 Schematic Drawing of Scissors Structure
For easier calculations in order to reduce computations in the analysis, a number of
assumptions were made. Calculations will be made without recourse to the weight or
reaction force of the power screw spindle on the entire structure. It will also be assumed
that all four joints at the bottom are pinned to the ground as in Figure 2. It will also be
assumed that all frictional forces are negligible so that the principle of conservation of
energy is applied so that power screw forces could be calculated directly. It is also
assumed that at the top, the joint at either the front or the back are attached via roller,
while the others via pins.
18
3.2.1 EQUATION OF THE SCISSOR LIFT FRAME
With various possible ways of loading;
1.) Load type 1: centered load in the negative y-direction(normal ,loading)
Figure 3.3 Schematic Drawing of Scissors Structure Showing Vertical Load
Total load in the system will be the applied load plus the weight of the scissor lift.
.. Total weight of the system in the negative Y-direction will be
= + u 3.1
Since it is vertical and centered load, the reaction forces on the left side of the lift are
identical to the right side. This implies that reaction forces are symmetrical about the y-
z plane.
FromFigure 3.4a below;
, , & = ¡4 ¸ = - ¸; = u, F =0.
The reaction forces from the first tier will be
19
2 - 2 - = u. 3.2
Assuming that;
2 =
( )
; = ; then = ; where + = 2 ; M=0
Figure 3.4 Schematic Drawing Showing Load Distributions
Figure 3.5 Triangles of Forces
2Nc = -F¸ sin + . cos + . cos + I¸( ) sin
. cos + . cos = sin
(
-
)
c
d/2
F
20
cos + = sin
(
-
)
.
· = tan
(
-
)
.
= (Change in reaction force between the two tiers)
Let = A , A = , A = - =
Since one part of the joint at the top is connected to a roller, equal zero.
3.3
Solving for , =0, + ÷ +
· =
( )
= 3.4
In Summary
Load type 2; moment about the z-axis
l = = = = =
+
4
.
= = - - =
+
2 tan
.
=
+
tan
. = u.
21
Note; only the top joint that is connected with pin that will support load, the roller end
will not support load in the x-direction.
= cos (Force couple). · = .
2 =0 (from fig 2b).
cos + cos = u 3.5
= - .
l 2 = u
Figure 3.6 schematics of loading resulting in moment in z-direction
a b
Figure 3.7 reacting forces due to moment in z-direction
22
+ + - = u .
= - =
= u.
cos + cos + sin = u 3.6
Since = u, · 2 = u. i.e. + = u
= u.
The above equation shows that the forces at the 2nd tier are identical to the load at the
1
st
tier. this implies that reaction forces at 2
nd
level is the same as the 1
st
level and only
the force at the 1
st
level need to be determined. Therefore the remaining equations are;
= u
- + + = u
Fromfigure 2c above
= - = ÷ = .
= u.
+ = u, · = - = u
Summarily;
= = .
= - = - .
= = .
= = = u
23
Load type 3; moment about x-axis
.
Due to symmetry in the y-z plane, - , = , = - , = .
Also since the applied has no z-component all reaction load in the z-direction are zero.
I.e. the front half of the lift as in above in fig 3.8b.
= u.
- = u.
= .
= u.
Figure 1.7 schematic of loading resulting
in moment in x-direction
a
b
c
Figure 3.8 schematic of loading resulting in moment in x-direction and reacting forces in b and c above
24
+ = u
= -
The fourth type of loading would be moment in the y-axis, but this type of loading do
not have applied load (I.e. at the top of the lift) so therefore it will not be considered
since it is unrealistic.
N.B: this type of loading is statistically indeterminate.
3.2.2 EQUATION FOR THE POWER SCREW DESIGN
In power screw application, effort is applied at the mean radius of the screw by one
revolution and the load is lifted axially by the pitch p of the thread, for a single start
thread, = tan ( ). (Jindal U.C. 2010).
NB: root diameter = - , thread thickness at root t= , shearing area per thread in
screw= × , number of thread in nut supporting the load n= =
The choice of square thread was necessary because loss of motion could be tolerated
but cant be tolerated in trapezoidal or acme thread. (Version 2ME, IIT Kharagpur).
Summarily;
= u
= - =
= = = u
25
The minor diameter can be obtained from the formula = (shigley, 2008).
Where = axial stress in the body of the screw due to load F. also the helix angle of the
thread could be estimated assuming the load is concentrated at a point as below.
Figure 3.9a schematic of a screw
Figure 3.9b schematic of square thread
tan =
( )
(Allens et al 1980).
Where =helix angle of the thread in degree, n=number of engaged threads. P=pitch of
the thread, =mean diameter of the screw spindle.
25
The minor diameter can be obtained from the formula = (shigley, 2008).
Where = axial stress in the body of the screw due to load F. also the helix angle of the
thread could be estimated assuming the load is concentrated at a point as below.
Figure 3.9a schematic of a screw
Figure 3.9b schematic of square thread
tan =
( )
(Allens et al 1980).
Where =helix angle of the thread in degree, n=number of engaged threads. P=pitch of
the thread, =mean diameter of the screw spindle.
25
The minor diameter can be obtained from the formula = (shigley, 2008).
Where = axial stress in the body of the screw due to load F. also the helix angle of the
thread could be estimated assuming the load is concentrated at a point as below.
Figure 3.9a schematic of a screw
Figure 3.9b schematic of square thread
tan =
( )
(Allens et al 1980).
Where =helix angle of the thread in degree, n=number of engaged threads. P=pitch of
the thread, =mean diameter of the screw spindle.
26
Coefficient of friction in the screw spindle thread, tanø = (smith 1981).
Where =coefficient of friction, ø=friction angle in degree.
Effort required to raise the load = tan
(
+ ø
)
=
×
, where ø = tan
Turning moment of the screw to raise the load = tan( + ø)
NB: if > ø, after removal of effort P, the load will come down without any rotational
moment on the nut. But if < ø, the load will remain in position after removal of the
effort. i.e. (self locking).
The effort required to lower the load will be = tan(ø - ).
While the turning moment required to lower the load = tan(ø - )
Shear stress develop in the screw =
×
=
( )
Shear area per thread in nut is = = ×
Shear stress develop in the nut =
×
Bearing area per thread =
(
-
)
= (2 - )
Bearing stress develop in screw and nut =
( )
Maximum principal stress developed in the screw = + ( ) +
27
BEARING STRESS DEVELOPED( )
= (shigley 2008).
Where =no of engaged thread.
The principal stresses are found as follows:
= + _ - + 4 (Stephens 1979)
Maximum shear stress; =
( )
.
( )
.
( )
Where = u, = , = (Shiglet & Mischke 2001)
{ = u, = , = u.
3.2.3 NUT DESIGN
The main item in the design of the nut is the height; it depends on the bearing pressure
between thread of the screw and nut (Jain 1988).
Bearing pressure = , where n =number of thread in contact with nut.
The height of the nut h will be h= (Jain 1988).
Therefore the shear stress in the thread of the nut can be obtained by the formula
= (Jain 1988).
28
Where t is the thickness or width of the thread.
3.2.4 BEARING SELECTION
The type of bearing suitable for this type of loading will be the single-row-deep-groove
roller bearing. It is selected because of its increased load capacity when force is applied
radially
Figure 3.10 ball bearings
3.2.5 SCREW SHAFT STRESS
3.2.5.1 CRITICAL LOCATIONS
There will be no normal stress due to bending at one end of the screw shaft spindle
because it is attached to a bearing (Shigley 2008).
29
Axial stress is also neglected because of the attachment of bearing. So therefore, only
bending and torsion stress will be considered.
| = , = , = , = = ]. (shigley, 2008)
Where = alternating bending stress, =mid range bending stress, = alternating
shear stress, = mid range shear stress, = alternating bending stress, =bending
moment for mid range, =alternating bending torque, & =mid range torque.
Where = 1 +
(
- 1
)
, = 1 + ( - 1) From chart of notch-sensitivity for steel.
3.2.5.2 FATIQUE FAILURE OF THE SHAFT
Since the bending and torsion will be steady due to the stress distribution along the
shaft (ST. VENANT. principle) because of equal geometry along the screw pitch, the
expression for a suitable diameter of the screw spindle to withstand fatigue failure will
be
d={ | (4 + S ] + |4( ) + S( ) ] ]
3.3 WHEELS
Wheels are made up of mild steel having diameters of 150mm and shaft diameter of
25 mm. the wheels are chosen on the base on the design load criteria which can
sustain the external load and well as the equipment load during transpiration in
industrial line. The main function of using wheels for this equipment is that machine
30
can be moved from corner to the other corner of the industry premises as per the
requirement to lift the load.
31
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 INPUT SPECIFICATIONS
Research carried out in the automobile industry reveals that one of the heaviest
components of the automobile car is the car engine which is of average weight of
272 kg. By this factor, our control weight would be 280 kg for safer design of the scissor
lift table platform for assembly purposes in the auto industry.
5cm
75cm
5cm
20cm
75cm
140cm
cm
Figure 4.1: schematics of scissor lift specification
32
Table 4.1 Input specifications
S/N COMPONENT symbols Value Unit
1 Max allowable load W 280 kg
2 Inherent weight in the system 150 kg
3 Length of each scissor arm D 140 Cm
4 Max. lift of the platform 150 Cm
5 Table platform dimensions L× (150× 9u) Cm
SCREW SPINDLE SPECIFICATION
6 Mean diameter of screw spindle 30 Mm
7 Pitch of the thread P 6 Mm
8 No of engaged thread N 1
= cos =31
Fromfig 4.1,
75cm
5cm
20cm
5cm
140cm
Figure 4.2: force resolution in lift mechanism
33
Reaction forces along the horizontal direction at the end of the first tier.
= - = - = =
+
2 tan
=
28u + 1Su
2 tanS1
= SS7.82
Horizontal force at the middle of the first tier = = = 71S.6
For load type 2, force couple = = = = 21S
= 21S , = , = = .
= u, = u, = u
For loading type (3).
= u, = u, = u & = u.
= - =
Where b=80cm=0.8m, due to the symmetry of the system, = & = .
· = 2 × = 2 × u.8 × 21S = S44 .
NB: The effort required to raise the load will be equivalent to the from the power screw.
Given n=1, p=6, = u.1S( & ) {Design & system mechanical
handbook 2
nd
edition, Mc Graw hill 1985}
= 2 cos × = 2 × 1.4u cos S1 × 21S = S16 = S1.6uu
= =
cos
= 2 =
S16
1.4cos S1
= 4Su
34
L=np=1× 6 = 6, = SS , (normal series square thread) {Design & system mechanical
handbook 2
nd
edition, Mc Graw hill 1985}
= - = SS - = Su = u.uS, = - = SS - 6 = 27 = u.u27
=
(
28u + 1Su
)
= 4Su , = tan ( ) = tan
×
= S.64S°( b ).
Axial stress = =
×( )
× .
= 6u8.S2
ø = tan = tan (u.1S) = 8.SS°( , ø > )
Effort required to raise the load = tan( + ø)= 430tan( S.64S + 8.SS)=92.75N
Effort required lowering the load = tan
(
ø -
)
= 4Su tan(8.SS - S.64S) =36.76N
= 4Su
u.uS
2
tan 12.17S = 1.S9
/
Tuining moment of the sciewto iaise the loau
=
2
tan( + ø)
Turning moment of screw to lower the load
= tan
(
ø -
)
= 4Su ×
.
tan4.887 = u.SS1
/
Efficiency of the screw (square thread) = =
( ø)
=
( ø)
=
.
.
= u.29S = 29.S% (· < Su%, . ) (machine
design by Judal. U. C.)
The effort required at the handle;
35
From = , b = b , = b b .
From above, = 1.S9 , b b = 1Su = u.1S .
Effort required at the handle=
.
.
= 9.27
/
Shear stress developed in the screw =
×
=
( )
Shear stress developed in the screw =
=
( )
=
× ×( )×
= 1.69
/
= 1.69
/
Bearing stress developed in the screw and nut =
( )
=
×
× × ×
=1.521 = 1.S2
/ /
Maximum principal stress developed in the screw = + + =
.
+
.
+
(
1.69
)
= u.76 + 1.8S = 2.16 = 261u
/ /
36
Table 4.2 Results
S/N
LOAD TYPE QUANTITY SYMBOLS VALUE UNIT
1 Max. lift of scissor arm 31 Degree
2 Load type 1 Vertical force at the end of first tier
, ,
, 107.5 N
Horizontal force at the end of first
tier
, ,
, 357.82 N
Horizontal force at middle of first tier 715.6 N
3
Load type 2
Vertical force at the end of first tier
, ,
, 215 N
Horizontal force at the end of first
tier
, ,
, 0 N
Moment in the z-direction in 1
st
tier 516 Nm
4
Load type 3
Vertical force at the end of first tier
, ,
, 215 N
Horizontal force at the end of first
tier
, ,
, 0 N
Moment in the x-direction in 1
st
tier 344 Nm
5 Effort required to raise the load 92.75 N
6 Effort required to lower the load 36.76 N
7 Turning moment of screw to raise the
load
1.39
/
8 Turning moment of screw to lower
the load
0.55
/
9 Efficiency of the screw 29.5 %
10 Effort at the handle of the screw 9.27 N
4.1 STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY OF THE SYSTEM
The reaction force for load type 1 & 2 are all in the x-y, and are symmetric in the x-y plane.
Because of this a cross bracing is recommended between left and right side of the lift to increase
rigidity of the system. Reaction force from load type 1 & 2 will completely unstressed cross
37
bracing in the left and right side of the system. It may be used for buckling purpose. While load
type 3 have a reaction force that may stress cross bracing. In most application the scissor lift
operate on a level ground. In this application is the most important significant load, although
load type 2 and 3 may also be present if the load at the top of the lift is not centered. While for a
sloping ground other loading type which is beyond my scope may be present. The type of load
determines the type and the amount of cross-bracing required. Load type 1 & 2 do not stress
cross bracing as is not too small but load type 3 affect cross bracing. Another thing that also
add to the rigidity of the lift members is the property of the screw and nut, such as the efficiency
of the nut, e.g. self locking of the nut.
4.2 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Table 4.3 Cost analysis of project
S/N PARTICULARS QUANTITY COST (N)
1 Pins 12 2400
2 Rollers 4 2000
3 Screw spindle 1 9000
4 Bolt and nuts 5 400
5 Spindle nut 1 200
6 Steel plates (half sheet) 1 2, 500
7 Flat bars 2 1,650
8 Square pipe 2 2,650
9 Angle iron ½ 1,200
10 Tyres 4 2,400
11 Paints 2 Litres 1,500
12 cutting disc 2 500
13 Electordes ½ 700
14 Blades 3 600
PROCESSING
15 Fabrication and welding 6,500
38
16 Transport 3,500
TOTAL 35,600
39
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION
The design of a portable work platform elevated by the turning effect of a horizontal
screw spindle was carried out successfully meeting the required design standards. The
portable work platform is operated by turning a handle attached to the horizontal
spindle. The scissor lift is only for average load, because the higher the load the higher
the effort required. The screw operated scissor lift is simple in use and does not require
much maintenance. For the present dimension we get a lift of 150cm, the scissor lift can
lift a load of 280kg. The main constraint of this device is its high initial cost, but has a
low operating cost. The shearing tool should be heat treated to have high strength. The
device affords plenty of scope for modifications for further improvements and
operational efficiency, which should make it commercially available and attractive.
Hence, it should have a wide application in engineering industries and not just
automotive industry alone. Thus, it is recommended for the engineering industry and
for commercial production.
RECOMMENDATIONS
It is recommended that the screw and thread should be lubricated frequently so as to
reduce the amount of effort required to operate the system. This also reduces the
amount of wear between the screw and the nut. It is also suggested that the spindle and
40
nut should not be exposed to moisture so that it would not be susceptible to corrosion
thereby reducing its strength and toughness.
41
REFERENCES
Alexander j., Kaman P., Jack P., and David S. (1978), Physic for Engineering
Technology. John Willey and Sons Inc USA.
Allens H. R., Alfred R. H. and Herman G. L. (1980): Theory and Problems of Machine
Design. Schaums Outline Series. McGraw Hill Book Company
ASTM F-1166, (2007) Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine
Systems
Elevating work platform, retrieved online at www.Wikipedia, 21/04/2011. (Last
accessed 15 July 2012).
Institution of Civil Engineers (Great Britain) (1870), Minutes of Proceedings of the
Institution of Civil Engineers. The Institution, pp 215 note 1.
http://books.google.com/books?id=EwNRAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA215. Retrieved 1 May
2012
Jain P. K. (1988): Machine/Mechanical Engineering Design Khanna Publishers. 5
th
Edition
Jindal U.C. (2010). Machine Design
Nelkon M. (1985): Principles of Physics. Collins International Textbook Dept. 8
th
Edition
Shigley E. J. and Mischke R. C. (2001); Mechanical Engineering Design. McGraw Hill
companies. Inc. New York, 6
th
Edition
Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design (2008). Richard G. B. and Nisbett J. K.
Design (2008). 8
th
Edition
Smith K. (1981) Mechanical Engineering Principles. Vol. 1. Pitman Education Ltd.
42
Snook, Stover H., and Vincent M. Ciriello, (1991) "The Design of Manual Handling
Tasks: Revised Tables of Maximum Acceptable Weights and Forces," Ergonomics,
Volume 34, No. 9,
Spackman H. M. (1989); NC Technical Document 1550 (Mathematical Analysis of
Scissor Lifts)
Stephens R. C. (1979): Strength of Material Theory and Examples. Edward Arnold
publishers Ltd London.
The NIOSH Work Practices Guide for Manual Lifting (1981)
Determining Acceptable Weights of Lift--Effective from March 1981 to July 1993--
by Henry G. Wickes, Jr., P.E., CSP and Gary S. Nelson, Ph.D., CSP, Consultants
Understanding Scissor Lift Deflection, retrieved online at www.Autoquip.com
21/04/2011 (Last accessed 15 July 2012).
WCB Standards: A324 Forklift mounted work Platforms retrieved online 21/04/2011.
(Last accessed 15 July 2012).
43
APPENDIX
DRAWINGS
44
392
3
0
1
2
O
1
2
400
2
2
5
150
400
3 4
400
4
0
0
4
4
All dimensions in
millimetres
Tolerance unless
otherwise stated

0.05
Drawn by S. O. Macaulay Course:
B.Eng.
28/08/12
Bottom bed frame
Drawing No. BE100812
Niger Delta University
45
5
,6
6
O
1
5
O
8
368
12
8
1,79
2
A
DETAILA
B
DETAILB
All dimensions in
millimetres
Tolerance unless
otherwise stated

0.05
Drawn by S. O. Macaulay Course:
B.Eng.
28/08/1
2
Screw Spindle
Drawing No. BE101812
Niger Delta University