FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION

Charles Darwin in 1844 first suggested the possibility that fractional crystallization playsa role in the formation of igneous rocks. This is the process by which solids, generally crytals, which form from a liquid are prevented from reacting with the liquid. Evidence for Fractional Crystallization 1.Observed changes in bulk composition of liquid, e.g. a single volcanic flow or within a single volcano. 2.Zoning in minerals - most silicate minerals crystallized in igneous systems exhibit evidence of zonation, which reflect changes in composition. 3.Reaction Rims - produced by chemical reaction between crystals and liquid or sudden changes in T and P. e.g. pyroxene rims on olivine result when the liquid containing the olivine becomes saturated with respect to silica as a result of the growth of olivine. Mg2SiO4 + SiO2 ===> 2MgSiO3 In fractional crystallization the solids are removed or isolated from the liquid, resulting in the remaining or residual liquid having a new composition. e.g. Basalt liquid crystallizes olivine (Mg2SiO4) which is undersaturated with respect to SiO2, causing the initial liquid in to become depleted in Mg and enriched in Si, resulting in less Mg and more Si in the liquid, after forming the olivine. If the olivine is now removed from the system, the residual liquid is now depleted in Mg and enriched in Si compared with the parent liquid. Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004
Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB

Many mechanisms of fractional crystallization have been proposed.

Gravitational Effects
This is the most often suggested mechanism which is interpreted to indicate that fractional crystalization has occurred. This is dependant on the density of the solid phase(s) and the density of the liquid phase from which the solids are crystillzing. May have crystal settling or floatation as a means of fractionation.

Crystal Settling
Most often cited gravitational effect in the recorded in the published literature. Early formed minerals olivine (3.3-3.4 g/cc) and pyroxene (3.2-3.5 g/cc) are generally denser than the liquid (3.0 g/cc) from which they crystallize. Due to the density contrast between liquid and solid, the solids settle out of the liquid. Evidence for settling has been observed in a variety of environments from a single lava flow, ~ 1 m thick, to plutons, 1,000's of metres thick. e.g. Palisades Sill (Triassic Age), outcrops along the west bank of the Hudson River, in New Jersey and has thickness that varies along its length from 230-365 m. At or near the base of the sill is an approximately 2.5 m thick olivine-rich layer (with 20% olivine). This olivine has been interpreted to have been concentrated by crystal settling from the overlying liquid, early in the crystallization process. Calculations show that the olivine-rich layer accumulated in over approximately 7,000 hours (290 days).

Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB

Crystal Floatation
This aspect of fractional crystallization has been demonstrated experimentally by Walker and Hayes (1977) and Campbell et al. (1979), for basaltic liquids (3.0 g/cc). Plagioclase (2.6-2.7 g/cc) has been shown to accumulate at the top of the liquid by floatation. Observed in volcanic flows, with plagioclase laths concentrated at or near the top of the flow. One other Fractional crystallization mechanism.

Convection Effects
This is interpreted to be due to P and T gradients within the magma chamber as convection currents carry solid material through the chamber where they experience various temperature and pressure variations. Liquid circulates within the chamber Crystallization occurs in the cool portion of the cell Absorption occurs in the hot portion of the cell Result is zoned crystals if the absorption is incomplete Convection is only effective when the volume of liquid is much greater than the volume of solid.
Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB

Fractionation Mechanisms
Fractionation mechanisms relate the final composition observed in an igneous suite to the original, primary composition of the source material which yields the end product. For fractionation an Evolutionary link is implied, yet no specific process is suggested. DEFINED •Formation of a variety of substances from an initially homogeneous, single parent material. Any mechanism which accomplishes this is a fractionation or differentiation mechanism. Every fractionation mechanism involves the migration or transport of atoms of a particular element relative to other elements, resulting in different bulk compositions formed from a single starting product. The composition of the source material producing the magma may effect the type and degree of fractionation the magma undegoes. The obvious manifestation of fractionation is the variation observed in the chemical composition for a single volcanic flow or pluton. Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 We will look at three fractionation processes:
Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB

CHEMISTRY OF IGNEOUS ROCKS
The chemical composition of rocks is determined by analyzing a powder of the rock. This aspect of geology is carried out in ERSC 3P31 - Geochemistry. Routine geochemical analysis of geologic materials can be carried out using either or a combination of the following two techiques: 1.X-ray Fluoresence Spectroscopy (XRF) to determine both major and trace elements 2.Atomic Absorbtion Spectrometry (AAS) to determine both major and trace elements Specialized techniques and or equipment are necessary to determine other elements.

The composition of an igneous rock is dependant on:
1.Composition of the source material 2.Depth of melting 3.Tectonic environment where crystallization occurs. e.g. rifting vs. subduction 4.Secondary alteration

Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB

which may have silicate and sulphide liquids. Immiscibility has also been proposed and or observed for alkali intrusions. e. intermediate composition. 3. .Archaean volcanic rocks from the Abitibi Belt of NE Ontario and NW Quebec. by fractionation. oil and vinegar Proposed to explain the juxtaposition of two distinctly different 'liquid' compositions with no intervening.g. In all of the above ==> basalt host with 'granitic' globules or varioles.LIQUID IMMISCIBILITY Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. All Apollo missions returned samples exhibiting evidence for immiscibility. which may have two silicate liquids or a silicate and carbonate liquid. e. of Geology – FIKTM ITB Immiscibile . of: 1. Liquid immiscibility has been proposed to have played a role in the formation.Cretaceous deep sea basalts. Varioles.Lunar Mare Basalts. spherilitic This process has been in and out of favour with petrologists for the past century. spherulres ===> variolitic.g. and mafic intrusions. 2.liquids can not be mixed. globular masses of granitic composition in a basaltic matrix.

which when solidified will be distinctly different from the original.Heat of melting is the heat capacity of of the solid phases plus the heat of crystallization of the minerals involved.Heat of solution is the ability of a magma to dissolve an inclusion. 2. Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.Heat of mixing is the heat required to mix the phases. Xenoliths and inclusions within a plutonic or volcanic rock provide evidence for the assimilation process. of Geology – FIKTM ITB .HYBRIDIZATION AND ASSIMILATION A magma rising through the crust may assimilate country rock material as it passes from its source area to its site of crystallization. Assimilation is a thermodynamic process involving the following principles. The assimilated material will change (contaminate) the chemical signature of the magma. Heat of solution = heat of melting + heat of mixing where: 1. 3. resulting in a 'new' liquid. uncontaminated magma.

amphiboles and epidote by the addition of H2O. resulting in very minor changes in the original liquid composition. The result is a granite with amphibolite inclusions. the anhydrous minerals in the basalt (olivine. feldspar (plagioclase and alkali feldspar and biotite. not from the temperature of the basaltic liquid. Q. The heats of crystallization of quartz. Any changes caused by assimilation and hybridization are dependant on the nature of the inclusions and the nature of the magmatic liquid into which the inclusions are emplaced. the heat for melting comes from the heat generated by the crystallization of olivine and pyroxene from the liquid. F and B will be melted. The granite inclusions will not be completely melted ====> partial melting. pyroxene and plagioclase) become altered to micas.Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. For the reverse process where granitic liquid incorporates basalt. partially digested granitic material. The end result is a basaltic andesite with inclusions of chewed up. feldspar and biotite from a granitic liquid are not large enough to melt the basalt inclusions. . of Geology – FIKTM ITB Examples of Assimilation For a basaltic liquid assimilating a granitic solid consisting of quartz.

. Magma may or may not contain: Solids . Mg2+. GAS PHASE: Most melts are capable of containing gases dissolved in solution in the liquid phase Gas species include H2O. NH3 (Ammonia) With a decrease in Pressure. responsible for explosive nature of volcanic eruptions. or inclusions of country rocks. H2S.produces vesicles in volcanic rocks. fluctuating matrix of variously linked Si. Fe2+ (ferrous). CO2. gases come out of solution and form discrete gas bubbles in the liquid . CH4 (Methane). T and P of formation. The relative abundance of the ions present is dependant on the composition of the magma and the physical conditions. xenoliths. Al and O atoms.g. capable of intrusion and/or extrusion from which igneous rocks have been derived by solidification and other processes. source material etc.DEFINITION and VARIABILITY IGNEOUS ROCKS Solidified from molten material or a MAGMA Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.naturally occurring liquid (mobile rock material) generated within the earth. Na+ etc. xenocrysts. of Geology – FIKTM ITB MAGMA . T and P. under which the magma exists. SOLID PHASE: May be crystals which form early as the result of crystallization from the liquid or rock fragments. The composition of the gas phase varies widely in magmas reflecting the composition. xenoliths or rock fragments Gases . Fe3+ (ferric). held within a discontinuous.crystals.dissolved gaseous phases in the liquid LIQUID PHASE: Chemical species in liquid phase consist of metallic ions. e.

size. Ascent. 2. etc. not influenced by Pressure. are emplaced at depth within the crust.Intruded Magmas = plutonic rocks.Magmas cool exothermically. Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. 4. viscosity. are emplaced at atmospheric conditions. shape of chamber. shape.g. dissolved gases and fluids with the surroundings. The rate of cooling depends on the depth. Rates of Ascent and Cooling These are related to the structure and physical characteristics of the magma body. Magmatic Temperatures 1. commonly the range is 1000-1200°C.magmas do not crystallize suddenly. 100600°C. composition. . ranges from quenched material extruded at the surface to plutonic bodies. 2. which rise from the mantle at 40 km/hour. which allows for the transfer of material. crystallization occurs over a temperature interval of approx. With increasing pressure the temperature of crystallization decreases. a few cm/1000 years Cooling. For Basaltic rocks the observed temperature range varies from 900-1500°C.Magmas are open systems. 3. A medium to large batholith with a volume of 10.lower limit. more commonly 100-200°C. crystallizing phases. and as sych Pressure effects the temperature of crystallization. The composition of the magma affects the crystallization temperature. 600°C. etc. of Geology – FIKTM ITB . e.upper limit as inferred for kimberlites. releasing heat into the host rock or atmosphere.000 km3 up to may require 10 million years to completely cool.Cooling is influenced by the environment.Extruded magmas = volcanics.GENERALITIES CONCERNING MAGMAS Cooling 1. Granitic plutons crystallize at approx.

8 + wt% 0. MgO.30 + Wt% 1. of Geology – FIKTM ITB . OXIDE Range in Normal Igneous Rocks 35 .5 . Because these are reported as a percentage the total should sum to 100 %.8 + wt% Varies < 0. FeO (ferrous).22 wt% 4 .15 wt% Varies SiO2 Al2O3 TiO2. however acceptable totals lie in the range 98. Fe2O3 (ferric). ideally.5 .5 to 101 wt%.80 wt% 8 .Major Elements These are the 13 major oxide components which are reported as weight percent (wt%).P2O5 CO2 Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.CaO Na2O K2O H2O+. MnO.

Be. V.g. but not Li. Cu.: Basalt . of Geology – FIKTM ITB . Granite pegmatite with lepidolite mica.Minor or Trace Elements Values for these elements fall in the ppm range and are rarely reported in terms of wt %. Rb. Ga. Sc. Theoretically any element can be analyzed for. Elements include: Li. Ba. Ba as these are not important or neccassary to analyze for as they are not present in detectable amounts. Cl. Be.analyze for Cr. Ni. Pb. Ni. plus F. Zr. Co. Cu. The REE are important for petrogenetic studies. Does the total add to 100%. Cr. Cu. Zn. Sr. are reported in ppm or mg/g. e. and Ba but not Cr. but you must be aware of the overall composition of the rock.Rare Earth Elements (REE or lathanides atomic number 57 to 71). S. Whenever you see a published whole rock or mineral analysis ask if it is a good analysis. Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. 3. because as a group the REE behave coherently. Be.2. Y. analyze for Li. Nb. Ni.

In all of the above ==> basalt host with 'granitic' globules or varioles. and mafic intrusions. Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. which may have silicate and sulphide liquids. of: 1. oil and vinegar Proposed to explain the juxtaposition of two distinctly different 'liquid' compositions with no intervening. All Apollo missions returned samples exhibiting evidence for immiscibility.Cretaceous deep sea basalts. e. spherilitic This process has been in and out of favour with petrologists for the past century. Immiscibility has also been proposed and or observed for alkali intrusions. globular masses of granitic composition in a basaltic matrix. of Geology – FIKTM ITB . e. 3. Varioles.g. which may have two silicate liquids or a silicate and carbonate liquid.liquids can not be mixed. spherulres ===> variolitic. intermediate composition.g.Lunar Mare Basalts. by fractionation.LIQUID IMMISCIBILITY Immiscibile . Liquid immiscibility has been proposed to have played a role in the formation. 2.Archaean volcanic rocks from the Abitibi Belt of NE Ontario and NW Quebec.

After Bowen and Anderson (1914) and Grieg (1927).1 MPa. J. Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. Amer.Liquid Immiscibility • Liquid immiscibility in the Fo-SiO2 system Figure 6-12. of Geology – FIKTM ITB . Isobaric T-X phase diagram of the system Fo-Silica at 0. Sci.

Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.POINT COUNT . 3.MODAL ANALYSIS Two types of analysis are useful when examining Igneous Rocks: 1.Measure the intercepts of each mineral along a series of lines.Modal analysis . the spacing between points and successive traverse lines is dependant on the mean grain size of the sample.requires a chemical analysis. of Geology – FIKTM ITB . 2. MODAL ANALYSIS Produces an accurate representation of the distribution and volume percent of the mineral within a thin section. For a statistically valid result > 2000 individual points must be counted.Measure the surface area of mineral grains of the same mineral.requires only a thin section. 2.Count each mineral occurrence along a series of traverse line across a given thin section. The number of grains counted. relative to the total surface area of the thin section.Normative analysis . Three methods of analysis are used: 1.

Porphyritic rocks are difficult to count. Disadvantages Meaningless if the sample has a preferred orientation of one or more minerals. Gives the maximum and minimum grain sizes. using a petrographic microscope. no chemical analysis is required. Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. Total area of sample must be sufficiently larger than the max.Advantages One can compare rocks from different areas if you only have a thin section. of Geology – FIKTM ITB . diameter of the smallest grain size.

chemical or mineralogical features. plutonic .fine grained < 1 mm phaneritic . all of which arise because as humans we feel we have to recognize and categorize common or contrasting features in related things. however specific textures present may aid in classification. Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. but it serves as a first approximation. ophitic. textural.on the Earth's surface. TEXTURAL relies on the grain size of individual minerals in the rock.intermediate depth volcanic . phenocryst. This system is not very practical. Systems of nomenclature and classification may reflect: genetic.medium grained 1 to 5 mm coarse grained (pegmatitic) > 5 mm This system has the same shortcomings as a genetic classification.. coronas. aphanitic . e. of Geology – FIKTM ITB .at depth hypabyssal . but these are not indicative of a specific environment of formation or a specific lithology.g. it tells nothing about mineralogy. GENETIC basic system which classifies rocks on the basis of where they form. chemistry of the rocks and can not distinguish basalt from rhyolite.NOMENCLATURE AND CLASSIFICATION Numerous means exist for classifying and naming rocks.

2.CHEMICAL This type of classification requires a complete chemical analysis of the rock in order to pigeonhole a sample. This leaves us with a system based on mineralogy. e. IUGS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM This is based on Modal Mineralogy (MODE . It is based on the percentages of Q (quartz).an accurate representation of the distribution and volume percent of minerals within a given rock). Further subdivisions are dependant on the type and percentage of mafic minerals present. using a hand lens and a hammer. A chemical classification system has been proposed for volcanic rocks and a comparable scheme for plutonic rocks is not available. and F (feldspathoids. P (plagioclase). and is not practical under field conditions where only a hand lens and hammer are available.MINERALOGICAL The one gaining application is the result of several years work by the IUGS Subcommission on the Classification of Igneous Rocks or Streckeissen Classification. leucite). A (alkali feldspar). of Geology – FIKTM ITB .g. The system is simple to use. Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. can be applied in the field. nepheline.

An elaborate classification scheme based on the normative mineral percentages was proposed. Barth mesonorm. originally proposed in 1919.NORMATIVE ANALYSIS OR NORM Normative analysis is defined as the calculation of a theoretical assemblage of standard minerals for a rock based. e.CIPW. 4.The feromagnesium minerals are assumed to be free of Al2O3. Niggli norm. The classification groups together rocks of similar bulk composition irrespective of their mineralogy. Niggli. Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.g. thus nepheline and/or olivine never appear with quartz in the norm. The original purpose for the norm was essentially taxonomic. biotite) are formed. Iddings.Several minerals are assumed to be incompatible. The latter is used commonly when examining granitic rocks. Barth. was proposed as a means of comparing and classifying all igneosu rocks for which chemical analyses wers available. Each of theses proposals has its own specific advantages and/or disadvantages. on the whole rock chemical composition as determined by analytical techniques. of Geology – FIKTM ITB . Pirsson and Washington. The CIPW norm.Cross. The NORM takes it's name from the four authors who proposed it .The Fe/Mg ratio for all feromagnesium minerals is assumed to be the same. This NORM was very elegant and based on a number of simplifications: 1. Since the CIPW NORM was introduced in 1919 several other normative calculations have been suggested. 3. Various types of NORMs have been proposed . 2.The magma crystallizes under anhydrous conditions so that no hydrous minerals (hornblende.

topaz.Al2O3 = (Na2O + K2O) normative anorthite is small Feldspars and feldspathoids are the only minerals with essential Al2O3. riebeckite. Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. 4. richerite . anorthite appears in the norm Al-bearing minerals are typical.Peralkaline . spessartinealmandine. 3.Al2O3 < (Na2O + K2O) and rarely Al2O3 < K2O Acmite. tourmaline.g. e. Any excess or deficiency in alumina in a rock is reflected in the mineralogy. Alkali ferromagnesium minerals common. of Geology – FIKTM ITB 2. aegerine.Metaluminous . e.Al2O3 Saturation PLPAlumina Saturation Independant of the silica saturation. alumina saturation is based on the 1:1 alkali:alumina ratio of feldspars and feldspathoids. Four classes of alumina saturation/undersaturation are: 1. andalusite and sillimanite. hornblende. sodium silicate and rarely potassium silicate appear in the norm.Al2O3 > (CaO + N2O + K2O) corundum appears in the norm Minerals present in the rock are: muscovite.Subaluminous . corundum. biotite.g.Peraluminous .Al2O3 < (CaO + Na2O + K2O) but Al2O3 > (Na2O + K2O).

Na2O.contains unsaturated minerals Al2O3 Saturation Four subdivisions of rocks independant of silica saturation.Al2O3 = (Na2O + K2O) Peralkaline .contains neither quartz nor an unsaturated mineral •Unsaturated .Al2O3 < (Na2O + K2O + CaO) but Al2O3 > (Na2O + K2O) Subaluminous .contains primary silica mineral •Saturated .Al2O3 < (Na2O + K2O) Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. K2O and CaO applied mainly to granitic lithologies. based on the molecular proportions of Al2O3.Rock Classification (Silica saturation) •Oversaturated .Al2O2 > (Na2O + K2O + CaO) Metaluminous . Peraluminous . of Geology – FIKTM ITB .

Silica Saturation Incompatible Phases Under magmatic conditions some minerals react with free silica to form other (more silica-rich) minerals. These reactant minerals are said to be undersaturated (with respect to SiO2). Typical reactions are: •2SiO2 + NaAlSiO4 quartz + nepheline •2SiO2 + KAlSiO4 quartz + kalsilite •SiO2 + KAlSiO4 quartz + kalsilite •SiO2 + Mg2SiO4 quartz + Mg-rich olivine Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB =======> NaAlSi3O8 =======> albite =======> KAlSi3O8 =======> orthoclase =======> KAlSi2O6 =======> leucite =======> 2MgSiO3 =======> enstatite . Other minerals are stable (can coexist) with free silica (generally in the form of quartz) and are said to be saturated (with respect to SiO2).

of Geology – FIKTM ITB basis of silica saturation and/or undersaturation. i. Komba Vulcan Island of Flores Sea 0. subdivided on the Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. Saturated (+Q) Undersaturated (-Q) all feldspars leucite all pyroxenes nepheline all amphiboles sodalite micas cancrinite fayalite (Fe-rich olivine) analcite spessartine Mn3Al2(SiO4)3 forsterite (Mg-rich olivine) almandine Fe3Al2(SiO4)3 melanite (Ti garnet) sphene andradite zircon Ca3(Fe.5mm . those that coexist with quartz (+Q) and those that do not coexist with quartz (-Q).Shand (1927) proposed the following list of minerals.e.Ti)2(SiO4)3 topaz pyrope Mg3Al2(SiO4)3 magnetite perovskite ilmenite melilite apatite corundum calcite Undersaturated (-Q) Olivin Leucite Basalt.

all feldspars leucite all pyroxenes nepheline all amphiboles sodalite micas cancrinite fayalite (Fe-rich olivine) analcite spessartine Mn3Al2(SiO4)3 forsterite (Mg-rich olivine) almandine Fe3Al2(SiO4)3 melanite (Ti garnet) sphene andradite zircon Ca3(Fe.Ti)2(SiO4)3 topaz pyrope Mg3Al2(SiO4)3 magnetite perovskite ilmenite melilite apatite corundum calcite Saturated (+Q) Saturated (+Q) 0.5mm Arabian Granite of Mekah and Madinah Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB Saturated (+Q) Undersaturated (-Q) .

indicating that such liquids may play an important role in mantle metasomatism. F. Here I report the results of a study of trapped quenched liquids in spinel Iherzolite xenoliths. the separation of magmas into two or more immiscible liquid phases. of Geology – FIKTM ITB Evidence for liquid immiscibility in the upper mantle Hans E. 692 .1038/327692a0 Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. Furthermore. metasomatic growth of amphibole ± apatite ± phlogopite in the Iherzolites is associated with introduction of carbonatitic and volatile-rich ultramafic liquids.5. as known cases of liquid immiscibility are generally restricted to magma compositions encountered during late stages of crystal fractionation. doi:10. carbonatitic and volatile-rich ultramafic liquids. showing the existence of a previously unknown field of three-liquid immiscibility. .letters to nature Nature 327. Amundsen Liquid immiscibility. these are fragments of upper mantle material carried to the surface in volcanic rocks.695 (1987). but this phenomenon has received only limited attention in modelling magmatic processes. These xenoliths carry quenched coexisting basaltic. This type of immiscibility occurs in primitive volatile-rich magma compositions at upper mantle to crustal levels. and relatively shallow crustal levels. has been shown to occur both experimentally1– 3 and in nature 4.

52 to 66 wt% SiO2 Andesite 57 wt% SiO2 Basic .45 to 52 Wt% SiO2 Basalts range from 48 to 50 wt% Ultrabasic . implying a range of silica content.HISTORICAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS Several aspects which historically have played and continue to play a role in the classification of igneous rocks should also be considered. Acidic > 66 wt% SiO2 Granites ~ 72 wt% SiO2. granodiorites ~ 68 wt% SiO2 Intermediate .< 45 wt% SiO2 peridotites 41 to 42 wt% SiO2 Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB . GRADATION IN SILICA CONTENT -referred to as acid or basic.

g. contain felsic minerals (e. These are undersaturated minerals. of Geology – FIKTM ITB . e. amphibole. nepheline. qtz.COLOUR GRADATION Felsic rocks are light coloured. Those which never occur with a primary silica mineral.g. Mg-rich olivine. The occurrence of quartz with an undersaturated mineral causes a reaction between the two minerals to form a saturated mineral. SiO2 Saturation Minerals present in igneous rocks can be divided into two groups: Those which are compatible with quartz or primary SiO2 mineral (tridymite. ultrabasic SATURATION CONCEPT Used in reference to the SiO2 and Al2O3 which are the two most abundant components of igneous rocks. 2SiO2 + NaAlSiO4 ===> NaAlSi3O8 Qtz + Ne ===> Albite SiO2 + Mg2SiO4 ===> 2MgSiO3 Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Qtz + Ol ===> En Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. cristobalite) these minerals are saturated with respect to Si.g feldspars. e. pyroxenes. brown and black colour of these rocks. These minerals contribute to the green. biotite). olivine. feldspar. Mafic Rocks are denser and dark coloured. the result of containing mafic minerals (pyroxene. feldspathoids) which are themselves light in colour and have a low density which contribute to the pale colour of the rock. Ultramafic vs.

of Geology – FIKTM ITB Granite .Rhyolite Texture ? Composition ? Genetic Type ? Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.

of Geology – FIKTM ITB .Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.

Obsidian boulder deposit Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB .

Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB Basaltic columnar joints of Devil tower Olivin basalt Basaltic columnar joints Gabro .

Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB .

Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB .

Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB .

Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB .

Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB .

of Geology – FIKTM ITB .Biotite granite porphyr Amphibolitic inclusions from basaltic protolith in granitic rock Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.

of Geology – FIKTM ITB .Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.

of Geology – FIKTM ITB .Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.

Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB .

of Geology – FIKTM ITB .Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.

of Geology – FIKTM ITB South African Igneous Complex .Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.

Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB Bushveld Igneous Complex of South Africa .

of Geology – FIKTM ITB .Bushveld Igneous Complex of South Africa Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.

Chromite-Olivine Layered Intrusion (Cumulated Rock) of B IC . of Geology – FIKTM ITB .South Africa Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.

of Geology – FIKTM ITB .Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.

An Outcrop of BIC Related to Gravity Settling of Early Differentation Process Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.Chromite-Olivine-Anorthosite Layer. of Geology – FIKTM ITB .

0.5mm 1mm Chromite-Anorthosite-Olivine Rock in Thin Section Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB .

Leucite-Olivine Basalt (Basanite) Of Komba Vulcan Island – Flores Sea Dacite of Karangsambung Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB .

Classification of Igneous Rocks Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.. 745-750. Petrol. silica. . of Geology – FIKTM ITB Figure 2-4. A chemical classification of volcanics based on total alkalis vs. 27. After Le Bas et al. Oxford University Press. (1986) J.

of Geology – FIKTM ITB .Classification of Igneous Rocks Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.

Quartz Syenite Alkali Fs. Renormalize to 100% Q Quartzolite 90 90 Quartz-rich Granitoid 60 60 ldsp ar G ran ite lite na To Granite Granodiorite Alkali Fs. Syenite 5 A lk ali F e 20 20 Quartz Syenite 10 Quartz Monzonite 35 Quartz Monzodiorite 65 Qtz.(a) The rock must contain a total of at least 10% of the minerals below. Diorite/ Qtz. Syenite (Foid) Monzosyenite (Foid) Monzodiorite 60 60 (Foid)olites Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. Gabbro 5 Diorite/Gabbro/ Syenite (Foid)-bearing Syenite A 10 Monzonite (Foid)-bearing Monzonite Monzodiorite (Foid)-bearing Monzodiorite 90 Anorthosite P 10 (Foid)-bearing Diorite/Gabbro (Foid)-bearing Alkali Fs. of Geology – FIKTM ITB F ( Fo id) Ga bb ro S id) (Fo e nit ye .

Classification of the pyroclastic rocks. Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB . 287-298. After Pettijohn (1975) Sedimentary Rocks. Based on type of material.Classification of Igneous Rocks Figure 2-5. 9. a. b. and Schmid (1981) Geology. 1. Rev. After Fisher (1966) Earth Sci. Based on the size of the material. 40-43.. Harper & Row.

of Geology – FIKTM ITB .Pyroclastic Rock of Kendan – Cicalengka Bandung Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept.

Classification of Pyroclastic Rocks Created & compiled by Andri SSM Octo-2004 Petrology & Economic Geology Laboratory Dept. of Geology – FIKTM ITB .