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One dimensional model No 1 QUESTOR: It was applied in stepwise manner to simulate flow, water temperature and dissolved oxygen. The objective of the model was to find the simplest process based model which simulated the observed behaviour accurately. Inputs and outputs: tributaries and point sources. How flow, nutrient and radiation regimes combine to influence the growth of macrophytes in the form of time series, distribution, profiles along reservoir. Disadvantage It is not an appropriate method for all in!stream modelling re"uirements.

Two dimensional model CEQUAL- !: It stimulates water surface elevations, velocities, temperature, ice cover, sediment process and multiple water "uality constituents that vary in longitudinal and vertical dimensions. Inputs:1# thermal conductivity of the bed and evaporation coefficients. $# %eteorological parameters. &# Discharge stream width, shade factor and vegetation height. Output: fine temporal resolution which had been extensively used and good documentation and record. Disadvantages It cannot model differences in transversal direction. 'dvantage It predicts ice formation and brea(up.

Three dimensional model ELCO": is a three!dimensional hydrodynamics model used to simulate the velocity, temperature, and salinity and tracer distribution in surface waters. )*+,% is suited for simulation of transport, mixing, stratification, tidal exchange, inflow dynamics, and dispersal conditions under a range of flow regimes. Inputs: wind, tides, surface heating and cooling, inflows, withdrawals, bubblers and mixers. It is designed to simulate over timescales of days to years and at spatial scales of metres to (ilometres. ,utputs It provides temperature density and water column profiles. )*+,% can be run either in isolation for hydrodynamic assessment, or as a hydrodynamic driver for +')D-% to simulate biogeochemical processes. CAE#$" The +omputational '"uatic )cosystem Dynamics %odel .+')D-%# is a biogeochemical model that is coupled with )*+,%. +')D-% consists of a library of algorithms that represent the (ey biogeochemical processes influencing water "uality under the physical conditions simulated by )*+,%. This includes primary production, secondary production, nutrient, carbon and metal cycling, oxygen dynamics and the transport and deposition of suspended solids. +')D-% provides flexible set!up options so a user can focus on processes of interest

"I%E &&: %odel can perform well with limited topographic information. *esser topographic data re"uirement to define model along with continuity and momentum e"uations written in one dimension only ma(es the tas( of set!up and running the model efficient. Output of model is water levels and discharges in one dimension. %oreover 1!D model is not capable of providing information such as the velocity with which flow is stri(ing the di(e.

"I%E !&: Detailed topographic description of river and floodplain is re"uired e.g. information on surface elevation at each grid point is must. Due to detailed description of topography and fully two!dimensional e"uations of continuity and momentum, $!D models re"uire significantly more time to setup and run. Output of model is water levels, discharges and velocities in two dimensions i.e. along and perpendicular to the flow. Description of flow field in $!D provides accurate representation of flood wave propagation and better prediction of the effects of river training, scouring and sediment transport process. %odel can assess the impacts of proposed changes, such as dredging or addition or removal of flood control structures. %odel can handle flooding and drying.

#$RSE": Input re'uirements: descriptive data of la(e, hydrodynamic forcing data .average wind speed, air temperature, vapour pressure and rain fall#, water "uality parameters .D,, turbidity, chlorophyll, temperature, nutrients# and initial conditions for all modelled variables. Outputs: &( vertical profiles for hydrodynamic model .salinity, temp, density#/ vertical profiles of ecological model .conc. ,f D,, nutrients# $. characteristics of outflow of water &# Inflows to la(e and turbulent (inetic energy.

0undamental hydrodynamic and ecological processes of a la(e or reservoir could be ade"uately depicted by one!dimensional .1D# numerical simulation models. 1hereas, la(es with significant hori2ontal water "uality and hydrodynamic gradients due to their complex morphometry, inflow or water level fluctuations re"uire a three! dimensional .&D# hydrodynamics and ecological analyses to accurately simulate their temporal and spatial dynamics.


Understandin+ the issues

Approa,h to model the issue)pro*lem)situation