R. B. Gonzatti, Carlos H. da Silva, E. M. Vaciloto, S. C. Ferreira, L. E. Borges da Silva, G. LambertTorres
UNIFEI, Universidade Federal de Itajubá – Itajubá, MG, Abstract – This work presents the implementation of a single phase STATCOM based on the Modified Synchronous Reference Frame, an adaptation of the standard three-phase Synchronous Reference Frame applied to single-phase systems. The structure is able to compensate the reactive power flowing through the line, adjusting the displacement power factor and also acting on line voltage regulation. The proposed control algorithm is described and practical results are presented for a single phase prototype to validate the effectiveness of the developed system. Keywords – MSRF, Reactive Power Compensation, STATCOM. I. INTRODUCTION The growing demand for electric energy in centers distant from main generation units and the new electrical power system scenery, with the increase of distributed generation and renewable energy sources, has made power converters an important part of the link between these energy sources and the utility grid. These equipments have to be capable of both controlling power flow and solving power quality problems. In this context, FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) equipments, such as the STATCOM, can be used to improve the power system stability [1] as it injects or draws a reactive current for the purpose of either regulating the bus voltage or compensating the power factor [2]. The Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) is a shunt Var compensator that acts as a reactive current source (Ic) [1] which delivers the reactive power demanded by the load. It avoids the reactive power from circulating between the source and the load, relieving the source from this task, regulating the terminal voltage Vs and thus improving the system voltage stability. The operation principle of the STATCOM is similar to the synchronous machine, where the reactive power is controlled by the amplitude of the terminal voltage. By adjusting the amplitude of the fundamental component of the converter voltage Vc, the flow of inductive or capacitive power can be controlled. If Vc is smaller than the source voltage Vs, the compensator absorbs reactive power and if Vc is larger than Vs, the compensator generates reactive power [3], [4]. Considering the STATCOM current control, it can be done by means of two possible strategies. The most common current controller techniques are based on: rotating frames (dq-frames) and stationary reference frames (αβ-frames). However, both structures are adequate for three phase STATCOM systems. Voltage control strategies can also be applied to the structure. These methods intend to maintain the common coupling point voltage at nominal value [5]. This approach is mainly applied in low voltage distribution networks where problems regarding voltage variation are experienced, such as long rural distribution lines or end point of power lines, where there is not enough attention to line behavior [5]. Much of the focus on STATCOM and other FACTS devices application lies within the transmission sector, where the use of such expensive technologies is justified. However, a more distributed approach may be applied to low voltage systems, using several low power devices at specific areas [6]. For example, on connection point of critical and varying reactive power consuming loads, or voltage regulation in distributed generation networks. In this scenario, this work presents the implementation of a single phase STATCOM structure that is designed to be used in single phase micro-grid systems. Fig. 1 shows the topology of the single phase STATCOM system presented.

Fig. 1. Single Phase STATCOM Topology.

Its control algorithm is based on the Modified Synchronous Reference Frame, MSRF, an adaptation of the standard three-phase Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF), applied to single-phase systems. The proposed control algorithm is explained and practical results are shown in a single phase prototype to validate the effectiveness of the developed system. II. MSRF BASED STATCOM CONTROL Due to the parallel connection of the STATCOM, as shown in Fig. 1, it may be considered as controlled current source, instead of being a voltage source [4]. According to

In turn. After that a phase detection algorithm calculates the phase difference ( ) between these two signals. In this loop. 3. presented in Fig. Here.(Vs − Vc. By means of these two signals it is possible to place the Vc phasor anywhere desired. a second control loop regulates the DC capacitor voltage in order to keep it between two limit values. considering a single-phase system with harmonic distortion. As mentioned before. 2 block diagram. d +q q q Fig. managing the flow of reactive current. simultaneously.that.Vc . while keeping the others as AC quantities. MSRF block diagram. charging or discharging the DC link capacitor thus varying the magnitude of Vc. This phase difference is compared to the reference phase difference. This strategy performs a shift in the frequency domain. this phase shift (δ) allows real power to flow to the DC capacitor varying the real amplitude of the converter output voltage Vc. The control of the reactive current generated by the converter is realized with an indirect approach. This angle is used to determine the Displacement Power Factor (DPF). There are several power theories and power calculation algorithms to determine actual active and reactive power flowing in single phase systems. It consists of three control loops. Equation (1) presents the real power flow mechanism according to (δ). the DC signal that remains corresponds to the fundamental component of the input signal [7]. an adaptation of the standard three-phase Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF). The method. P= Q= Vs. d+d The output fundamental voltage signal Vc is composed by two orthogonal components generated by the MSRF-PLL [8]: one in phase with Vs and one leading it by 90°. known as dead-time [9]. as in Fig. 4 block diagram. which is a usual measurement of the system power factor given by cos( ). Higher voltages allow more capacitive current generation. The harmonic current. the amount of reactive power that flows between the source and the load will be determined from the phase difference between the fundamental component of the source voltage (VS) and source current (IS). Fig. etc. that shifts the original Vc sine wave. The strategy used to extract the source fundamental components of the voltage and the current is called Modified Synchronous Reference Frame MSRF. Vc < Vs. Converter Output Voltage Composition. it is possible to control the reactive power by means of the converter output current.cos(δ )) X (2) The control algorithm is represented in Fig. as described by (2) [4]. applied to single-phase systems [7]. As the real power flow through the converter charges or discharges the DC link capacitor. 2. The DC link voltage is not kept constant because the compensation range of the STATCOM can be improved with a fluctuating DC link voltage. this controls the flow of reactive current. with the presence of harmonic distortion. A third control loop is used to compensate for the harmonic distortion of the converter output current Ic that is generated by the switching delay of the converter IGBT’s. the converter current harmonic content is isolated from the fundamental component by the MSRF.sin(δ ) X (1) Vs. The amount of reactive power that must be injected or drawn by the STATCOM depends on how much reactive power is demanded by the load. three-phase balanced and unbalanced systems. . which is related to the actual reactive power by Displacement Power Factor (DPF) given by cos( ). If the DC link voltage is higher or lower than the established boundary the amplitude of the sine wave kDC is adjusted in order to avoid excessive DC voltage or insufficient DC voltage. sin(ωet) and cos(ωet). which is zero for unity DPF. From this error signal a control signal k is generated by a PI regulator. 3. The indirect control mechanism is to vary the phase shift (δ) between Vs and Vc causing real power flow. consists in multiplying the measured signal. the fundamental component of the Source Voltage (VSf0) and Source Current (ISf0) are obtained using the MSRF. by two orthogonal signals. when Vc > Vs. multiplied by a gain kh. Initially. generated by the MSRF-PLL [8]. which corresponds to the amplitude of the cosine wave added to the output PWM reference. The converter compensation current THD is kept under 5%. is added to the PWM reference eliminating the low order harmonics injected as consequence of the dead-time. After the resulting signal pass through a low-pass filter. and lower voltages permit higher inductive current injection. transforming a component with the same frequency of the PLL output in a DC component.

It can be seen that the compensation current Ic is sinusoidal. Fig. III. 6 shows the waveforms of the STATCOM on inductive mode injecting a lagging current on the line of approximately 10A RMS. 7. 5. Fig. 7 shows the systems phasor diagram presenting the injected inductive current (IC) and the common coupling point voltage (VS). MSRF-STATCOM Inductive Current Injection. TABLE I STATCOM prototype parameters Source Voltage Power Converter DC Link Voltage DC Link Capacitance Coupling Inductance Switching Frequency Sampling Frequency Control Unit 127 VRMS 60 Hz 50kVA IGBT H-bridge PWM Voltage Source Converter 400V (300V ~ 500V) 4700 uF 5 mH 40 kHz 40 kHz DSP TMS320F2812 Fig. Fig. IC – Narrow Line. STATCOM prototype photograph. Table I presents the prototype parameters and Fig. .Fig. Fig. MSRF STATCOM IMPLEMENTATION A single phase prototype of the MSRF based STATCOM was built to verify its efficacy and practical application in real power systems. VS – Bold Line. 5 shows a photograph of the device. 6. 4. MSRF-STATCOM Inductive Current Injection Phasor Diagram. MSRF based STATCOM control. The phase difference is not perfectly 90 degrees because of the active power demanded by the converter to charge the DC link capacitor and supply the switching losses.

. The source current IS is now in phase with the source voltage VS. with capacitive current injection. IC – Narrow Line.1 V in Fig. with inductive current injection. Power before Compensation. 7. 10 shows the system waveforms before STATCOM reactive power compensation. 13. 9 shows the system phasor diagram presenting the injected capacitive current (IC) and the common coupling point voltage (VS). so that the reactive power flowing in the source becomes zero and DPF becomes unity as shown in Fig. Fig. 9. Fig. providing the 1kVar demanded by the load. MSRF-STATCOM Capacitive Current Injection Phasor Diagram. to 128. 8 shows the waveforms of the STATCOM on capacitive mode. 10. 11 shows the system powers and the DPF (Cos( )) before compensation. The load parameters are described on Table II. TABLE II Load parameters Source Voltage Load 127 VRMS 60 Hz Single phase thyristor rectifier with dc inductance R: 10Ω L:100 mH Fig. Fig.78. injecting a leading current on the line. 9. It shows that the STATCOM also operates on the coupling point voltage regulation. 8. To confirm the MSRF based control algorithm performance experimental results of the STATCOM prototype compensating the DPF of a thyristor rectifier are presented. Notice that the value of the coupling point voltage changes from 125. Fig. Fig.4 V in Fig. while the load current IL still lags Vs by approximately 45°. The converter current IC leads VS by 90° just like a capacitor bank current. Non-linear Load Waveforms before Reactive Power Compensation. 11. MSRF-STATCOM Capacitive Current Injection. The load current IL is equal to the source current IS as the converter current IC is almost zero. 12 shows the system waveforms after STATCOM reactive power compensation.Fig. source voltage VS by an angle which is the thyristor bridge firing angle. The load presents a 1kVar inductive reactive power which results in a DPF of 0. VS – Bold Line. The source current IS lags the of approximately 45°. The only current drawn by the converter is the current needed to keep the DC link voltage and supply switching losses. Fig. Fig.

Pinto. Rolim. H.P. Woodhouse. this feature is not incorporated on the present prototype. 160. “A Digital PLL Scheme for Three-Phase System Using Modified Synchronous Reference Frame”. J. "Reactive Power Compensation Technologies: State-of-the-Art Review. C.L.4. Rech.. L. R. M. pp. REFERENCES [1] N. Bose.G.16. [5] T. P. R. J. Aredes. Rodriguez. 16-18 July 2012.12. G.B da Silva. ICHQP 2008. Rodriguez. In order to improve the power quality of the system. [2] A. [6] C. Pereira. pp. Montagner.R Pereira. G. F. 28 .1149. Understanding FACTS. H.326. 1. Notice in Fig. 2005. New York: IEEE Press. da Silva." Power Engineering Journal. "STATCOM: a new era of reactive compensation. D. 2012. M. Practical results show that the MSRF controller adequately calculates the phase difference between source voltage and current. R. C. [9] C.S. Fig." Proceedings of the IEEE. based on the Modified Synchronous Reference Frame shows a fine performance for reactive power compensation. Such equipment constitutes an UPQC (Unified Power Quality Conditioner). Nonlinear Load Waveforms After Var Compensation. P. G. Monkhouse. Osborne. Tareila. 12. [4] D. L. Sept. vol. as the FLUKE 435 used to calculate the system powers includes the harmonic distortion current for Power Factor calculation. no. characterizing an UPQC structure. 4-7 July 2010. 2008. Moreover a load harmonic compensation feature can be easily incorporated to the same topology. PESC 2008.H.151. Fischer.1378. P. 2000. "Design and control of a single-phase D-STATCOM inverter for wind applications. Se Un Ahn. correctly regulating the reactive power flow on the tested system. L. da Silva. pp.Oct. V.B.O.38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. However.O. Dixon.P. "Dead-time compensation in Shunt Active Power Filters using fast feedback loop.1153.3. E. Ortiz. 13 that the PF is different from one. L.R. 2008. [8] C. 15-19 June 2008. Dec. Torres. da Silva. "Unified Hybrid Power Quality Conditioner (UHPQC). E.2144. 12 that the source current waveform remains distorted and in Fig. R. Concepts and Technology of Flexible ac Transmission Systems. M. "A new current control for the STATCOM based on secondary order generalized integrators" IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference.E. R.1. 2008.93. Hingorani and L. L. LambertTorres." 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE). a load harmonic current compensation feature can be incorporated to the control algorithm. no. J. 2010. Pereira. IV. It also provides accurate control of the imposed voltage and thus the injected current. Gyugyi. "D-STATCOM applied to single-phase distribution networks: Modeling and control. [7] C. da Silva. June 2002." 13th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power.5. Bueno. Bimal K. the practical results presented here were carried out at lower power because of limitations in the lab workbench.E. One has to also notice that. 2164." IECON 2012 . Fig. Germano Lambert-Torres. Sotoodeh. 25-28 Oct.1. Pinto. R.D. vol. Nevertheless they are still adequate to validate the topology and algorithm effectiveness. R. Miller. Enderle. L. C. C. pp. Se Un Ahn.1383.B. J. Silva. L. Horwill. CONCLUSIONS The STATCOM is FACTS topology already established in the literature.321. 13. Moran. The implemented single phase STATCOM . M. pp. Schuch. Hanson. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. The compensation current is free from the harmonics caused by the dead-time. pp. so the same equipment can regulate the reactive power flow. [3] J. Beltrame. pp. Power After Var Compensation. the coupling point voltage and the harmonics circulating in the system. Silva.structure. although the power converter is rated for 50 kVA. B. R. Domke." 2012 IEEE Power Electronics and Machines in Wind Applications (PEMWA).