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ROMANTICISM I. Answer the Questions 1. What are the elements of Romanticism?

The elements of the Romanticism are:      Frontier: vast expanse, freedom, no geographic limitations. Optimism: greater than in Europe because of the presence of frontier. Experimentation: in science, in institutions. Mingling of races: immigrants in large numbers arrive to the US. Growth of industrialization: polarization of north and south; north becomes industrialized, south remains agricultural. 2. What is the subject matter in this period? According to the information from the book Romantics ideas centered around art as inspiration, the spiritual and aesthetic dimension of nature, also it stressed strong emotion, imagination, freedom from classical correctness in art forms, and rebellion against social conventions; I think there´s more information on the internet about this point and I write down it: The subject matters in this period are: 1. The quest for beauty: non-didactic, "pure beauty." 2. The use of the far-away and non-normal - antique and fanciful: a. In historical perspective: antiquarianism; antiquing or artificially aging; interest in the past. b. Characterization and mood: grotesque, gothicism, sense of terror, fear; use of the odd and queer. 3. Escapism - from American problems.

4. Interest in external nature - for itself, for beauty:

a. Nature as source for the knowledge of the primitive. b. Nature as refuge. c. Nature as revelation of God to the individual. 3. Can you list the Romantic attitudes shown in the work of this period?  The appeal of the common man, who was respected and idealized as never before

 A new awareness for childhood. equality: a.  Subjectivity: in form and meaning.  3. building of railroads.  Socially "harmful morality.rise of Unitarianism. Identify and explain the techniques used in the Romantic period. Middle colonies ."  Stress on emotion rather than reason." a world of "lies. and a freedom and majesty in the power of ocean. Nashoba.  Nineteenth century marked by the influence of French revolution of 1789 and its concepts of liberty.  Inadequate or unlikely characterization. the romanticist foundwild beauty in lofty mountains and deep forest. Intellectual and spiritual revolution .utopian experiments like New Harmony. and others.   A new feeling for nature. but provided order. and the Icarian community.  Authorial subjectivity. nonformal. 4. geniality. 5. the new admiration for simplicity and naturalness turned the Romanticism ´attention in sympathy and love toward children. welfare and security for all) as a way of maintaing slavery. the romanticist was likely to be highly subjective. c. (Andrew Jackson on the Web) b."  Organic principle in writing: form rises out of content.myth of the master and slave William Gilmore Simms' modified references to Greek democracy (Pericles' Athens which was based on a slave proletariat. All of these attitudes are summarize as three attitudes:  Appeals to imagination.  Remoteness of settings in time and space.  Improbable plots. subjective form of writing. self-awareness a primary method. fraternity.  2.practicing laissez-faire (live and let live). Institution of slavery in the South . The development of the self-became a major theme. modified because of geographical expansion and the need for subsidies for setting up industries.  Cultivation of the individualized. Jacksonian democracy of the frontier.  Experimentation in new forms: picking up and using obsolete patterns. . Fourierism. America basically middle-class and English . Describe the philosophical patterns from the writing of this period. optimism. use of the "willing suspension of disbelief.

She stands up for all women. She is also said to be good with a needle considering she helps the poor by donating clothes to them. 5. and dignified. She continues to wear the A long after her punishment is fulfilled. Fuller.She also spoke against slavery both in America and Europe. and created an integrated school in Mandarin for children and adults. And he delivered an address to the Ladies of the Rochester Anti Slavery Sewing Society. tall. She is an early feminist. 4. Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau lived in Concord and joined together forming the Transcendental Club in 1836. Discuss changes in the concept of the American self in the early nineteenth century. through his literature and speeches that were groundbreaking in both style and matter. Thoreau. Douglass merged the North Star with Gerrit Smith's Liberty Party Paper to form Frederick Douglass' Paper. she took part in the fight of anti-slavery forces in the American North. even today. which was published until 1860. in other hand He was an early advocate for desegregation of schools. . Frederick Douglass He suggested that the world would be a better place if women were involved in the political sphere. She proves the true power of the woman alone. 2. with indignant pride and accomplishment. Harriet Beecher Stowe She depicted life for African-Americans under slavery. She stays in her town. thin. Jacobs. The female. demanding her rights as a woman and member of society. 3. was an injustice of colossal proportions Harriet Ann Jacobs She wrote (Linda Brent) an autobiographical narrative about the struggle for freedom by female slaves and an account of the sexual harassment and abuse they endured. is judged harshly for sinful behavior and simultaneously pursued by men to satisfy their physical desire. She considered Native Americans an important part of American heritage. Consider literary portraits of women engaged in heroic struggle or of escaping slaves portrayed as heroic fugitives. She supported the rights of African-Americans. 3. 6. and Douglass with Hester Prynne in The Scarlet Letter or Thoreau's autobiographical narrator in Walden. Margaret Fuller believed in providing education to women.6. She represents the hypocrisy of men and their views of women. Locate your discussion within specific works by Emerson. she raises her daughter working hard to support her. not running back to England. Ralph Waldo Emerson. 2. finally Douglass was acquainted with the radical abolitionist John Brown but disapproved of Brown's plan to start an armed slave rebellion in the South. Emerson's philosophy is typically liberal. 1. and Hawthorne. The narrative was designed to appeal to middle class white Christian women in the North. Hester's treatment for adultery is representative of the male dominated society that exists. focusing on the impact of slavery on women's chastity and sexual virtues. finally Jacobs criticized the religion of the Southern United States as being un-Christian and as emphasizing the value of money. as she becomes an icon. 4. Compare and contrast portraits by Stowe. and she agreed with the transcendental concern for the psychological well-being of the individual. She published the Uncle Tom's Cabin where reflected the idea that slavery in the United States. Hawthorne states through other people’s thoughts that she is beautiful. 7. the nation that purportedly embodied democracy and equality for all. She advocated that women seek any employment and advocated reform at all levels of society. played the most vital role of any writer of his time in defining what was to become the American spirit. Compare and contrast Hester Prynne 1. celebrated for her courage.

Thoreau also transcendentalists because of his ecological consciousness. not to be confused with the true writer's voice. it shows the significance of living a spiritual life and not necessarily relying on concrete religion or church to have faith. considered within a self-conscious rhetoric. is inherently good. the pastoral realm that integrates both nature and culture. For Emerson and Thoreau the human being when in contact with nature. From these tenets and more. Kennedy. President John F. which contradicts the old concept of moral leaden Hawthorne charged complex. He neither rejected civilization nor fully embraced wilderness. Instead he sought a middle ground. so. you'll find that Transcendentalism was one of the most significant literary movements of our time. this movement clearly emphasizes the importance of this life in the present. Thoreau with its publication “Civil Disobedience” he influence in the life of large men such as Mahatma Gandhi. using intuition and observation. Emerson uses Transcendentalist and romantic views to get his points across by explaining a true American scholar's relationship to natureThat was benefit scholars and all men of thought for decades to come. vitality and optimism. Hawthorne's work often deals with the idea that sin is inherent in man and unavoidable Whether comparing the Transcendentalist writings of Emerson and Hawthorne or relating such examples to society today. He was the main figure of the Anti-transcendentalist movement. Jr.power the values of individual and self. identified as God. do-ityourself independence. latest review has paid special attention to the narrative voice of Hawthorne. the creative source of life. In addition. is capable of coming into contact with the cosmic energy. it portrays the value of self-realization and of the individual in the universe. ethical commitment to abolitionism and political theory of civil disobedience and peaceful resistance. In the other hand. and civil rights activist Martin Luther King. . which objected to the claim of Transcendentalists like Henry David Thoreau that man. Most importantly.