Compendium

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Urban Warfare

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The current 1. To start with. Biass T he denser the urban scenario. provided the troops on the ground have the right equipment to receive that imagery. Paolo Valpolini. and the amount of tasks they are assigned leaves just a lean portion of their flight time to support ground troops. Any top observation used to co-ordinate movement on the ground must be available in strict real time. platoon or companylevel operations are often carried out in isolated villages where troops operate together with Afghan security forces to guarantee security and provide assistance. is gaining growing interest in the urban warfare fighter community not only to detect. inputs from Eric H. and the fact that armed elements can easily merge within the population renders the situation even more hazardous. it also is where they are most likely to be found – and this alone commands the development and acquisition of ad hoc equipment. when small units are engaged in daily patrols these are not available. Handlaunched. However. 1 . with each company of its 41st Regiment running its own systems. especially when more densely populated. Vertical Awareness What is better than having a top view of the area in which one is called to operate? An image taken from an adequate height can provide a map that evolves in real time. mainly to provide intelligence before the action and allow upper-echelon commanders to monitor operations in real time.Urban Warfare Elbit Systems’ Skylark I. The Aerovironment Raven is operated by Italy (and many other countries). organisational plans for future medium infantry regiments have provision for deployment of three vertilift systems within the regiment itself. the typical mud-built compounds of that nation are intricate enough to generate problems to allied troops. the weaker the level of communications. and identifying enemy firing positions adds to the burden. The use of large and persistent drone systems over an area of operation is also questionable in this respect. leaving the operation of tactical drones and other higher-end assets to specialists. as an adequate level of situational awareness is certainly more difficult to achieve there than on open ground.9-kilo RQ-11B model provides endurance between 80 and 110 minutes with single-use batteries. «We normally deploy at night close to the village. here launched by a Canadian soldier. and at first light of dawn we launch a Raven before sending the commander of the Afghan forces detachment to talk to the village elders.» an Italian officer told Armada. as illustrated by this montage showing a Camero system at work. Generically this is known as the Rover. Own movement also becomes a problem in urban areas. What happened in October 1993 in Mogadishu is still a scorching experience. However. the latest version of which – the Rover 5 – is no bigger than a Playstation. Opening breaches to avoid booby traps often installed by insurgents on the most obvious entrance points is another problem. armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 In Afghanistan. which provides a wide-enough T On the Cover he ability to ’see‘ through walls. Many armies have acquired much smaller and cheaper systems that allow them to survey their next area of operation themselves before sending in troops. is in use by more than ten countries While most current peacekeeping missions take place in wide areas that are sparsely populated – Iraqi and Afghanistan population densities are respectively 62 and 49 inhabitants/metre2 compared to the 115 and 277 of France and Great Britain – most contacts with insurgents still take place in urban areas. The irony is that while urban terrain is certainly one of the worst places in which to engage insurgents. but also to map the position of people in a building. their numbers are limited. its operational range is about ten km. as a good share of the tragedy was imputable to the delay that occurred between the observation made by the aircraft overflying the area and the reception of the message by the troops on the ground. not to mention that of automatic location systems. Although in Afghanistan ’urban‘ does not necessarily mean highly built-up areas. These valuable systems are normally deployed when major operations are being planned or underway.

(US Marine Corps) of interest. a wingspan of two metres and is carried in a backpack together with the PC-based control station. Although target surveillance could partially be achieved by circling around the point An Italian soldier prepares an Aerovironment Raven B before a recce flight.1metre wingspan and an endurance of 45 to 60 minutes. their fixed-wing counterparts still remain very useful tools in urban scenarios. the Skylark I has a 90minute endurance. Handlaunched. it also provides for the capture and storage of up to 80 still images taken from the video stream. endurance limitations would soon cut in.The L-3 Communications Rover 5 allows frontline soldiers to receive the imagery produced by drone sensors. Amongst these. for close-up viewing). they are also easy targets when they fly at low speeds or hover.7-kilo Dragon Eye has a 1. to give them a real-time top-down view of their area of operation. (Armada/PV) The Bundeswehr and the Dutch forces field the Aladin built by EMT in Germany. one thermal and one colour daylight. with control stations averaging from compact and light to relatively light with the latter offering a longer range and thus a more powerful datalink. Plug-andplay payloads allow to easily switch from night to day sensors. especially when they are required to hover for long periods of time. It can be equipped with three different payloads. particularly when the urban configuration consists of low. In spite of the advent of the vertilift drones. slow down (and even shut down) its engine and remain in position as long as its power source allows. because their aerodynamic lift requires them to fly at a certain speed. is continuous target observation. not to mention that an urban configuration can easily deny viewing the target under some angles given the drone's relatively low height above the ground and that while electric motors are relatively quiet the presence of a continuously circling drone would certainly not remain unnoticed for long by the locals. two are pointed downwards (one for wide angle and the other A US Marine operating an Aerovironment Dragon Eye. which will provide greater communication security and better performance. and the drone provides more than one hour of over-target time. Even smaller than the Raven. a thermal or lowlight side-looking camera and a low-light illuminator. such as those typical of current theatres of operation. but within limits. which is also operated by at least ten other countries. British forces are using the Lockheed Martin Desert Hawk III that was acquired under an urgent operational requirement. The station is common to all Aerovironment mini and micro drones and is thus also deployed by the US Marine Corps to operate the Raven. Another battle-proven mini drone is the Israeli Elbit Systems Skylark I.8 kg with night sensors.37-metre wingspan Desert Hawk III has a 90-minute endurance and a 15-km operational range. take off to reach another observation position or return to launch- 2 armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 . constitute the night package. With two air vehicles overlapping their missions. while their noise signature still makes them easier to spot. However. What these systems cannot provide. although the range is widening. vertilift micro and mini drones are certainly those that can best fill that type of operational requirement. the 430gram Wasp III has a 72-cm wingspan and a 45-minute endurance. namely a daylight stabilised turret. This pretty much rounds up the list of fixed-wing micro and mini drones most widely used in the sub-Asian continent. With a take-off weight of less than four kilos and a wingspan of 1. these systems allow troops to work out their own risk assessment from real-time imaging before entering a built-up area.46 metres. adapting the air vehicle to the situation.5 kg with daylight sensors and 4. then whoop up the engine. The US Armed Forces have recently signed a contract to upgrade the Ravens to full digital configuration. the Netherlands and Canada have deployed them in Afghanistan and in Iraq. while the twinengine 2. as areas to be investigated under those circumstances are usually much closer. Weighing 4. Australia. The typical drawback of rotary-wing aircraft is their limited endurance. it offers a one-hour endurance and boasts four daylight cameras: one is used for pilot purposes.37 kg. Wasp III and Dragon Eye drones. surveillance time can be stretched. three-level buildings. Tipping the scales at four kilos. Micro drones are also used in urban theatres. A larger and longer-endurance version of the Skylark appropriately suffixed LE was launched in late 2008 and can remain aloft for three hours. Two forward-looking cameras. the 1. and are thus more to be considered small-area surveillance tools rather than target surveillance systems. Not yet used in large numbers. where a vertilift system has an edge over its fixedwinged counterpart because of the fact that it can land on a vantage viewing spot. Aerovironment's ruggedised ground control station is also Playstation-sized and weighs 3. Not only does it allow one to store multiple pre-planned missions and follow the video images in real time. while the fourth is canted sideways for circling observation mode. (Armada/PV) radius. In addition.

One of the latest entries in this little vertilift drone club is the Utri Draco. . The quest for sonic and visual discretion is exemplified by the contract assigned in mid-May 2010 by the US Air Force Research Laboratory to Aurora Flight Sciences to develop a new design software code for propellers that combine acoustic. The latter can be tilted on two axes and includes either two daylight CCD cameras (one with wide-angle and one with telephoto lenses) or an uncooled thermal camera and a near-IR CCD camera for night operations. Once a target is detected the operator designates it and the Switchblade folds its wings back under the fuselage to turn itself into a weapon that is autonomously guided on target by its video tracker. the air vehicle then becoming the air system used to deploy a series of sensors. knowing that datalink sets maximum range to about one kilometre.. electronic warfare packages to stop mobile phone communications on M icro UAVs are not solely used for surveillance. The club has other members like the German Rheinmetall Pearl and the American Draganflyer X6..the enemy side (often the most widely used system among insurgents) and. Sound of Silence. perching missions can extend the surveillance Drones With a Sting – I ing point. In late 2009 Aerovironment conducted an ’end-to-end demonstration‘ of its Switchblade lethal mini drone.. a 2. namely a downwards-looking camera for both landing and reconnaissance. ensures an unobstructed view when looking at negative elevation angles. The very light structure. To our The same company was also awarded a contract to develop an integrated system for guiding micro drones in environments over cluttered by audio and sound sensors. With a range of twelve km and a maximum speed of twelve metres/sec. At 1.5 kg. aerodynamic and stress codes into a single unit with a view to generating configurations of open or ducted or other geometry propellers that best optimise the aero-acoustic parameter. which is based on similar concepts and offered for both the security and military markets – and even civilian in some cases. What it will do once landed in a technique known as ’perching‘ is up to its payload and to its operator's needs. (Armada/EHB) armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 3 . while other applications may be found. are difficult to operate from a built-up area due to their shallow take-off and landing flight paths. it features two payloads. it has an endurance of over 30 minutes and carries a stabilised electro-optical day/night colour camera with a x10 optical zoom and a ± 70° pan and +70°/-40° tilt movement. time up to three hours. although it is not clear if it has yet been deployed to Afghanistan..and passing presence of a ghost are two impossible dreams that both fixed-wing and rotary-wing drone manufacturers want to get as close as possible to. which expands to 1500 metres radius in digital control. the EMT Penzberg Fancopter was acquired by the Bundeswehr. An uncooled infrared camera with a x2 digital zoom is offered as option. is not limited to imaging systems. its small warhead exploding on impact. The Air Robot AR100B micro drone also has a one-metre-diameter circular protection around its four rotors. The weight range of available vertical lift systems starts from a few grams to culminate well into four-figure kilos. as is the case of some full-blown helicopter-sized drones – although it is clear that for urban operations the systems that should be employed by front-line units are the While hand-launched aircraft like the Drac. (EMT) lighter ones.5-kg quad-rotor system with a one-kilo payload capacity – quite a feat if one considers that this represents 40% of the coleopter’s all-up weight. with a view to making them less dependable on the piloting function and – as a straight consequence – more reliable. If and when costs are no longer an issue. with a wire fence around the rotors to reduce risk to the operator. A typical payload package will include imagery sensors in the form of day or night television cameras to provide realtime footage to the ground control station. Produced by EMT. Known as Panoptis (Panoramic Avoidance and Navigation using OPTIcs integrated with Sonar) the system will allow small air vehicles to continue to operate during datalink outages or when the warfighter loses the vehicle’s situational context. but it is equipped with an obstacle avoidance system that ensures that the air vehicle does not come closer than two metres from any obstacle. The Switchblade is battery-powered. the Aladin is in service in Afghanistan with the German contingent. While flight endurance is limited to 25 minutes. tube-launched and weighs about one kilo. but change-detection software may well help in the quest to save energy by allowing the system to broadcast the imagery back to base only when something is moving within the scene being observed by the camera. they prove useful to relay overhead information on nearby urban areas. the latter lifting the one-kilo apparatus and its 200-gram payload within a radius of 500 metres under analogue datalink. Starting from micro-level drones. The drone's payload. Upon launch it unfolds its tandem wings and starts returning streaming video from an electro-optical sensor. the Fancopter’s lift is provided by two electrically powered counter-rotating rotors. although this will require an onboard image processing system that could certainly add weight to the sensor package. The Draco does not have a safety ring around its rotors. whether fixed or droppable. A typical system designed for perching operations. two punishing factors should never be left unconsidered – weight and power consumption – as they directly take their toll on range and endurance. They can include radio relays to ensure better coverage of the urban scenario (a typical snag encountered by troops). and a sensor package mounted on top of the air vehicle. possibly networked together. deployed in Afghanistan since June 2010. power guzzlers here are more the datalink than the sensors themselves. backpackable. one could also envisage using the vertilift drone to place a sensor at the right location and then leave it on its own.

(EMT) knowledge. The rest is a child’s game. According to the current categorisation. the latest member is the Datron Scout. coupled to its size. All-up at six kilos including its one-kilo total payload(s). To the best of our knowledge this is the only mini drone of its kind to have made it out to the battlefield. its main drawback. one under the body for reconnaissance flights. These are obviously apt to carry out reconnaissance missions but. flying in urban canyons can prove dangerous. and is able to perform perching missions. it is powered by electric motors and has the peculiarity of being able to carry two payloads. in different dimensions. Powered by a heavy fuel UEL rotary piston engine that is fired up before booster launch from its vehicle-mounted canister.Small vertilift drones such as EMT Fancopter can be used in the perching mode. Controp’s payloads grace many drone systems – some drone programmes have even been designed around a Controp payload (literally: «Use this sensor. Although principally intended as radar terminators. which couldn’t have been made simpler. Powered by a petrol (gasoline) engine. the quad-chopper raises to a height of one metre and stays there until a required altitude is tapped on screen with the stylus. represents the bottom end of the scale (thus far). while others are standing in line to hop on the market. A host of helicopter-like systems are available on the market. a new larger system – also tube-launched – will soon be deployed by the British Army in the form of the Fire Shadow. British forces are currently using their T-Hawks as part of a roadside bomb clearing package known as the Talisman. This includes specialised vehicles. Mutatis mutandis. since one does not actually control the aircraft. These weapons can endow such category of aircraft with a precision-attack capability and thereby 4 .6 kg). Obviously a man-in-the-loop system. Just shy of eight kilos. (Armada/JK) weight. The Triple-sensor-STAbilized Miniature Payload has since been sold to UAV Navigation and one other Spanish customer. a mini drone has a take-off weight between two and 20 kg. The Singapore Technologies Fantail is another perching-capable system in the ducted-fan mini category. The Scout has been flown in winds of 60 km/h (quite a feat). Potential weapon candidates include the Lockheed Martin Dagr system (quad-launcher weighing 81. Unique in many ways. but merely tell it where to go by marking waypoints on the control screen with a stylus. The smartest part of the Scout probably resides in its operation. is its noise emission which. unveiled at the Eurosatory defence equipment exhibition near Paris in June 2010. loiter for ten hours and dive at a speed of 400 km/h to home in its eight-kilo blast warhead.5-kg (cooled or uncooled versions) T-Stamp features Controp’s proprietary continuous optical zoom lens. can be sent out to a range of 100 km (basically its data-link limit). a role in which stealthiness is not as critical as in other missions such as reconnaissance. mentioned in another boxed section in these columns. the >3. The British Army plans on an initial operational capability in Afghanistan in 2011. While the Switchblade. Based on the ducted fan principle. Drones With a Sting – II L oitering weapons have been around for a while. may open new opportunities to rotarywing drones belonging to the upper tier of the light and tactical category. and one over it for perching missions. which debuted in 2009 in uncooled guise. developed and manufactured by Utri and marketed by Selex Galileo. it can receive targeting information from a forward observer on the ground located in or near a built-up area. the T-Hawk was developed as part of the Future Combat Systems requirements and is currently in an evolutionary phase armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 Rotary-wing Carriers The development of lighter attack weapons. which allows small drones to maintain track on a target during zooming. Among them is the Italian Asio. now go design the airframe»). its sensor package is located underneath the air vehicle. a new breed of attack drones is emerging for more tactical situations. which considerably increases the duration of their mission. Brought from plan to first flight reality in a mere 15 months by MBDA. The same method is used to indicate a no-fly zone. does not exactly qualify it as a stealthy platform – now a prerequisite for observation and reconnaissance missions. while six systems have been acquired by the British Army. the Honeywell T-Hawk is being tested by the US forces in Afghanistan and Iraq. in the form of guided rockets. the previous sensor might be replaced by a releasable autonomous unit to be located on top of a building to provide continuous surveillance as long as the battery provides power. If one considers that the typical payload capacity currently represents about 15% of the all-up awaiting the heavy fuel engine that will free it from its battlefield-dreaded gasoline addiction. the Fire Shadow is flown via waypoints only. the Thales LMM (Light-weight Multirole Missile) shown at Farnborough 2008 under a Schiebel Camcopter and the ATK/Elbit Systems Gatr. it carries a Selex nose-mounted gimballed electro-optical package. apart from its use of non-standard fuel. as opposed to switching fields of view – which is the norm for most small gimballed sensor payloads. while Aurora Flight Sciences’ Golden Eye 50 is a flying reconnaissance system. as their rotors are not protected. In perspective. Just a sample to illustrate this simplicity: upon launching a mission. The newest member of the company’s Stamp family is the T-Stamp seen here. as well as an unnamed customer in Israel. a seven-kilo verti-lifter can carry around one kilo.

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since none of its rotary components are directly exposed.The Draco is a fourrotor micro-aircraft developed by Utri of Italy. This situation is less critical for armoured vehicles equipped with armoured glass windows.000 feet. which has a payload capacity of 50 kg. since the bird has an endurance of six hours. although even those have numerous dead angles. The three-metre wingspan attack drone carries a 23-kg warhead. but these attachments were partially removed for the sec- Drones With a Sting – III Bigger and Weirder A peculiar vertilift air vehicle is being developed that could bring a totally new dimension to urban warfare. has a horizontal and vertical field of view of 54° and 40° respectively and is focused from five metres to infinity. The Air Mule is big. It is currently in service with US Army units following a contract awarded in November 2009. Vehicles are thus more and more equipped with viewing systems allowing their crews to watch their close surroundings.2 metres long. Typical flight endurance I t will not be long before a full range of suicide attack drones. These can be based on off-the-shelf solutions. armoured vehicle crews are de facto short sighted. (Utri) Horizontal Awareness One of the characteristics of urban scenarios is they call for vehicles to operate in a secluded environment where threats can appear at very short distance and notice. the control box feeds the image to three screens. but here comes an interesting combination from Rheinmetall. the Air Mule flight principle is based on a vane control system that allows to vector its rotors’ downwash and thus provide superior manoeuvrability while considerably reducing risks to bystanders. casevac and other support missions in critical areas – urban of course being among them. the optimisation of flight control laws. in view of that nation’s six Bam vessel acquisition programme. the latter replacing the original conventional taillight unit. a rear-view infrared camera system moulded into the ground vehicle’s taillight housing that gives the driver a safe backing-up capability and provides the infantrymen in the rear with increased situational awareness before debussing. particularly over urban areas that are dreaded by pilots and crews. It consists of an uncooled infrared camera fitted into an LED taillight assembly. since it is proposed for resupply. In that respect. Some systems provide 360° coverage while others cover only the rear arc. The Rheinmetall Pearl is only one of the many examples of vertilift systems developed in recent years.8-metre diameter rotors that enable the aircraft to reach a dash speed of 180 km/h. the loitering Harop photographed here on Rheinmetall’s stand at the recent ILA air show in Berlin. with one or more cameras. and positively calls upon a man-inthe-loop function. is given as eight hours for a range of 1080 km and a ceiling of 12.15 wide and weighs 560 kg including fuel. which included several modifications to Bradley IFVs. 2. for which the company is receiving Spanish Government support. Unlike the Harpy it is intended to replace. as their sighting systems are designed to observe and identify targets at a distance. A 730-hp Ariel 1 turbine drives the front and rear 1. pants of the vehicle are concentrating their staring effort. but with a purpose. BAE Systems ond phase that began last March to verify the integration of new position hold sensors. from mini to medium size. but the Saab Skeldar V-200 with its 40-kg payload may also be a potential weapon platform. Even if crewmembers accept to take the risk of operating with open hatches they might still miss an opponent that gets uncomfortably close to their vehicle. The first phase of flight testing was completed in January 2010 and was used to verify the fly-by-wire control system that provides three-axis auto-stabilisation.5 tonnes if short take-off and landing profiles are used. in the form of the Spanish Pelicano presented at Eurosatory by Indra and based on the same Cybaero backbone as the Skeldar. the proper running of all mechanical systems and exploration of the vane system utilisation. That little nest has just been joined by another bird. becomes available. (Armada/PV) 6 armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 . Under development in Israel by Urban Aeronautics. but its maximum take-off weight reaches a mighty 1. The camera operates in the 7-14 µm band. Indra is currently developing its own automatic take-off and landing electronics for ship operations. is not relegated to the sole role of radar destruction. or on dedicated hardened solutions that are specifically designed for military application. A recent example is the BAE Systems Check-6. The advantage of an array of fixed cameras is that it gives an observing enemy no clue as to where in particular the occu- replace conventional helicopters. MLRS and M113A3 Ambulances. particularly in the rear arc. In that testing phase the air vehicle was tethered.2 tonnes for pure vertical take-off and landing operations and even 1. The canard nose section carries a gimballed infrared and a CCD camera while the man-in-the-loop facility enables the operator to call off the attack in case of collateral damage risk and initiate another loitering sequence. it is equipped with a collision-avoidance system. Mention has been made elsewhere in these pages of the Switchblade and the Fire Shadow. The idea is to use the established KZO recce drone in conjunction with the new IAI Harop in a tandem known as Wapeb. Mention was made of the Camcopter. by the way. The Air Mule is 6.

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Due to its full solid-state digital stabilisation with inertial measurement unit and embedded processing functions. which in turn instantly opens a window on the source of the shot. another for the highresolution image of a selected area and the third that may be configured to display data from other sensors. The latter comes in the form of a 10. The system can use dedicated hardened cameras that feed digital signals to the manmachine interface. Digital cameras can be replaced by uncooled thermal cameras with a resolution of 384 x 288 or 640 x 480 to provide night vision. is able to process the huge amounts of data necessary to instantaneously monitor the complete surroundings. This all-round vision offers an elevation of between -20° and +60°. the One 360 provides full-rate video. The image processing software then combines all the images into a 360° real-time video panoramic strip. lowlatency images. Its systems use a single camera that looks vertically into specially designed optics on top of which a parabolic mirror followed by a telecentric lens provides the 360° view. Operation via the touch screen is simplicity itself. to provide soldiers inside a vehicle with an all-round capability to Observe. and Engage (hence the name of the system).All elements of the Datron Scout – battery. sensor and even rotor arms – are clip-on affairs. As can be expected from such newgeneration systems. (Armada/PV) the crew visual and acoustic reference points. something that has much to do with its battlefield pioneering status. for its part. It uses a dedicated hardware processor based on the latest fieldprogrammable gate array technology that Italy’s Utri developed a series of light. A no-movingpart system with day and night sensors. The proprietary lens system ensures minimal optical aberrations. and the ability to fly back home in case data-link is interrupted. Optsys of France. The Viper can record the images provided by all eight cameras for up to six hours. Known as See Through Armour (STA). Its display function generates three windows: one for the 360° view. Elbit Systems of Israel was among the first companies to offer a panoramic observation system. evaluate the full situation and direct the remote weapon station to the region of interest. Navigate. fully integrated with Kongsberg’s family of remotelyoperated weapon stations). Kollmorgen has recently integrated a gunshot detection system that feeds the relevant data to the One 360. Remote Reality provides two. As it is often impossible to cover 360° on a vehicle with a single system due to physical obstacles such as turrets. aerials and so forth. introduced its One 360 in 2009. No doubt a dieselised alternative will follow sooner or later. Another US company that is now fully involved in 360° observation systems is Remote Reality. vehicle commander and infantry section commander. The circular image obtained is then digitally unwrapped by specific software that provides the panoramic image as well as pan. but its major drawback is the current gasoline engine. Interestingly. tilt and zoom views. on the right in this photo. The video processing engine is scalable and can thus easily support changes and upgrades to the system. (Honeywell) Kollmorgen Electro-Optical. for example. A single sensor head system. it is based on a series of video cameras installed around the vehicle. This can be shown on the vehicle computer screens or can be injected into helmet-mounted displays. but the advantage is that dead areas are basically nil. The standard suite is based on seven or eight digital 640 x 480 daylight colour cameras with x2 digital zoom.000 units in the coming years. sensor formats and sensor types. The gunner can continue to engage targets. The installation of such a system is of course more complex in terms of cabling. Images can be replayed on two further screens provided as options. is launching its Viper (a contraction of Vision Périmétrique). which is based on an array of cameras placed along the vehicle periphery in order to provide 360° coverage from very short distances to 200 metres. offering The Honeywell T-Hawk is deployed downrange. part of the Nexter Group.or four-sensor systems to overcome this problem and give overlapping arcs that also provide some redundancy should one of the systems take a hit. Its perching-capable system is the Asio. compared to topview single cameras. each user being able to select his area of interest. the system can be used to slew other electrooptical sensors and remote weapon systems (it is.4-inch touch-screen tablet personal computer and can be augmented by a second terminal for the infantry housed in the rear compartment. It has a threekilometre link. 8 armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 . (Armada/EHB) expects the potential market for its Check-6 system to reach 12. in both number of sensors. weapon interface or navigation imagery. the One 360 offers the advantage of simplified installation on existing vehicles and does not have to cope with parallax issues. which is optimal for enhancing situational awareness and improving fighting capabilities in an urban environment. which can be seen independently by different users such as the driver. the One 360 offers high-resolution images. electrically powered drones.

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two GPS receivers. acoustic. stand-alone system. (Armada/PV) In addition to the 360SA (for Situational Awareness) camera. obviously with special attention to roadside bomb and close threat detection. which gives the system the image fusion and processing power required to integrate the outputs of 29 different sensors. In April 2009 Sarnoff announced its Acadia II. the other for light vehicles.Lockheed Martin developed the Dagr. while the pan-tilt camera. The image is transmitted to a 10. on the CVAC2 screen the operator can observe Boomerang acoustic cues. Undoubtedly the most advanced drone of its kind. which it claims to be the world’s most powerful system-on-a-chip for real-time. streaming video from drones. infrared and laser sensors into a single interactive display. but also will further expand their potential use on board robotic vehicles.00005-lux day/night zoom camera. which can be mounted on military vehicles and tripods. including visual. which can pack four missiles in less than 90 kg.4-inch display where 10 armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 . the US Marine Corps and the Australian Army. twelve 720 x 540-pixel 0. Each camera is 18-cm high and has a diameter of ten cm. a weight of 8. The HV is based on a central pole mounted on the top of the vehicle and contains five cameras able to zoom in on specific areas for 360° situational awareness. Sarnoff proposes a field-ready 360° visualisation system with six fixed cameras to provide allround view and a moving top pan-tiltzoom camera. such as the Omnialert360. Remote Reality provides the Thermalvision360. with a resolution of 2. the company also developed the Eagle 360. The heart of the system is Sarnoff’s Acadia I Asic vision accelerator. Acadia II was developed as part of the Darpa Multispectral Adap- The Singapore Technologies Fantail has a good payload capacity together with perching capability. An infrared camera for night vision can also be included in the pole. power source and monitor. a field on which the Massachusetts-based company is keeping (probably like many others) a sharp eye. Known as Computer-Vision Assisted Combat Capability (CVAC2). among which Australia and Italy. including a 21-megapixel visible-light system and a four-megapixel medium-wavelength infrared thermal system. (Armada/PV) tive Networked Tactical Imaging System (Mantis) programme. a 680 x 500pixel 0. a laserguided version of the 70-mm FFR. The company is working on a new generation of systems that will be smaller and lighter and that are expected to be introduced later in 2010. known respectively as ODR-HV and ODR-LV. mounted on the top of the pole and able to rotate.3 kg. The five panoramic cameras located in the pole provide a 360° view with a vertical field of view of 64°. This modular. Based in New Jersey. Moreover. tilt and zoom camera to allow for closer investigation of suspected threats. Remote Reality is providing its systems to numerous prime contractors of new vehicles or upgrading programmes for US services.5-lux daylight cameras. (STK) The LMM guided rocket system developed by Thales has been exhibited on one of the lateral hardpoints of a Schiebel Camcopter S-100. it includes a 640 x 480-pixel thermal imager. twelve 752 x 582-pixel 0. ODF Optronics of Israel also proposes two systems based on a single sensor unit. based on cameras with a 190° horizontal field of view over -60°/+7° vertical. one for heavy vehicles. but has also raised interest in many other countries. where ODR stands for omni-directional reconnaissance. and a single high-resolution pan. all in real time. a 360° horizontal FoV system based on BAE Systems’ PMC300 camera with an uncooled Vox microbolometer detector with a 640 x 480-pixel array and a 30-Hz frame rate. For night vision. the night-flight capable Austrian device has an over six-hour endurance with a 34-kg payload. for a weight of less than 2.00001-lux night vision cameras. a pan-tilt platform and a laser rangefinder. while the Omniserver was designed for the storage and retrieval of videos captured by the system. All those systems are supported by software packages allowing movement and target detection. The system has a vertical field of view of -50°/+5°. This not only will allow an even easier integration in existing vehicles. In February 2009 Sarnoff was awarded a contract from the US Marine Corps War Fighting Laboratory to demonstrate an advanced 360° modular camera array prototype. the system was then transitioned to the Stryker Fsep (Full Spectrum Effects Platform) programme as well as onboard the Cougar as part of the Wolfpack AE2 enhancement programme and was integrated with the Crows turret. The company also has very-high-resolu- tion omni-directional camera systems. comes with proprietary touch-screen controls. Remote Reality systems were tested by the US Army. portable and low-power processing of multiple vision sensors.2 kg and is over 31 cm high with a diameter of 18 cm.1 megapixels and a frame rate of up to 60/sec to ensure very low latency. as well as messages. has a horizontal field of view of 32° and a vertical FoV of 24°.

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it developed two systems based on a multi-channel ultra-wideband sensor operating between three and ten GHz. Known within the Service as AN/PPS-26. two models are available. Its resolution is 20 cm at a range of eight metres. but differ in their circuitry and user interfaces. The system is able to ‘see’ through most materials such as cement. as do most radars. concrete. It transmits on one frequency for 75 microseconds followed by a 17. for casevac missions. which ensures R&D and Camero US. the Emmdar steps through two hundred frequencies. being to deal with through-wall propagation. Images can be recorded and the system can be integrated into the vehicle battlefield management system. datalink. allowed L-3 to overcome the problem. stabilised sensor package and autopilot. Of course. the emitted pulses bounce off the rooms’ multiple surfaces. Although developed mostly for paramilitary applications. The production of the Emmdar has been discontinued (but was The Urban Aeronautics Air Mule may be used for carrying supplies to front line troops in urban areas and. which is in charge of marketing. the previous being able to locate one target at a time indicating its range but not its direction. According to L-3 Cyterra. a weight of less than 1.84 x 0. Most of the systems developed so far use millimetric waves. the whole cycle is repeated 54 times/sec. floors or ceilings. width and height being 12 armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 .6 milliwatts. Interestingly. which is not too surprising since they both share the same Cybaero backbone. the Indra Pelícano will soon be powered by a 55 horsepower JP5-running Hirth engine and incorporates all-Indra electronics. a false alarm report of less than 5% (10% threshold) and a sensing range of over 100 metres (20 metres threshold). its dimensions are 0. same figures for stationary targets. while the latter locates multiple targets and can indicate both their ranges and directions. (Urban Aeronautics) turned into a commercial variant). 8 and 20 metres. This small handheld radar device operates in the 3100 to 3500 MHz band and can penetrate up to 20 cm of concrete. the number and spacing of frequency steps greatly improves the reliability and precision of target location. adobe. Key performance objective requirements were over 95% probability of moving target detection (85% threshold). Deployed. It is powered by six AA batteries and can be used through exterior and interior walls. as well as wall transmission and reflection inside the building. When the vehicle is stationary the HV can provide automatic alarms via a proprietary video motion-detection algorithm that can trigger alerts in a region of interest. one per military police squad and one per engineer platoon. the Emmdar and the Emmdar II. reinforced concrete. L-3 Cyterra has developed the Emmdar (ElectroMagnetic Motion Detection And Ranging). bricks. It will be able to carry one wounded soldier. Camero controls two companies.5The Air Mule is currently undergoing test flights in Israel. Camero Tech in Israel. spaced two MHz apart from 3101 to 3499 MHz. (Urban Aeronautics) Wall See-through Looking through a wall or at least knowing what one can expect behind a wall without having to enter a room would certainly be a major advantage for any soldier engaged in urban warfare.2 kg threshold).5D’ – the latter meaning that it provides the range of the persons who are behind the wall with time history. but the system software sifts the echoes at different frequencies in order to let echoes from stationary objects fade into the background.Bearing a certain resemblance with the Saab Skeldar. stucco and drywall.15 metres. its display indicating where possible moving or stationary targets are located. In a US Army document the Approved Acquisition Objective was of 8415 man-portable Sense Thru The Wall (SttW) systems with a specified distribution of one system per infantry squad. it has four antennas and can display 3D and 2D views as well as an odd ‘1. while no further details have been unveiled on the Emmdar II. (Indra) software reconstitutes the 360° panoramic view and uses a 1 through 12 o’clock pattern to indicate orientation. the LV has an additional feature in that its pan-tilt camera can be titled upwards to 90° – a boon for urban operations. including IFF. allowing those from moving objects to stand out. Rather than operating on a single frequency. The system sensitivity is sufficient to detect the motion of a person’s breathing or the imperceptible movements of a person tying to stand still. According to open sources. this hand-held system leverages the AN/PSS-14 mine detector microsecond ’off time‘. plaster. Such systems are not solely aimed at military use but also find useful applications within specialised police units and hostage rescue teams. as suggested by this artist’s work.84 x 0. which combines metal detection with ground penetrating radar technique. L-3 Cyterra had to obtain a waiver to use the Emmdar in the United States as the 3100 to 3500 MHz frequency band is allocated to the Federal Government Radiolocation service. operating either in local or standoff mode. Its field of view is of 80° both in azimuth and elevation and its detection ranges are 4. which peaks at only of 31. The very low power output of the system.36 kg (3. two per special forces team. the challenge technology. They apparently have identical transmission characteristics. The Xaver 800 is mostly aimed at police and rescue units.

This info must be collected without any contact with the building or deployment inside it. as well as understanding possible opponents’ directions of approach knowing in advance the building layout.5D views with a resolution of one metre at the end of the range. (Armada/PV) In Britain. (Kollmorgen) a special version of its Xaver 400 tailored to US Army requirements. and can be obtained both with passive or active sensing. armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 ing the scene in order to look at the room from different entry points. the systems would be produced by General Dynamics. In addition the tactical version of Camero sensors. it is equipped with a small 680 x 480-resolution colour display to provide 2 or 3D imagery. Camero developed a second product. the company is proposing Currently French Army Aravis vehicles are equipped with a cots 360° system. since in most cases military units do not need the same accuracy as hostage rescue teams. Cambridge Consultants developed the Prism 200. their main interest is to have an idea of how many subjects are behind a wall and a general idea of where they are located. its endurance is 4. the Army intends to acquire some 11. where a strong interest for such sensors is emerging. cinder block. this time aimed at tactical units.2-GHz band.5 hours with primary batteries and 2. Camero is in the final stage of development of the Xaver 100. Among Darpa’s requirements is subsurface urban situational awareness (that is finding the building basement layout and underground connections. Battery powered. a ground control station to move the flight path of a drone to a particular area of interest. 15 kg with batteries. concrete block. In the future they will get the Optsys Viper. which would also provide logistic support in country and in theatre. (Armada/EHB) The Kollmorgen One 360 is an integrated 360° no-moving-part vision system which provides different views to different users. The Xaver 400 is 37 cm wide. which provide an endurance of 2. which will only have a detection capability (but no positioning). Raytheon and L3 Cyterra are the other two known bidders. with a view to providing the warfighter with all possible information that will allow him to confidently manoeuvre inside a building.Optsys. 22. According to programme metrics the system is to be considered high-tier equipment and certainly not to be distributed to tactical units – time to achieve building metrics being within three days 13 .5 hours. such as 23-cm-thick brick wall. has developed the Viper. including stairwell and wall layout). trading performance for reduced weight and dimensions. which gives good peripheral vision to a vehicle crew. It has a 120° x 90° field of view and is able to perform through different types of materiel. Darpa is already looking ahead and has launched the Comprehensive Interior Reconnaissance (Cir) programme. Operating in the 1.5 hours for continuous use and it can operate at temperatures of -20° C to +55° C. although no details on customers are available. Camero is bidding for a major US contract. which is aimed at both paramilitary and military use. timber. its software allows rotat- reduced to 47 cm when the antennas are folded. The system received Federal Communications Commission approval and certification in December 2009.5 hours with rechargeables. the system is in use in all continents with the exception of South America. it provides a resolution of 30 cm and can detect personnel at a range of up to 20 metres. which means that it can only provide 2D and 1. A laptop application keeps the sensor along the wall while monitoring and recording images on a computer from a safe distance. a small handheld system the size of a GPS receiver and weighing less than one kilo. Following the success of the system. its weight with batteries is 2. although radar sensing is discouraged. which remains the same.7 kg including battery and measuring 35 x 45 x 21 cm. reinforced concrete. as well as brick blocks separated by a cavity.95 kilos while its endurance is 4. According to Cambridge Consultants. Should Camero succeed. the 400 features a builtin wireless transmitter that allows images relay of what’s seen on the small screen of the sensor out along the command chain up to a range of 100 metres. In addition displaying the tactical information and geo-referenced images that one would expect from a terminal of this kind – including drone-gathered pictures – the unit can be used to ask. Numerous Xaver systems have also been sold to Asian countries. This should not impact on effectiveness. a Nexter company. At 5. also based on millimetric wave.5 high and 12 cm thick. The Xaver 400 has therefore only two aerials.000 systems. Camero is also eyeing other markets such as India and Singapore. (Armada/PV) Sagem’s End Reception Station-Remote Video Terminal is now used by French forces in Afghanistan. Currently about 30 Xaver 400s are used in Afghanistan by American forces – half with special forces and half with the 82nd Airborne Division – while some 50 more units are used by two other undisclosed countries. Its main drawback for tactical use is its weight.6 to 2. via VHF. The new product should be available in the fall of 2010.

to environmental and meteorological issues. The systems exploiting these features are normally defined as A-GPS (Assisted-GPS). All this gave birth to GPS receivers with around 30 dB sensitivity. An aggravating factor is that weak GPS signals cannot be received in places where. Knowing where friendly personnel operate obviously reduces the risk of friendly fire. (Remote Reality) Blue Force Tracking Blue force tracking is now a sine qua non to reduce blue-on-blue incidents. The first are technical. as they receive signals from GPS-equipped radios. mobile phone signals are still available. As far as environment is concerned. Buildings to be reconnoitred can be up to ten floors high with two-level basements and can be located in high-density urban blocks. many factors can reduce GPS accuracy or even deny its availability. The same applies to soldiers who carry state-of-the-art equipment. Those figures alone indicate that the system would only be used in very critical operations. A specific study was also made regarding multipathing and signal attenuation through construction materials. bunkers and caves that possibly contain hostile subjects. Eureka Aerospace is also actively developing the capability to generate 3D stereometric images with the Impsar. In that field the California-based Eureka Aerospace is developing a highresolution impulse synthetic aperture Sarnoff proposes a series of 360° viewing systems for increasing vehicle situational awareness. It enables soldiers to determine the best place for placing a wall-breaching charge. forests or deep valleys can reflect the signals generating what is normally known as signal multi-pathing – which in turn generates a reduction in accuracy – this happens even more sharply in urban areas where the GPS receiver is surrounded by reflective surfaces and where armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 In 2009 Sarnoff obtained a contract from the US Marine Corps to demonstrate a situational awareness system known as CVCA2 that can operate either on a vehicle or from a tripod. as seen here. It can also be used to locate and map underground structures. (Ultrafine) radar (Impsar) that is able to detect and identify in near real-time various targets behind different types of walls. The aim is to obtain a system that is sufficiently compact and lightweight to allow its integration into a light armoured vehicle or a drone to provide its 3D inside mapping from a range of a few hundred metres of a building. The final objective is to obtain a sensor with a weight of less than five kilos able to operate at a standoff range of between 1000 and 2000 metres. However. providing a second positioning system besides the GPS. According to the company the Q20 HS level data demodulation capability allows it to provide sustained operation indoors without network assistance. Currently Eureka Aerospace is working with a demonstrator mounted in a van and one that is mostly built from cots components. The company hopes to reach this stage in two years’ time to allow the system to be installed into a small drone. one may justifiably wonder whether some of the technologies that might emerge from this programme would not eventually spin out to tactical applications. intentional or unintentional. as receivers would have to be optimised for exploiting such a network. the receiver of which hosts twelve parallel channels with an RF acquisition sensitivity of -174dBW unassisted or 185dBW hot or assisted. however such a solution appears to be difficult to exploit in the military domain for various reasons. these range from jamming. The higher sensitivity of such systems is not owed to different hardware but rather to different signal processing. An example of such receivers is the Qinetiq Q20 HS (High Sensitivity) module. for example. depending on the type of construction. 14 . which can visualise the structure of a wall and even see objects that are immediately beyond it. and a tracking sensitivity of -189dBW. Indoor accuracy is obviously affected and location precision is decreased by one figure of magnitude. while others are more general in nature. the lack of signal caused by the Faraday Cage effect results from reinforced concrete buildings and metallic objects in the vicinity of the receiver. which means they can cope with a from sensors deployment. since most soldier upgrade programmes include such facilities. (Sarnoff) signal that is 1000 times weaker compared with other receivers. which is 30 more than the benchmark of -159 for standard GPS modules. Nevertheless. A partial solution comes from the adoption of high-sensitivity GPS receivers. Thus they can be exploited to hybridise the navigation system. What it basically does is integrate the weak incoming signals originated by GPS satellites for a longer period of time in order to extract the data needed to triangulate the receiver position. some of these are being installed on the Stryker vehicles. (Sarnoff) Remote Reality is providing to US services its 360SA and Thermalvision systems.Ultrafine Technology has developed the portable Ultraview PR-1. as they are stronger. and this is something that current battle management systems installed on board most vehicles are able to do.

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exploiting pulse technology as defined in the IEEE 802. is under development and will only tell the soldier if somebody is behind the wall. Hybridisation with micro-electromechanical inertial sensors is also considered as an extension to the 16 . The main limitation to achieve this range in the presence of obstacles is the power level imposed by the generic regulation in Europe. would need a 20dB power increase over the current authorised limit. Data are exchanged in real time and the various positions While the Xaver 400 is the system proposed by Camero for tactical situations and provides a 2D view. although such a system may be used to create ad hoc Wi-Fi networks. for instance. police and so forth).3dBm/MHz in the 3. The Georgia Tech Research Institute has developed a wideband local positioning system based on transmitters operating on two different wavelengths – 915 MHz and 5. as intended for military applications as well as for emergency teams (fire brigades. However. Anchor Based Localisation (ABL) and Anchor Free Localisation (AFL). The use of existing networks is therefore theoretical. Wi-Fi ings. particularly Wi-Fi. The system was aimed at tracking soldiers during training. This requires a link distance between users of around 150 metres in non-line-of-sight conditions indoors. In the latter the system works by measuring all the distances between the radios that are in the propagation range.A close-up of the Camero Xaver 400.8 GHz frequency range. which is already deployed downrange and is being proposed to the US Army for a major contract. The lower frequency ensures optimal wall penetration while the higher one provides location accuracy. which get. the distances are calculated only with these fixed nodes and a triangulation is done for the positioning. their synchronisation from a GPS. a smaller system. The company is currently working to solve the problem of providing an absolute reference like GNSS using AFL localisation in order to situate the users on a map. The proposed system can work in two different modes. via portable systems distributed on the ground and in buildings.15. With this technique. (Camero) although a noteworthy snag is the reliance on a network that is not under friendly control. If the matrix has sufficient values it can be inverted to obtain the relative 3D positions of the nodes. as the nodes have to be within the range of the fixed nodes to calculate their position. The system developed by Thales.49 GHz – that track soldiers inside build- The Thales F@stnet Twin hand-held radio is a dual-band SDR that operates the St@rmille waveform on UHF and the PR4G waveform on VHF wavebands.4a standard to measure distances with a very high accuracy. however a quickly deployable version could be developed for use in certain combat situations. which is a maximum power of -41. down to ± 30 cm. the Xaver 100 seen here. The ABL technique requires deploying fixed installations (at least three receivers). Thales Communications is working on an ultra-wideband system. (Camero) networks are short-range and wide-area positioning support would thus need a lot of Wi-Fi networks – not to mention the fact that such a hybrid positioning system would require a database of all Wi-Fi transmitters and their exact locations via their IP addresses to be able to triangulate a position. Another addition to positioning systems can be provided by wireless networks. This technique can be used for ’deep indoor‘ operations (underground) and requires at least five or six elements to be able to work. (Camero) The Xaver 800 has four antennas and can provide 3D images of the situation behind a wall. This technique is possible in a ’light indoor’ environment. (Armada/JK) armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 form a matrix. using four transmitters located around a building. The application foreseen by Thales is indoor localisation that provides seamless positioning with GNSS used outdoors. which makes it the system of choice for special units.1 to 4.

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(Coco Communications) Coco Communications developed a series of hardware and software items that can create instant. To reduce the most significant errors caused by the bias drift of the accelerometers. the BAE Systems micro electroReleased in May 2010. Integrating satellite navigation together with inertial sensors. three magnetometers and a barometric altimeter. but some research centres and companies are integrating various systems into a single navigation unit to overcome the shortcomings of each single system. but could also be in use by other US services and possibly deployed downrange. and acceleration measurements are used in real time to estimate the location of the user relative to a known starting point. While software items can be used when existing networks are available. ranging measurements to provide complementary information. a technique known as zero velocity update was implemented. Coco’s systems have been tested in interoperability communications exercises and are being used by the US Coast Guard. the Coco Tactical Mesh Router is battery operated with an eight-hour endurance. As an example. Attitude and Navigation (Span) range provide accurate inertial measurements. although 3D remains a problem. Qinetiq developed a man-motion navigation system based on its Q20 High Sensitivity GPS Receiver Module. magnetometers and barometric altimeters is one of the most common approaches. The firm’s Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (Manet) routing allows network traffic to be quickly routed in rapidly changing mobile environments. Dead reckoning systems based on inertial sensors as well as on other systems are also being considered. secure networks in tactical situations where traditional networks may be hindered. as in ships and buildings. (Armada/PV) mechanical inertial measurement unit. part of the Coco Communications Mobile Ad-hoc Network. drift and noise latitudes. Typical accuracy is two per cent of the distance travelled with an azimuth accuracy of under 1°. Army and Navy. A multi-sensor integration algorithm is used to combine the outputs of the various sensors to produce an optimum navigation solution. the newest member to the Novatel GNSS/INS Span product family is the IMU-LCI – a tactical-grade IMU with fibre-optic gyros and micromechanical accelerometers. which offers a considerable reduction in positioning errors. This can be directly interfaced with many GPS receivers and manpack computers and does not require any extra sensors. For security reasons these routers cannot be turned off without a password entered on a PDA or laptop. a PNI TCM-5 3 axis magnetometer and a Druck RPT 350-055B barometric altimeter. three accelerometers. Differences can be found in the number and quality of inertial sensors. a series of colour diodes instructs the operator where to locate other similar systems to provide coverage. It is put into operation by pushing a single button. Communications Urban canyons and buildings are certainly not the preferred environment for good RF propagation. They provide secure voice. video and data communications and feature an 18 armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 .73 grams. such as Honeywell with its 25-gram DRM 4000. This system is known to be used by the US Coast Guard boarding teams. Numerous companies are providing dead-reckoning modules. Dead reckoning is thus usually employed. Numerous soldier modernisation programmes include navigation systems that do not rely only on satellite navigation receivers. Weighing 0. The Synchronous Position. A personal dead-reckoning system normally uses a six degree of freedom inertial measurement unit that generates the rate-of-rotation. combined with Qinetiq inertial navigation equations. in the type of inertial navigation algorithm. whether using standard algorithms supported by zero velocity updates or pedestrian dead reckoning (or both) each with different precision. Sensors include three commercial grade gyros. Some of the previous solutions exploiting ultra-wide bands can obviously carry not only positioning information but also voice and data. in their location (in the shoes or on the body). (Novatel) A Tactical Mesh Router.The Prism 200 by Cambridge Consultants is a wall-penetrating radar that provides information on the presence of humans on the other side. tactical mesh routers recreate a network inside buildings or underground structures. Man motion is one of the most challenging applications for a navigation sys- tem.

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and making itself a network node. Windows Server 2003 SP1. It supports Ethernet.6. PDAs loaded with Coco Node become themselves a node of the network. but is a hybridisation of a Voice over Internet protocol terminal. to link the various cells of the command post that will probably deploy at least one ruggedised laptop each. it is able to maintain the voice and data services in restricted operation mode. (General Dynamics C4 Systems) legacy systems. Currently Coco is distributing Node Version 4. which allows creation of any number of tactical voice networks. (Coco Communications) Seen here mounted on the company’s 20-Watt A-320 amplifier. It can be linked to a radio and thus allows the com- internal antenna. Known as Tough VoIP Network Extender. Manets are used by the US Coast Guard boarding teams. SP2. it can operate on batteries for up to 20 hours.38 Mbps with two.0 & 6. Where the use of a radio-based network could be challenged by a building or interception by the opponent. which automatically and transparently adapts to the available network services. loading Coco Node software to become part of the Manet is not an issue.0 or Linux. Another software tool provided by Coco is a communicator voice. The DPA also functions as a low-noise amplifier for UHF satcom operations. The network based on these routers is wholly scalable with no limitation to the size or location of the network. it has the advantage of working with the same old two-wire or four-wire connection. SHDSL interfaces can provide data rates up to 5. If network services are lost. Windows Mobile 5. The case containing the system weighs ten kg. SP3. All those systems The Tactical Radio Gateway links the Manet developed by Coco Communications with existing tactical networks. The individual communication terminal can be any IP-enabled device and since many soldier modernisation programmes include such ruggedised personal digital assistants. which can operate on systems running Windows XP SP2.69 Mbps with a single pair connection and 11. (Coco Communications) 20 . Elektrobit of Finland has developed what might be seen as the modern version of the old field telephone. it may be quite useful. ATM and TDM transport over single. in an era of networking. communications are the first thing to be established. video and data softphone application. Normally linked to a power source. Through the Coco Tactical Radio Gateway the ad hoc network can be linked to any type of radio.Closely integrated with the Soldier Radio Waveform. multi-port SHDSL modem and gateway to analogue armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 The Coco Communicator software can transform any PDA into a system capable of linking to Coco ad hoc networks. Ultralife’s Dual Port Adapter allows two separate RF antennas to be connected to the amplifier. but other customers are still undisclosed. integrating video monitoring into conference calls using cameras linked on the network. which once used up to 40 Tactical Mesh Routers when operating onboard a large ship. Ethernet switch. dual or four SHDSL channels. If the unit plans to spend some time in the same location. The Network Extender is a self-healing and self-configuring unit. When the need arises to establish a command post at battalion or company level in an urban strongpoint. Packets. although external aerials can be used to extend range for special uses. (Ultralife) support end-to-end as well as link cryptography. the Rifleman Radio from General Dynamics C4 Systems is expected to soon enter lowrate initial production.

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confirm and cancel buttons. (Elektrobit) Soldier comms in the urban jungle requires a soldier-proof solution. and which have to take into consideration many other elements such as mobility in terms of road capacity and bridge load limitations. Armour and Firepower As much as situational awareness is of paramount importance to reduce risks. UHF. Israel’s new armoured personnel carriers are based on main battle tank chassis. for example. Things are much different for other nations. GPS with situational awareness reporting and up to 1500 kbps data transfer out to six km. Slat armour was adopted on US Army Strykers in mid-2000. the hollow charge warheads of which easily defeat medium armoured vehicles. although a series of compromises have to be made to cope with the urban scenario. (General Dynamics C4 Systems) armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 known as the Trophy). Tough VoIP is able to maintain voice comms in restricted operation mode where network services have been lost. a machine gunner and an ammunition bearer. as it was a lighter option compared to the add-on plates used until then to withstand hits from 22 . the Tough VoIP features a 2. mostly from the top. Armour remains the principal medium of protection for troops. Heavyweight vehicles are therefore seldom used in such missions. while the Achzarit is based on the T-54/55 chassis.9 kg. and armoured. Elektrobit aims at working as a partner with the main defence communication companies. or only as a last resource. it will never enable one to avoid contact with enemies. which most likely will be another CRO. Protecting an armoured vehicle in an urban context is not an easy task. mineresistant and ambush protected. thus providing as much armour protection as possible. A dynamic real-time phonebook is available with the simple push of a button. Movement within urban areas with vehicles is always a risky business. providing its systems as the final interface with tactical command posts. multi-mode line-of-sight radio operates over the VHF. is in a situation that is not comparable with that of the other western countries: while the other armies do not know where they will deploy for the next operation. which is currently entering service. Most vehicles are thus wheeled and medium weight.mand post to run on a single VHF or HF radio. up and down arrow buttons for menu browsing. three or four-men-strong fighting cells including an RPG gunner. Elektrobit provided the system to the Finnish Air Force in 2009 and last May the Finnish Army started a series of field tests. a fully integrated wireline IP phone that can be either operated as part of EB Tough VoIP solution or as IP terminal together with third party equipment.7-inch diode-illuminated display with a 128 x 64-pixel resolution. providing multihop routing. etc. The multi-band. Apart from roadside bombs. Deployed at ground level. psychological impact. a push-to-talk button on the side and keypad lock. wideband ad hoc network voice. five to six cells could be in charge of attacking a single vehicle. they also have a much better knowledge of the area. The unit includes Sip/VoIP for connecting to telephone networks. AM and FM bands. providing enhanced connectivity. which normally must deploy far away from home. while dismounted infantry was used by the Russian troops to protect the vehicles. is based on the Merkava Mk 4 and is equipped with the Rafael Aspro-A active defence system (also Elektrobit of Finland proposes its digital Tough VoIP Network Extender for the quick establishment of a Lan at lower level command posts. passive add-on armour to reactive armour and active self-protection. and Elektrobit provides its Tough VoIP terminal for the system. from slat armour. as it will fight alongside its borders. in upper stories and in basements. as not only do opponents have many caches on hand. The Namer. The Network Extender has a weight of 8. and it is self-healing and self-configuring. the main threat comes from the ubiquitous rocket-propelled grenades. a sniper. possibly located at some distance in order to avoid precise location by an opponent. damages to road systems. (Armada/JK) With a weight of 450 grams. Chechen war returns indicate that the lower level combat group consisted of General Dynamics C4 Systems has updated its URC-200 to V2 status. however. letters and special characters. knows who its enemy will be and knows that deployment of its heavyweight vehicles will not be a problem. from ground units to direct support aircraft. especially when engaged in a crisis response operation. Israel knows where the next fight will take place. Various solutions have been developed to counter this threat. The ITT Spearnet UHF radio is for frontline squadmember comms. Israel. an international standard 16-button keypad with numbers.

According to IBD. a 3D structure that offers multi-hit protection with a specific weight of less than 15 kg/metre2 which. the mesh gauge was established following theoretical and practical tests in order to optimise the chances of stopping the two-kilo round flying at 300 metres/sec before it reaches the vehicle armour. to be effective in an urban scenario they need to feature extremely short reaction times if they want to defeat rocket grenades fired 23 . Active armour systems can also considerably improve vehicle safety. which according to the company can withstand multiple hits from RPG-7V. Similar materiel has also been used to provide skirt armour to Bradleys. IBD also offers the Amap-SC (Shaped Charge) passive armour in various configurations to match the required level of protection. The Lasso has been adopted by the Danish Army for its M113s deployed in Afghanistan. and thereby prevent its triggering. (Coco Communications) shoulder-fired rockets. The system weighs less than 45 kg/metre2 and is 250 mm thick with minimised incidence on vehicles mobility – at any rate much less than that of conventional reactive armour. which contributed to the development of new products. the Amap-P is able to destroy or short-circuit the warhead ignition system. The first is Sidepro-RPG. Instead of a bar armour Ruag adopted a mesh screen made of special four-millimetre-thick high-tensile steel. while possibly avoiding detonating it. (Danish Army) armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 low burning rate explosive. The system can also be used inside buildings. to facilitate vehicle storage and transportation. The major drawback of this solution is that the standoff distance needed to reduce incoming warhead effectiveness translates into a 45-cm increase in vehicle overall width. a modular screen system with a weight of 15 kg/metre2 that can be folded against the original armour when not in use. In March 2009 Ruag acquired the majority of Geke in Germany and created Geke Schutztechnik (GST). for a weight that is eight to ten times less than the equivalent rolled homogeneous armour protection. Indeed. Further developments aim to ensure protection against kinetic energy weapons and roadside bombs. and only very few are propelled horizontally.36 tonnes lighter. since fragments are mostly propelled upwards and downwards. which weighs an estimated ten times more. The Sidepro-RPG can be used in conjunction with the aforementioned Lasso.This diagram shows the deployment of Coco TMRs and PDAs during ship boarding and inspection. at 2. which in turn reduces mobility. IBD Deisenroth of Germany added to its Amap system the Amap-P. VM and VL. According to Rafael. However. The British Army also adopted this solution for many types of vehicles it deployed to Afghanistan. Deliveries began in mid-2010. Ruag of Switzerland developed the Sidepro-Lasso (Light Armour System against Shaped Ordnance). BAE Systems’ Lrod cage has been fitted to US Army and US Marine Corps Mraps. which remains inert if hit by small arms fire or during transport and maintenance phases. is 50% less than its competitors. (Armada/PV) The Danish Army installed slat armour even on its Leopard 2 deployed in Afghanistan in order to improve their resistance against RPGs.3% higher than that of a vehicle equipped with passive armour. according to Ruag. but develops its full energy when hit by a shaped charge. General Dynamics ATP is replacing US Army Stryker’s slat armour with Rafael’s new reactive armour based on The IBD Amap-ADS active system has been thoroughly tested and should soon start to be produced. the collateral danger from possible fragments is only 1.36 tonnes slat weight was 1.

(postage) Overseas: USD 186. c/o PO Box 437. www.armada. Emigsville. FSC COC 100012 and EKAS certified.ch France Promotion et Motivation. flat surfaces that could be potential landing zones – the analysis of an urban scenario is all but easy. is published bi-monthly by Internationale Armada AG and is distributed in the USA by SPP. Phone: +41 44 308 50 50. urban environments command a wide elevation arc. such as warning of vehicles found on a road shoulder after dark. Thomas Withington ABC Controlled circulation: 22. CH-8050 Zurich. A contract worth seven million US dollars was assigned to BAE Systems National Security Solutions to provide support to Darpa for Phase II of the programme. Bontje Phone: +41 55 216 17 81. Aeulestrasse 5.com Western USA – West of the Mississippi River Diane Obright Phone: +1 858 759 3557.bontje@armada. June/July 2010 INTERNATIONAL Index to Advertisers ATK Ceradyne Curtiss-Wright Elbit Systems ITT Kollmorgen Electro-Optical Meprolight C4 7 21 7 15 11 11 Raytheon BBN Technologies Recon Robotics Remington RUAG Land Systems Rubb Buildings Textron Marine & Land Ultralife 19 5 9 21 17 C3 C2 is published bi-monthly in Zurich. Yuri Laskin Phone: +7 495 912 13 46. (postage) Printed by Karl Schwegler AG. The concept proposes to improve geospatial intelligence collection and processing by fusing light detection and ranging and geographic information systems data sources used to detect and classify urban geospatial features. o. Periodicals postage paid at Emigsville. macarena@viaexclusivas. certified by ABC/WEMF. (Ruag) Urgent Intelligence Needed Recognising threats in an urban environment is much more difficult than doing it in a symmetrical warfare on an open battlefield. Issue No. Clearly visible is the 250-mm-thick compact design that does not obstruct the mobility of the vehicle. Paolo Valpolini. which might prove too much to defeat a near point-blank shot. drrosalind@tsea. Currently the most promising solution seems to emanate from IBD Deisenroth. Ltd.ch Publisher: Caroline Schwegler Editor-in-Chief: Eric H. 95 Aberdeen Road. margiespub@rcn.biz Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Laguk Co.data about urban environments. Biass Editor/Artwork: Johnny Keggler Advertising & Production Manager: Thomas Schneider Administration: Marie-Louise Huber Regular Contributors: Roy Braybrook. while the latter figure for most other systems is evaluated to at least 50 metres. egillberg@glocalnet. it has an intercept range of under two metres and a minimum defeat distance of ten metres.com www.ru Asia Dr. Rosalind Lui Phone: +65 64587885. shayma. intelligence gathering known as Urgent (Urban Reasoning and Geospatial Exploitation Technology). Switzerland. Emigsville PA 17318-0437.4. in order to automatically characterise object attributes and function. de Grado Phone: +34 91 448 76 22. Date of first certification 1992.net Spain Vía Exclusivas. We shall not dwell on this subject here since it is examined in detailed in an ad hoc article published in the magazine with which this Compendium has been despatched. zena@expomedia. Liechtenstein. (Ruag) from a few tens of metres. 8050 Zurich. PA.ghandour@hotmail. ISSN 0252-9793. BAE is currently developing a design concept that promises to speed the collection and processing of geospatial An APC M113 equipped with Ruag Sidepro-RPG and Sidepro-Lasso. or estimating damage to a building exterior after an explosion. Head Office: Armada International. Rubbish bins containing bombs. POSTMASTER: Please send address changes to Armada International.. Switzerland.com Eastern USA – East of the Mississippi River Margie Brown Phone: +1 540 341 7581. Turning to other means of close-range protection like remote-controlled roofmounted weapons.orbec@pema-group. To achieve this goal the US military launched a programme aimed at urban Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 Supplement to issue 4/2010 Volume 34. Switzerland ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001:2004. Hagenholzstrasse 65.com All other countries: contact the Head Office Annual subscription rates: Europe: CHF 186. Benelux. cornelius. blackrockmedia@cox. snipers concealed in doorways and windows. Combining its Sidepro-Lasso mesh protection and the Sidepro-RPG passive protection Ruag can provide comprehensive solutions for different types of vehicles. sam@whitehillmedia.net Arabic Countries Shayma Ghandour Phone: +971 50 125 3709. Armada International. ISSN: 0252-9793 24 armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 . e-mail: mail@armada. Fax:+41 44 308 50 55. Copyright 2010 by Internationale Armada AG. Known as the ADS (Active Defense System).ch. It will also provide automated time-sensitive situation analysis. identify shapes and provide classification of objects for a broad range of pressing urban mission planning analyses.com United Kingdom Zena Coupé Phone: +44 1923 852537. in other words. + 36. PA 17318-0437. Odile Orbec Phone : +33 1 41 43 83 00. a tool that will help its users better understand the nature of locations.com Italy.com Germany Sam Baird Phone: +44 1883 715 697. Switzerland Cornelius W. + 36. valid from autumn 2009. The design concept would enable the capture of analyst expertise using advanced machine learning a approaches. Nordic Countries Emanuela Castagnetti-Gillberg Phone: +46 31 799 9028. from at least -30° to +70°. ylarm-lml@mtu-net. LI-9490 Vaduz. Macarena Fdez. Advertising Sales Offices Austria.armadainternational.388.

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