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# Continuity Equation

Overview !! 1 !! 2 !! 3 !! 4 !! 5 !! 6 Overview Introduction to Continuity and Bernoulli Equations. Continuity Equation Continuity Equation Applied to a Venturi Tube Continuity Equation Applied to a Wing in Flight Incorrect Explanation – The Longer Path or Equal Transit Theory .

Bernoulli’s principle and subsonic airflow. 2-6 High Pressure Below. !! Watch this lecture !! Create your own notes in word.WNTBDPC !! Read the ANA text pages 4 through 9. The PHAK is posted on Angel in the Course Materials section.pdf version of notes and post it in Dropbox as homework. 2-4 Airfoil Design through p. and Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (PHAK) p. save it as a . !! This should be no more than a page of YOUR OWN .

.Overview •! A wing in flight produces airflow velocity and pressure changes to create lift. •! Airflow velocity on top of the wing is faster than the airflow velocity on bottom of the wing •! The pressure on top of the wing is less than the pressure on bottom of the wing.

A wing in flight produces airflow characteristics similar to a Venturi tube. “Why is airflow faster on top of a wing than the bottom?” However. . that theory/answer is totally incorrect.!! The continuity equation is easily visualized by studying the airflow through a Venturi tube. The longer path or equal transit time theory is often used to answer the question.

Introduction to Continuity and Bernoulli Equations !! Why are we looking at these two equations? !! To be able to answer: !! 1. Why is airflow faster on top of a wing than the bottom? !! 2.2. Why is the pressure lower on top of a wing than the bottom? .

Continuity Equation !! Venturi tube !! Visualize and explain continuity equation !! Concept of mass flow rate .3.

non. the conservation of mass principle says that mass cannot be created or destroyed in airflow. mass flow rate.Continuity Equation !! The conservation of mass principle is the basis for the continuity equation. !! The term Q is used to mathematically describe air Q=ρAV .technical terms. In simple.

!! English units for mass flow rate: .

Continuity Equation !! Conservation of mass – flow rate at any point in venturi must be constant. !! Mathematically: .

Continuity Equation Applied to a Venturi Tube !! Starting Conditions A1 and V1 !! As airflow encounters a chocked or reduced area A2.4. velocity V2 will INCREASE .

!! With streamlines. Note the streamlines are closer together in the Venturi “throat” or choke section indicating increased velocity. the Venturi tube would look like the figure below. .

Continuity Equation Applied to a wing in flight !! A wing in flight produces airflow patterns similar to the flow patterns in a Venturi tube. .5.

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!! Subsonic air: !! If flows into choked or smaller area velocity must increase. why is airflow faster on top of a wing than the bottom? !! The continuity equation explains why airflow speeds up over the top of a wing or more precisely why air is faster on top of the wing than underneath. !! Therefore. the airflow is faster on top than on bottom. !! Airflow on top of a wing is more restricted than the airflow under the wing !! Due to camber of the upper wing surface and angle of attack.So. .