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Kelsey Blanton ELED 3221-090 3/19/14 edTPA Indirect Instruction Lesson Plan Template The Earth’s Moon Phases

Elementary Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Central Focus/Big Idea: Moon Phase Cycle Subject of this lesson: The moon goes through monthly changes in appearance. Grade Level: 4th Grade NC Essential Standard(s): 4. E.1Explain the causes of day and night and phases of the moon. Clarifying Objective(s): 4.E.1.2 Explain the monthly changes in the appearance of the moon, based on the moon’s orbit around the Earth. Next Generation Science Standard(s): MS-ESS1-1. Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons. (Science and Engineering Practices): Developing and Using Models  Develop and use a model to describe phenomena. (MS-ESS1-1) (Disciplinary Core Ideas): ESS1.A: The Universe and Its Stars  Patterns of the apparent motion of the sun, the moon, and stars in the sky can be observed, described, predicted, and explained with models. (MS-ESS1-1) (Disciplinary Core Ideas): ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System  This model of the solar system can explain eclipses of the sun and the moon. Earth’s spin axis is fixed in direction over the short-term but tilted relative to its orbit around the sun. The seasons are a result of that tilt and are caused by the differential intensity of sunlight on different areas of Earth across the year. (MSESS1-1) (Crosscutting Concepts): Patterns  Patterns can be used to identify cause-and-effect relationships. (MS-ESS1-1)

(Crosscutting Concepts): Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems  Science assumes that objects and events in natural systems occur in consistent patterns that are understandable through measurement and observation. (MSESS1-1) 1-ESS1-1. Use observations of the sun, moon, and stars to describe patterns that can be predicted. (Science and Engineering Practices): Analyzing and Interpreting Data  Use observations (firsthand or from media) to describe patterns in the natural world in order to answer scientific questions. (1-ESS1-1) (Disciplinary Core Ideas): ESS1.A: The Universe and its Stars  Patterns of the motion of the sun, moon, and stars in the sky can be observed, described, and predicted. (1-ESS1-1) (Crosscutting Concepts): Patterns  Patterns in the natural world can be observed, used to describe phenomena, and used as evidence. (1-ESS1-1) (Crosscutting Concepts): Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems  Science assumes natural events happen today as they happened in the past. (1ESS1-1)  Many events are repeated. (1-ESS1-1) 21st Century Skills: Critical Thinking and Problem Solving—Outcome for 4th grade addresses the importance of students constructing explanations from their own observations and discussing their explanations with others. Communication—Outcome for 4th grade addresses the importance of students understanding that models are simplified representations of real objects and processes. Collaboration—Outcome for 4th grade addresses the importance of students working collaboratively with others in both small and large groups. Academic Language Demand  Language Function: Students are expected to analyze the changes in the lit part of the moon as they do the moon phase exploration card activity. Students are expected to compare and contrast the waxing and waning moon phases. Students are expected to explain why the moon has phases. Analyze Interpret Argue Predict Categorize Question Compare/contrast Describe Retell Summarize Explain

Scientific Vocabulary:New moon, Full moon, Waxing Gibbous, Waning Gibbous, Waxing Crescent, Waning Crescent, First Quarter, Third Quarter, Satellite, Axis, Tidal Lock

Instructional Objective: Performance: The student will draw and label the Earth and each of the moon phases in order, draw arrows representing the counterclockwise motion, and answer the four questions on the worksheet. Conditions: Independently Criteria: The student will earn 22 out of 25 points (88%). (See rubric in evaluate stage of the lesson plan) Whole Objective: The student will independently draw and label the Earth and each of the moon phases in order, draw arrows representing the counterclockwise motion, and answer the four questions on the worksheet. The student will earn 22 out of 25 points (88%). Prior Knowledge (student): The students should know the moon is in the sky during the day and night; however, it is most visible at night. The students need to be familiar with the terms “cycle”, “counterclockwise”, “rotation”, and “revolves”. Content Knowledge (teacher): The teacher should know that:  The moon is a natural satellite of the Earth and it does not give off its own light but reflects the light from the sun.  The Earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the sun while the moon rotates on its axis and revolves around the Earth.  The moon’s rotation and revolution take the same amount of time to occur therefore the moon is considered “tidal locked”.  The moon phase cycle is 29.5 days or approximately one month.  There is really no beginning nor ending to a cycle as it continually happens over and over. The moon phase cycle goes in a particular order in a counterclockwise direction.  When learning the phases of the moon in a cyclic order, a full cycle includes: the New Moon, Waxing Crescent, First Quarter, Waxing Gibbous, Full Moon, Waning Gibbous, Third Quarter, Waning Crescent and then back to a New Moon for the cycle to continue.  There are differences in the waxing (lit part is getting bigger) and waning phases (lit part is getting smaller) of the moon. Accommodations for special needs (individual and/or small group): Students with visual difficulties will be seated near the front of the room to see the white board. When grouping students for the moon phase exploration card activity, I will be sure to group students who have ADHD with students who are cooperative. ELL students

and/or students with reading disabilities can be provided a word bank to assist them during the elaborate and evaluate stages. Additional time will be provided for students who need extended time to complete assignments/activities. Materials and Technology requirements: (Number of materials needed for a class of 27 students)  Computer  Projector  Magnets for white board  3 sets of the moon phase and Earth picture cards  27 interactive science notebooks  216 Oreos  27 blue/green cupcakes  27 crafting sticks  27 paper plates  27 yellow markers  27 black markers  27 black pieces of black construction paper  27 small circle templates  27 large circle templates  27 white colored pencils  27 blue colored pencils  27 green colored pencils  27 worksheets used for assessment  27 templates with 9 sections  27 Ziploc bags  27 cutouts of the eight moon phases and the Earth  27 glue sticks Total Estimated Time: 1 class periods Source of lesson: YouTube Clip- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=79M2lSVZiY4 Oreo Cookie Moon Phase Idea- http://4thgradefrolics.blogspot.com/2012/05/howling-atmoon-and-happy-happy-joy.html Safety considerations: The teacher will need to be aware of any food allergies when completing the Oreo cookie Moon Phase model. During the moon phase exploration card activity, the teacher will need to be mindful of which students are put into each group to ensure all students work cooperatively together.

Content and Strategies (Procedure) (Backup plan if technology fails: Have The Moon Book by Gail Gibbons ready to use if the YouTube video is not available. Have a picture of each moon phase already printed out if the projector fails during the explain stage.) Engage: Introduce the lesson by asking the following questions:  Do you think the moon changes its appearance? (Answer: Yes)  What shapes does the moon make? (Possible Answers: Whole Circle, Half Circle, Banana shape, no moon) Play the music video called “Phases of the Moon Rap” for the class. Explore: Ask students the following questions after watching the music video:  What are some of the moon phase names? (Possible Answers: New moon, Full moon, Waxing Gibbous, Waning Gibbous, Waxing Crescent, Waning Crescent, First Quarter, Third Quarter)  How many moon phases are there? (Answer: 8) Moon Phase Exploration- Open Sort Divide the class into groups of nine students. (If a group needs an extra person, the teacher or teacher assistant can join the group.) Distribute a laminated picture labeled with either the Earth or the name of a moon phase. Allow small groups to work collaboratively to assemble themselves. (Do not provide students with any assistance as this is the explore phase.) Moon Phase Exploration- Closed Sort Have students remain in their chosen order. Play the video clip again and allow students to rearrange themselves if needed. (Still do not provide them with any additional assistance as this is the explore phase.) Provide ample time for the groups to explore the moon phases. Then ask:  Did any group put themselves in a circle with the Earth in the center? If so, why? (Answer: The moon revolves around the Earth.)  How were you able to work together to create the different moon phases? (Answer: The student with the Earth card stood in the middle while the other students represented the different moon phases that revolve around the Earth.)  What order did [insert group number] decide to put the moon phases in? (Answers will vary.)

Explanation: The Moon Phase Explanation Ask the students the following questions:  Do you think the moon is only visible at night? Why or why not? (Answer: No, the moon can also be visible during the day. The sun would still reflect its light onto the moon. It is just less visible when compared to the nighttime.) The teacher can take students outside to observe the moon in the daytime sky in order for students to better understand this concept.  Do you think the moon ever gives off its own light? (Answer: No. The sun provides the light that is reflected off the moon. This reflection of light is what illuminates the moon at nighttime.)  How long do you think one moon phase cycle lasts? (Answer: They will vary.) The teacher will explain the correct answer during the explanation. Explain how the moon is a natural satellite of the Earth and how it does not give off its own light but reflects the light from the sun. Discuss how the Earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the sun while the moon rotates on its axis and revolves around the Earth. Explain how the revolution of the moon around the Earth makes the moon appear as if it is changing shape in the sky. Discuss how the phases of the moon depend on the moon’s position to the Sun and Earth. Explain how the moon’s rotation and revolution take the same amount of time to occur. Tell the class this is why we only see one face of the moon at all times. Discuss how the moon phase cycle is 29.5 days or approximately one month. Explain that the moon is “tidally locked” to the Earth because it takes just as long for it to rotate around its own axis as it does to revolve around Earth. Give each student a template with 9 sections, a Ziploc bag containing cutouts of the eight moon phases and the Earth, and a glue stick. During each moon phase explanation, students can glue the cutouts in the appropriate places on the template and label them. Tell the students to look at the shape of the template and discuss how it is circular and how there is really no beginning nor ending to a cycle as it continually happens over and over. Explain how the moon phase cycle goes in a particular order in a counterclockwise direction. Instruct the students to draw arrows on their template to show the counterclockwise direction. Explain that the phases of the moon go in a cyclic order, and a full cycle includes: the New Moon, Waxing Crescent, First Quarter, Waxing Gibbous, Full Moon, Waning Gibbous, Third Quarter, Waning Crescent and then back to a New Moon for the cycle to continue. Discuss the differences in the waxing (lit part is getting bigger) and waning (lit part is getting smaller) phases of the moon. By using a projector, show a picture of each phase when explaining it. After the students have completed their template, draw the exact template the students’ worksheet contains on the white board. Have different students attach each moon phase in the correct order on the template by using magnets. After the explanation, instruct students to paste their moon phase templates into their interactive science notebooks.

Then ask:  How does the Moon move around the Earth? (Answer: In a counterclockwise direction.)  Using the information you discovered during the moon phase exploration card activity and the information you learned during my explanation, compare and contrast the waxing and waning phases of the moon. (Answer: They are similar because they are both part of the moon phase cycle. They are different because waxing is where the lit part is growing and waning is where the lit part is shrinking.)  Why do we only see one side of the moon at all times? (Answer: The moon takes just as long to rotate on its axis one complete turn as it does to revolve around the Earth one time. Therefore, it shows us only one side of the moon at all times. Due to this, the moon is considered “tidal locked”.) Elaborate: Oreo Cookie Moon Phase Model Distribute to each student the following supplies: eight Oreos, a cupcake with blue/green frosting, a crafting stick, a paper plate, and a yellow and black marker. Then ask:  Think about the Oreo cookies you have received. How could it be used to represent the moon phases? (Answer: The cream can represent the lit portion of the moon and the cookie can represent the unlit part of the moon.)  What do you think the blue/green cupcake represents? Where will this go on our moon phase diagram? (Answer: It represents the Earth and will be surrounded by the Oreo cookies on the plate.) Explain to the students that they are to construct a model of the moon phases. Instruct students to:  Write the moon phase names around the edge of the plate  Ask: Does it matter exactly where we start to label each moon phase name on the plate? (Answer: No. Since the moon phases are a cycle, they rotate through a circular formation. A circle never officially begins or ends in a particular spot. This is just like the moon phases; they never officially begin or end.)  Draw the sun on the side of the plate using the yellow marker  Twist the Oreo cookies apart  Use the crafting stick to scrape the cream on each cookie to simulate the moon phase  Ask: Can someone show me what their [insert moon phase name] Oreo cookie looks like? How did you determine how much cream to scrape off? (Answers will vary depending on which moon phase name is asked.)  Place the cookies on the plate in the correct location  Place the cupcake on the plate to represent the Earth’s location

Evaluate: Moon Phase Questions- Formative Assessment The questions asked throughout the lesson will be used by the teacher as the formative assessment portion of the lesson. This will guide the teacher in what to teach/explain/ask next and also help him/her determine how well the students understand the concept. Moon Phase Diagram- Summative Assessment Distribute to each student the following supplies: a black piece of construction paper, two circle templates (used to trace smaller, congruent circles representing the moon and a larger, circular-shapedEarth), a white, green, and blue colored pencil, and a worksheet containing four questions. Tell the students to draw a moon phase diagram and label each phase. The white colored pencil will be used to draw the moon and the blue and green colored pencils will be used to draw the Earth. Explain to the students that they must label each phase with the appropriate moon phase name. Instruct students to draw arrows representing the correct motion of the cycle. The worksheet will contain the following questions:  Does the moon give off its own light? Explain your answer. (Answer: No, it reflects the light from the sun.)  Compare and contrast the waxing and waning phases of the moon. (Answer: They are similar because they are both part of the moon phase cycle. They are different because waxing is where the lit part is growing and waning is where the lit part is shrinking.)  Why is the moon considered a natural satellite? (Answer: It orbits the Earth.)  Explain why the moon has phases. (Answer: The revolution of the moon around the Earth makes the moon appear as if it is changing shape in the sky. The phases of the moon depend on the moon’s position to the Sun and Earth.) Rubric  9 points- All 8 moon phases and Earth are drawn correctly.  9 points- All 8 moon phases and Earth are labeled correctly.  1points- All 8 moon phases are in the correct order.  1 point- The Earth is drawn in the middle of the moon phases.  1 point- Arrows are drawn correctly to represent counterclockwise motion.  4 points- All 4 questions are answered correctly. To be completed after the lesson is taught as appropriate. Assessment Results of all objectives/skills: To be completed after the lesson has been taught. Reflection on lesson: To be completed after the lesson has been taught.