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Hossein Mosallaei and Kamal Sarabandi Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University ofMichigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122 hosseinm@engin. umich. edu

1. Abstract: In this paper, the design of a one-layer ultra-thin meta-surface absorber having a simple geometry is demonstrated. The absorber is constructed of a periodic array of square patches printed on a dielectric material backed by a PEC. The square patches are coupled to each other through lossy dielectric materials representing lumped resistors. Therefore, at the resonant frequency of meta-surface the structure is equivalent to a resistive sheet where by tuning the value of dielectric loss an impedance match to the free space is successfully accomplished. 2. A Review of Ultra-Thin Absorbers: In many radar and tracking applications it is desired to enhance or reduce the Radar Cross Sections (RCS) of an object. A typical approach for reducing the RCS of a structure is to coat it with a lossy material that can absorb the energy in a specified range of frequency. There have been considerable efforts in recent years to present a novel methodology for obtaining a lightweight thin absorber. One of the most popular approaches for the design of EM absorbers is based on the use of Salisbury screens [1]. This structure consists of a resistive sheet located a quarter wavelength above a PEC back dielectric slab, as shown in Fig. 1. A portion of an incident wave illuminating the Salisbury screen is reflected form the surface, and the remaining part is propagated inside the dielectric and is reflected off the backed PEC plane and goes through the dielectric and resistive sheet. At the frequency that these two reflected waves are 180° out of phase they cancel each other, and the reflection coefficient goes to zero. The thickness of the dielectric slab backing the resistive sheet determines the frequency for zero reflection. The main challenge is to reduce the thickness of dielectric slab and provide a lightweight thin absorber. Kern and Wemer in 2003 presented a novel approach for design of an ultra-thin absorber utilizing a GA-optimized metallic pattern printed on a very thin dielectric material backed by the PEC [2]. The metallic pattem is a lossy screen and can significantly absorb the EM energy. The advantage of this method, compared to the Salisbury screen, is that the new design is now a single layer structure that is very thin. However, the GA optimized pattern has a complex configuration, which is difficult for fabrication. Additionally, the designed absorber is sensitive to the polarization state and angle of incident of the illuminating plane wave and is not very suitable for practical applications. Recently, another concept for achieving a high performance ultra-thin absorber was introduced by Engheta [3]. This method is based on the use of high impedance meta-surfaces. Basically, instead of using a quarter wave distance between the PEC and resistive sheet, a high impedance surface is used just next to the resistive sheet to realize a PMC plane and successfully fulfill the required phase difference for field cancellation. Therefore one does not need to use a quarter wavelength spacer. However, no practical design on this idea has been examined yet. In this paper, we first propose a simple high impedance meta-surface architecture located next to a resistive sheet to accomplish the above concept and present a thin absorber. Then we will demonstrate how one can obtain an ultra-thin absorber with the use of only high impedance metasurface without any need of resistive sheet. In the later design, a lossy meta-surface is designed in order to provide free space surface impedance q., at the resonance.

RIS-Resistive Sheet Absorber: In this section, design of an ultra-thin absorber made up of a high impedance meta-surface positioned next to a resistive sheet is investigated. In [4] we demonstrated the concept of a high impedance Reactive Impedance Surface (RIS) accomplished utilizing a periodic array of square patch elements printed on a high dielectric material backed by a PEC. The geometry is shown in Fig. 2(a). The periodic meta-surface is equivalent to a parallel LC circuit (see Fig. 2(b)) with reactive impedance behavior q = iv. A Finite Difference Time

3.

0-7803-8883-6/05/$20.00 ©2005 IEEE

615

vol. vol. 23. and the shucture behaves as a PEC surface. Rahmat-Samii. Mosallaei and Y. Sarabandi. 2003. 2(a). as shown in Fig. The vahl of R is chosen equal to the free space impedance q0 Therefore at the resonance the surface is matched to the free space and completely absorbs the incident wave. 10. At frequencies much lower than the resonant frequency the surface impedance approaches zero. 2. Mosallaei and K. Additionally. no. San Antonio. Therefore. pp. 38. Engheta "Thin absorbing screens using metamaterial surfaces" IEEE AP-S International Symposium. 4(b).-Mar..23 ). 9. 616 . H. Fante and M. 1. surface reactance of the impedance surface becomes almost invariant to incidence angle and polarization as desired. [41 H. 151 H. Texas. 2002. "Antenna miniaturization and bandwidth enhancement using a reactive impedance surface. 4. "A genetic algorithm approach to the design of ultra-thin electromagnetic band-gap absorbers. One-Layer Lossy Impedance Surface Absorber: The objective here is to demonstrate how a one-layer ultra-thin absorber can be effectively obtained with the use of only a lossy impedance surface. 3.. The normalized reactance and reflection phase of the surface are shown in Fig. cosa (a is tansmission angle inside the dielectric material) remains close to unity independent of incidence angle in free space. July 2003. The characteristic impedances and reflection coefficients of the surface for the normal and oblique waves are determined in Figs. 36. The performance of meta-surface absorber is shown in Fig. 6 and 7. Kern and D. T. [21 D. 4(a). Feb. "Reflection properties of the Salisbury screen.. McCormack. Due to the symmetric shape of penodic patches the performance of reactive impedance surface is almost independent of the polartion states (in x-y plane). no. Werner.Domain (FDTD) technique with Periodic Boundary Conditions/Perfectly Matched Layers (PBC/PML) walls [5] is applied to characterize the performance of the high impedance metasurface illuminated by a normal incident plane wave. 2004.. June 16-21. and an arbitrary oblique wave with incident angle 30° and linear polarization specified by angle iv' = 60' (between the electric field and a reference direction k' x i). "Broadband characterization of complex periodic EBG structures: An FDTD/Prony technique based on the split-field approach. A significant absorption in the range of incident angles is successfully demonstrated. It is observed that at the surface resonance the structure is equivalent to a resistor." Microwave and Optical Technology Lett. The equivalent circuit model is shown in Fig. since a relatively large dielectric constant is used. pp. The designed meta-surface has very thin thickness of about 0. if the surface is located next to an impedance matched resistive sheet. vol. Antennas Propagat. It is observed that the surface is inductive at frequencies below resonance. vol. 5(b). Oct." IEEE Trans. 61-64. no. pp. the required phase difference for field cancellation of the reflected waves is fuffilled. no. 5(a) ilhutrates the RIS designed in Fig. L. Sept. where the dielectric materials between the square patches are now lossy (tang = 1. 52. J. Note that although a very good absorption over a relatively wide range of incident angles is observed.03A2 and as illustrated presents the high impedance performance with zero reflection phase at the resonance. according to Snell's law. [31 N. Therefore. References [11 R. open circuit at the resonance (behaving as a PMC surface with infinite impedance) and capacitive above the resonant frequency. representing umped resistors. pp. Fig. J. 135-151. Antennas Propagat. 2403-2414." IEEE Trans. This is because that the resistive sheet should have certain material values at different incident angles and cannot be accomplished. and an ultra-thin absorber can be achieved. it is practically impossible to achieve such an absorber. 1988." Electromag. 1443-1454.

. Salisbury screen composed of a resistive sheet in front of a quarter wavelength dielectric spacer backed by a PEC.d=0. 1.resistive sheet (a. =1. 3.80cm (a) (b) Fig. =A. (a) The geometry of reactive impedance surface and (b) its equivalent circuit model.40cm a =0. (a) Surface impedance characteristic. A1 =J3L A. The performance of reactive impedance surface.20cm. z 5a =0. 2. (b) 617 . tg. = 1.13) --* A d Fig. 1-4 I (a) I I Fig. (b) Reflection phase.001 .0. PEC x c = 25.0.

8 3 Fig.2 1 A 16 18 fmq-y (GH.y (GHz) i4i. me. (a) The geometry of lossy impedance surface and (b) its equivalent circuit model.RTC (a) (b) Fig.4 286 2.) 2 2. TMa * - -1. 6.2 24 2. Reflection coefficient of lossy impedance surface.8 2.% .8 2 2..j .0 .8 3 -40 1 12 14 1.8 2. _-'.i (a) coefficient.2 24 2. (a) Meta-surface absorber constructed of RIS and resistive sheet and (b) its reflection _~~~~~. high impedance electric resistive sheet surface II .4 1 -10 -20 _3 T__ I 1 12 1.. (b) lumped resistor Fig. i t 3r. -20 ' w -05 .8 2 2. - II . Fig. 5. 618 .5 1 1.4 186 1._ o liIq.8 fmqu .:PIT_ "! -1 -30 _. Characteristics of lossy im. 4.pedance surface.2 2.8 ncy (GHz) 1. 7.

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