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EE 3CL4, L 1 1 / 21 Tim Davidson Why are you here? What is a control system? What tools will we use?

Administrative details Parting shot

EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems
Lecture 1 Tim Davidson
McMaster University

Winter 2011

EE 3CL4, L 1 2 / 21 Tim Davidson Why are you here? What is a control system? What tools will we use? Administrative details Parting shot

Outline

1 Why are you here? 2 What is a control system? 3 What tools will we use? 4 Administrative details 5 Parting shot

EE 3CL4, L 1 4 / 21 Tim Davidson Why are you here? What is a control system? What tools will we use? Administrative details Parting shot

Why are you here?
You might be interested in:
• Designing guidance systems for: • the next Mars Rover, a space craft or a UAV

EE 3CL4, L 1 5 / 21 Tim Davidson Why are you here? What is a control system? What tools will we use? Administrative details Parting shot

Why are you here?

You might be interested in:
• Designing industrial or biomedical robots

EE 3CL4, L 1 6 / 21 Tim Davidson Why are you here? What is a control system? What tools will we use? Administrative details Parting shot

Why are you here?
You might be interested in:
• Designing humanoid robots

EE 3CL4, L 1 7 / 21 Tim Davidson Why are you here? What is a control system? What tools will we use? Administrative details Parting shot

Why are you here?
You might be interested in: • Designing control systems for hybrid or electric cars

• Designing disk drives

• Developing technologies for enhanced power

distribution (Smart Grid)

EE 3CL4, L 1 8 / 21 Tim Davidson Why are you here? What is a control system? What tools will we use? Administrative details Parting shot

Why are you here?
You might be interested in:
• Designing an automated insulin delivery system

EE 3CL4, L 1 9 / 21 Tim Davidson Why are you here? What is a control system? What tools will we use? Administrative details Parting shot

Why are you here?
You might be interested in:
• Designing and analyzing financial systems

EE 3CL4. L 1 11 / 21 Tim Davidson Why are you here? What is a control system? What tools will we use? Administrative details Parting shot What is a feedback control system? .

L 1 12 / 21 Tim Davidson Why are you here? What is a control system? What tools will we use? Administrative details Parting shot What is a feedback control system? Example: You driving a car .EE 3CL4.

EE 3TP4) • Bode diagrams (EE 2CJ4) • Structured problem solving methods (EE 2CI5. L 1 14 / 21 Tim Davidson Why are you here? What is a control system? What tools will we use? Administrative details Parting shot What tools will we use? • Newtonian mechanics. ) . EE 2CJ4. EE 2CJ4. . EE 3TP4.EE 3CL4. EE 2CJ4. EE 2CJ4) • Electric circuit analysis (EE 2CI5. EE 3TP4) • Transfer functions (EE 2CJ4. . EE 2EI5) • Step response of first and second order systems (Math 2P04/2Z03. linear and rotational (Phys 1D03) • Basic electromagnetism (Phys 1E03. . EE 2CI5. EE 2CJ4) • Laplace transforms (Math 2P04/2Z03.

mcmaster.ece.ca.EE 3CL4.ca/∼davidson/EE3CL4 • A formal course outline appears on the web site. 27352 davidson@mcmaster. “EE3CL4” in subject line • Course web site (soon to be fully updated for 2011) http://www. Here we will focus on some key points . L 1 16 / 21 Tim Davidson Why are you here? What is a control system? What tools will we use? Administrative details Parting shot Contact details • Tim Davidson ITB–A310 Ext.

EE 3CL4. T13/125 • T02: Monday. 8:30am. L 1 17 / 21 Tim Davidson Why are you here? What is a control system? What tools will we use? Administrative details Parting shot Class details • Lectures • Tuesday. Friday. Thursday. TSH/B128 • Tentative topic schedule will appear on web site • Tutorials (starting next week) • T01: Tuesday. 12:30pm. BSB/106 • Labs (tentatively starting 24 January) • Four labs • One every other week. ITB/154 • Significant pre-lab work will be required . 11:30am.

EE 3CL4. L 1 18 / 21 Tim Davidson Why are you here? What is a control system? What tools will we use? Administrative details Parting shot Marking scheme • Laboratory reports: 20% • Midterm test: 25% Tentatively scheduled for week starting Monday 28 Feb (first week after midterm break). 7:00pm – 8:30pm • Final examination: 55% • Students must personally complete all laboratories and all laboratory reports in order to be eligible for a final grade • Formally deferred tests & exams may be conducted orally • Remarking requests will require documentation • On tests & exams. expect to see problems that you have not seen before .

L 1 19 / 21 Tim Davidson Why are you here? What is a control system? What tools will we use? Administrative details Parting shot Some suggestions • Be active in lectures • Participate in tutorials • Take advantage of the labs • Do half of the assigned problems under examination conditions • In exams.EE 3CL4. explain your methodology .

EE 3CL4. L 1 21 / 21 Tim Davidson Why are you here? What is a control system? What tools will we use? Administrative details Parting shot Parting shot .

L 2 1 / 19 Tim Davidson What is control engineering Examples Design process Disk drive example EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 2 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2011 .EE 3CL4.

L 2 2 / 19 Tim Davidson What is control engineering Examples Design process Disk drive example Outline 1 What is control engineering 2 Examples 3 Design process 4 Disk drive example .EE 3CL4.

even if model inaccurate. or subject to noise/disturbances • Mathematical model • Must balance accuracy against insight generated • This course: models will be linear • Hence. transfer function.EE 3CL4. Laplace . that means a mathematical model • Then we use that understanding to design a secondary system that controls the behaviour of the first • Must obtain appropriate control. L 2 4 / 19 Tim Davidson What is control engineering Examples Design process Disk drive example What is control engineering • First we have a system that we want to understand • Typically. tools available for insight: superposition.

EE 3CL4, L 2 5 / 19 Tim Davidson What is control engineering Examples Design process Disk drive example

Model, open-loop, closed-loop

EE 3CL4, L 2 6 / 19 Tim Davidson What is control engineering Examples Design process Disk drive example

Model, open-loop, closed-loop

What about disturbances? Mismatch (temperature, age)

EE 3CL4, L 2 7 / 19 Tim Davidson What is control engineering Examples Design process Disk drive example

Model, open-loop, closed-loop

EE 3CL4, L 2 8 / 19 Tim Davidson What is control engineering Examples Design process Disk drive example

Multivariable control

Something for fourth year!

EE 3CL4, L 2 10 / 19 Tim Davidson What is control engineering Examples Design process Disk drive example

Watt’s flyball governor

EE 3CL4, L 2 11 / 19 Tim Davidson What is control engineering Examples Design process Disk drive example

CD player speed control: Open-Loop

EE 3CL4, L 2 12 / 19 Tim Davidson What is control engineering Examples Design process Disk drive example

CD player speed control: Closed-Loop

EE 3CL4, L 2 13 / 19 Tim Davidson What is control engineering Examples Design process Disk drive example

Doritos

• John MacGregor (Chem Eng): • Visual feedback control of flavours

EE 3CL4. L 2 15 / 19 Tim Davidson What is control engineering Examples Design process Disk drive example Structured approach to design .

L 2 17 / 19 Tim Davidson What is control engineering Examples Design process Disk drive example Disk drive: Intro • Spins at between 1800 and 7200 rpm. perhaps even 10.EE 3CL4.000 • Head height: 100nm • A key issue: Seek time .

EE 3CL4. L 2 18 / 19 Tim Davidson What is control engineering Examples Design process Disk drive example Disk drive: Establish goals Move from track a to track b • with accuracy of at least1µm • within 50ms .

EE 3CL4. L 2 19 / 19 Tim Davidson What is control engineering Examples Design process Disk drive example Disk drive: Control architecture .

L 3 1 / 20 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 3 Tim Davidson McMaster University Linearization Laplace transforms Winter 2011 .EE 3CL4.

L 3 2 / 20 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics Outline 1 Modelling physical systems Linearization Laplace transforms Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics 2 Linearization 3 Laplace transforms .EE 3CL4.

L 3 4 / 20 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics Differential equation models • Most of the systems that we will deal with are dynamic • Differential equations provide a powerful way to Linearization Laplace transforms describe dynamic systems • Will form the basis of our models • We saw differential equations for inductors and capacitors in 2CI. 2CJ • What about mechanical systems? both translational and rotational .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. xr : relaxed length of spring Linearization Laplace transforms F (t ) = k [x2 (t ) − x1 (t )] − xr . k : spring constant. L 3 5 / 20 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics Translational Spring F (t ): resultant force in direction x Recall free body diagrams and “action and reaction” • Spring.

L 3 6 / 20 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics Translational Damper F (t ): resultant force in direction x Linearization Laplace transforms • Viscous damper. b : viscous friction coefficient F (t ) = b dx2 (t ) dx1 (t ) − = b v2 (t ) − v1 (t ) dt dt .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 3 7 / 20 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics Mass F (t ): resultant force in direction x Linearization Laplace transforms • Mass: M F (t ) = M d 2 xm (t ) dvm (t ) =M = Mam (t ) dt dt 2 .

EE 3CL4. k : rotational spring constant. θr : rotation of relaxed spring T (t ) = k [θ2 (t ) − θ1 (t )] − θr . L 3 8 / 20 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational spring T (t ): resultant torque in direction θ Linearization Laplace transforms • Rotational spring.

EE 3CL4. b: rotational viscous friction coefficient T (t ) = b d θ2 (t ) d θ1 (t ) − = b ω2 (t ) − ω1 (t ) dt dt . L 3 9 / 20 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational damper T (t ): resultant torque in direction θ Linearization Laplace transforms • Rotational viscous damper.

L 3 10 / 20 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational inertia T (t ): resultant torque in direction θ Linearization Laplace transforms • Rotational inertia: J T (t ) = J d 2 θm ( t ) d ωm ( t ) =J = J αm (t ) 2 dt dt .EE 3CL4.

Origin for y : y = 0 when spring relaxed Linearization Laplace transforms (t ) • F = M dv dt (t ) • v (t ) = dy dt (t ) • F (t ) = r (t ) − b dy dt − ky (t ) M d 2 y (t ) dy (t ) +b + ky (t ) = r (t ) dt dt .EE 3CL4. L 3 11 / 20 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics Example system (translational) Horizontal.

. L 3 12 / 20 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics Example. continued Linearization Laplace transforms M d 2 y (t ) dy (t ) +b + ky (t ) = r (t ) dt dt Resembles equation for parallel RLC circuit.EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. • Assume an under-damped system. • What happens when we let it go? . L 3 13 / 20 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics Example. continued Linearization Laplace transforms • Stretch the spring a little and hold.

EE 3CL4. many systems behave approximately linearly in the neighbourhood of a given point • Apply first-order Taylor’s Series at a given point • Obtain a locally linear model . L 3 15 / 20 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics Taylor’s series Linearization Laplace transforms • Nature does not have many linear systems • However.

At that point. T = 0 • Linearized model T ≈ MgL d sin θ dθ θ =0 = MgLθ . L 3 16 / 20 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics Pendulum example Linearization Laplace transforms • Torque due to gravity: T = MgL sin θ • Linearize around θ = 0.EE 3CL4.

• Does this limit exist? • If |f (t )| < Meαt . ∞ Linearization Laplace transforms F (s) = 0− f (t )e−st dt • What does ∞ mean? limT →∞ T . output is only valid for values of s in intersection of regions of convergence . for signals that are zero to the left of the origin.EE 3CL4. L 3 18 / 20 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics Laplace transform • Once we have a linearized differential equation we can take Laplace Transforms to obtain the transfer function • We will consider the “one-sided” Laplace transform. then exists for all Re(s ) > α. Includes all physically realizable signals • Note: When multiplying transfer function by Laplace of input.

L 3 19 / 20 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics Laplace transform pairs Linearization Laplace transforms can be tabulated .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. . L 3 20 / 20 Tim Davidson Modelling physical systems Translational Newtonian Mechanics Rotational Newtonian Mechanics Laplace transform pairs Linearization Laplace transforms Recall that complex poles come in conjugate pairs.

L 4 1 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 4 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2011 .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 4 2 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Outline 1 Laplace transforms 2 Laplace transforms in action .

for signals that are zero to the left of the origin.EE 3CL4. L 4 4 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Laplace transform • We will consider the “one-sided” Laplace transform. ∞ F (s) = 0− f (t )e−st dt • Key properties df (t ) ←→ sF (s) − f (0− ) dt F (s ) 1 f (x ) dx ←→ + s s −∞ t 0− f (x ) dx −∞ .

for a single pole at the origin. except. namely limt →∞ f (t ) without inverting the Laplace Transform. L 4 5 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Final value theorem • If F (s ) has all its poles in the left half plane.EE 3CL4. • In particular. perhaps. t →∞ lim f (t ) = lim sF (s) s→0 • Common application: Steady state value of step response . • then we can compute the final value of f (t ).

L 4 7 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Mass-spring-damper system • Horizontal (no gravity) • Set origin of y where spring is “relaxed” (t ) • F = M dv dt (t ) • v (t ) = dy dt (t ) • F (t ) = r (t ) − b dy dt − ky (t ) M d 2 y (t ) dy (t ) +b + ky (t ) = r (t ) dt dt .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 4 8 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action MSD system M d 2 y (t ) dy (t ) +b + ky (t ) = r (t ) dt dt Consider t ≥ 0 and take Laplace transform M s2 Y (s)−sy (0− )− dy (t ) dt +b sY (s)−y (0− ) +kY (s) = R (s) t =0− Hence Y (s ) = 1/M R (s) s2 + (b/M )s + k /M (s + b/M ) + 2 y (0− ) s + (b/M )s + k /M 1 dy (t ) + 2 s + (b/M )s + k /M dt t =0− .

L 4 9 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Response to static init.EE 3CL4. then let go at time t = 0 Hence. r (t ) = 0 and Hence. cond. held. Y (s ) = s2 (s + b/M ) y0 + (b/M )s + k /M dy (t ) dt t =0− =0 What can we learn about this response without having to invert Y (s) . Spring stretched to a point y0 .

EE 3CL4. b = 2 kM ): equal real roots. b < 2 kM ): complex conj. s2 = −ζωn ± ωn √ ζ2 − 1 • ζ > 1 (equiv. b > 2 kM ): distinct real roots. roots. L 4 10 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Standard form (s + b/M ) y0 + (b/M )s + k /M (s + 2ζωn ) y 2 0 + 2ζωn s + ωn b √ 2 kM Y (s ) = s2 = where ωn = s2 k /M and ζ = Poles: s1 . overdamped √ • ζ = 1 (equiv. critically damped √ • ζ < 1 (equiv. underdamped .

Hence. L 4 11 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Overdamped case • s1 . c2 = −c1 s1 /s2 . small • Hence y (t ) ≈ c1 es1 t • Looks like a first order system! . s1 is small and negative • Hence es2 t decays much faster than es1 t • Also. s2 = −ζωn ± ωn • y (t ) = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t • y (0) = y0 =⇒ c1 + c2 = y0 (t ) • dy dt t =0 ζ2 − 1 • Overdamped response: ζ > 1 (equiv. b > 2 kM ) √ = 0 =⇒ s1 c1 + s2 c2 = 0 • What does this look like when strongly overdamped • s2 is large and negative.EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 4 12 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Critically damped case • s1 = s2 = −ωn • y (t ) = c1 e−ωn t + c2 te−ωn t • y (0) = y0 =⇒ c1 = y0 (t ) • dy dt t =0 = 0 =⇒ −c1 ωn + c2 = 0 .

|si | = ωn : poles lies on a circle • Angle to negative real axis is cos−1 (ζ ). . L 4 13 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Underdamped case • s1 .EE 3CL4. s2 = −ζωn ± j ωn 1 − ζ 2 • Therefore.

Response is: y (t ) = c1 e−σt cos(ωd t ) + c2 e−σt sin(ωd t ) = Ae−σt cos(ωd t + φ) • Homework: Relate A and φ to c1 and c2 . • Homework: Write the initial conditions y (0) = y0 and dy (t ) dt t =0 = 0 in terms of c1 and c2 . ωd = ωn 1 − ζ 2 . L 4 14 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Underdamped case • Define σ = ζωn . and in terms of A and φ .EE 3CL4.

where ωn = ζ2 − 1 k /M . ζ = 1. • b = 3 → 0. ζ < 1: underdamped • Consider the case of M = 1. s2 = −ζωn ± ωn • ζ > 1: overdamped. k = 1.5 → 0 • Initial conds: y0 = 1. Hence. ζ = b √ 2 kM • Poles: s1 . ωn = 1.EE 3CL4. Hence. L 4 15 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Numerical examples • Y (s) = (s+2ζωn ) 2 s2 +2ζωn s+ωn y0 . dy (t ) dt t =0 =0 .

b=3 . L 4 16 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Poles and transient response.EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4.75 . L 4 17 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Poles and transient response. b = 2.

L 4 18 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Poles and transient response.EE 3CL4.5 . b = 2.

b = 2. L 4 19 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Poles and transient response.EE 3CL4.25 .

L 4 20 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Poles and transient response. b=2 .EE 3CL4.

L 4 21 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Poles and transient response. b = 1.EE 3CL4.95 .

b = 1.EE 3CL4.75 . L 4 22 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Poles and transient response.

EE 3CL4. L 4 23 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Poles and transient response. b = 1.5 .

b = 1.EE 3CL4.25 . L 4 24 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Poles and transient response.

b=1 . L 4 25 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Poles and transient response.EE 3CL4.

75 .EE 3CL4. b = 0. L 4 26 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Poles and transient response.

EE 3CL4. L 4 27 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Poles and transient response. b = 0.5 .

L 4 28 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Poles and transient response.EE 3CL4.25 . b = 0.

L 4 29 / 29 Tim Davidson Laplace transforms Laplace transforms in action Poles and transient response. b=0 .EE 3CL4.

L 5 1 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 5 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2011 .EE 3CL4.

L 5 2 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Outline 1 Transfer function 2 Step response 3 Transfer function of DC motor .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. . L 5 4 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Transfer function Definition: Laplace transform of output over Laplace transform of input when initial conditions are zero Recall the mass-spring-damper system.

EE 3CL4. L 5 5 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Transfer function. Y (s ) = 1/M R (s) s2 + (b/M )s + k /M (s + b/M ) + 2 y (0− ) s + (b/M )s + k /M 1 dy (t ) + 2 s + (b/M )s + k /M dt t =0− Therefore. MSD system For the mass-spring-damper system. transfer function is: s2 1 1/M = 2 + (b/M )s + k /M Ms + bs + k .

the step response is: L −1 G(s) s • For the mass-spring-damper system.EE 3CL4. ωn = 1. .5 → 0. • Consider again the case of M = k = 1. step response is L −1 1 s(Ms2 + bs + k ) • What is the final position for a step input? Recall final value theorem. for transfer function G(s ). ζ = 1. L 5 7 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Step response • Recall that u (t ) ←→ 1 s • Therefore. b = 3 → 0. Final position is 1/k .

L 5 8 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Poles and step response.EE 3CL4. b = 3 .

L 5 9 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Poles and step resp.75 .. b = 2.EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4.5 . L 5 10 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Poles and step resp. b = 2..

EE 3CL4. L 5 11 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Poles and step resp.25 .. b = 2.

b = 2 .. L 5 12 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Poles and step resp.EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4..95 . L 5 13 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Poles and step resp. b = 1.

EE 3CL4..75 . L 5 14 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Poles and step resp. b = 1.

EE 3CL4. b = 1. L 5 15 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Poles and step resp..5 .

b = 1. L 5 16 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Poles and step resp..EE 3CL4.25 .

.EE 3CL4. b = 1 . L 5 17 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Poles and step resp.

75 . L 5 18 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Poles and step resp.EE 3CL4.. b = 0.

L 5 19 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Poles and step resp. b = 0..EE 3CL4.5 .

L 5 20 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Poles and step resp.EE 3CL4. b = 0..25 .

b = 0 .EE 3CL4. L 5 21 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Poles and step resp..

L 5 23 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor A DC motor • • • • • • We will consider linearized model for each component Flux in the air gap: φ(t ) = Kf if (t ) (Magnetic cct. Is that linear? Only if one of if (t ) or ia (t ) is constant We will consider “armature control”: if (t ) constant . 2CJ4) Torque: Tm (t ) = K1 φ(t )ia (t ) = K1 Kf if (t )ia (t ).EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 5 24 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Armature controlled DC motor • if (t ) will be constant (to set up magnetic field). if (t ) = If • Torque: Tm (t ) = K1 Kf If ia (t ) = Km ia (t ) • Will control motor using armature voltage Va (t ) • What is the transfer function from Va (s ) to angular position θ(s)? • Origin? .

due to Faraday’s Law • Vb (s ) = Kb ω (s ). velocity • Remember: transfer function implies zero init. L 5 25 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Towards transfer function • Tm (t ) = Km ia (t ) ←→ Tm (s ) = Km Ia (s ) • KVL: Va (s ) = (Ra + sLa )Ia (s ) + Vb (s ) • Vb (s ) is back-emf voltage.EE 3CL4. conds . where ω (s ) = s θ (s ) is rot.

L 5 26 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Towards transfer function • Torque on load: TL (s ) = Tm (s ) − Td (s ) • Td (s ): disturbance.EE 3CL4. unknown (e.. Often small.g. wind) • Load torque to angle (Newton plus friction): TL (s) = Js2 θ(s) + bsθ(s) • Now put it all together .

L 5 27 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Towards transfer function (s)−Vb (s) • Tm (s ) = Km Ia (s ) = Km Va R a +sLa • Vb (s ) = Kb ω (s ) • TL (s ) = Tm (s ) − Td (s ) • TL (s ) = Js 2 θ (s ) + bs θ (s ) = Js ω (s ) + b ω (s ) L (s ) • Hence ω (s ) = T Js+b • θ (s ) = ω (s )/s .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 5 28 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Block diagram (s)−Vb (s) • Tm (s ) = Km Ia (s ) = Km Va R a +sLa • Vb (s ) = Kb ω (s ) • TL (s ) = Tm (s ) − Td (s ) • TL (s ) = Js 2 θ (s ) + bs θ (s ) = Js ω (s ) + b ω (s ) L (s ) • Hence ω (s ) = T Js+b • θ (s ) = ω (s )/s .

EE 3CL4. L 5 29 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Transfer function • Set Td (s ) = 0 and solve (you MUST do this yourself) G(s) = θ(s) Km = Va (s) s (Ra + sLa )(Js + b) + Kb Km Km = 2) 2 s(s + 2ζωn s + ωn • Third order :( .

τa = La /Ra . is negligible • Hence (you MUST derive this yourself) G(s) ≈ Km Km /(Ra b + Kb Km ) = s(τ1 s + 1) s Ra (Js + b) + Kb Km where τ1 = Ra J /(Ra b + Kb Km ) • Using a power balance can show that Kb = Km . L 5 30 / 30 Tim Davidson Transfer function Step response Transfer function of DC motor Second-order approximation G (s ) = θ(s) Km = Va (s) s (Ra + sLa )(Js + b) + Kb Km • Often armature time constant.EE 3CL4.

L 6 1 / 10 Tim Davidson Block diagram models Example: Loop transfer function Block diagram transformations EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 6 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2011 .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 6 2 / 10 Tim Davidson Block diagram models Example: Loop transfer function Outline Block diagram transformations 1 Block diagram models Example: Loop transfer function 2 Block diagram transformations .

Y (s ) = G(s )Gc (s )R (s ) • Consistent with the engineering procedure of breaking things up into little bits. U (s ) = Gc (s )R (s ) and Y (s ) = G(s )U (s ) • Hence. studying the little bits. and then put them together .EE 3CL4. L 6 4 / 10 Tim Davidson Block diagram models Example: Loop transfer function Bock diagram models • A convenient way to represent a transfer function is via Block diagram transformations a block diagram • In this case.

L 6 5 / 10 Tim Davidson Block diagram models Example: Loop transfer function Simple example Block diagram transformations • Y1 (s ) = G11 (s )R1 (s ) + G12 (s )R2 (s ) • Y2 (s ) = G21 (s )R1 (s ) + G22 (s )R2 (s ) .EE 3CL4.

L 6 6 / 10 Tim Davidson Block diagram models Example: Loop transfer function Example: Loop transfer function Block diagram transformations • Ea (s ) = R (s ) − B (s ) = R (s ) − H (s )Y (s ) • Y (s ) = G(s )U (s ) = G(s )Ga (s )Z (s ) • Y (s ) = G(s )Ga (s )Gc (s )Ea (s ) • Y (s ) = G(s )Ga (s )Gc (s ) R (s ) − H (s )Y (s ) Y (s) G(s)Ga (s)Gc (s) = R (s) 1 + G(s)Ga (s)Gc (s)H (s) • Each transfer function is a ratio of polynomials in s • What is Ea (s )/R (s )? .EE 3CL4.

L 6 8 / 10 Tim Davidson Block diagram models Example: Loop transfer function Block diagram transformations Block diagram transformations .EE 3CL4.

L 6 9 / 10 Tim Davidson Block diagram models Example: Loop transfer function Using block diagram transformations Block diagram transformations .EE 3CL4.

L 6 10 / 10 Tim Davidson Block diagram models Example: Loop transfer function Using block diagram transformations Block diagram transformations .EE 3CL4.

L 7 1 / 18 Tim Davidson Transfer function of armature controlled DC motor Application to disk drive read system Our first control system design Characteristics of feedback EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 7 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2011 .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. Ch 4 . L 7 2 / 18 Tim Davidson Transfer function of armature controlled DC motor Application to disk drive read system Our first control system design Characteristics of feedback Outline 1 Transfer function of armature controlled DC motor 2 Application to disk drive read system 3 Our first control system design 4 Characteristics of feedback control systems.

L 7 4 / 18 Tim Davidson Transfer function of armature controlled DC motor Application to disk drive read system Our first control system design Characteristics of feedback Last week • We constructed a block diagram for armature-controlled DC motor • if (t ) constant.EE 3CL4. motor controlled using va (t ) θ(s) • Determined the transfer function V a (s ) .

L 7 5 / 18 Tim Davidson Transfer function of armature controlled DC motor Application to disk drive read system Our first control system design Characteristics of feedback Transfer function G (s ) = Km θ(s) = Va (s) s (Ra + sLa )(Js + b) + Kb Km Km = 2) s(s2 + 2ζωn s + ωn .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. contr. model with Kb = 0 • Hence. L 7 7 / 18 Tim Davidson Transfer function of armature controlled DC motor Application to disk drive read system Our first control system design Characteristics of feedback Model for a disk drive read system • Uses a permanent magnet DC motor • Can be modelled using arm. motor transfer function: G (s ) = θ(s) Km = Va (s) s(Ra + sLa )(Js + b) • Assume for now that the arm is stiff .

EE 3CL4. L 7 8 / 18 Tim Davidson Transfer function of armature controlled DC motor Application to disk drive read system Our first control system design Characteristics of feedback Typical values G (s ) = θ(s) Km = Va (s) s(Ra + sLa )(Js + b) G(s) = 5000 s(s + 20)(s + 1000) .

EE 3CL4. L 7 9 / 18 Tim Davidson Transfer function of armature controlled DC motor Application to disk drive read system Our first control system design Characteristics of feedback Time constants • Initial model G(s) = 5000 s(s + 20)(s + 1000) • Motor time constant = 1/20 = 50ms • Armature time constant = 1/1000 = 1ms • Hence G(s) ≈ 5 s(s + 20) .

Y (s) = θ(s).EE 3CL4. how to control? Here. L 7 11 / 18 Tim Davidson Transfer function of armature controlled DC motor Application to disk drive read system Our first control system design Characteristics of feedback A simple feedback controller Now that we have a model. .

1/s ? • Does it meet our design criteria? Within 1µm within 50ms? . Y (s ) = s2 200 R (s ) + 20s + 200 • What is the response for R (s ) = 0. and a gain of Ka = 40.EE 3CL4. L 7 12 / 18 Tim Davidson Transfer function of armature controlled DC motor Application to disk drive read system Our first control system design Characteristics of feedback Simplified block diagram • What is the transfer function from command to position? Derive this yourself Y (s) K a G (s ) = R (s) 1 + Ka G(s) • For second-order G(s).

1u (t ) .EE 3CL4. L 7 13 / 18 Tim Davidson Transfer function of armature controlled DC motor Application to disk drive read system Our first control system design Characteristics of feedback Step response Response to r (t ) = 0.

EE 3CL4. L 7 15 / 18 Tim Davidson Transfer function of armature controlled DC motor Application to disk drive read system Our first control system design Characteristics of feedback Closed and open loop .

L 7 16 / 18 Tim Davidson Transfer function of armature controlled DC motor Application to disk drive read system Our first control system design Characteristics of feedback The error signal Error signal E (s) = R (s) − Y (s) For the case where H (s) = 1 (derive this for yourself): E (s) = 1 R (s) 1 + Gc (s)G(s) G(s) − Td (s) 1 + Gc (s)G(s) Gc (s)G(s) + N (s ) 1 + Gc (s)G(s) .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 7 17 / 18 Tim Davidson Transfer function of armature controlled DC motor Application to disk drive read system Our first control system design Characteristics of feedback Loop gain Again. set H (s) = 1 Define loop gain: L(s) = Gc (s)G(s) E (s ) = 1 G(s) L(s) R (s) − Td (s ) + N (s) 1 + L(s) 1 + L(s) 1 + L(s) .

EE 3CL4. set H (s) = 1 Define sensitivity: S (s) = L(s) 1 + L(s) 1 1 + L(s) Define complementary sensitivity: C (s) = E (s) = S (s)R (s) − S (s)G(s)Td (s) + C (s)N (s) Note that S (s) + C (s) = 1. Trading S (s) against C (s): a key to the art of control design . L 7 18 / 18 Tim Davidson Transfer function of armature controlled DC motor Application to disk drive read system Our first control system design Characteristics of feedback Sensitivities Again.

L 8 1 / 11 Tim Davidson Characteristics of feedback EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 8 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2011 .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 8 2 / 11 Tim Davidson Characteristics of feedback Outline 1 Characteristics of feedback control systems .

L 8 4 / 11 Tim Davidson Characteristics of feedback The closed loop For the whole of this lecture we will consider unity feedback: H (s) = 1 .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 8 5 / 11 Tim Davidson Characteristics of feedback The output signal Under standing assumption of H (s) = 1. what is Y (s)? Y (s ) = Gc (s)G(s) R (s ) 1 + G c (s )G (s ) G(s) + Td (s) 1 + Gc (s)G(s) Gc (s)G(s) − N (s ) 1 + Gc (s)G(s) .

L 8 6 / 11 Tim Davidson Characteristics of feedback The error signal Define the error signal: E (s) = R (s) − Y (s) For H (s) = 1. input Ea (s) = R (s) − Y (s) + N (s) . contr. what is E (s)? E (s ) = 1 R (s ) 1 + Gc (s)G(s) G (s ) − Td (s) 1 + Gc (s)G(s) + Gc (s)G(s) N (s) 1 + Gc (s)G(s) Note: For H (s) = 1.EE 3CL4.

L 8 7 / 11 Tim Davidson Characteristics of feedback Loop gain Define loop gain: L(s) = Gc (s)G(s) 1 G(s) L(s) R (s) − Td (s ) + N (s) 1 + L(s) 1 + L(s) 1 + L(s) E (s ) = What do we want? .EE 3CL4.

L 8 8 / 11 Tim Davidson Characteristics of feedback A taste of loop shaping E (s ) = 1 G(s) L(s) R (s) − Td (s ) + N (s) 1 + L(s) 1 + L(s) 1 + L(s) What do we want? • Good tracking: E (s ) does depend only weakly on R (s ) =⇒ L(s) large where R (s) large • Good disturbance rejection: =⇒ L(s) large where Td (s) large • Good noise suppression: =⇒ L(s) small where N (s) large .EE 3CL4.

: =⇒ L(s) small where N (s) large |L(j ω )| small in the important frequency bands of n(t ) Typically. L(j ω ) is a low-pass function How big should |L(j ω )| be? Any other constraints? Stability! . L 8 9 / 11 Tim Davidson Characteristics of feedback A taste of loop shaping Possibly easier to understand in pure freq. s = j ω Recall that L(s) = Gc (s)G(s). domain. Gc (s): controller to be designed • Good tracking: =⇒ L(s) large where R (s) large |L(j ω )| large in the important frequency bands of r (t ) • Good dist. G(s): fixed. rejection: =⇒ L(s) large where Td (s) large |L(j ω )| large in the important frequency bands of td (t ) • Good noise suppr.EE 3CL4.

with stability is the essence of the art of control design .EE 3CL4. Trading S (s) against C (s). L 8 10 / 11 Tim Davidson Characteristics of feedback Sensitivities Define sensitivity: S (s) = 1 1 + L(s) L(s) 1 + L(s) Define complementary sensitivity: C (s) = E (s) = S (s)R (s) − S (s)G(s)Td (s) + C (s)N (s) Note that S (s) + C (s) = 1.

and it may age (s) • How does T (s ) = Y R (s) change as G(s ) changes? • G(s ) + ∆G(s ).EE 3CL4. with H (s ) = 1. ∆T (s)/T (s) ∂ ln T (s) • lim∆G(s)→0 ∆ =∂ G(s)/G(s) ln G(s) • For an open loop system this sensitivity =1 • For the closed loop system. S (s) = 1 1+Gc (s)G(s) . L 8 11 / 11 Tim Davidson Characteristics of feedback Model sensitivities • In practice we rarely model G(s ) exactly. as earlier .

EE 3CL4. L 9 1 / 18 Tim Davidson More advantages of feedback Price of feedback Example: English Channel boring machines Example: Disk drive read system EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 9 (Given as the 10th lecture in Winter 2011) Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2011 .

L 9 2 / 18 Tim Davidson More advantages of feedback Price of feedback Example: English Channel boring machines Example: Disk drive read system Outline 1 More advantages of feedback 2 Price of feedback 3 Example: English Channel boring machines 4 Example: Disk drive read system .EE 3CL4.

L 9 4 / 18 Tim Davidson More advantages of feedback Price of feedback Example: English Channel boring machines Example: Disk drive read system Advantages of feedback so far • reduced sensitivity to disturbances • reduced sensitivity to model variation • can also manipulate the transient response. to some degree (next week) • can also control steady-state response to certain inputs. without tight calibration .EE 3CL4.

t →∞ lim e(t ) = lim sE (s) s→0 .EE 3CL4. except. perhaps for a simple pole at the origin. L 9 5 / 18 Tim Davidson More advantages of feedback Price of feedback Example: English Channel boring machines Example: Disk drive read system Steady-state error Recall standing assumption of H (s) = 1 Consider R (s) only. set Td (s) and N (s) to zero E (s) = R (s) − Y (s) = 1 R (s ) 1 + Gc (s)G(s) So what is the steady state error? If E (s) = 1+Gc (1 s)G(s) R (s ) has no poles in the close right half plane.

steady-state error is 1 + Gc (0)G(0) • How to make this small? Large loop gain at DC • lims→0 sE (s ) = lims→0 . L 9 6 / 18 Tim Davidson More advantages of feedback Price of feedback Example: English Channel boring machines Example: Disk drive read system Steady-state error for step • Consider the case where r (t ) = u (t ).EE 3CL4. =⇒ R (s ) = 1/s . • E (s ) = 1 1 1 + Gc (s)G(s) s 1 1 + Gc (s)G(s) 1 • Hence.

. L 9 7 / 18 Tim Davidson More advantages of feedback Price of feedback Example: English Channel boring machines Example: Disk drive read system Steady-state error for ramp • Consider r (t ) = tu (t ). =⇒ R (s ) = 1/s 2 . dc (s )d (s ) must contain a factor s • i. 1 1 • E (s ) = 1+G ( c s )G(s ) s 2 1 1 • lims→0 sE (s ) = lims→0 1+G ( c s )G(s ) s • How to make this finite? n(s) c (s ) • Let Gc (s ) = n dc (s) .EE 3CL4.e. either Gc (s ) or G(s ) must have pole at origin integration . G(s ) = d (s) dc (s)d (s) 1 • sE (s ) = d (s)d (s)+nc (s)n(s) s c • For finite SS error.

EE 3CL4. L 9 9 / 18 Tim Davidson More advantages of feedback Price of feedback Example: English Channel boring machines Example: Disk drive read system Price of feedback • more components than open loop • less gain than open loop Gc (s)G(s) 1+Gc (s)G(s) instead of Gc (s)G(s) • potential for instability .

100 and 20. L 9 11 / 18 Tim Davidson More advantages of feedback Price of feedback Example: English Channel boring machines Example: Disk drive read system English Channel boring machines Y (s) = 1 K + 11s R (s ) + 2 Td (s) s2 + 12s + K s + 12s + K Let’s consider step and step disturbance responses for two values of K . .EE 3CL4.

L 9 12 / 18 Tim Davidson More advantages of feedback Price of feedback Example: English Channel boring machines Example: Disk drive read system English Channel boring machine K = 100 .EE 3CL4.

L 9 13 / 18 Tim Davidson More advantages of feedback Price of feedback Example: English Channel boring machines Example: Disk drive read system English Channel boring machine K = 20 .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 9 14 / 18 Tim Davidson More advantages of feedback Price of feedback Example: English Channel boring machines Example: Disk drive read system English Channel boring machine .

EE 3CL4. . L 9 16 / 18 Tim Davidson More advantages of feedback Price of feedback Example: English Channel boring machines Example: Disk drive read system Disk drive read system Y (s ) = s3 + 1020s2 5000Ka R (s) + 20000s + 5000Ka s + 1000 + 3 Td (s ) 2 s + 1020s + 20000s + 5000Ka with Td (s) = 0. compare step resp’s with Ka = 10 and 80.

80 . L 9 17 / 18 Tim Davidson More advantages of feedback Price of feedback Example: English Channel boring machines Example: Disk drive read system Step responses for Ka = 10.EE 3CL4.

step resp. L 9 18 / 18 Tim Davidson More advantages of feedback Price of feedback Example: English Channel boring machines Example: Disk drive read system Disturb. for Ka = 80 To reduce this response need larger Ka but larger Ka will result in more oscilliatory response .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 10 1 / 19 Tim Davidson Performance of feedback control systems Performance of second-order systems EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 10 (Given as the 9th lecture in Winter 2011) Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2011 .

EE 3CL4. L 10 2 / 19 Tim Davidson Performance of feedback control systems Performance of second-order systems Outline 1 Performance of feedback control systems 2 Performance of second-order systems .

EE 3CL4. L 10 4 / 19 Tim Davidson Performance of feedback control systems Performance of second-order systems Basic performance criteria • Stability (next week) • Steady-state response to chosen inputs • Transient response to chosen inputs • Compromises: the art of design .

L 10 5 / 19 Tim Davidson Performance of feedback control systems Performance of second-order systems Typical test signals Step. parabolic . ramp.EE 3CL4.

in detail. L 10 7 / 19 Tim Davidson Performance of feedback control systems Performance of second-order systems A second-order system Now examine. a particular class of second order systems Y (s ) = 2 ωn G(s) R (s ) R (s ) = 2 2 1 + G (s ) s + 2ζωn s + ωn .EE 3CL4.

take inverse Laplace transform of Y (s) • Y (s) = 2 ωn 2 s s2 +2ζωn s+ωn • For the case of 0 < ζ < 1. y (t ) = 1 − where β = 1 −ζωn t e sin(ωn β t + θ) β 1 − ζ 2 and θ = cos−1 ζ . G(s) 1+G(s) • Recall pole positions of (ignore the zero): .EE 3CL4. L 10 8 / 19 Tim Davidson Performance of feedback control systems Performance of second-order systems Step response • What is the step response? • Set R (s) = 1/s.

L 10 9 / 19 Tim Davidson Performance of feedback control systems Performance of second-order systems Typical step responses.EE 3CL4. fixed ωn .

L 10 10 / 19 Tim Davidson Performance of feedback control systems Performance of second-order systems Typical step responses. fixed ζ .EE 3CL4.

y (t ) = 1 − 1 −ζωn t e sin(ωn β t + θ) β .EE 3CL4. L 10 11 / 19 Tim Davidson Performance of feedback control systems Performance of second-order systems Key parameters of (under-damped) step response With β = 1 − ζ 2 and θ = cos−1 ζ .

Tp = π ωn 1 − ζ2 2 • Hence. L 10 12 / 19 Tim Davidson Performance of feedback control systems Performance of second-order systems Peak time and peak value y (t ) = 1 − 1 −ζωn t e sin(ωn β t + θ) β • Peak time: first time dy (t )/dt = 0 • Can show that this corresponds to ωn β Tp = π • Hence. peak value.EE 3CL4. Mpt = 1 + e− ζπ/ 1−ζ √ .

Percentage overshoot defined as: P.O. and hence P.O. fv = 1.EE 3CL4. L 10 13 / 19 Tim Davidson Performance of feedback control systems Performance of second-order systems Percentage overshoot Let fv denote the final value of the step response. = 100 e − ζπ/ √ 1−ζ 2 . = 100 Mpt − fv fv In our example.

EE 3CL4. L 10 14 / 19 Tim Davidson Performance of feedback control systems Performance of second-order systems Overshoot vs Peak Time This is one of the classic trade-offs in control .

ess In general this is not zero. L 10 15 / 19 Tim Davidson Performance of feedback control systems Performance of second-order systems Steady-state error. However. y (t ) = 1 − 1 −ζωn t e sin(ωn β t + θ) β Hence ess = 0 . for our second-order system.EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. 4 time constants 4 • In that case. L 10 16 / 19 Tim Davidson Performance of feedback control systems Performance of second-order systems Settling time y (t ) = 1 − 1 −ζωn t e sin(ωn β t + θ) β • How long does it take to get within ±x % of final value? • Approx. when e−ζωn t < x /100 • When x = 2. that is. Ts = ζωn . that corresponds to ζωn Ts ≈ 4.

L 10 17 / 19 Tim Davidson Performance of feedback control systems Performance of second-order systems Rise time (under-damped) y (t ) = 1 − 1 −ζωn t e sin(ωn β t + θ) β • How long to get to the target (for first time)? • Tr . the smallest t such that y (t ) = 1 .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 10 18 / 19 Tim Davidson Performance of feedback control systems Performance of second-order systems 10%–90% Rise time • What is Tr in over-damped case? ∞ • Hence. typically use Tr 1 . the 10%–90% rise time .

3 ≤ ζ ≤ 0.8 (under-damped).EE 3CL4. for 0. L 10 19 / 19 Tim Davidson Performance of feedback control systems Performance of second-order systems 10%–90% Rise time • Difficult to get an accurate formula • Linear approx. .

EE 3CL4. poles and zeros Summary and plan EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 11 (Given as the 12th lecture in 2011) Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2011 . L 11 1 / 19 Tim Davidson Step response of a class of second-order systems (review) A taste of poleplacement design Transient performance.

EE 3CL4. poles and zeros 4 Summary and plan . L 11 2 / 19 Tim Davidson Step response of a class of second-order systems (review) A taste of poleplacement design Transient performance. poles and zeros Summary and plan Outline 1 Step response of a class of second-order systems (review) 2 A taste of pole-placement design 3 Transient performance.

L 11 4 / 19 Tim Davidson Step response of a class of second-order systems (review) A taste of poleplacement design Transient performance.EE 3CL4. poles and zeros Summary and plan Class of systems We considered the step response of an (under-damped) second order system Y (s) = T (s)R (s) = 2 ωn R (s ) 2 s2 + 2ζωn s + ωn .

L 11 5 / 19 Tim Davidson Step response of a class of second-order systems (review) A taste of poleplacement design Transient performance.EE 3CL4. s2 = −ζωn ± j ωn 1 − ζ2 = −ωn cos(θ) ± j ωn sin(θ) . poles and zeros Summary and plan 2 ωn T (s) = 2 2 s + 2ζωn s + ωn Poles of T (s) Where are the poles? s1 .

EE 3CL4. L 11 6 / 19 Tim Davidson Step response of a class of second-order systems (review) A taste of poleplacement design Transient performance. poles and zeros Summary and plan Step response Y (s ) = T (s ) 2 1 1 ωn = 2 2 s s + 2ζωn s + ωn s =⇒ y (t ) = 1 − where β = 1 −ζωn t e sin(ωn β t + θ) β 1 − ζ 2 and θ = cos−1 ζ . .

poles and zeros Summary and plan Properties of step response • Settling time. = 100 e− ζπ/ 1−ζ . Ts . L 11 7 / 19 Tim Davidson Step response of a class of second-order systems (review) A taste of poleplacement design Transient performance.: 2% settling time ≈ 4 ζωn √ 2 • Percentage overshoot: P.EE 3CL4.O.

poles and zeros Summary and plan Design problem For what values of K and p is • the settling time ≤ 4 secs.3%? 2 K ωn G(s) = 2 = 2 . 2 1 + G (s ) s + ps + K s + 2ζωn s + ωn √ √ where ωn = K and ζ = p/(2 K ) T (s ) = . and • the percentage overshoot ≤ 4. L 11 9 / 19 Tim Davidson Step response of a class of second-order systems (review) A taste of poleplacement design Transient performance.EE 3CL4.

3%. poles and zeros Summary and plan Pole positions Ts ≈ 4 ζωn P. L 11 10 / 19 Tim Davidson Step response of a class of second-order systems (review) A taste of poleplacement design Transient performance. ≤ 4. ζ ≥ 1/ 2 Where should we put the poles of T (s)? . = 100 e− √ ζπ/ 1−ζ 2 • For Ts ≤ 4.EE 3CL4.O.O. ζωn ≥ 1 √ • For P.

L 11 11 / 19 Tim Davidson Step response of a class of second-order systems (review) A taste of poleplacement design Transient performance. √ ζ ≥ 1/ 2 1 − ζ 2 = −ωn cos(θ) ± j ωn sin(θ) . poles and zeros Summary and plan Pole positions ζωn ≥ 1 s1 . s2 = −ζωn ± j ωn where θ = cos−1 (ζ ).EE 3CL4.

L 11 12 / 19 Tim Davidson Step response of a class of second-order systems (review) A taste of poleplacement design Transient performance. poles and zeros Summary and plan Final design constraints ζωn ≥ 1 p≥2 √ ζ ≥ 1/ 2 √ 2K p≥ .EE 3CL4.

L 11 13 / 19 Tim Davidson Step response of a class of second-order systems (review) A taste of poleplacement design Transient performance.EE 3CL4. poles and zeros Summary and plan Caveat • Our work on transient response has been for systems with T (s) = 2 ωn 2 s2 + 2ζωn s + ωn • What about other systems? .

L 11 15 / 19 Tim Davidson Step response of a class of second-order systems (review) A taste of poleplacement design Transient performance. poles and zeros Summary and plan Poles.EE 3CL4. no repeated poles • Partial fraction expansion Y (s) = 1 + s i Ai + s + σi k s2 Bk s + Ck 2 + ω2) + 2αk s + (αk k • Step response y (t ) = 1 + i Ai e−σi t + k Dk e−αk t sin(ωk t + θk ) . zeros and transient response (s) • Consider a general transfer function T (s ) = Y R (s ) • Step response: Y (s ) = T (s ) 1 s • Consider case with DC gain = 1.

poles and zeros Summary and plan .EE 3CL4. L 11 16 / 19 Tim Davidson Step response of a class of second-order systems (review) A taste of poleplacement design Transient performance.

L(s) = Gc (s)G(s). E (s) = R (s) − Y (s). poles and zeros Summary and plan Summary: Desirable properties With H (s) = 1. E (s) = G (s ) L(s) 1 R (s ) − Td (s) + N (s) 1 + L(s) 1 + L(s) 1 + L(s) • Stability • Good tracking in the steady state • Good tracking in the transient • Good disturbance rejection (good regulation) • Good noise suppression • Robustness to model mismatch .EE 3CL4. L 11 18 / 19 Tim Davidson Step response of a class of second-order systems (review) A taste of poleplacement design Transient performance.

L 11 19 / 19 Tim Davidson Step response of a class of second-order systems (review) A taste of poleplacement design Transient performance.EE 3CL4. poles and zeros Summary and plan Plan: Analysis and design techniques Rest of course: about developing analysis and design techniques to address these goals • Routh-Hurwitz: • Enables us to determine stability without having to find the poles of the denominator of a transfer function • Root locus • Enables us to show how the poles move as a single design parameter (such as an amplifier gain) changes • Bode diagrams • There is often enough information in the Bode diagram of the plant/process to construct a highly effective design technique • Nyquist diagram • More advanced analysis of the frequency response that enables stability to be assessed even for complicated systems .

L 12 1 / 15 Tim Davidson Steady-state error EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 12 (Given as the 11th lecture in 2011) Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2011 .EE 3CL4.

L 12 2 / 15 Tim Davidson Steady-state error Outline 1 Steady-state error .EE 3CL4.

is to reduce this error. We will examine this error for the step. the final value theorem gives steady-state tracking error: ess = lim e(t ) = lim s t →∞ s →0 1 R (s) 1 + Gc (s)G(s) One of the fundamental reasons for using feedback.EE 3CL4. despite the cost of the extra components. ramp and parabolic inputs . L 12 4 / 15 Tim Davidson Steady-state error Steady-state error E (s) = R (s) − Y (s) = 1 R (s ) 1 + Gc (s)G(s) If the the conditions are satisfied.

den. K sN M i =1 (s + zi ) Q k =1 (s + pk ) • Limit as s → 0 depends strongly on N . • If N > 0. Gc (s)G(s) = where zi = 0 and pk = 0. Factorize num.EE 3CL4. ess = A 1 + Gc (0)G(0) . L 12 5 / 15 Tim Davidson Steady-state error Step input ess = lim e(t ) = lim s t →∞ s →0 1 R (s) 1 + Gc (s)G(s) • Step input: R (s ) = A s sA/s • ess = lims→0 1+G (s)G(s) = 1+lim A c s→0 Gc (s )G(s ) • Now let’s examine Gc (s )G(s ). lims→0 Gc (s )G(s ) → ∞ and ess = 0 • If N = 0..

ess = 1+G ( c 0)G(0) . for systems of type N > 1. L 12 6 / 15 Tim Davidson Steady-state error System types • Since N plays such a key role. it has been given a name • It is called the type number • Hence. ess for a step input is zero A • For systems of type 0.EE 3CL4.

for a type-0 system Kp = lim Gc (s)G(s) = s →0 K M i =1 (zi ) Q k =1 (pk ) • Note that this can be computed from positions of the non-zero poles and zeros . L 12 7 / 15 Tim Davidson Steady-state error Position error constant A • For type-0 systems. ess = 1+G ( c 0)G(0) A • Sometimes written as ess = 1+ Kp where Kp is the position error constant • Recall Gc (s )G(s ) = Q K M i =1 (s +zi ) Q sN Q k =1 (s +pk ) • Therefore.EE 3CL4.

.EE 3CL4. ess = lim A s(A/s2 ) = lim s→0 s + sGc (s )G(s ) s→0 1 + Gc (s )G(s ) A = lim s→0 sGc (s )G(s ) • Again. which represents a step change in velocity is r (t ) = At . L 12 8 / 15 Tim Davidson Steady-state error Ramp input • The ramp input. type number will play a key role. A • Therefore R (s ) = s 2 • Assuming conditions of final value theorem are satisfied.

Gc (s)G(s) has no poles at origin. for a ramp input ess = 0 . ess = K .EE 3CL4. Hence. ess → ∞ • For type-1 systems. Gc (s)G(s) has one pole at the origin. where K = v pk v k • Note Kv can be computed from non-zero poles and zeros • Suggests formal definition of velocity error constant Kv = lim sGc (s)G(s) s→0 • For type-N systems with N ≥ 2. L 12 9 / 15 Tim Davidson Steady-state error Velocity error constant • For a ramp input ess = lims→0 • Recall Gc (s)G(s) = A sGc (s)G(s) Q K M i =1 (s +zi ) Q sN Q k =1 (s +pk ) • For type-0 systems. Q K i zi A Q Hence.

.EE 3CL4. which represents a step change in acceleration is r (t ) = At 2 /2. ess = lim A s(A/s3 ) = lim 2 s→0 s Gc (s )G(s ) s→0 1 + Gc (s )G(s ) • Again. type number will play a key role. A • Therefore R (s ) = s 3 • Assuming conditions of final value theorem are satisfied. L 12 10 / 15 Tim Davidson Steady-state error Parabolic input • The parabolic input.

Ka can be computed from non-zero poles and zeros • Suggests formal definition of acceleration error constant Ka = lim s2 Gc (s)G(s) s→0 • For type-N systems with N ≥ 3.EE 3CL4. Q K i zi A Q Hence. Hence. for a parabolic input ess = 0 . where K = a pk a k • Again. ess = K . L 12 11 / 15 Tim Davidson Steady-state error Acceleration error constant • For a parabolic input ess = lims→0 • Recall Gc (s)G(s) = Q K M i =1 (s +zi ) Q sN Q k =1 (s +pk ) A s 2 Gc (s )G (s ) • For type-0 and type-1 systems. ess → ∞ • For type-2 systems. Gc (s)G(s) has two poles at the origin. Gc (s)G(s) has at most one pole at origin.

L 12 12 / 15 Tim Davidson Steady-state error Summary of steady-state errors .EE 3CL4.

type-0 system. ess = where Kp = K1 K . L 12 13 / 15 Tim Davidson Steady-state error Robot steering system Let’s examine a proportional controller: Gc (s) = K1 • Gc (s )G(s ) = K1 K /(τ s + 1) • Hence. • Hence. A 1 + Kp . for a step input.EE 3CL4.

type-1 system. ess = 0 • For ramp input.EE 3CL4. for a step input. L 12 14 / 15 Tim Davidson Steady-state error Robot steering system Let’s examine a proportional-plus-integral controller: Gc (s) = K1 + K2 K1 s + K2 = s s (K1 s+K2 ) • When K2 = 0. Gs (s )G(s ) = K s (τ s+1) • Hence. • Hence. ess = A . Kv where Kv = lims→0 sGc (s)G(s) = KK2 .

EE 3CL4. L 12 15 / 15 Tim Davidson Steady-state error Typical response to a sawtooth input .

EE 3CL4. L 13 1 / 12 Tim Davidson Stability Condition in terms of poles Condition in terms of denominator coefficients EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 13 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2011 .

L 13 2 / 12 Tim Davidson Stability Condition in terms of poles Condition in terms of denominator coefficients Outline 1 Stability Condition in terms of poles Condition in terms of denominator coefficients .EE 3CL4.

Jimi Hendrix. L 13 4 / 12 Tim Davidson Stability Condition in terms of poles Condition in terms of denominator coefficients Stability A systems is said to be stable if all bounded inputs r (t ) give rise to bounded outputs y (t ) Counterexamples • Albert Collins. Tom Morello (Rage Against the Machine). Kurt Cobain (Nirvana) • Tacoma Narrows .EE 3CL4. Jeff Beck (Yardbirds). Pete Townshend (The Who).

EE 3CL4. L 13 5 / 12 Tim Davidson Stability Condition in terms of poles Condition in terms of denominator coefficients Conditions for stability ∞ y (t ) = −∞ g (τ )r (t − τ ) d τ Let r (t ) be such that |r (t )| ≤ ¯ r ∞ |y (t )| = −∞ ∞ g (τ )r (t − τ ) d τ g (τ )r (t − τ ) d τ −∞ ∞ ≤ ≤¯ r g (τ ) d τ −∞ ∞ −∞ Using this: system G(s) is stable iff g (τ ) d τ is finite .

system is stable iff poles have negative real parts . −σk . the impulse response is g (t ) = k Ak e−σk t + m Bm e−αm t sin(ωm t + θm ) Stability requires |g (t )| dt to be bounded.EE 3CL4. that requires σk > 0. −αm ± j ωm Assuming N = 0 and no repeated roots. L 13 6 / 12 Tim Davidson Stability Condition in terms of poles Condition in terms of denominator coefficients Condition in terms of poles? We want ∞ −∞ g (τ ) d τ to be finite Can we determine this from G(s)? We can write a general rational transfer function in the form G (s ) = K sN k (s i (s + zi ) 2 m (s + 2αm s 2 + ω 2 )) + ( αm m + σk ) Poles: 0. αm > 0 In fact.

then y (t ) = sin(t ).EE 3CL4. simple pole at origin ∞ • y (t ) = −∞ r (t ) dt • if r (t ) = cos (t ). then y (t ) = t . Not bounded • Consider G(s ) = 1/(s 2 + 1). simple poles at s = ±j 1 • Unit step response: u (t ) − cos(t ). or a repeated pole on j ω -axis output is always unbounded . Bounded • What if r (t ) is a sinusoid of frequency 1/(2π ) rad/sec? Not bounded If G(s) has a pole with positive real part. Bounded • If r (t ) = u (t ). which is bounded. which is bounded. L 13 7 / 12 Tim Davidson Stability Condition in terms of poles Condition in terms of denominator coefficients Marginal stability • Consider G(s ) = 1/s .

Much easier than having to determine impulse response Can we determine stability without having to determine the poles? Yes! Routh-Hurwitz condition . L 13 8 / 12 Tim Davidson Stability Condition in terms of poles Condition in terms of denominator coefficients Routh-Hurwitz condition We have seen how to determine stability from the poles.EE 3CL4.

. . L 13 9 / 12 Tim Davidson Stability Condition in terms of poles Condition in terms of denominator coefficients Routh-Hurwitz condition Let G(s) = p (s ) q (s) . . what is sign of coeffs of sk ? the same! . rn ) = 0 If all ri are real and in left half plane. . By multiplying out.EE 3CL4. . . . a1 s + a0 = an (s − r1 )(s − r2 ) . q (s) = 0 can be written as q (s) = an sn − an (r1 + r2 + · · · + rn )sn−1 + an (r1 r2 + r2 r3 + . where q (s) = an sn + an−1 sn−1 + . )sn−3 + · · · + (−1)n an (r1 r2 r3 . . . )sn−2 − an (r1 r2 r3 + r1 r2 r4 + . (s − rn ) where ri are the roots of q (s) = 0. .

not that useful for design A more sophisticated analysis leads to the Routh-Hurwitz condition. L 13 10 / 12 Tim Davidson Stability Condition in terms of poles Condition in terms of denominator coefficients Routh-Hurwitz condition That observation leads to a necessary condition.EE 3CL4. which is necessary and sufficient Hence. can be quite useful for design . Hence.

hn−1 an−2 an−3 bn−3 cn−3 . ... . .. . .. .. . .. L 13 11 / 12 Tim Davidson R-H cond: A first look Consider an sn + an−1 sn−1 + an−2 sn−1 + · · · + a1 s + a0 = 0 Stability Condition in terms of poles Condition in terms of denominator coefficients Construct a table of the form sn sn−1 sn−2 sn−3 . s0 where bn−1 = b n −3 = −1 an−1 an−1 an−2 − an an−3 −1 = a n −1 a n −1 an an−1 a n −4 a n −5 cn−1 = an a n −1 −1 bn−1 an−2 an−3 an−1 bn−1 an−3 bn−3 an an−1 bn−1 cn−1 .. an−4 an−5 bn−5 cn−5 . .. . ... . .EE 3CL4. .

hn−1 an−2 an−3 bn−3 cn−3 .. Stability Condition in terms of poles Condition in terms of denominator coefficients .. .. an−4 an−5 bn−5 cn−5 . . . .. . s0 Loosely speaking: • Number of roots in the right half plane is equal to the number of sign changes in the first column of the table • Stability iff no sign changes in the first column More sophisticated statement in next lecture an an−1 bn−1 cn−1 .. . .. . . . L 13 12 / 12 Tim Davidson R-H cond: A first look Consider an sn + an−1 sn−1 + an−2 sn−1 + · · · + a1 s + a0 = 0 Construct a table of the form sn sn−1 sn−2 sn−3 . .EE 3CL4.... . ..

L 14 1 / 19 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 14 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2011 .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 14 2 / 19 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control Outline 1 Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control .

where q (s) = an sn + an−1 sn−1 + . a1 s + a0 System is stable iff all poles of G(s) have negative real parts Recall. poles are solutions to q (s) = 0 Can we find a necessary and sufficient condition that depends only on ak so that we don’t have to solve q (s) = 0? . . .EE 3CL4. L 14 4 / 19 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control Stability Let G(s) = p (s ) q (s) .

> 0 . ..EE 3CL4.. . . Row 0 an an−1 bn−1 cn−1 . . . . .. ... . . . . 2 Procedure provided on the following slides 3 4 Count the sign changes in the first column That is the number of roots in the right half plane Stability (poles in LHP) iff ak > 0 and all terms in first col... hn−1 an−2 an−3 bn−3 cn−3 . . with an > 0 an sn + an−1 sn−1 + an−2 sn−2 + . a1 s + a0 = 0 Construct a table of the form Row n Row n − 1 Row n − 2 Row n − 3 . . . L 14 5 / 19 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control Routh-Hurwitz condition 1 Consider. an−4 an−5 bn−5 cn−5 ....

.. . . ..1: Arrange coefficients of q (s) in first two rows Row n Row n − 1 an an−1 an−2 an−3 an−4 an−5 . a1 s + a0 = 0 Step 2. L 14 6 / 19 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control Constructing RH table an sn + an−1 sn−1 + an−2 sn−2 + ..EE 3CL4..

L 14 7 / 19 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control Interlude Determinant of a 2 × 2 matrix: a b c d = ad − cb .EE 3CL4.

. L 14 8 / 19 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control Constructing RH table Step 2. .2: Construct 3rd row using determinants of 2 × 2 matrices constructed from rows above Row n Row n − 1 Row n − 2 an an−1 bn−1 −1 a n −1 an−2 an−3 an−4 an−5 .. bn−1 = an a n −1 an−2 an−3 ..EE 3CL4..

EE 3CL4.. . . L 14 9 / 19 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control Constructing RH table Step 2..... cont: Construct 3rd row using determinants of 2 × 2 matrices constructed from rows above Row n Row n − 1 Row n − 2 an an−1 bn−1 −1 a n −1 an−2 an−3 bn−3 an−4 an−5 .2.. bn−3 = an a n −1 an−4 an−5 .

. L 14 10 / 19 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control Constructing RH table Step 2. first ... cn−1 = a n −1 b n −1 an−3 bn−3 Step 2.4: Continue in this pattern.. an−4 an−5 . . Caveat: If all elements of first column are non-zero Will come back to that...EE 3CL4. Let’s see some examples.3: Construct 4th row using determinants of 2 × 2 matrices constructed from rows above Row n Row n − 1 Row n − 2 Row n − 3 an an−1 bn−1 cn−1 −1 bn−1 an−2 an−3 bn−3 ....

L 14 11 / 19 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control RH table. second order system is stable iff all three denominator coefficients have the same sign .EE 3CL4. second-order system q (s) = a2 s2 + a1 s + a0 Row 2 Row 1 Row 0 b1 = −1 a1 a2 a1 a2 a1 b1 a0 0 a0 0 = a0 Therefore.

b1 > 0 is equiv. and this implies a1 > 0. L 14 12 / 19 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control RH table. to a2 a1 > a0 a3 . third order system q (s) = a3 s3 + a2 s2 + a1 s + a0 Row 3 Row 2 Row 1 Row 0 a3 a2 b1 c1 a1 a0 0 0 b1 = −1 a2 a3 a2 a1 a0 c1 = −1 b1 a2 b1 a0 0 = a0 Therefore. b1 > 0 and a0 > 0. necessary and sufficient condition for third-order system to be stable is that a2 > 0.EE 3CL4. . if a3 > 0.

L 14 13 / 19 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control RH table. higher order systems Consider a general case: n sn + an−1 sn−1 + an−2 sn−2 + · · · + a1 s + ωn =0 ˜ = s/ωn Normalize to natural frequency by defining s 2 ˜ n −2 n−1 ˜ ˜n +(an−1 /ωn )s ˜n−1 +(an−2 /ωn s )s +· · ·+(a1 /ωn )s +1 = 0 .EE 3CL4.

L 14 14 / 19 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control RH table. we need to be a bit more sophisticated (see next lecture) .EE 3CL4. and then taking the limit as → 0 after the table has been constructed. we can proceed by replacing the zero by a small positive number . dealing with zeros • The Routh-Hurwitz table encounters trouble when there is a zero in the first column • The next row involves (−1/0) times a determinant • When some other elements in that row are not zero. • When a whole row is zero.

L 14 15 / 19 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control RH table.EE 3CL4. consider q (s) = s5 + 2s4 + 2s3 + 4s2 + 11s + 10 Routh table Row 5 Row 4 Row 3 Row 2 Row 1 Row 0 c1 = 4 − 12 = 1 2 0← c1 d1 10 2 4 6 10 0 0 d1 = 11 10 0 0 0 0 6c1 − 10 →6 c1 −12 Two sign changes. zero first element in non-zero row As an example. hence unstable with two RHP poles .

L 14 16 / 19 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control Disk drive read control Add velocity feedback (switch closed) Using block diagram manipulation G1 (s) = 5000 s + 1000 Gs (s) = 1 s(s + 20) .EE 3CL4.

eqn: s3 + 1020s2 + (20000 + 5000Ka K1 )s + 5000Ka = 0 . L 14 17 / 19 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control Closed loop T (s ) = Y (s) Ka G1 (s)G2 (s) = R (s) 1 + Ka G1 (s)G2 (s)(1 + K1 s) Hence.EE 3CL4. char.

Ka = 100 and K1 = 0.EE 3CL4. L 14 18 / 19 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz condition Disk drive read control Stabilizing values of K1 and Ka s3 + 1020s2 + (20000 + 5000Ka K1 )s + 5000Ka = 0 Routh table Row 3 Row 2 Row 1 Row 0 b1 = 1 1020 b1 5000Ka 20000 + 5000Ka K1 5000Ka 1020(20000 + 5000Ka K1 ) − 5000Ka 1020 For stability we require b1 > 0 and Ka > 0 For example. That pair gives a 2% settling time of 260ms .05.

EE 3CL4. L 15 1 / 16 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz revision Dealing with zero rows Applications of Routh Hurwitz condition Turning control of a tracked vehicle EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 15 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2011 .

L 15 2 / 16 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz revision Dealing with zero rows Outline Applications of Routh Hurwitz condition Turning control of a tracked vehicle 1 Routh Hurwitz revision Dealing with zero rows 2 Applications of Routh Hurwitz condition Turning control of a tracked vehicle .EE 3CL4.

. L 15 4 / 16 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz revision Dealing with zero rows Recall Routh Hurwitz condition 1 Determine the characteristic polynomial (denominator of transfer function).. a1 s + a0 Applications of Routh Hurwitz condition Turning control of a tracked vehicle 2 Construct the Routh Table Row n Row n − 1 Row n − 2 Row n − 3 . Row 0 an an−1 bn−1 cn−1 . . . . > 0 . ... . Construction procedure reviewed on next slide 3 System is stable iff ak > 0 and all terms in first col. . . an−4 an−5 bn−5 cn−5 .. hn−1 an−2 an−3 bn−3 cn−3 . . . . ..EE 3CL4. . .. .... with an > 0 q (s) = an sn + an−1 sn−1 + an−2 sn−2 + ..

. multiply 1 −1 • first element − of previous row = q1 by • determinant of 2 × 2 matrix formed in the following way: • The first column contains the first elements of the two rows above the element to be calculated • The second column contains the elements of the two rows above that lie one column to the right of the element to be calculated Applications of Routh Hurwitz condition Turning control of a tracked vehicle p1 q1 r1 a3 q3 r3 p5 q5 r5 . .. • Therefore r3 = −1 q1 p1 p5 q1 q5 = −1 p1 q5 − q1 p5 q1 .EE 3CL4.. . L 15 5 / 16 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz revision Dealing with zero rows Construction procedure Row k + 2 Row k + 1 Row k To compute r3 ....

but other elements in the row are not zero • Replace the zero by a small positive number. say . L 15 6 / 16 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz revision Dealing with zero rows Zero in the first column Applications of Routh Hurwitz condition Turning control of a tracked vehicle • When there is a zero in the first column. and once the table has been constructed.EE 3CL4. take the limit as → 0. (See previous lecture) .

EE 3CL4. and more useful in design • So how can we deal with this? • Routh Hurwitz procedure provides an “auxiliary polynomial” that contains the roots of interest as factors • The coefficients of this polynomial appear in the row above the zero row • We replace the zero row by the coefficients of the derivative of the auxiliary polynomial . it yields useful Applications of Routh Hurwitz condition Turning control of a tracked vehicle information for design • Zero rows occur when polynomial has either equal and opposite roots on the real axis. or a pair of complex conjugate roots on the imaginary axis. L 15 7 / 16 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz revision Dealing with zero rows Zero row • It is possible that the Routh Hurwitz procedure can produce a zero row • While this complicates the procedure. The latter is more common.

EE 3CL4. L 15 8 / 16 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz revision Dealing with zero rows Zero row example • q (s ) = s 5 + 2s 4 + 24s 3 + 48s 2 − 25s − 50 = 0 • Construct table Applications of Routh Hurwitz condition Turning control of a tracked vehicle Row 5 Row 4 Row 3 1 2 0 24 48 0 −25 −50 ˜ (s) = 2s4 + 48s2 − 50 • Auxiliary polynomial: q This is actually a factor of q (s). ˜ (s) are s2 = 1. Replace zero row by these coefficients Row 5 1 24 −25 Row 4 2 48 −50 Row 3 8 96 . ±j 5 Hence roots of q ˜ (s) 3 • dq ds = 8s + 96s . roots of q ˜ (s) are s = ±1. −25 Using quadratic formula.

We have seen that roots of q • Hence q (s ) does indeed have one root with a positive real part. cont • Now complete the table in the usual way Applications of Routh Hurwitz condition Turning control of a tracked vehicle Row 5 Row 4 Row 3 Row 2 Row 1 Row 0 1 2 8 24 112. Indicates one root in right half plane. • Recall q ˜ (s) Indeed.7 −50 24 48 96 −50 0 −25 −50 • One sign change in first column.EE 3CL4. . L 15 9 / 16 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz revision Dealing with zero rows Zero row example. ˜ (s) is a factor of q (s). by polyn division q (s) = (s + 2)q ˜ (s) are ±1 and ±j 5.

L 15 11 / 16 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz revision Dealing with zero rows Turning control of a tracked vehicle Applications of Routh Hurwitz condition Turning control of a tracked vehicle Select K and a so that • the closed-loop is stable.EE 3CL4. and • the steady-state error due to a ramp is at most 24% of the magnitude of the command .

EE 3CL4. L 15 12 / 16 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz revision Dealing with zero rows Deal with stability first Transfer function: T (s) = Gc (s)G(s) 1+Gc (s)G(s) Applications of Routh Hurwitz condition Turning control of a tracked vehicle Char. equation: s4 + 8s3 + 17s2 + (K + 10)s + Ka = 0 Routh table Row 4 Row 3 Row 2 Row 1 Row 0 b3 = 126 − K 8 1 8 b3 c3 Ka 17 K+10 Ka Ka c3 = b3 (K + 10) − 8Ka b3 For stability we require b3 > 0. c3 > 0 and Ka > 0 .

EE 3CL4. )(126−K ) • last constraint becomes a < (K +10 64K • Region of stable parameters Applications of Routh Hurwitz condition Turning control of a tracked vehicle . L 15 13 / 16 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz revision Dealing with zero rows Stability region These constraints can be rewritten as K < 126 Ka > 0 (K + 10)(126 − K ) − 64Ka > 0 For positive K .

we have ess = A/Kv . a) pair in stable region with Ka > 41.67.24 ≈ 41.EE 3CL4. • Any (K . where Applications of Routh Hurwitz condition Turning control of a tracked vehicle Kv = lim sGc (s)G(s) = Ka/10 s→0 • Therefore. ess = 10A/(Ka) • To obtain ess < 0. L 15 14 / 16 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz revision Dealing with zero rows Steady-state error to ramp • For a ramp input r (t ) = At .24A.67 will satisfy design constraints . we need Ka > 10/0.

6) .0. L 15 15 / 16 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz revision Dealing with zero rows Set of parameters with desired performance Applications of Routh Hurwitz condition Turning control of a tracked vehicle For positive K .EE 3CL4. • stability region is below the blue solid curve • desired steady-state error region is above the red dashed curve and below the blue solid curve • Design example: (70.

L 15 16 / 16 Tim Davidson Routh Hurwitz revision Dealing with zero rows Ramp response Ramp response for case of K = 70 and a = 0.EE 3CL4.6 Applications of Routh Hurwitz condition Turning control of a tracked vehicle .

L 16 1 / 18 Tim Davidson The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 16 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2011 .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 16 2 / 18 Tim Davidson The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure Outline 1 The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure .

EE 3CL4. L 16 4 / 18 Tim Davidson The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure Simple example Transfer function T (s) = KG(s) 1+KG(s) Char. eqn: s2 + 2s + K = 0 Closed-loop poles: s1 . s2 = −1 ± √ 1−K What does this look like as K goes from 0 to +∞? .

L 16 5 / 18 Tim Davidson The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure Simple example .EE 3CL4.

s2 = (−a ± √ a2 − 4K )/2 What does this look like as a goes from 0 to +∞? .EE 3CL4. eqn: s2 + as + K = 0 Closed-loop poles: s1 . L 16 6 / 18 Tim Davidson The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure Another example Transfer function T (s) = Consider K to be fixed KG(s) 1+KG(s) Char.

L 16 7 / 18 Tim Davidson The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure Another example .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 16 8 / 18 Tim Davidson The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure What to do in the general case? In the previous examples we exploited the simple factorization of second order polynomials To be truly useful. we need a more general procedure .

L 16 9 / 18 Tim Davidson The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure Principles of general procedure Transfer function T (s) = KG(s) 1+KG(s) = p (s ) q (s ) Closed loop poles are solutions to q (s) = 0 These are also solutions to 1 + KG(s) = 0 In polar form. we must have |KG(s0 )| = 1 where k is any integer We will also keep in mind that R (s) and Y (s) correspond to real signals. closed-loop poles are either real or occur in complex-conjugate pairs and ∠KG(s0 ) = ∠(180◦ + k 360◦ ) . Hence. |KG(s)|∠KG(s) = −1 + j 0 = 1∠(180◦ + k 360◦ ) Therefore. for s0 to be a closed-loop pole.EE 3CL4.

open loop poles are −pi ’s For s0 to be a closed-loop pole |KKG | M n n j =1 |s0 M i =1 |s0 + zi | =1 + pj | ∠K + ∠K G + i =1 ∠(s0 + zi ) − j =1 ∠(s0 + pi ) = 180◦ + k 360◦ Can we interpret these expressions in a geometric way? . ( s j =1 +pj ) which means that the open loop zeros are −zi ’s. we must have |KG(s0 )| = 1 and ∠KG(s0 ) = ∠(180◦ + k 360◦ ) Write G(s) = Q KG M (s+zi ) Qn i = 1 .EE 3CL4. L 16 10 / 18 Tim Davidson The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure In terms of poles and zeros For s0 to be a closed-loop pole.

• |v − u | is the length of the vector from u to v .EE 3CL4. • Can you describe v − u in geometric terms? • Use the fact that v = u + (v − u ). That is. • That means that v − u is the vector from u to v • v − u = ej θ . L 16 11 / 18 Tim Davidson The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure Vector difference • Let u and v be complex numbers. • ∠(v − u ) is the angle of the vector from u to v • In our expressions we have terms of the form s0 + zi = s0 − (−zi ) and s0 + pj = s0 − (−pj ) .

EE 3CL4. L 16 12 / 18 Tim Davidson Geometric interpretation Magnitude criterion: |KKG | n j =1 M i =1 The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure |s0 + zi | =1 |s0 + pj | |KKG | M i =1 distances n j =1 distances from zeros of G(s) to s0 =1 from poles of G(s) to s0 Phase criterion: M n ∠K + ∠KG + i =1 M ∠(s0 + zi ) − j =1 ∠(s0 + pi ) = 180◦ + k 360◦ ∠K + ∠KG + i =1 n angles from zeros of G(s) to s0 angles from poles of G(s) to s0 = 180◦ + k 360◦ j =1 − .

EE 3CL4. L 16 13 / 18 Tim Davidson The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure Formal Procedure We will first consider the case of K going from 0 to +∞ .

L 16 14 / 18 Tim Davidson The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure Step 1 • Write the characteristic equation as 1 + F (s ) = 0 • Rearrange so that the parameter of interest is contained in the multiplier K in an expr’n of the form 1 + KP (s) = 0. where the numerator and denominator of P (s) are monic polynomials (the coefficient of the highest power of s is 1). to n j =1 (s + pj ) + K M i =1 (s + zi ) = 0 • Where does the locus start? • Where are poles for K = 0? • They are the poles of P (s ). i =1 (s +zi ) • Factorize P (s ) into poles and zeros.EE 3CL4. P (s ) = Qn (s+p ) j =1 j QM • Hence characteristic equation is equiv. Mark each with an × .

In that case. Mark each with a ◦ • Since M ≤ n there will often be zeros at ∞.EE 3CL4. root locus (of the closed loop) starts at the open loop poles and ends at the open loop zeros. L 16 15 / 18 Tim Davidson The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure Step 1 n M (s + pj ) + K j =1 i =1 (s + zi ) = 0 • Where do the poles end up? • Where are poles for K → ∞? • Rewrite as (1/K ) n j =1 (s + pj ) + M i =1 (s + zi ) = 0 • The zeros of P (s ). too Summary: Root locus starts at poles of P (s) and ends at zeros of P (s) Note: Often P (s) = Gc (s)G(s) and K is an amplifier gain. .

EE 3CL4. What does this tell us when s0 is on the real axis? Any complex conjugate pairs have no impact . L 16 16 / 18 Tim Davidson The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure Step 2 Phase condition: M n ∠K + i =1 ∠(s0 + zi ) − j =1 ∠(s0 + pj ) = 180◦ + k 360◦ Recall that for K > 0. ∠K = 0.

cont. right pole generates an angle of 180◦ . Phase condition for K > 0: M i =1 The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure ∠(s0 + zi ) − n j =1 ∠(s0 + pj ) = 180◦ + k 360◦ Let’s examine effects of poles on the real axis • For s0.2 .1 are zero • For s0. Therefore: sections of real axis on the locus must lie to left of odd number of (real-valued) poles and (real-valued) zeros of P (s) . L 16 17 / 18 Tim Davidson Step 2.3 . all angles from poles to s0.1 .EE 3CL4. − • For s0.4 . others zero • For s0. − n j =1 n j =1 ∠(s0 + pj ) = −360◦ ∠(s0 + pj ) = −540◦ Something similar for zeros.

Zeros s = −2 Step 2: Determine segments on real axis In this case. L 16 18 / 18 Tim Davidson The Root Locus Procedure Preliminary examples Formal Procedure Example P (s ) = 2(s+2) s(s+4) Step 1: Poles s = 0. −4. this is enough to generate the complete root locus .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 17 1 / 15 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Review of Principles Outline of steps Review of Steps 1 and 2 Step 3 Step 4 EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 17 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2011 .

EE 3CL4. L 17 2 / 15 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Review of Principles Outline of steps Review of Steps 1 and 2 Step 3 Step 4 Outline 1 Sketching the Root Locus Review of Principles Outline of steps Review of Steps 1 and 2 Step 3 Step 4 .

• We would like to gain insight from how the closed-loop poles move in order to guide our design of the controller .EE 3CL4. L 17 4 / 15 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Review of Principles Outline of steps Review of Steps 1 and 2 Step 3 Step 4 Principles • We would like to know where the closed-loop poles go as a parameter of the loop (typically a controller design parameter) is changed.

L 17 5 / 15 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Review of Principles Outline of steps Review of Steps 1 and 2 Step 3 Step 4 Sketching the Root Locus .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. where P (s) = QM i =1 (s +zi ) Qn j =1 (s +pj ) K contains the parameter of interest • We will focus on the case in which K ≥ 0 • We will discuss the “negative” root locus case later • Root loci start at poles of P (s ) and end at zeros of P (s ). L 17 6 / 15 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Review of Principles Outline of steps Review of Steps 1 and 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 1 • Write the denominator of the closed-loop transfer function in the form 1 + KP (s) = 0. including the zeros of P (s) at infinity • Mark the poles of P (s ) with an × • Mark the (finite) zeros of P (s ) with a ◦ .

EE 3CL4. • any part of the root locus on the real axis lies to the left of an odd number of (real-valued) poles and (real-valued) zeros of P (s) . we showed that for K > 0. L 17 7 / 15 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Review of Principles Outline of steps Review of Steps 1 and 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 2 Using the phase condition.

L 17 8 / 15 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Review of Principles Outline of steps Review of Steps 1 and 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 3 • P (s ) = QM i =1 (s +zi ) Qn j =1 (s +pj ) • closed-loop characteristic equation n M (1/K ) j =1 (s + pj ) + i =1 (s + zi ) = 0 • As K → +∞. n − M zeros at infinity • How do the loci approach the zeros at infinity? • Along equi-angular rays that intersect somewhere on the real axis .. M Therefore.. • How many zeros at infinity? Recall that P (s ) = s sn +. there are M finite values of s that satisfy the equation +.EE 3CL4...

. (n − M − 1) . all angles are approximately the same. is approx: (M − n)φ = 180◦ + k 360◦ • Re-arranging. 1. phase cond. and using multiples of 360◦ . φ= ◦ 2k +1 n−M 180 for k = 0.EE 3CL4. . . . L 17 9 / 15 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Review of Principles Outline of steps Review of Steps 1 and 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 3. Angles • Consider a point s0 on the root locus far from the poles of P (s) and the finite zeros of P (s) • Phase condition (for positive K ): M i =1 ∠(s0 + zi ) − n j =1 ∠(s0 + pj ) = 180◦ + k 360◦ • Since the point s0 is far away from all −zi and −pj . say φ • Hence.

the roots follow a similar ˜ (s) = 1/(s − σA )n−M . L 17 10 / 15 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Review of Principles Outline of steps Review of Steps 1 and 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 3. Centroid • From where do these rays eminate? i =1 (s +zi ) • Recall P (s ) = Qn (s+p ) j =1 j QM • For large s . path to those of P • By equating first couple of terms of Taylor’s expansion. as s gets large. effects of finite zeros almost cancelled out by that of M of the finite poles • Therefore. σA = poles of P (s) − zeros of P (s) n−M n j =1 (−pj ) = − M i =1 (−zi ) n−M .EE 3CL4.

−4. -2.[−∞.EE 3CL4. 0 • Examine from the right for intervals that are to the left of an odd number of poles and zeros • [−1. -4. [−4. −4. 0]. Zeros of P (s): s = −1 Step 2: Intervals on real axis: • Order poles and zeros of P (s ): -4. L 17 11 / 15 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Review of Principles Outline of steps Review of Steps 1 and 2 Step 3 Step 4 Example +1 =0 Sketch the root locus of the char. −2. −4] . -1. eqn: 1 + K s(s+s 2)(s+4)2 Step 1: Poles of P (s): s = 0. −2].

L 17 12 / 15 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Review of Principles Outline of steps Review of Steps 1 and 2 Step 3 Step 4 Example Partial root locus after Step 2 .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. Hence. angles are 60. 180. L 17 13 / 15 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Review of Principles Outline of steps Review of Steps 1 and 2 Step 3 Step 4 Example Step 3: Asymptotes: • Angles: n − M = 4 − 1 = 3. 300 Note that we already knew 180! • Centroid: σA = −3 .

EE 3CL4. L 17 14 / 15 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Review of Principles Outline of steps Review of Steps 1 and 2 Step 3 Step 4 Example Hence the complete root locus What is the largest gain for which system is stable? .

but remember not all zero rows correspond to closed-loop poles on j ω -axis • Find the closed-loop pole positions by factorizing the auxiliary polynomial (polynomial with coeffs in row above zero row) . • Also find the positions of these closed-loop poles • How can we do this? • Routh-Hurwitz table (as in tutorial) • Gains of interest correspond to zero rows.EE 3CL4. L 17 15 / 15 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Review of Principles Outline of steps Review of Steps 1 and 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 4 • Find values of K for which closed-loop poles lie on imaginary axis.

L 18 1/8 Tim Davidson Sketching the root locus Compensator design for VTOL aircraft EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 18 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2011 .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 18 2/8 Tim Davidson Sketching the root locus Compensator design for VTOL aircraft Outline 1 Sketching the root locus 2 Compensator design for VTOL aircraft .

L 18 4/8 Tim Davidson Sketching the root locus Compensator design for VTOL aircraft Procedure .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. . . . 1. . put a ◦ at the −zi ’s Loci start at the ×’s and end at the ◦’s or at infinity Write the denominator of the closed loop as Q M (s+z ) 2 Parts of loci on real axis: to the left of an odd number of (real-valued) poles and (real-valued) zeros of P (s) n − M asymptotes as K gets large: Angles φ= Centroid: σA = 2k + 1 180◦ n−M for k = 0. with P (s) = Qn j =1 (s +pj ) Put an × at the −pj ’s. (n − M − 1) n j =1 (−pj ) M i =1 (−zi ) 3 − n−M 4 Roots on j ω -axis and corresponding K ’s from zero rows and auxiliary polynomial of Routh-Hurwitz procedure . L 18 5/8 Tim Davidson Sketching the root locus Compensator design for VTOL aircraft Steps 1 to 4 1 i i =1 1 + KP (s).

EE 3CL4. P (s ) in root locus procedure is G(s ) • What can we do if the root locus is not to our liking. L 18 6/8 Tim Davidson Sketching the root locus Compensator design for VTOL aircraft Using root locus for design • For this loop. • Can we use the insight that we have developed to Q ˜ (s+zi ) design a compensator Gc (s) = Q( ˜j ) that we insert s+p between the amplifier and G(s) so that the root locus with P (s) = Gc (s)G(s) is more to our liking? • Note that in the compensated system • the zeros of P (s ) are the −zi ’s from G(s ) ˜i ’s from Gc (s) and the −z • the zeros of P (s ) are the −pj ’s from G(s ) ˜j ’s from Gc (s) and the −p • Let’s attempt this for a VTOL aircraft .

L 18 8/8 Tim Davidson Sketching the root locus Compensator design for VTOL aircraft Compensator design for VTOL aircraft • In this experiment we will work with a model for the vertical control system for a VTOL aircraft. use insight from the root locus sketching procedure to choose a compensator so that the closed-loop has a satisfactory root locus . such as the Harrier jump jet • The transfer function of the process/plant can be approximated by G(s) = 1 s(s−1) • Do you notice anything interesting about this model? • Tasks: • Sketch the root locus of a proportional controller • Highlight some features of that root locus • If the proportional root locus is not satisfactory.EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 19 1 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Example EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 19 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2011 .

EE 3CL4. L 19 2 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Outline 1 Sketching the Root Locus Example General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 2 Example .

L 19 4 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 General Procedure Example .EE 3CL4.

. put a ◦ at the −zi ’s Loci start at the ×’s and end at the ◦’s or at infinity Write the denominator of the closed loop as Q M (s+z ) Example 2 Parts of loci on real axis: to the left of an odd number of (real-valued) poles and (real-valued) zeros of P (s) n − M asymptotes as K gets large: Angles φ= Centroid: σA = 2k + 1 180◦ n−M for k = 0. . (n − M − 1) n j =1 (−pj ) M i =1 (−zi ) 3 − n−M 4 Roots on j ω -axis and corresponding K ’s from zero rows and auxiliary polynomial of Routh-Hurwitz procedure . L 19 5 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Steps 1 to 4 1 i i =1 1 + KP (s). . with P (s) = Qn j =1 (s +pj ) Put an × at the −pj ’s. 1.EE 3CL4. .

EE 3CL4. often just a pair • Due to phase criterion. when a pair. angles of break away are evenly Example spaced. Examples: • What is the point of departure? . they depart at ±90◦ . the root locus can leave the real axis only in even multiplicities. L 19 6 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 5 • Since complex poles appear in conjugate pairs.

L 19 7 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 5 • Recall that the characteristic equation is 1 + KP (s ) = 0 • Rewrite as K = p (s ). p (s ) = −1/P (s ) • We want to find the largest K such that there real Example solutions to K = p(s) in the neighbourhood of interest (s ) • This will occur at the solutions of dp ds = 0 that are real .EE 3CL4.e. i..

with P (s ) = s(s+ 2)(s+3) .EE 3CL4. 2] is −2. L 19 8 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 5. • Outcome of Steps 1-3 of root locus sketching procedure (Step 4 is not relevant in this case) Example • Step 5: Define p (s ) = −1/P (s ). This is the breakaway point .46. Example (s+1) • Root locus of 1 + KP (s ). (s) • dp ds = 0 ⇒ 2s3 + 8s2 + 10s + 6 = 0 • The only real root in the interval [−3.

Example • In which direction does the locus leave −p1 ? • Use the fact that the phase condition must hold at any point on the root locus. e. s1 . −p1 . e. L 19 9 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 6 • Determine angle of departure from (complex) poles and angle of arrival to (complex) zeros • Let’s consider a particular pole.EE 3CL4.g. • Apply that to test points close to −p1 ..g..

L 19 10 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 6.EE 3CL4. cont Example • Phase condition at test point s1 : sum of angles from zeros to s1 − sum of angles from other poles to s1 − angle from (−p1 ) to s1 = 180◦ + k 360◦ • When s1 is close to −p1 the angles from zeros and angles from other poles are essentially the same as the angles to −p1 .

. • Hence. cont Example • Phase condition at test point s1 : −θ2 − θ3 − θ1 = 180◦ • θ2 ≈ 90◦ θ3 from triangle with corners −p3 . θ1 = 90◦ − θ3 . L 19 11 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 6.EE 3CL4. −p1 and Re(−p1 ) + j 0.

EE 3CL4. L 19 12 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 6. cont Example Note that conjugate pole moves in a direction that preserves conjugate symmetry .

angle of departure from pole at −pj0 is θj 0 = − angles from zeros to (−pj0 ) angles from other poles to (−pj0 ) − 180◦ + k 360◦ Example • Conjugate pairs move in complementary directions • Angle of arrival at zeros is calculated in the same way .EE 3CL4. Summary • Using the phase condition. L 19 13 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 6.

EE 3CL4. L 19 14 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 7 Example • Join the segments that have been drawn • with a smooth curve • Curve should be as simple as possible • Curve must respect conjugate symmetry of poles and zeros of a system with real inputs and real outputs .

L 19 15 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 General Procedure Example .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4, L 19 17 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus
General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7

Example
Sketch root locus of 1 + KP (s) = 0 for K ≥ 0, where P (s) = 1 s4 + 12s3 + 64s2 + 128s

Example

1

poles: 0, −4, −4 ± j 4; zeros: no finite zeros; n − M = 4 − 0 =⇒ 4 asymptotes Segments of real axis: [−4, 0] Angles of asymptotes: 45◦ , 135◦ , 225◦ , 315◦ Centroid: (−4 − 4 − 4)/4 = −3

2 3

EE 3CL4, L 19 18 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus
General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7

Example, cont
Partial sketch from Steps 1–3

Example

EE 3CL4, L 19 19 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus
General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7

Example, cont

Example

4

Closed loop denom: s4 + 12s3 + 64s2 + 128s + K = 0 Routh table implies stability for K < 568.89. Poles on j ω axis at ±j 3.266 To find breakaway point, p(s) = −(s4 + 12s3 + 64s2 + 128s). Set deriv. to zero: 4s3 + 36s2 + 128s + 128 = 0 Breakaway point ≈ −1.577

5

EE 3CL4, L 19 20 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus
General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7

Example, cont
Partial sketch from Steps 1–5

Example

EE 3CL4, L 19 21 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus
General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7

Example, cont

Example

6

Angle of departure from −4 + j 4: Angle from pole at −4: 90◦ Angle from pole at −4 − j 4: 90◦ Angle from pole at origin: θ3 = 135◦ Hence angle of departure: θ1 = −90◦ − 90◦ − 135◦ − 180◦ ≡ 225◦

EE 3CL4, L 19 22 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus
General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7

Example, cont
Partial sketch from Steps 1–6

Example

EE 3CL4, L 19 23 / 23 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus
General Procedure Review of Steps 1–4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7

Actual Root Locus

Example

EE 3CL4, L 20 1 / 13 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Parameter Design “Negative” Root Locus

EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems
Lecture 20 Tim Davidson
McMaster University

Winter 2011

EE 3CL4. L 20 2 / 13 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Parameter Design “Negative” Root Locus Outline 1 Sketching the Root Locus 2 Parameter Design 3 “Negative” Root Locus .

L 20 4 / 13 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Parameter Design “Negative” Root Locus General Procedure (K ≥ 0) .EE 3CL4.

but when it is possible it can be very useful . L 20 6 / 13 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Parameter Design “Negative” Root Locus Parameter Design • In the examples so far. 1 + KP (s ) has been the denominator of a closed loop with • negative feedback • proportional control. some compensation. • However.EE 3CL4.e. i. where α is the (non-negative) parameter to be designed • This is not always possible. same principles can also be applied to some other design parameters • The key step is to rewrite the characteristic polynomial of the closed loop in the form 1 + αP (s). with positive gain.. • possibly. P (s ) = Gc (s )G(s ).

where P (s) = s2 (s + 1)3 . L 20 7 / 13 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Parameter Design “Negative” Root Locus Parameter Design: Example 1 • Suppose that the characteristic equation of the closed loop is: s 3 + ( 3 + α )s 2 + 3s + 6 = 0 • Suppose we are interested in root locus for α > 0 • Rewrite as s 3 + 3s 2 + 3s + 6 + αs 2 = 0. 1+α s2 =0 s3 + 3s2 + 3s + 6 • Now sketch the root locus of 1 + αP (s ). Hence.EE 3CL4.

too.e. • Consider a characteristic equation of the form s3 + s2 + β s + α = 0. where P (s) = s3 +s 2 +α • Note that. • The effect of varying β from zero to infinity for a given value of α corresponds to the root locus for s 1 + β P (s) = 0.EE 3CL4. the root locus for α is the roots of ˜ (s). α determines the starting point of the root locus for β .. the roots for β = 0 • With β = 0. i. L 20 8 / 13 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Parameter Design “Negative” Root Locus Parameter Design: Example 2 • We can adapt this to designs with two parameters. where P ˜ (s ) = 1 + αP 1 s2 (s+1) . among other things.

roots of 1 + α s2 (s +1) as α : 0 → +∞ Locus for β with α = α1 i. roots of 1 + β s3 +ss 2 +α 1 as β : 0 → +∞ .. L 20 9 / 13 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Parameter Design “Negative” Root Locus Sketches Locus for α with β = 0 1 i.e.e..EE 3CL4.

some of the interpretations change. its phase is 180◦ . 1 + KP (s0 ) = 0. and they are quite familiar . interpretations can be derived in the same way as they were for the case of positive K .EE 3CL4. L 20 11 / 13 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Parameter Design “Negative” Root Locus “Negative” Root Locus • Our root locus procedure has been for parameters that change from 0 to +∞ • What if our parameter of interest goes from 0 to −∞? • The underlying principles remain the same • For s0 to be on the root locus. • That said. • This implies • Magnitude condition: |KP (s0 )| = 1 • Phase condition ∠KP (s0 ) = 180◦ + k 360◦ • However. Therefore. since K is now negative.

L 20 12 / 13 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Parameter Design “Negative” Root Locus Sketching Negative Root Locus From the 12th edition of the textbook .EE 3CL4.

L 20 13 / 13 Tim Davidson Sketching the Root Locus Parameter Design “Negative” Root Locus Sketching Negative Root Locus .EE 3CL4.

L 22 1 / 18 Tim Davidson Bode Diagrams Quick overview Example: Disk drive read system Compensators Lead compensators EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 22 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2010 .EE 3CL4.

L 22 2 / 18 Tim Davidson Bode Diagrams Quick overview Example: Disk drive read system Outline Compensators Lead compensators 1 Bode Diagrams Quick overview Example: Disk drive read system 2 Compensators Lead compensators .EE 3CL4.

Compensators Lead compensators the frequency response is G(s)|s=j ω .EE 3CL4. L 22 4 / 18 Tim Davidson Bode Diagrams Quick overview Example: Disk drive read system Frequency response • For a stable LTI system with transfer function G(s ). • Bode magnitude plot 20 log10 |G(j ω )| against log10 ω • Bode phase plot ∠G(j ω ) against log10 ω .

distances from poles to j ω ∠G(j ω ) = ∠K + sum angles from zeros to j ω − sum angles from poles to j ω . • Magnitude: |G(j ω )| = |K | • Phase: prod. frequency response is G(s)|s=j ω . distances from zeros to j ω prod. Hence.EE 3CL4. zeros and frequency response • Consider a transfer function Compensators Lead compensators G (s ) = K + zi ) j (s + pj ) i (s • Zeros: −zi . L 22 5 / 18 Tim Davidson Bode Diagrams Quick overview Example: Disk drive read system Poles. Poles: −pj • Recall that if system is stable.

k (j ω/ωnd .r ) + (j ω/ωnd .k )2 1 + 2ζd .k ) + (j ω/ωn.r s + ωnd .EE 3CL4. to G(j ω ) = ˜ K i (1 + j ω/zi ) N (j ω ) j (1 + j ω/pj ) × r k 1 + 2ζk (j ω/ωn.k ) 2 2 r (s + 2ζd .r ) where zi and pj are real.r )2 Then apply rules learnt in EE2CJ4.k ωnd .k s + ωn. . L 22 6 / 18 Tim Davidson Bode Diagrams Quick overview Example: Disk drive read system Sketching Bode Diagrams Convert G(s) = K sN i (s j (s Compensators Lead compensators + zi ) + pj ) 2 2 k (s + 2ζk ωn.

EE 3CL4. L 22 7 / 18 Tim Davidson Bode Diagrams Quick overview Example: Disk drive read system Disk drive read system Compensators Lead compensators Sketch the Bode diagram of the open loop transfer function .

EE 3CL4. L 22 8 / 18 Tim Davidson Bode Diagrams Quick overview Example: Disk drive read system Disk drive read system Compensators Lead compensators .

say by buying different components • seek to compensate for the undesirable aspects of the plant .EE 3CL4. L 22 10 / 18 Tim Davidson Bode Diagrams Quick overview Example: Disk drive read system Compensators Compensators Lead compensators • We have seen how the performance of a closed loop can be adjusted by varying a parameter • What happens if we are unable to obtain that performance that we want by doing this? • Ask ourselves whether this is really the performance that we want • Ask whether we can change the system.

the plant is a physical process • If commands and measurements are made electrically. L 22 11 / 18 Tim Davidson Bode Diagrams Quick overview Example: Disk drive read system Cascade compensation Compensators Lead compensators • Usually. compensator is often an electric circuit • General form of the compensator is Gc (s) = K n j =1 (s M i =1 (s + zi ) + pj ) • Therefore. the cascade compensator adds open loop poles and open loop zeros • These will change the shape of the root locus .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 22 12 / 18 Tim Davidson Bode Diagrams Quick overview Example: Disk drive read system Compensator design Compensators Lead compensators • Where should we put new poles and zeros to achieve desired performance? • That is the art of compensator design • We will consider first order compensators of the form Gc (s) = K (s + z ) (s + p) • with the pole −p in the left half plane • and the zero. too • For reasons that will soon become clear • when |z | < |p |: phase lead network • when |z | > |p |: phase lag network . −z in the left half plane.

L 22 13 / 18 Tim Davidson Bode Diagrams Quick overview Example: Disk drive read system Lead compensation Compensators Lead compensators Gc (s) = K (s + z ) (s + p ) with |z | < |p|. That is. zero closer to origin than pole .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4, L 22 14 / 18 Tim Davidson Bode Diagrams
Quick overview Example: Disk drive read system

Lead compensation

Compensators
Lead compensators

Gc (s) =
• If |p | • • • • •

K (s + z ) (s + p )

|z | then pole can be neglected, Gc (s) ≈ K (s + z )/p If z close to origin, compared to plant dynamics, Gs (s) ≈ K ps What is this? Differentiator, Gdiff = KD s Note that Gdiff (j ω ) = KD j ω . Hence, ∠Gdiff (j ω ) = +90◦ Hence the name phase lead

EE 3CL4, L 22 15 / 18 Tim Davidson Bode Diagrams
Quick overview Example: Disk drive read system

Frequency response

Compensators
Lead compensators

Gc (j ω ) = where

(Kz /p) 1 + j ω/z K (j ω + z ) K1 (1 + j ωατ ) = = (j ω + p) 1 + j ω/p 1 + j ωτ

• τ = 1/p : time constant • α = p /z : ratio of magnitudes of pole and zero • K1 = K /α: For phase lead, α > 1

EE 3CL4, L 22 16 / 18 Tim Davidson Bode Diagrams
Quick overview Example: Disk drive read system

Bode diagram
Gc (j ω ) = Magnitude
• Low frequency gain: K1 • Corner frequency in numerator at ωz = z = 1/(ατ ) • Corner frequency in denominator at ωp = p = 1/τ • ωz < ωp • High frequency gain: αK1

K1 (1 + j ωατ ) 1 + j ωτ

Compensators
Lead compensators

Phase
• φ(ω ) = atan(αωτ ) − atan(ωτ ) • At low frequency: φ(ω ) = 0 • At high frequency: φ(ω ) = 0 • In between: positive, with peak at ω =

zp

EE 3CL4, L 22 17 / 18 Tim Davidson Bode Diagrams
Quick overview Example: Disk drive read system

Diagram

Compensators
Lead compensators

EE 3CL4, L 22 18 / 18 Tim Davidson Bode Diagrams
Quick overview Example: Disk drive read system

A passive phase lead network

Compensators
Lead compensators

Homework: Show that characteristic

V2 (s) V1 (s)

has the phase lead

EE 3CL4, L 23 1 / 20 Tim Davidson Lead Compensation, a revision Lag Compensation Design of Lead, Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using Root Locus
Lead Compensator example

EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems
Lecture 23 Tim Davidson
McMaster University

Winter 2010

EE 3CL4, L 23 2 / 20 Tim Davidson Lead Compensation, a revision Lag Compensation Design of Lead, Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using Root Locus
Lead Compensator example

Outline

1 Lead Compensation, a revision

2 Lag Compensation

3 Design of Lead, Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using

Root Locus Lead Compensator example

EE 3CL4, L 23 3 / 20 Tim Davidson Lead Compensation, a revision Lag Compensation Design of Lead, Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using Root Locus
Lead Compensator example

Cascade compensation

• If commands and measurements are made electrically, compensator is often an electric circuit • We will consider first order compensators of the form Gc (s) = K (s + z ) (s + p)

with the pole, −p, and the zero, −z , both in the left half plane • when |z | < |p|: phase lead network • when |z | > |p|: phase lag network

L 23 5 / 20 Tim Davidson Lead Compensation.EE 3CL4. zero closer to origin than pole . That is. a revision Lag Compensation Design of Lead. Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using Root Locus Lead Compensator example Lead compensation Gc (s) = K (s + z ) (s + p ) with |z | < |p|.

Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using Root Locus Lead Compensator example Bode Diagram . a revision Lag Compensation Design of Lead. L 23 6 / 20 Tim Davidson Lead Compensation.EE 3CL4.

Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using Root Locus Lead Compensator example A passive phase lead network Homework: Show that characteristic V2 (s) V1 (s) has the phase lead .EE 3CL4. L 23 7 / 20 Tim Davidson Lead Compensation. a revision Lag Compensation Design of Lead.

Hence. Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using Root Locus Lead Compensator example Lag Compensators Gc (s) = 1 + τs 1 (s + z ) = 1 + ατ s α (s + p) with z = 1/τ . L 23 9 / 20 Tim Davidson Lead Compensation. p = 1/(ατ ) and α = z /p > 1. pole closer to origin than zero .EE 3CL4. a revision Lag Compensation Design of Lead.

EE 3CL4. with max. Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using Root Locus Lead Compensator example Frequency response Gc (j ω ) = Magnitude • Low frequency gain: 1 • Corner frequency in denominator at ωp = p = 1/(ατ ) • Corner frequency in numerator at ωz = z = 1/τ • ωp < ωz • High frequency gain: 1/α 1 + j ωτ 1 + j ωατ Phase • φ(ω ) = atan(ωτ ) − atan(αωτ ) • At low frequency: φ(ω ) = 0 • At high frequency: φ(ω ) = 0 • In between: negative. a revision Lag Compensation Design of Lead. L 23 10 / 20 Tim Davidson Lead Compensation. lag at ω = √ zp .

L 23 11 / 20 Tim Davidson Lead Compensation.EE 3CL4. a revision Lag Compensation Design of Lead. Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using Root Locus Lead Compensator example Bode Diagram .

Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using Root Locus Lead Compensator example A passive phase lag network .EE 3CL4. L 23 12 / 20 Tim Davidson Lead Compensation. a revision Lag Compensation Design of Lead.

Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using Root Locus Lead Compensator example Active lead and lag networks Here’s an example of an active network architecture. L 23 13 / 20 Tim Davidson Lead Compensation. . a revision Lag Compensation Design of Lead.EE 3CL4.

For systems with steady-state error specifications. i.. settling time. choose the positions of the pole and zero of the compensator so that the desired positions lie on the root locus (angle criterion). if that is possible Evaluate the gain required to put the poles there (magnitude criterion) Evaluate the total system gain so that the steady-state error constants can be determined If the steady state error constants are not satisfactory. the transient response. repeat 2 3 4 5 6 This procedure enables relatively straightforward design of systems with specifications in terms of rise time. Bode (and Nyquist) methods may be more straightforward (later) .e. L 23 15 / 20 Tim Davidson Lead Compensation. a revision Lag Compensation Design of Lead.EE 3CL4. Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using Root Locus Lead Compensator example RL design: Basic procedure 1 Translate design specifications into desired positions of dominant poles Sketch root locus of uncompensated system to see if desired positions can be achieved If not. and overshoot.

45) ≈ 64◦ . Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using Root Locus Lead Compensator example Lead Comp. a revision Lag Compensation Design of Lead. • cos−1 (0. Where should desired roots be? • Note that the settling time is not specified.45 and velocity error constant Kv > 20 What to do? • Let’s draw something. • Plot poles of G(s ). desired roots ≈ −4 ± j 8 . Design a lead compensator to achieve damping coefficient ζ = 0. L 23 16 / 20 Tim Davidson Lead Compensation. example Consider a case with G(s) = s(s1 +2) . We are free to choose it. so ζωn = 4.EE 3CL4. • Let’s start with Ts = 1.

EE 3CL4. a revision Lag Compensation Design of Lead. dist.25)(10. example • Now where to put the zero and pole? • Rule of thumb: put zero under desired root.5 Prod. from open-loop poles ≈ = 96. from open-loop zeros 8 • Hence compensated open loop: Gc (s)G(s) = 96.4) Prod. dist.6) • Velocity constant: Kv = lims→0 sGc (s)G(s) = 18.5(s+4) s(s+2)(s+10. or just to the left • Determine position of the pole using angle criterion sum angles from open-loop zeros − sum angles from open-loop poles = 180◦ 90 − (116 + 104 + θp ) = 180 =⇒ θp = 50 • Hence pole at ≈ −10. L 23 17 / 20 Tim Davidson Lead Compensation.2 :( . Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using Root Locus Lead Compensator example Lead Comp.6 • Gain of compensated system: 9(8.

L 23 18 / 20 Tim Davidson Lead Compensation.EE 3CL4. Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using Root Locus Lead Compensator example Compensated root locus Root locus and the step response with the dominant roots at their desired locations . a revision Lag Compensation Design of Lead.

EE 3CL4. z = 4. L 23 19 / 20 Tim Davidson Lead Compensation. p = 11.5.7 . a revision Lag Compensation Design of Lead. Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using Root Locus Lead Compensator example What to do now? • We tried hard.6 and Kv = 22. but did not achieve the design specs • Let’s go back and re-examine our choices • Zero position of compensator was chosen via rule of thumb • Can we do better? • We need the gain required to put dominant poles in desired position to increase. • Most effective if we can move the compensator pole to the left • That requires moving the zero to the left • By how much? • Show that for ωn = 10.

L 23 20 / 20 Tim Davidson Lead Compensation. e. they are not normally used to control steady-state error. since lead compensators reduce the DC gain. in terms of ζ and ωn • However. • The goal of our lag compensator design will be to increase the steady-state error constants. without moving the dominant poles too far .EE 3CL4.g. Lag and Lead-Lag Compensators using Root Locus Lead Compensator example Outcomes • Root locus approach to phase lead design was reasonably successful in terms of putting dominant poles in desired positions.. a revision Lag Compensation Design of Lead. root locus approach does not provide independent control over steady-state error constants • That said.

EE 3CL4. L 25 1 / 12 Tim Davidson Design of Lag Compensators using Root Locus Steady-state errors Lag compensator design Lag compensator example EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 25 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2010 .

L 25 2 / 12 Tim Davidson Design of Lag Compensators using Root Locus Steady-state errors Lag compensator design Lag compensator example Outline 1 Design of Lag Compensators using Root Locus Steady-state errors Lag compensator design Lag compensator example .EE 3CL4.

and the zero. L 25 3 / 12 Tim Davidson Design of Lag Compensators using Root Locus Steady-state errors Lag compensator design Lag compensator example Cascade compensation • We will consider first order compensators of the form Gc (s) = K (s + z ) (s + p) with the pole. both in the left half plane • when |z | < |p|: phase lead network • when |z | > |p|: phase lag network . −p.EE 3CL4. −z .

ess for r (t ) = At is A/Kv . where the velocity constant is Kv .e. G(s) = Q KG i (s+zi ) Q s j (s+pj ) . Hence.unc = KP KG Q Q pj i zi .unc . steady state error for input R (s): ess = lim e(t ) = lim s t →∞ s →0 R (s ) 1 + KP G(s) For a type 1 uncompensated process.. j Aside: What about ess for ramp of Type 0 and Type ≥ 2 processes .EE 3CL4. If closed loop stable.unc = lim sKP G(s) s →0 For such a system. L 25 5 / 12 Tim Davidson Design of Lag Compensators using Root Locus Steady-state errors Lag compensator design Lag compensator example Steady-state errors Consider the uncompensated loop (i. Kv . Gc (s) = KP ).

for a compensator that does not have a zero at s = 0. what about Kv of a compensated closed loop.comp = lim sGc (s)G(s) = s→0 Kv . Kv . for a Type 1 G(s).EE 3CL4.unc lim Gc (s) KP s→0 . L 25 6 / 12 Tim Davidson Design of Lag Compensators using Root Locus Steady-state errors Lag compensator design Lag compensator example Steady-state errors Now.

Design Principles • We don’t try to reshape the uncompensated root locus.EE 3CL4. • compensator pole and zero are usually close together (so that angle criterion nearly satisfied desired poles of uncompensated closed loop) • Kc = KP (so that uncompensated closed loop poles are not moved on their root locus) z In that case.comp = (Kv . Gc (s) = Kc Since it is a lag compensator. L 25 7 / 12 Tim Davidson Design of Lag Compensators using Root Locus Steady-state errors Lag compensator design Lag compensator example Lag compensator design • Consider a lag compensator of the form.unc /KP ) lims→0 Gc (s) = p Kv .unc s+z s +p . • We just try to increase the value of the desired error constant. |z | > |p|. . Kv . without moving the poles (well not much) • Reshaping was the goal of lead compensator design As a result.

locate suitable dominant pole positions on that locus Obtain the loop gain for these points. • then lag compensation on lead compensated plant. Set Kc = KP What if there is nothing suitable at step 2? • Perhaps do lead compensation first.. i. choose z and p so that their angles to desired poles differ by less than 1◦ . Typically. K = KP KG . design a lead-lag compensator . L 25 8 / 12 Tim Davidson Design of Lag Compensators using Root Locus Steady-state errors Lag compensator design Lag compensator example Lag compensator design 1 2 3 4 5 6 Obtain the root locus of uncompensated system From transient performance specs. hence the (closed-loop) steady-state error constant Calculate the necessary increase. Hence α = z /p Place pole and zero close to the origin (with respect to desired pole positions). with z = αp.EE 3CL4.e.

Design a lag compensator to achieve damping coefficient ζ = 0.EE 3CL4. and locate desired dominant pole locations . First step. obtain uncompensated root locus. L 25 9 / 12 Tim Davidson Design of Lag Compensators using Root Locus Steady-state errors Lag compensator design Lag compensator example Example Let’s consider.45 and velocity error constant Kv > 20 Note: we will get a different closed loop from our lead design. the case with G(s) = s(s1 +2) . again.

distances from open loop poles • That is.242 = 5.unc = lims→0 sKP G(s) = K /2 = 2. Therefore KP = K /KG = 5 • Velocity error const: Kv . where z is chosen to be close to the origin with respect to dominant closed-loop poles . L 25 10 / 12 Tim Davidson Design of Lag Compensators using Root Locus Steady-state errors Lag compensator design Lag compensator example Example • Gain required to put closed loop poles in desired position = prod.5 = 8 • That implies must choose p = z /8.5 • The increase required is 20/2.EE 3CL4. K = 2.

Hence. L 25 11 / 12 Tim Davidson Design of Lag Compensators using Root Locus Steady-state errors Lag compensator design Lag compensator example Example Let’s choose z = 0.EE 3CL4.1. p = 1/80 .

L 25 12 / 12 Tim Davidson Design of Lag Compensators using Root Locus Steady-state errors Lag compensator design Lag compensator example Example Compensated open loop transfer function is now Gc (s)G(s) = 5(s + 0.98.95 ± j 1. −0.EE 3CL4.10 .1) s(s + 2)(s + 1/80) Closed-loop poles: −0.

L 30 1 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency response techniques Mapping contours EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 30 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2010 .EE 3CL4.

L 30 2 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency response techniques Mapping contours Outline 1 Frequency response techniques Mapping contours .EE 3CL4.

they also work with measurements • Key result: Nyquist’s stability criterion • Design implications: Bode techniques based on gain margin and phase margin . both of them require a model for the plant • Today: frequency response techniques • Although they work best with a model • For an open-loop stable plant.EE 3CL4. L 30 4 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency response techniques Mapping contours Introduction • We have seen techniques that determine stability of a system: • Routh-Hurwitz • root locus • However.

• We will investigate the idea of mappings first . • The key result involves mapping a closed contour of values of s to a closed contour of values of F (s). L 30 5 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency response techniques Mapping contours Characteristic equation • To determine the stability of the system we need to examine the characteristic equation: F (s) = 1 + L(s) = 0 where L(s) = Gc (s)G(s)H (s).EE 3CL4.

L 30 6 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency response techniques Mapping contours Simple example • Set F (s ) = 2s + 1 • Map the square in the "s-plane" to the contour in the "F (s)-plane" .EE 3CL4.

but will go against mathematical convention • Define area enclosed to be that to the right when the contour is traversed clockwise • What you see when moving clockwise with eyes right • Sometimes we say that this area is “encircled” by the clockwise contour . L 30 7 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency response techniques Mapping contours Area enclosed • How might we define area enclosed by a closed contour? • We will be perfectly rigorous.EE 3CL4.

L 30 8 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency response techniques Mapping contours Example with rational F (s) s • A mapping for F (s ) = s+ 2 • Note that s -plane contour encircles the zero of F (s ) • How many times does the F (s )-plane contour encircle the origin? .EE 3CL4.

some examples . • First. L 30 9 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency response techniques Mapping contours Cauchy’s Theorem • Nyquist’s Criterion is based on Cauchy’s Theorem: • Consider a rational function F (s ) • If the clockwise traversal of a contour Γs in the s-plane encircles Z zeros and P poles of F (s) • and does not go through any poles or zeros • then the corresponding contour in the F (s )-plane.EE 3CL4. ΓF encircles the origin N = Z − P times in the clockwise direction • A sketch of the proof next week.

L 30 10 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency response techniques Mapping contours Example 1 • A mapping for F (s ) = s+s 1/2 • s -plane contour encircles a zero and a pole • Theorem suggests no clockwise encirclements of origin of F (s)-plane • This is what we have! .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 30 11 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency response techniques Mapping contours Example 2 • s -plane contour encircles 3 zeros and a pole • Theorem suggests 2 clockwise encirclements of the origin of the F (s)-plane .

one anti-clockwise encirclement .EE 3CL4. L 30 12 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency response techniques Mapping contours Example 3 • s -plane contour encircles one pole • Theorem suggests -1 clockwise encirclements of the origin of the F (s)-plane • That is.

EE 3CL4. as this determines stability • Which contour should we use? . L 30 13 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency response techniques Mapping contours Nyquist’s criterion • Nyquist was concerned about testing for stability • How might one use Cauchy Theorem to examine this? • Perhaps choose F (s ) = 1 + L(s ).

L 30 14 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency response techniques Mapping contours Nyquist’s contour .EE 3CL4.

L 31 1 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 31 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2010 .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 31 2 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Outline 1 Nyquist’s Stability Criterion .

L 31 4 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Conformal Mappings • For a linear system with transfer function F (s ) • Consider a clockwise closed contour in s -plane • Map each point s on the contour to F (s ) • Plot real and imaginary parts of F (s ) • Forms a contour in the F (s ) plane • Region encircled: to the right as contour traversed .EE 3CL4.

ΓF encircles the origin N = Z − P times in the clockwise direction .EE 3CL4. L 31 5 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Cauchy’s Theorem • Consider a rational function F (s ) • If the clockwise traversal of a contour Γs in the s-plane encircles Z zeros and P poles of F (s) • and does not go through any poles or zeros • then the corresponding contour in the F (s )-plane.

One encirclement! . ∠F (s ) changes by 360 degrees. as contour is traversed. the nett contribution from other angles is 0 degrees • Hence.EE 3CL4. L 31 6 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Informal Justification (s+z1 )(s+z2 ) • Consider the case of F (s ) = ( s+p1 )(s+p2 ) • ∠F (s1 ) = φz1 + φz2 − φp1 − φp2 • As the contour is traversed the nett contribution from φz1 is 360 degrees • As contour is traversed.

the change in ∠F (s ) is 360Z − 360P • Hence F (s ) encircles origin Z − P times . L 31 7 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Informal Justification • Extending this to any number of poles and zeros inside the contour • For a closed contour.EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. are the closed loop poles • What should the contour be if we want to relate system stability to the number of encirclements of the origin made by F (s)? . where L(s) is the open loop transfer function. the zeros of F (s ) = 1 + L(s ). L 31 8 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Towards Nyquist’s Criterion • Typically we are interested in stability of the closed loop • In particular.

L 31 9 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Nyquist’s contour .EE 3CL4.

of Cauchy • Recall that the zeros of F (s ) = 1 + L(s ) are the poles of the closed loop • Let P denote the number of right half plane poles of F (s ) • The number of right half plane zeros of F (s ) is the N + P .EE 3CL4. L 31 10 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Coarse Applic. . where N is the number of clockwise encirclements of the origin made by the image of Nyquist’s contour in the F (s) plane. • A little difficult to parse. • Perhaps we can apply Cauchy’s Theorem in a more sophisticated way.

L 31 11 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Towards Nyquist’s Criterion • F (s ) = 1 + L(s ). because L(s ) is often factorized. and hence we can easily determine P • Now that we are dealing with L(s ). where L(s ) is the open loop transfer function • Encirclement of the origin in F (s )-plane is the same as encirclement of −1 in the L(s)-plane • This is more convenient.EE 3CL4. P is the number of right-half plane poles of the open loop transfer function .

L 31 12 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Nyquist’s Criterion: Stable open loop • For a stable open-loop transfer function L(s ).EE 3CL4. . 0). • the closed-loop system is stable if and only if the image of Nyquist’s Contour in the L(s)-plane does not encircle the point (−1.

Z must be zero.EE 3CL4. where N is the number of clockwise encirclements of (−1. 0) made by the image of Nyquist’s Contour in the L(s)-plane is equal to the number of right half plane poles of L(s) Proof: • Based on the fact that the number of right half plane zeros of F (s) is Z = N + P . and P is the number of right half plane poles of L(s). • the closed-loop system is stable if and only if the number of counter-clockwise encirclements of the point (−1. • For the closed-loop to be stable. L 31 13 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Nyquist’s Criterion: General case • For a general open-loop transfer function L(s ). . 0) by the image of Nyquist’s Contour in the L(s)-plane.

& phase sketches • Recall that L(−j ω ) = L(j ω )∗ • Remember to examine the r → ∞ part of the curve • Note: No encirclements of (−1. L 31 14 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Example: Stable L(s) L(s) = 100 (s + 1)(s/10 + 1) • For 0 ≤ ω < ∞. think about the Bode mag.EE 3CL4. 0) =⇒ closed loop is stable .

EE 3CL4. L 32 1 / 13 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 32 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2010 .

L 32 2 / 13 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Outline 1 Nyquist’s Stability Criterion .EE 3CL4.

with no z’s or p’s on j ω -axis • Let PL denote the number of poles of L(s) in RHP • Consider the Nyquist Contour in the s-plane • Let ΓL denote image of Nyquist Contour under L(s) • Let NL denote the number of clockwise encirclements that ΓL makes of the point (−1. but often more convenient .EE 3CL4. L 32 4 / 13 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Nyquist’s Criterion • Consider a unity feedback system with an open loop transfer function L(s) = Gc (s)G(s)H (s). 0) • Nyquist’s Stability Criterion: Number of closed-loop poles in RHP = NL + PL • This statement is equivalent to those in previous lecture.

EE 3CL4. L 32 5 / 13 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Example: Pole of L(s) at origin • Consider L(s) = • Like in servomotor K s(τ s + 1) • Problem with Nyquist’s Contour • It goes through a pole! • Cauchy’s Theorem does not apply • Must modify Nyquist Contour to go around pole • Then Nyquist Criterion can be applied .

axis yields conjugate • At ∞ .EE 3CL4. remember negative freq. L 32 6 / 13 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Example: Pole of L(s) at origin Now three aspects of the curve • Around the origin • Positive frequency axis.

where φ goes from −90◦ to 90◦ • In the L(s ) plane: lim →0 L( ej φ ) K K −j φ • This is: lim →0 e e j φ = lim →0 . s = ej φ .EE 3CL4. L 32 7 / 13 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Around the origin • L(s ) = s(τ K s+1) • Around the origin.

L(j ω ) is large with phase −90◦ • For large ω .EE 3CL4. L 32 8 / 13 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Up positive j ω -axis • For 0 < ω < ∞. L(j ω ) = K τ / 2 e−j 135 √ ◦ . L(j ω ) = √ K ω 1+ω 2 τ 2 e−j (90 ◦ −atan(ωτ )) • For small ω . L(j ω ) is small with phase −180◦ • For ω = 1/τ .

L 32 9 / 13 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion For s = rej θ for large r • For s = rej θ with large r . and θ from +90◦ to −90◦ .EE 3CL4. 2) . • limr →∞ L(rej θ ) = τK e −j 2θ r2 • How many encirclements? None • Implies that closed loop is stable for all positive K • Consistent with what we know from root locus (Lab.

L(j ω ) = √ K1 2 ω +ω 4 ∠ −90◦ − atan(−ω ) • For ω = 0+ . L(j ω ) is small with angle +180◦ • Conjugate for −∞ < ω < 0 • What about when s = ej θ for −90◦ ≤ θ ≤ 90◦ ? • L(s ) = K1 ∠(−180◦ − θ ) . L(j ω ) is large with angle +90◦ .EE 3CL4. • For ω → ∞. L 32 10 / 13 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Example with open loop RHP pole • Consider L(s) = • PL = 1 K1 s(s − 1) • For 0 < ω < ∞.

EE 3CL4. 0) is 1 Hence there are two closed loop poles in the RHP Consistent with root locus analysis (sketch) . L 32 11 / 13 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Example with open loop RHP pole • • • • Recall PL = 1 Number clockwise encirclements of (−1.

L 32 12 / 13 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Example with open loop RHP pole • We showed at the time that the closed-loop can be stabilized by a PD controller • Can we see that in the Nyquist diagram? • Plot the Nyquist diagram of Gc (s )G(s ). where G(s) = K1 s(s−1) and Gc (s) = 1 + K2 s .EE 3CL4.

L 32 13 / 13 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion Example with open loop RHP pole • Recall that PL = 1 • If K1 K2 > 1. consistent with root locus analysis (sketch) . of −1 • In that case.EE 3CL4. number closed-loop poles in RHP is −1 + 1 = 0 and the closed loop is stable • Again. there is one anti-clockwise encirc.

L 33 1 / 11 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 33 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2010 .EE 3CL4.

L 33 2 / 11 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response Outline 1 Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 33 4 / 11 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response Nyquist’s Criterion • Consider a unity feedback system with an open loop transfer function L(s) = Gc (s)G(s)H (s).) Nyquist Contour under L(s) • Let NL denote the number of clockwise encirclements that ΓL makes of the point (−1. 0) • Nyquist’s Stability Criterion: Number of closed-loop poles in (open) RHP = NL + PL . • Let PL denote the number of poles of L(s) in (open) RHP • Consider the (modified) Nyquist Contour in the s-plane (looping to the right of any poles or zeros on the j ω -axis) • Let ΓL denote image of (mod.

magnitude decreases monotonically (Bode mag dia. L(j ω ) = K /2 • When s = rej θ with r → ∞ and θ : 90◦ → −90◦ . L(j ω ) ≈ K ω∠ − 90◦ • In between. phase decreases monotonically. 180◦ → −90◦ .) • L(j ω ) = 2K 2ω 2 −1+j ω (5−ω 2 ) (1+ω 2 )2 . L 33 5 / 11 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response One more example L(s) = K (s − 2) (s + 1)2 Open loop is stable. L(j ω ) ≈ 2K ∠180◦ • For large positive ω . but has non-minimum phase (RHP) zero √ K ω2 + 4 L(j ω ) = ∠ 180◦ − atan(ω/2) − 2 atan(ω ) ω2 + 1 • For small positive ω . L(s) → (K /r )e−j θ . When ω = √ 5.EE 3CL4.

unstable for K > 1/2 • This is what we would expect from root locus (sketch) . if K > 1/2: 1 • Hence closed loop is stable for K < 1/2.EE 3CL4. L 33 6 / 11 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response Nyquist plot of L(s)/K • Number of open loop RHP poles: 0 • Number of clockwise encirclements of −1: if K < 1/2: 0.

EE 3CL4, L 33 7 / 11 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool
Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response

Relative Stability: Introductory Example
Consider L(s) = Nyquist Diagram: K s(τ1 s + 1)(τ2 s + 1)

EE 3CL4, L 33 8 / 11 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool
Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response

Zooming in
Since L(s) is minimum phase (no RHP zeros), we can zoom in

For a given K , • how much extra gain would result in instability? we will call this the gain margin • how much extra phase lag would result in instability? we will call this the phase margin

EE 3CL4, L 33 9 / 11 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool
Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response

Formal definitions
• Gain margin:

where ωx is the frequency at which ∠L(j ω ) reaches −180◦ amplifying the open-loop transfer function by this amount would result in a marginally stable closed loop
• Phase margin:

1 |L(j ωx )| ,

180◦ + ∠L(j ωc ), where ωc is the frequency at which |L(j ω )| equals 1 adding this much phase lag would result in a marginally stable closed loop
• These margins can be read from the Bode diagram

EE 3CL4, L 33 10 / 11 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool
Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response

Bode diagram

L(j ω ) =

1 j ω (1 + j ω )(1 + j ω/5)

• Gain margin ≈ 15 dB • Phase margin ≈ 43◦

EE 3CL4, L 33 11 / 11 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool
Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response

Phase margin and damping
• Consider a second-order open loop of the form 2 ωn L(s) = s(s+2ζω , with ζ < 1 n s) • Closed-loop poles s1 , s2 = −ζωn ± j ωn
4 2 2 4 • Can show that ωc + 4ζ 2 ωn ωc − ωn = 0;

1 − ζ2

• Let ωc be the frequency at which |L(j ω )| = 1 Equivalently,
2 ωc 2 ωn

=

4ζ 4 + 1 − 2ζ 2

• By definition, φpm = 180◦ + ∠L(j ωc ) • Hence φpm = atan 2 (4 + 1/ζ 4 )1/2 − 2

• Phase margin is an explicit function of damping ratio! • Approximation: for ζ < 0.7, ζ ≈ 0.01φpm , where φpm is measured in degrees

EE 3CL4, L 34 1 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool
Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response Peak frequency response and bandwidth

EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems
Lecture 34 Tim Davidson
McMaster University

Winter 2010

EE 3CL4, L 34 2 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool
Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response Peak frequency response and bandwidth

Outline

1 Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool

Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response Peak frequency response and bandwidth

EE 3CL4, L 34 4 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool
Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response Peak frequency response and bandwidth

Nyquist’s Criterion

• Consider a unity feedback system with an open loop transfer function L(s) = Gc (s)G(s)H (s), • Let PL denote the number of poles of L(s) in (open) RHP • Consider the (modified) Nyquist Contour in the s-plane (looping to the right of any poles or zeros on the j ω -axis) • Let ΓL denote image of (mod.) Nyquist Contour under L(s) • Let NL denote the number of clockwise encirclements that ΓL makes of the point (−1, 0) • Nyquist’s Stability Criterion: Number of closed-loop poles in (open) RHP = NL + PL

L 34 5 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response Peak frequency response and bandwidth Relative Stability: Introductory Example Consider L(s) = Nyquist Diagram: K s(τ1 s + 1)(τ2 s + 1) .EE 3CL4.

• how much extra gain would result in instability? we will call this the gain margin • how much extra phase lag would result in instability? we will call this the phase margin . L 34 6 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response Peak frequency response and bandwidth Zooming Since L(s) is minimum phase (no RHP zeros).EE 3CL4. we can zoom in For a given K .

EE 3CL4. L 34 7 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response Peak frequency response and bandwidth Formal definitions • Gain margin: where ωx is the frequency at which ∠L(j ω ) reaches −180◦ amplifying the open-loop transfer function by this amount would result in a marginally stable closed loop • Phase margin: 1 |L(j ωx )| . where ωc is the frequency at which |L(j ω )| equals 1 adding this much phase lag would result in a marginally stable closed loop • These margins can be read from the Bode diagram . 180◦ + ∠L(j ωc ).

L 34 8 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response Peak frequency response and bandwidth Bode diagram L(j ω ) = 1 j ω (1 + j ω )(1 + j ω/5) • Gain margin ≈ 15 dB • Phase margin ≈ 43◦ .EE 3CL4.

01φpm . 2 ωc 2 ωn = 4ζ 4 + 1 − 2ζ 2 • By definition. where φpm is measured in degrees . L 34 9 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response Peak frequency response and bandwidth Phase margin and damping • Consider a second-order open loop of the form 2 ωn L(s) = s(s+2ζω . φpm = 180◦ + ∠L(j ωc ) • Hence φpm = atan 2 (4 + 1/ζ 4 )1/2 − 2 • Phase margin is an explicit function of damping ratio! • Approximation: for ζ < 0. Equivalently.7.EE 3CL4. with ζ < 1 n s) • Closed-loop poles s1 . s2 = −ζωn ± j ωn 1 − ζ2 • Let ωc be the frequency at which |L(j ω )| = 1 4 2 2 4 • Square and rearrange: ωc + 4ζ 2 ωn ωc − ωn = 0. ζ ≈ 0.

43 .EE 3CL4. L 34 10 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response Peak frequency response and bandwidth Previous example L(j ω ) = • Phase margin ≈ 43◦ 1 j ω (1 + j ω )(1 + j ω/5) • Damping ratio ≈ 0.

• Can we relate them? Gc (j ω )G(j ω ) • T (j ω ) = 1+ Gc (j ω )G(j ω ) • Let Gc (j ω )G(j ω ) = u + jv . where variation of u and v with ω is implicit. • However. L 34 11 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response Peak frequency response and bandwidth Frequency response: open and closed loops • Nyquist diagram is a plot of the frequency response of the open loop transfer function.EE 3CL4. L(s) = Gc (s)G(s) (for the case where H (s) = 1). the transient response of the closed loop is related to the frequency response of the closed loop. • Then M (ω ) = Gc (j ω )G(j ω ) u + jv = 1 + Gc (j ω )G(j ω ) 1 + u + jv .

v )-plane? M M • A circle. L 34 12 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response Peak frequency response and bandwidth M -circles • From previous slide.EE 3CL4. with center 1− . M= u + jv 1 + u + jv • Algebraic manipulation leads to M2 u− 1 − M2 2 + v2 = M 1 − M2 2 • What kind of object is this in the (u . 0 and radius 1− M2 M2 2 .

EE 3CL4. L 34 13 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response Peak frequency response and bandwidth M -circles • The M -circle that is tangent to the Nyquist plot corresponds to the peak magnitude of the closed loop • The corresponding frequency is the peak frequency • M -circle crossing points also provide points on the magnitude response of closed loop .

1+ L(j ω ) • Roughly speaking. L 34 14 / 14 Tim Davidson Nyquist’s Stability Criterion as a Design Tool Relative Stability Gain margin and Phase margin Relationship to transient response Peak frequency response and bandwidth M -circles and Nyquist diagram • Left Nyquist plot (open loop) of a given L(j ω ). for two values of the open loop gain L(j ω ) • Right: Bode Magnitude plot of the closed loops. speed of response of closed loop increases with increasing bandwidth .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 35 1 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 35 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2010 .

L 35 2 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Outline 1 Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design .EE 3CL4.

where ωx is the frequency at which ∠L(j ω ) reaches −180◦ the frequency at which |L(j ω )| equals 1 • Phase margin. L 35 4 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Frequency domain analysis • Analyze closed loop using open loop transfer function L(s) = Gc (s)G(s)H (s). φpm : 180◦ + ∠L(j ωc ).EE 3CL4. where ωc is • Damping ratio: φpm = f (ζ ). • Nyquist’s stability criterion • Gain margin: |L(j1 ωx )| . • Settling time related to the bandwidth of the loop .

L 35 5 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Bode diagram L(j ω ) = 1 j ω (1 + j ω )(1 + j ω/5) • Gain margin ≈ 15 dB • Phase margin ≈ 43◦ .EE 3CL4.

how does Gc (s ) affect the Bode diagram • Magnitude: 20 log10 |Gc (j ω )G(j ω )| = 20 log10 (|Gc (j ω )| + 20 log10 |G(j ω )| • Phase: ∠Gc (j ω )G(j ω ) = ∠Gc (j ω ) + ∠G(j ω ) . how should we choose Gc (s) so that L(s) = Gc (s)G(s) does? • To begin. L 35 6 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Compensators and Bode diagram • We have seen the importance of phase margin • If G(s ) does not have the desired margin.EE 3CL4.

alternatively. where p = 1/τ and α = p /z > 1 • Bode diagram: . L 35 7 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lead Compensators (s+z ) • Gc (s ) = Kcs +p . with |z | < |p |. c 1+s ατ • Gc (s ) = K α 1+sτ .EE 3CL4.

(and the bandwidth) .EE 3CL4. L 35 8 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lead Compensation • What will lead compensation. ωc . do? • Phase is positive: might be able to increase phase margin φpm • Slope is positive: might be able to increase the cross-over frequency.

real. L 35 9 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lead Compensation c 1+s ατ • Gc (s ) = K α 1+sτ • By making the denom. phase angle satisfies tan(φm ) = √ zp α√ −1 2 α α− 1 • Equivalently. occurs when ω = ωm = τ √ = α • Max.EE 3CL4. we have |Gc (j ωm )| = Kc / α . can show that ∠Gc (j ω ) = atan ωτ (α−1) 1+α(ωτ )2 1 • Max. sin(φm ) = α +1 √ • At ω = ωm .

EE 3CL4. if appropriate To maximize impact of phase lead. L 35 10 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Bode Design Principles • Set the loop gain so that desired steady-state error constants are obtained • Insert the compensator to modify the transient properties: • Damping: through phase margin • Response time: through bandwidth • Compensate for the attenuation of the lead network. want peak of phase near ωc of the compensated open loop .

determine α using sin(φm ) = α α+1 Determine the frequency at which open-loop frequency response has magnitude −10 log10 (α) If we set ωm to be this frequency. and hence we will have maximum phase contribution to the compensated closed loop at the appropriate frequency √ √ Choose τ = 1/(ωm α) and hence p = ωm α. .e. proportionally controlled) closed loop. L 35 11 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Design Guidelines 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 For uncompensated (i. Compensator: Gc (s) = Kc (s+z ) s +p . Choose z = p/α. set gain Kp so that steady-state error constants of the closed loop meet specifications Evaluate the phase margin. Set Kc = Kp α. Add a little “safety margin” to the amount of phase lead −1 From this. and the amount of phase lead required. then ωm will be the cut-off frequency of the compensated loop..EE 3CL4.

L 35 12 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Example • Type 1 plant of order 2: G(s ) = s(s5 +2) • Design goals: • Steady-state error due to a ramp input less than 5% of velocity of ramp • Phase margin at least 45◦ (implies a damping ratio) • Steady state error requirement implies Kv = 20. • To find phase margin of prop.EE 3CL4. • For prop. prop = 18◦ . Hence Kp = 8. controlled loop we need to find ωc . controlled Type 1 plant: Kv = lims→0 sKp G(s ).2rad/s 40 j ωc (j ωc +2) =1 • ∠Kp G(j ωc ) = −90◦ − atan(ω/2) • Hence φpm. where |Kp G(j ωc )| = • ω ≈ 6.

8) ◦ • Gc (s )G(s ) = s(s24 +2)(s+14. e. L 35 13 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Example • φpm. Hence.8 dB • Solving this equations yields ωm = 8. say 30◦ • So. actual φpm = 43. to be 30◦ α−1 ◦ • Solving α +1 = sin(30 ) yields α = 3 • Since 10 log10 (3) = 4. prop = 18◦ .4rad/s • Therefore z = ωm / α = 4.8 dB we should choose ωm to be where 20 log10 40 j ωm (j ωm +2) = −4.g. α = 3.. want peak phase of lead comp. √ Kc = 3 × 8 (s+4.EE 3CL4.4) . need 27◦ of phase lead • Let’s go for a little more.8) • Gc (s ) = 24 s+14. p = αz = 14.5 .4.4 (s+4.8.6 • Goal can be achieved by using a larger target for additional phase.

EE 3CL4. L 35 14 / 14 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Bode Diagram .

EE 3CL4. L 37 1 / 16 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lag Compensators EE3CL4: Introduction to Linear Control Systems Lecture 37 Tim Davidson McMaster University Winter 2010 .

L 37 2 / 16 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lag Compensators Outline 1 Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lag Compensators .EE 3CL4.

φpm : 180◦ + ∠L(j ωc ). • Settling time related to the bandwidth of the loop . where ωx is the frequency at which ∠L(j ω ) reaches −180◦ the frequency at which |L(j ω )| equals 1 • Phase margin.EE 3CL4. L 37 4 / 16 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lag Compensators Frequency domain analysis • Analyze closed loop using open loop transfer function L(s) = Gc (s)G(s)H (s). • Nyquist’s stability criterion • Gain margin: |L(j1 ωx )| . where ωc is • Damping ratio: φpm = f (ζ ).

L 37 5 / 16 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lag Compensators Bode diagram L(j ω ) = 1 j ω (1 + j ω )(1 + j ω/5) • Gain margin ≈ 15 dB • Phase margin ≈ 43◦ .EE 3CL4.

EE 3CL4. L 37 6 / 16 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lag Compensators Compensators and Bode diagram • How does Gc (s ) affect the Bode diagram • Magnitude: 20 log10 |Gc (j ω )G(j ω )| = 20 log10 (|Gc (j ω )| + 20 log10 |G(j ω )| • Phase: ∠Gc (j ω )G(j ω ) = ∠Gc (j ω ) + ∠G(j ω ) .

L 37 7 / 16 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lag Compensators Lag Compensators • Gc (s ) = • Gc (s ) = >1 • We will consider case where Kc = α • Bode diagrams of lag compensators for two different αs Kc (s+z ) s+p . Kc 1+sτ α 1+sατ . with |p | < |z |. where z = 1/τ and α = z /p .EE 3CL4. alternatively.

with little phase lag • Can reduce cross-over frequency. phase lag is not really used. without adding much phase lag • Tends to reduce bandwidth .EE 3CL4. • What is useful is the attenuation above ω = 1/τ : gain is −20 log10 (α). ωc . L 37 8 / 16 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lag Compensators What will lag compensation do? • Since zero and pole are typically close to the origin.

EE 3CL4. L 37 9 / 16 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lag Compensators Qualitative example • Uncompensated system has small phase margin • Phase lag of compensator does not play a large role • Attenuation of compensator does: ωc reduced by about a factor of a bit more than 3 • Increased phase margin is due to the natural phase characteristic of the plant .

L 37 10 / 16 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lag Compensators Lag Compensation +s τ • Gc (s ) = 11 +sατ • Attenuation above ω = 1/τ is 20 log10 (α). gain is −20 log10 (α) • Phase lag above ω = 1/τ is small .e..EE 3CL4. i.

EE 3CL4. L 37 11 / 16 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lag Compensators Bode Design Principles For lag compensators: • Set the loop gain so that desired steady-state error constants are obtained • Insert the compensator to modify the phase margin: • Do this by reducing the cross-over frequency • Observe the impact on response time Basic principle: Set attenuation to reduce ωc far enough so that uncompensated open loop has desired phase margin compensated open loop .

evaluate the phase margin. the frequency at which the uncompensated open loop has a phase margin equal to the desired phase margin plus 5◦ . . set gain Kp so that steady-state error constants of the closed loop meet specifications Obtain the Bode diagram. .. Determine ωc . proportionally controlled) closed loop. Now design a lag compensator so that the gain of the compensated open loop at this frequency is 0 dB • Place the zero of the compensator around ωc /10 to ensure we get almost full attenuation by the compensator at ωc • Choose α so that 20 log10 (α) is the attenuation needed to reduce the gain of the uncompensated closed loop at ωc to 0 dB • Place the pole at p = z /α .e.EE 3CL4. If that is insufficient. L 37 12 / 16 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lag Compensators Design Guidelines 1 2 3 4 For uncompensated (i.

• For prop.EE 3CL4. Hence Kp = 8. where |Kp G(j ωc )| = • ω ≈ 6. controlled loop we need to find ωc . L 37 13 / 16 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lag Compensators Example. controlled Type 1 plant: Kv = lims→0 sKp G(s ). same set up as lead design • Type 1 plant of order 2: G(s ) = s(s5 +2) • Design goals: • Steady-state error due to a ramp input less than 5% of velocity of ramp • Phase margin at least 45◦ (implies a damping ratio) • Steady state error requirement implies Kv = 20. prop = 18◦ .2rad/s 40 j ωc (j ωc +2) =1 • ∠Kp G(j ωc ) = −90◦ − atan(ω/2) • Hence φpm. • To find phase margin of prop.

EE 3CL4. =⇒ ωc ≈ 1. • Zero set to be one decade below ωc . Actual curves are around 2 dB lower than the straight line approximation shown • Hence α = 10.5 • Required attenuation is 20 dB. L 37 14 / 16 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lag Compensators Example • Since want phase margin to be 45◦ . we set ωc such that ∠G(j ωc ) = −180◦ + 45◦ + 5◦ = 130◦ .15 .015 z = 0. • Pole is z /α = 0.

L 37 15 / 16 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lag Compensators Example: Comp’d open loop 4(s+0.58 • new phase margin = 46.EE 3CL4.15) • Compensated open loop: Gc (s )G(s ) = s(s+ 2)(s+0. Kv remains 20 .015) • Numerical evaluation: • new ωc = 1.8◦ • By design.

EE 3CL4. L 37 16 / 16 Tim Davidson Frequency Domain Approach to Compensator Design Lag Compensators Step response Observe impact of reduction in bandwidth on response time .