THEORY: THEORY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MANAGEMENT (JACOB KOUNIN) As a teacher, we must be aware of the principles and consequences of any classroom

management decisions and strategies that we may wish to implement. One of the approaches that can be implemented and be used in managing classroom is the theory of instructional management by Jacob Kounin. The basic thing for the instructional approach to classroom management is that well-planned and well-implemented instruction will prevent most classroom problems. The assumption of this theory is that students will not engage in disruptive behavior when well planned and well implemented lessons engage students in the learning process with activities that meet their interests, needs, and abilities. In a comprehensive comparison of effective and ineffective classroom managers, Jacob Kounin (1970) found that the teachers differed very little in the way they handled classroom problems once they arose. The primary difference was in the things the successful managers did that tended to prevent classroom problems. They were totally aware of everything in the classroom environment; they kept students actively engaged; and they conducted well-planned lessons with smooth transitions. Kounin concluded that some teachers are better classroom managers because of skill in four areas: “withitness,” overlapping activities, group focusing, and movement management (Charles, 2002). Withitness is the skill to know what is going on in all parts of the classroom at all times; nothing is missed. “Withit” teachers respond immediately to student misbehavior and know who started what. A major component of withitness is scanning the class frequently, establishing eye contact with individual students, and having eyes in the back your head. “Withit” teachers don’t make timing errors. “Withit” teachers prevent minor disruptions from becoming major and know who the instigator is in a problem situation. Effective classroom managers are also skilled at overlapping. The term overlapping means handling two or more activities or groups at the same time.

Essentially, it is the ability to monitor the whole class at all times. It involves keeping a small group on task, for example, while also helping other students with their seatwork. Finally, Kounin notes that successful classroom management also depends on movement management and group focus—that is, the ability to make smooth lesson transitions, keep an appropriate pace, and involve all students in a lesson. Moreover, effective managers do not leave a lesson hanging while tending to something else or change back and forth from one subject or activity to another. They keep students alert by holding their attention, by holding them accountable, and by involving all students in the lesson actively.

THEORY: THEORIES OF DEMOCRATIC TEACHING (RUDOLF DREIKURS) This theory was designated by Rudolf Dreikur. This theory are based on democratic classroom and teaching styles. Democratic classroom could be defined as student takes part in designing the classroom rules and surrounding. This could be done by asking student about their expectation and desired outcome during the first interaction before each semester begin. For example, teacher and student could design the classroom rules and regulation according to both parties agreement. Apart from that, this theory also emphasizes on mutual respect among each member of the class. Since students desire to be part of a community, they would have one genuine goal. This is good because, they had understood each other desire. The theory of democratic teaching could be implemented through various approaches. First, teacher must provide lessons with social interest in mind. This mean, teacher must create lessons that could get student attention and interest according to student desire. Teacher needs to discuss with student regarding their preferable lessons for the day. By doing this procedure, student would feel appreciated as their opinion and needs are being fulfilled. Besides, another approach that teacher could use is by come up with a set of classroom rules as a group. Rules must be created by both students and teacher.

Example of rules is the class cleanliness, class arrangement and others. By giving student the opportunity to design and determine their own, they would feel the sense of belongings. Finally, Rudolf Dreikurs theory is a good example of harmonious and democratic approach in the classroom as this theory put emphasizes on students and teacher needs. However, teacher needs to consolidate and negotiate with students regarding the rules. THEORY: ASSERTIVE DISCIPLINE BY LEE & MARTIN CANTER Assertive discipline is a structured, systematic approach designed to assist educators in running an organized, teacher-in-charge classroom environment. Lee and Marlene Canter were the founder and pioneer of this theory. Both of them found that many teachers were unable to manage the undesirable behavior that occurred in their classrooms. Based on their investigation and the foundations of assertiveness training and applied behavior analysis, they developed a common sense, easy-to-learn approach to help teachers become the captains of their classrooms and positively influence their students' behavior. Assertive discipline has evolved since the early 1970 from a rather authoritarian approach to one that is now more democratic and cooperative. Lee & Martin Canter stated that there are three types of teacher that is assertive, hostile and non assertive teacher. Assertive teachers react confidently and quickly in situations that require the management of student behavior. They are supported by a few clearly stated classroom rules that have been explained, practiced, and enforced consistently. They give firm, clear, concise directions to students who are in need of outside guidance to help them behave appropriately. Students who comply are reinforced, whereas those who disobey rules and directions receive negative consequences. Meanwhile, non assertive teacher can be described as the opposite of assertive teacher. Finally, all these theory have advantages and disadvantages. It is up to teacher creativity and strategies to determine the best approach for certain class.