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Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

How Sedimentary Rock Is Formed

For thousands, even millions of years, little pieces of our earth have been eroded--broken down and worn away by wind and water. These little bits of our earth are washed downstream where they settle to the bottom of the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Layer after layer of eroded earth is deposited on top of each. These layers are pressed down more and more through time, until the bottom layers slowly turn into rock.

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

cassiterite & limestone building material quarzt .Fragment & Detritus as Building Material of Sedimentary Rocks Rounded basalt & a part of their thin sections containing olivine. magnetite pyroxene. & plagioclase which are enclosed by glassy materials Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Detritus from basalt (left) and granite (right) which Reef organic skeletal as is consisting mainly of magnetite.

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks can be divided into three fundamental types based upon the origin of the rock. Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed when dissolved ions carried in solution (usually seawater) are precipitated. Organic sedimentary rocks form from the dead remains of plant or animals. •transportation of sediments. Clastic sedimentary rocks Clastic sedimentary rocks are formed in three steps that require: •generation of sediments. Clastic sedimentary rocks are formed from the fragments of other rocks or minerals. •deposition of sediments. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

winds. The process of disintegration and decomposition is termed weathering and is influenced by the original rock type and climate conditions. Rocks physically disintegrate into smaller pieces and the constituent minerals may undergo decomposition to form alternate minerals. rock and mineral fragments formed when rocks disintegrate on the earth's surface. silt. A muddy river is an indication that the river is carrying a large load of sediment. glaciers and/or ocean currents. Common sediments include mud. and gravel. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . sand. Sediment is transported from its place of origin by streams.The basic building blocks of clastic sedimentary rocks are sediments.

0625 mm diameter). clay. •medium grain size (sand. less than 0. Consequently. clastic sediments are divided into large grain size particles •more than 2 mm in diameter = gravel. or •fine grain size (mud.0625–2 mm diameter). 0. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . silt.The velocity of transport may control the size of the sediment that can be carried (the exception is glaciers that carry sediment of all sizes trapped in the ice). Transport velocity therefore results in sediments being sorted (arranged) by grain size. Fast flowing streams and strong winds can transport larger grains than slow streams and calm breezes.

sediment at the base of the pile becomes compacted. converting the sediment into a cohesive aggregate. The process of compaction and cementation is termed lithification. Mud and clay are lithified to form shale. i. squeezing out water and forcing the grains closer together. Deposition concentrates sediments of the same size together.e. a rock. the landform that is created is a delta. and gravel becomes conglomerate. Conglomerate . sand is converted to sandstone. For example. the scale in the image is approximately 6 inches (15 cm) long Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . As the pile of sediment grows.Clastic sediments are deposited when the velocity of the transporting medium drops. Fluids circulating through the pile precipitate minerals to cement the grains together. Utah. rivers dump much of their sediment where they enter the relatively quiet waters of an ocean or lake.

The shells of larger organisms may be sorted by wave action to form a clastic form of limestone known as coquina. . Massive limestone coral reefs around the world were built up due to the Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 actions of the coral organisms. note shell fragments. The skeletons some microorganisms collect to form deposits of chalk. Close-up of coquina limestone.Chemical sedimentary rocks Chemical sedimentary rocks are precipitated from a solution as a result of changing physical conditions or due to the actions of living organisms. Penny for scale. a type of limestone. Minerals dissolved in seawater are precipitated when the water evaporates. The actions of microorganisms in seawater change the composition of the water resulting in the precipitation of limestone. Rock salt forms as a result of changing physical conditions (increasing temperature). The most common solution is seawater. Limestone forms when living marine organisms cause precipitation to build their skeletons. Vast shallow tropical oceans were the source for much of the limestone that is present at the surface across North America today.

The most common example is coal. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . the compacted remains of dead plants that grew in a tropical swamp environment. Massive coal seam in Tertiary rocks of the Powder River basin.Organic sedimentary rocks Organic sedimentary rocks (sometimes included with the chemical sedimentary rocks) are composed of the remains of dead organisms. northern Wyoming. The seam is up to 200 feet (60 meters) thick in places (note large coal-hauling truck for scale).

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

Simplistically, carbonate depositional environments form in five belts that run parallel to the coastline. These are, tidal flat, lagoon reef, shelf, and basin. After this many other divisions are possible.

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . The basic classification only concerned texture. In addition. and composition. But in most cases rock composition can be defined by four compositional components: >>> >>> >>> >>> Quartz Feldspar Lithic fragments (including rock fragments and mineral grains other than quartz) Matrix (a catchall for the silt and clay grains that cannot be easily seen by eye). Feldspar. sedimentary. or metamorphic rock can also be found in a sedimentary rock. there are over 6000 known minerals. It might seem that an unlimited variety of particles could end up in a sedimentary rock. Lithics Sedimentary rocks are classified on the basis of the texture (grain size) of the rock. You will learn to recognize and identify them as you study the rocks. any incompletely weathered piece of igneous. After all. A composition classification could become very complicated if all of these different particles were considered.INTRODUCTION TO QFL QFL stands for Quartz. with a high percentage of those particles being feldspar. an arkose sandstone is a rock of sand sized particles. using the Wentworth size scale. Descriptions of each category are below. Thus. But any full rock name must specify both texture and composition.

in a sandstone the matrix is silt and clay. So. and sodium plagioclase and orthoclase in granite. e. Pure quartz sandstones are rare. since all minerals other than quartz will eventually weather into silt or clay sized particles. The exception to this is conglomerates and breccias. calcium plagioclase in gabro. such as during Wilson Cycle Stage A and Stage I. With only a few exceptions all igneous rocks have large amounts of feldspar. and will remain after everything else is weathered or sorted out. or non-feldspar minerals weathered from a rock.COMPONENTS OF SILICICLASTIC SEDIMENTARY ROCK COMPOSITION Quartz Since quartz. if a siliciclastic particle is not quartz or feldspar it is classified a lithic fragment. silt or clay is very common in sedimentary rocks. Very simply. are included here. Sediments near high mountains frequently have large percentages of feldspar as batholiths and regional metamorphic rocks are uplifted and eroded (Wilson Cycle Stage F and Stage H). Medium to high grade metamorphic rocks also have large amounts of feldspar. dark in color. Matrix is the finer material in which larger particles are embedded. Lithic fragments are especially abundant in volcanic arc systems (Stage E). it is one of the most important of the four components of sedimentary rock composition. Frequently they are small. However. Usually quartz is mixed with one or more of the remaining three components. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Feldspar Lithics Matrix .g. does not weather into anything else. Rift systems (Stage B and Stage C) frequently also have large amounts of feldspar. Pure quartz sandstones form only under great tectonic stability when the land is not high enough for rocks to be exposed to weathering. but are common in most collision mountain buildings (Stage F and Stage H). and difficult or impossible to specifically identify in hand specimen. Feldspars are some of the most abundant minerals in the earth's crust. for all practical purposes. In a gravel the matrix may be a sand. Lithic means "rock" and all mechanically weathered pieces of another rock.

QFL CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS A Key For Clastic Sedimentary Rock Identificaton The simplest way to identify clastic rocks from composition and texture is with a key. To use the key you might need several things: A handlens to identify feldspar and lithics. to white. Recognizing quartz often gives new people trouble. on the other hand. with rare exceptions. It also varies in color from gray. to pink. A second option is to go to (or print out in color) Bowen’s Reaction Series where the minerals are listed. such as in Ca-plagioclase. A metric ruler or grain size chart (link). with large scale pictures available for comparison. especially with sand sized grains. they often want to identify it as feldspar. etc. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . have cleavage faces (quartz has no cleavage) that can sometimes be seen with careful looking. Identifying QFL in a rock usually takes practice. and as weathering takes place it just keep increasing in abundance. most of the minerals in a rock will be quartz since it is the most abundant sand sized particle. One way to proceed is to have hand samples of quartz and the feldspars to compare with. But. Feldspars. Some experience in identifying minerals and rock fragments in a rock. or rounded and frosted. and orthoclase. lithic. Na-plagioclase. and quartz rich. The problem is quartz can be clear and glassy. The key is going to drop the rocks into relatively clear-cut categories of arkosic. and further subdivide them on grain size.

rocks are often not pure arkoses (feldspar rich) but may also have mixtures of lithics too. These diagrams are discussed separately below. The universal system used by geologists is based on the ternary diagram. a second for determining QFL. Then we begin to see that not all rocks are pure sandstone. Ternary diagrams are not hard to read. but are also combined into one diagram. Thus. Likewise.until one begins to look at actual rocks. we need a classification system that not only can handle the pure rocks. And sometimes we need a chart to help estimate percent abundance Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . And it should be easy to use. one for determining texture.A Ternary System For Clastic Sedimentary Rock Identificaton The classification key used above seems very straight forward . but are often mixtures of grain sizes. This classification requires two ternary diagrams. but if you are not familiar with them read the short primer to ternary diagrams. but also all the combinations in between. or shale.

and up and down at the 75% and 90% boundaries. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 >>>> Notice that as we travel vertically the amount of quartz in the rock increases. such as a quartz sandstone or quartz conglomerate. That is. these rocks have more than 25% feldspar or lithics. F. and lithics on the lower right. are at the 50% boundary. that is. . It is always done this way. 25-100% feldspar or lithics.QFL Diagram: The QFL diagram is to the right. Observe the following: >>>> Quartz is at the top. The boundaries among the fields. feldspar on the lower left. or L increases accordingly. with 100% being. left and right. here color coded. of course. right at the apex. >>>> The ternary diagram is divided into 5 fields. >>>> The lower two fields contain rocks that are felspar (red) or lithic (blue) rich. and at the 90% boundary and above the rock has so much quartz the rock becomes a "quartz something". Rocks with this composition have such names as feldspathic (arkosic) sandstone (both terms are used interchangably) and lithic sandstone. >>>> As you travel toward any apex the quantity of Q.

>>>> As you travel toward any apex the quantity of Q. feldspar on the lower left. right at the apex. with 100% being.Quartz is at the top. It is always done this way. >>>> The ternary diagram is divided into 5 fields. of course. The boundaries among the fields. here color coded. or L increases accordingly. are at the 50% boundary. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . F. left and right. and lithics on the lower right. and up and down at the 75% and 90% boundaries.

above the arkosic and lithic fields. however. as feldspar and lithics weather the composition of the remaining sandstone migrates toward the quartz apex. but it would be more accurate to indicate that a lot of lithics are present too. 35% feldspar. It all depends on what the geologist wants to do with them. is lithic. Rocks in these fields have between 10-25 % feldspar or lithics and are thus farther along in their evolution toward pure quartz than feldspathic or lithic rocks. and 25% lithics (ternary with percent numbers). Such a name. the composition of "A" to the right is about 50% quartz. following the rules for naming rocks. we can only plot the abundance of sand (or larger) particles of various compositions. subarkosic and sublithic.Remember that all feldspar and lithic fragments are going to weather and disappear (to shale or dissolved minerals). One of the things we are very interested in is how close the sediment has gotten along its path of evolution. We could just call it an arkose since it falls in the feldspar field. But for this site we will always have these five fields. So. >>>> In other classsification systems. in these five places Observe that a composition plotted somewhere in the middle of the QFL indicates a mixed composition. No matter where you start on the diagram the sediment is going to evolve in almost a straight line right to the top. leaving only quartz. but below the quartz field are two more fields. Thus. On the QFL diagram. quartz Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . the boundaries among the fields sometimes differ from this one. For example. on this diagram. feldspathic. and there may be more fields than 5 laid out. This is the concept of sediment maturity.

35% feldspar. the composition of "A" to the right is about 50% quartz. feldspathic.Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Observe that a composition plotted somewhere in the middle of the QFL indicates a mixed composition. but it would be more accurate to indicate that a lot of lithics are present too. We could just call it an arkose since it falls in the feldspar field. Such a name. is lithic. For example. following the rules for naming rocks. and 25% lithics (ternary with percent numbers). quartz .

in practice. And even a sandy shale or sandy siltstone is not bad. are difficult or impossible to distinguish from each other. and shale are easy to identify. silt. To save ourselves a lot of grief we lump these together under the name "wacke".Texture Diagrams: The basic texture diagram is to the right. But the shaley sand and silty sand fields. >>>> The apexes are sand. matrix. siltstone. Later we will use some different apexes to explore some ideas. texture apexes commonly change for different uses. The fields have also changed boundary conditions. Where QFL apexes remain constant. Observe the following: >>>> This diagram is also divided into five fields. Always check the apexes. Observe here that sand has moved to another apex. but the percentage cutoffs differ from the QFL diagram. >>>> WACKE :-). Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . even under a good microscope. and clay. and that silt and clay have been combined into one category. Sandstone. as to the right. >>>> If a rock has gravel sized particles then we need a ternary diagram with gravel at one apex.

and shale are easy to identify. Later we will use some different apexes to explore some ideas. And even a sandy shale or sandy siltstone is not bad. silt. To save ourselves a lot of grief we lump these together under the name "wacke". siltstone. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . Sandstone. Always check the apexes. even under a good microscope. are difficult or impossible to distinguish from each other.The apexes are sand. texture apexes commonly change for different uses. Where QFL apexes remain constant. and clay. WACKE :-). in practice. But the shaley sand and silty sand fields.

But the shaley sand and silty sand fields. Always check the apexes. texture apexes commonly change for different uses. even under a good microscope. WACKE :-). Where QFL apexes remain constant. To save ourselves a lot of grief we lump these together under the name "wacke". siltstone. And even a sandy shale or sandy siltstone is not bad.The apexes are sand. in practice. silt. Later we will use some different apexes to explore some ideas. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . and shale are easy to identify. are difficult or impossible to distinguish from each other. and clay. Sandstone.

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 To name a clastic sedimentary rock we must plot the composition on the QFL diagram. See example below. AND a practical consideration. How do you learn how to estimate percentage abundances? The most common method is to use a percent abundance chart.A couple of simplifying rules (after all names can get quite complex!). it is implied then that quartz is present and most abundant. if it is not the most abundant it must be included in order of its abundance. when a composition is less than 10% we often leave it out too. for a specimen plotted at "A" . and the texture on the texture diagram. and then combine the two to get the full name. And. However. If quartz is the most abundant composition it can usually be left out of the name.

Sedimentary structures:

Cross bedding
Layering within a bed is inclined to the main bedding plane to form the cross beds. Steeply dipping parts of the layers are called foresets. It is a common type of sedimentary structure, often present in sandstones and other detrital sediments but also found in limestones and dolomites. Cross bedding mostly forms in response to the migration of sand dunes, sandwaves and ripples in the direction of current flow, downstream or downwind under conditions of erosion and deposition.

When layers within the bed are thinner than 1 cm cross-bedding is then named cross-lamination. Where cross-bedding and cross-lamination occur together examples are named crossstratification. Photo by Dipl. Ing. Ir. Andri S.S. Mubandi

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

Cross-bedding formation Cross-beds formed by the migration of bedforms such as ripples, dunes or sand waves as sediment is deposited on the down-current side. Migration of the bedforms results from the erosion of sediment on the stoss side of the bedform and deposition on the leeward side of the bedform. The strength of the current driving the migration controls the size and shape of the cross-bedding. The diagram taken from M.E.Tucker helps to explain the downstream migration of ripples and dunes which eventually give rise to cross-bedding. Cross bedding in a rock represents the former position of the ripple or dune Lee face. The dune formation example shows the erosion and deposition of the wind blown sand particles, resulting in the migration of the lunate crested dune downstream Photo provided by Dr R Suthren

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

Classification of cross-bedding
Two basic cross beds are Trough cross bedding produced by three dimensional bedforms (those with curved crests) and the Planar cross beds produced by Two dimensional bedforms (those with straight crests). An individual bed of cross strata is called a set, a group of similar set is a coset. Planar cross bedding - The foresets dip at angles up to 30 degrees or more and may have an angular or tangential basal contact this depends on the flow velocity/sediment transport. Tangential contacts - The lower of the cross bed is referred to as the bottom set. Tabular cross-bedding - The foresets are approximately planar, it results from the migration of straight crested bedforms. See http://www.geo.duke.edu/ss/ss007.gif photo shows large scale tabular cross bedding. Cross-bedding is useful as a way up indicator: the angle between the foresets /bottomsets and the base of the bed is smaller than the angle between the foresets and the top surface, which is often an erosion surface. Changes in flow velocity during migration will erode the dune/ripple. When deposition resumes the erosion surface will be present in the cross bedding. This is named the reactivation surface and is commonly found in fluvial cross bedded sandstones from fluctuations in the rivers velocity. A low angle cross bedding results in Antidune bedding. The antidunes form from the undulating bedforms which develop in the upper flow regime. They develop with erosion on the downstream side (lee) and deposition on the upstream side (stoss) under high velocity currents. Antidune bedding is rarely preserved but occurs in beach sands, washover fans and in base surge tuffs. Hummocky Cross-bedding - Bedding formed by wave generated oscillatory flows and combined flows (wave and currents) produced by the passage of storms Aeolian Cross-bedding - Have much steeper angles (25-35 degrees) than that of sub aqueous beds. They are also commonly thicker, several metres thick.

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Avoid basing your interpretation on just one kind of information. the description. AGI. For example. this should never be used in isolation to interpret depositional environments. although the practical this week concentrates on sediment grain size. allabout. . 1974) "Sedimentology is that branch of geology concerned with understanding the characteristics of sedimentary rocks originally deposited in sedimentary basins".What is sedimentology? Here are some definitions: "The scientific study of sedimentary rocks and of the processes by which they were formed. classification.cc Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 One of the most important approaches in describing and interpreting sedimentary rocks is to take a holistic view: Obtain as many different types of information as possible before synthesizing them to make an interpretation. origin and interpretation of sediments" (Glossary of Geology.

sorting. Microfossil fragment in limestone (right)...& micros. grain surface texture. grain shape..) •sediment composition (mineralogy..copic view show subrounded-rounded fragments set in fine grained matrix.. fossil content. .) •bedding and sedimentary structures •trace fossils •geometry of the sedimentary body •nature of the base of the sedimentary body Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Clast & matrix in megas. and which should be used in combination to interpret processes and then environment: •sediment texture (grain size.The following list shows descriptive features which are commonly available from outcrop studies. packing. support.

The use of a hand lens is essential if all possible information is to be extracted from the specimen. Don't attempt to describe the sorting of mud-grade sediments. identify grain type (bioclasts. colour on weathered surfaces •Grain size and sorting .describe mineralogy of grains. pellets/peloids. and range of grain size.note overall colour of sediment. intraclasts. Rock fragments give identifying features and name. bimodal.) and estimate percentage of each.Describing loose sediments in hand specimen Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 This scheme may be used for the description of sediment samples in the laboratory or the field. Is grain size distribution unimodal. and attempt to estimate the percentage of each mineral. elongate etc. For carbonate grains.estimate both mean grain size.) •roundness and range of roundness •surface features of grains (faceting. ooids. polymodal? •Exact grain size of mud grade sediment is impossible to determine by eye. •Grain shape . frosting etc.) . Organisms or fossils .sphericity (are grains equant. etc.are they whole or fragmentary? Which groups are present? •Colour . •Composition . colour of individual components. Estimate sorting.

B. Do not try to push this too far .give the sample an accurate name. feldspathic medium sand.From your description. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Volcanic breccia & intercalation between sandstone and clay of Taraju area Tasikmalaya. based on your description. presence of a particular fossil group may indicate salinity. angular flint gravel. In the case of modern sediments. depth or age. light level. which can only be accurately used for thin sections). West Java – Indonesia. Deposition . Use appropriate adjectives to qualify the name: e. you may have direct evidence of the environments from which the sample was collected. do not attempt to apply schemes such as the Folk and Dunham limestone classifications.g. (N. Examples: grain size may allow estimate of energy levels.there is a limit to the interpretation which can be made from a single hand specimen. mineralogical and textural maturity may indicate length of transport and reworking. Photo by Andri SSM . molluscan shell gravel.Sediment name . Name should be based on both compositional and textural attributes. draw general conclusions about conditions of transport and deposition.

Credit card style comparators are also available. printed on plastic. Click on the sediment samples to enlarge Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .Grain size of sediments The grain-size comparator below uses real sieved sand which has been set in resin and then polished. The small divisions on the ruler are millimetres.

Karangsambung Volcanic breccia.this page 2. These processes are just one small part of the Rock Cycle .biochemical sediments 4.other chemical sediments (e. evaporites) What are the terrigenous clastic rocks? They are mixtures of mineral grains & rock fragments derived by weathering & erosion of pre-existing rocks. Tasikmalaya Calcareous lapili tuff.carbonates (limestones) . Sukabumi Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . conglomerates. mudstones) . Tasikmalaya Tuffaceous sandstone.Volcanoclastics 3.Composition of terrigenous clastic sediments & rocks Introduction Four main groups of sediments and sedimentary rocks may be defined: terrigenous clastics (sandstones. Nummulitic limestone.g.

climate at site of deposition .the mode of weathering at the source (mechanical weathering simply breaks up existing minerals for transport. 2.mode & length of transport and reworking: when these processes operate over a long time.feldspars mafic minerals clay minerals chlorites + ions in solution Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Factors which determine the mineralogy of terrigenous clastic sediments and rocks These include: 1.depositional environment . and 3.chemical. For example. are particularly important in modifying the mineralogy of the sediment produced from the original source rock.physical sorting. chemical weathering creates new minerals) 3. the less stable and less durable minerals are broken down and destroyed.diagenesis .which minerals are available to form a sediment? The composition of a sediment may give evidence of tectonic setting.the nature of the source area(s) (provenance) . leaving only the more stable minerals 4.controls rates and types of chemical and physical processes 6. and chemical and biological attack may further change the composition of the sediment 5. common changes at earth surface temperatures and pressures are: . physical and biological changes to the sediment after deposition 2.

Minerals which are hard.g. Many igneous minerals. zircon. no cleavage). and its mechanical durability (hardness 7. many high temperature and/or high pressure igneous and metamorphic minerals are not stable under the low temperatures and pressures typical of sedimentary environments. tourmaline etc. particularly the mafic ones and Ca-rich feldspars. some garnets. So. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Cassiterite sands of Bangka-Belitung coast & gold detritus of Kutai placer. Stable minerals include quartz. and the commonest component in clastic sediments. muscovite. particularly quartz. are likely to survive longer: they are more resistant to abrasion during transport. but not common.). amphiboles. In fact. olivines. and are not commonly found in sedimentary rocks. K-feldspar. Na-feldspar. some 'heavy minerals' (e.Unstable minerals include: pyroxenes. durable minerals. It survives because of its resistance to chemical attack (it is soluble only in highly alkaline solutions). Mineralogically mature rocks are those which have undergone prolonged weathering. are susceptible to chemical weathering: they break down. some plagioclase feldspars. The concept of mineralogical maturity: a mineralogically mature sediment or sedimentary rock is one which consists largely of the stable minerals. double check your identification!! It is possible to find such minerals in sands and sandstones close to their source areas (e.g. Photo by Andri SSM . if you think you have found pyroxene or olivine in a sandstone. clay minerals. Mechanical durability is also important. Quartz is by far the most common of these stable. transport and reworking. black sand beaches on volcanic islands). or which have no cleavage.

chemical precipitates in pore spaces pore space primary or secondary Tin sand of Bangka-Belitung Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 0. cement . or secondary (formed by diagenetic alteration of grains. Kalimantan . May be primary (deposited at same time or soon after grains).Components Of Terrigenous Clastic Rocks These rocks can be regarded as having four components: 0.5mm This is a cartoon view of a sandstone in thin section.5mm Sandstone of Simenggaris East Kalimantan Cross bedding – Tenggarong. It illustrates the four components: grains matrix .mud-sized sediment between the grains.

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Microphoto by Andri SSM 2004 . it may also be possible to recognize different types of the same mineral.Grain Mineralogy You will already be familiar in thin section with most of the grains that you are likely to come across in sandstones: many of them are also found in igneous rocks. so we often do not have crystal shape or straight or inclined extinction as identifiable properties. they rarely show crystal faces. because of transport & abrasion. A problem with sedimentary grains is that. such as varieties of quartz. In some cases.

Matrix So far. illite and kaolinite are of great economic interest because of their effects (usually detrimental) on porosity and permeability of sedimentary rock Cement Sandstone of Simenggaris East Kalimantan Chemically precipitated material. The properties of the common clay minerals are described in Mineralogy of clastic rocks. Surprisingly.the mud-sized sediment between the grains in many clastic sediments and rocks. whether a new mineral. and one or more clay minerals. Clays are seen better under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . Clays minerals such as chlorite. Now let us move on to the matrix . and in Clay Minerals. may form a cement. it is often possibly to determine the mineralogy of this fine-grained material by careful examination under high magnification. we have considered the composition of the grains. It may contain silt-sized quartz grains. or an addition to an existing mineral. which binds the grains of the sediment together to form a rock.

which involves grain composition and percentage matrix. and the proportions of the different grain types (commonly quartz. but ignores cement Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . We shall use Dott's classification.Sandstone Classification Sandstones are named and classified according to their composition. feldspar and rock fragments). This is usually defined in terms of the percentage of matrix present.

fine-grained mud.medium-grained mud.0039 Class boulder cobble pebble granule very coarse sand coarse sand medium sand fine sand very fine sand coarse silt medium silt fine silt clay Clastic texture terms gravel.fine-grained mud.coarse grained gravel.0156 0.fine-grained Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .coarse grained sand.25 0.0625 0.medium-grained sand.0078 <0.031 0.medium-grained sand.5 0.Wentworth Sediment Size Scale Millimeters >256 64 4 2 1.coarse grained gravel.coarse grained gravel.medium-grained sand.medium-grained sand.fine-grained mud.0 0.125 0.

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 I. Contains quartz as a major constituent J. Contains much feldspar (found in sandstones. Contains chert in nodules or as replacement lenses. conglomerate) G. Contains iron oxides (hematite/limonite) D.Argillaceous Arkosic Calcareous Carbonaceous Cherty Dolomitic Feldspathic Ferruginous Quartzose Siliceous A. Contains much free silica (rather than silicates as the principal constituent E. Contains much clay C. Contains feldspar fragments or grains H. Rich in carbon or organic matter B. Contains much calcium magnesium carbonate and some calcite K. Contains much calcite .

Texture Cement Clastic Quartz/Chert Quartz/Chert/Mica/Roc k Quartz/Feldspars/Clay Chemical Silica Gel Calcite/Dolomite Gypsum Halite Limestone/Dolostone Gypsum Rock Salt Bioclastic Biogenic Marine Skeletal Organic Biogenic Organic Carbon Size/Shape/ Sorting Composition Crystalline Silica Carbonates Ferruginous Silica Carbonates Ferruginous Silica Carbonates Ferruginous Carbonate None Coarse grain size >2mm Breccia/Conglomerate Clean Sandstones Greywacke Sandstones Arkose Sandstones Siltstone Claystone Shale Gypsum Rock Salt Concretions Concretions Gypsum Rock Salt Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Opal/Chert Limestone/Dolostone Anhydrite/Rock Salt Chalk Fossiliferous Limestone Chalk Fossiliferous Limestone Coquina Anhydrite Rock Salt Medium grain size >1/16-2mm Fine/Very Fine <1/16mm Open Fibrous Fossil Remains Peat Dense Coal: Lignite/ Bituminous/A nthracite .

Match the type of environment with the definitions on the right. such as geysers. swamp. Sedimentary depositional environments are classified in two main categories: marine and continental. landslides. Sedimentary rocks found within the chemical group may have precipitated origins. or coastline with pounding waves. Continental deposits may be either on dry land (such as deserts. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . and estuary deposits are transitional between marine and continental. shallow ocean. lagoon. or hydrothermal replacement deposits. gravity.Origins The environment of deposition is responsible for the character of the sediments that are deposited in a region. Marine includes various oceanic environments. evaporites. Delta. glacial deposits) or subaqueous (such as lake. steam bed). barrier beach. such as cave formations. such as deep ocean.

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

bioclastic biogenic.g. Quartzose sandstones are nearly pure quartz (>90%). with a continental alluvial fan or river environment.g.Chert is often grouped under chemical. iron-oxide. transportation. usually lithified by cementation with silica.g.g. chemical. chemical) Three kinds of sandstone/conglomerate are recognized: quartzose. and more. glauconite.ocean ridges (e. especially volcanics) 4) replacement of silica for chemical components of other types present in preexisting rock. chemical. lithified by compaction of clayey matrix with an oceanic trench environment. iron-oxide. vein or cavity fillings in continental or marine rocks. graywacke. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 ... and seafloor spreading along mid. rock fragments. geysers.. or silica. variable sorting. diagenetic replacement or compaction of deposits in preexisting rocks like limestone) 6) diagenesis or a chemical conversion of opaline silica into quartz in nodules or bedded (e.. silica replaces calcite in limestone) 5) erosion.g. and arkose. chemical. deposition of previously formed siliceous materials (e. usually angular grains. They are poorly sorted "dirty" sandstones with angular grains. detrital. Graywacke sandstones are a mixture of quartz.. The various origins of chert include: 1) biochemical precipitation or a process by which living organisms induce crystallization of solids from solution (e. feldspar. lithified by cementation with calcite. with a marine or coastal environment. calcite. surficial deposits in deep to shallow marine environments) 2) hydrogenous precipitation from low temperature water based solutions that become supersaturated with silica (e. such as diagenetic replacement deposits in preexisting rocks like limestone (e. mica. well sorted and rounded grains. vein or cavity fillings in continental or marine rocks.. although it may bioclastic biogenic when siliceous skeletons are found in the chert or detrital when converted by a compaction (diagenesis).g.Arkose sandstones are a mixture of quartz and feldspar. especially volcanics) 3) hydrothermal precipitation in thermal waters as the solubility of silica increases and silica precipitates upon cooling in hot springs.

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Carbonates (Limestones) Micro texture & their constituent Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Graywacke &Arkosic Sandstone Micro texture & their constituent Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Arenite /clean sandstone micro texture & their constituent Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Arenite /clean sandstone micro texture & their constituent Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Oolitic limestone micro texture & their constituent Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Quartz-Feldspar detritus of microscopic view which are associated with granitic-metamorphic terrain. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Carbonate Reef associated fragments in microscopic view Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Outcrops of Sedimentary Structure Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Outcrops of Sedimentary Structure Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 BIOGENIC & CHEMICAL SEDIMENTARY ROCKS .

Conglomerates .Breccias & their packing texture Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Cross Bedding and Active Sand Dune Sedimentary Structure Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Sandstone microtextures which mainly are associated with granitic – metamorphic provenances Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .