Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

How Sedimentary Rock Is Formed

For thousands, even millions of years, little pieces of our earth have been eroded--broken down and worn away by wind and water. These little bits of our earth are washed downstream where they settle to the bottom of the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Layer after layer of eroded earth is deposited on top of each. These layers are pressed down more and more through time, until the bottom layers slowly turn into rock.

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

cassiterite & limestone building material quarzt . & plagioclase which are enclosed by glassy materials Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Detritus from basalt (left) and granite (right) which Reef organic skeletal as is consisting mainly of magnetite.Fragment & Detritus as Building Material of Sedimentary Rocks Rounded basalt & a part of their thin sections containing olivine. magnetite pyroxene.

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Clastic sedimentary rocks are formed from the fragments of other rocks or minerals.Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks can be divided into three fundamental types based upon the origin of the rock. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . •transportation of sediments. •deposition of sediments. Clastic sedimentary rocks Clastic sedimentary rocks are formed in three steps that require: •generation of sediments. Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed when dissolved ions carried in solution (usually seawater) are precipitated. Organic sedimentary rocks form from the dead remains of plant or animals.

and gravel. silt. Common sediments include mud. The process of disintegration and decomposition is termed weathering and is influenced by the original rock type and climate conditions. glaciers and/or ocean currents. winds. A muddy river is an indication that the river is carrying a large load of sediment.The basic building blocks of clastic sedimentary rocks are sediments. rock and mineral fragments formed when rocks disintegrate on the earth's surface. Rocks physically disintegrate into smaller pieces and the constituent minerals may undergo decomposition to form alternate minerals. sand. Sediment is transported from its place of origin by streams. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

0. clay. clastic sediments are divided into large grain size particles •more than 2 mm in diameter = gravel. silt. •medium grain size (sand. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . Transport velocity therefore results in sediments being sorted (arranged) by grain size.0625–2 mm diameter). less than 0.The velocity of transport may control the size of the sediment that can be carried (the exception is glaciers that carry sediment of all sizes trapped in the ice). Consequently.0625 mm diameter). or •fine grain size (mud. Fast flowing streams and strong winds can transport larger grains than slow streams and calm breezes.

Deposition concentrates sediments of the same size together. converting the sediment into a cohesive aggregate. The process of compaction and cementation is termed lithification.Clastic sediments are deposited when the velocity of the transporting medium drops. Conglomerate . For example. Mud and clay are lithified to form shale. Utah. Fluids circulating through the pile precipitate minerals to cement the grains together. the scale in the image is approximately 6 inches (15 cm) long Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . sediment at the base of the pile becomes compacted. and gravel becomes conglomerate.e. the landform that is created is a delta. rivers dump much of their sediment where they enter the relatively quiet waters of an ocean or lake. sand is converted to sandstone. squeezing out water and forcing the grains closer together. i. As the pile of sediment grows. a rock.

a type of limestone. Limestone forms when living marine organisms cause precipitation to build their skeletons. . Vast shallow tropical oceans were the source for much of the limestone that is present at the surface across North America today. The shells of larger organisms may be sorted by wave action to form a clastic form of limestone known as coquina. The most common solution is seawater. Close-up of coquina limestone. Rock salt forms as a result of changing physical conditions (increasing temperature). Minerals dissolved in seawater are precipitated when the water evaporates.Chemical sedimentary rocks Chemical sedimentary rocks are precipitated from a solution as a result of changing physical conditions or due to the actions of living organisms. The actions of microorganisms in seawater change the composition of the water resulting in the precipitation of limestone. Massive limestone coral reefs around the world were built up due to the Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 actions of the coral organisms. Penny for scale. The skeletons some microorganisms collect to form deposits of chalk. note shell fragments.

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .Organic sedimentary rocks Organic sedimentary rocks (sometimes included with the chemical sedimentary rocks) are composed of the remains of dead organisms. northern Wyoming. The most common example is coal. Massive coal seam in Tertiary rocks of the Powder River basin. The seam is up to 200 feet (60 meters) thick in places (note large coal-hauling truck for scale). the compacted remains of dead plants that grew in a tropical swamp environment.

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

Simplistically, carbonate depositional environments form in five belts that run parallel to the coastline. These are, tidal flat, lagoon reef, shelf, and basin. After this many other divisions are possible.

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

The basic classification only concerned texture. using the Wentworth size scale. But any full rock name must specify both texture and composition. A composition classification could become very complicated if all of these different particles were considered. You will learn to recognize and identify them as you study the rocks.INTRODUCTION TO QFL QFL stands for Quartz. But in most cases rock composition can be defined by four compositional components: >>> >>> >>> >>> Quartz Feldspar Lithic fragments (including rock fragments and mineral grains other than quartz) Matrix (a catchall for the silt and clay grains that cannot be easily seen by eye). Feldspar. there are over 6000 known minerals. with a high percentage of those particles being feldspar. sedimentary. and composition. In addition. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . It might seem that an unlimited variety of particles could end up in a sedimentary rock. Thus. Lithics Sedimentary rocks are classified on the basis of the texture (grain size) of the rock. After all. Descriptions of each category are below. an arkose sandstone is a rock of sand sized particles. any incompletely weathered piece of igneous. or metamorphic rock can also be found in a sedimentary rock.

calcium plagioclase in gabro. Medium to high grade metamorphic rocks also have large amounts of feldspar. but are common in most collision mountain buildings (Stage F and Stage H). Rift systems (Stage B and Stage C) frequently also have large amounts of feldspar. However. Feldspars are some of the most abundant minerals in the earth's crust. it is one of the most important of the four components of sedimentary rock composition. Usually quartz is mixed with one or more of the remaining three components. or non-feldspar minerals weathered from a rock. Lithic fragments are especially abundant in volcanic arc systems (Stage E). Pure quartz sandstones form only under great tectonic stability when the land is not high enough for rocks to be exposed to weathering.g. and sodium plagioclase and orthoclase in granite. e. With only a few exceptions all igneous rocks have large amounts of feldspar. Matrix is the finer material in which larger particles are embedded. Sediments near high mountains frequently have large percentages of feldspar as batholiths and regional metamorphic rocks are uplifted and eroded (Wilson Cycle Stage F and Stage H). and will remain after everything else is weathered or sorted out. in a sandstone the matrix is silt and clay. since all minerals other than quartz will eventually weather into silt or clay sized particles. if a siliciclastic particle is not quartz or feldspar it is classified a lithic fragment.COMPONENTS OF SILICICLASTIC SEDIMENTARY ROCK COMPOSITION Quartz Since quartz. such as during Wilson Cycle Stage A and Stage I. for all practical purposes. dark in color. and difficult or impossible to specifically identify in hand specimen. Pure quartz sandstones are rare. Very simply. So. In a gravel the matrix may be a sand. are included here. does not weather into anything else. Lithic means "rock" and all mechanically weathered pieces of another rock. The exception to this is conglomerates and breccias. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Feldspar Lithics Matrix . Frequently they are small. silt or clay is very common in sedimentary rocks.

and orthoclase. Some experience in identifying minerals and rock fragments in a rock. A second option is to go to (or print out in color) Bowen’s Reaction Series where the minerals are listed. and quartz rich. Recognizing quartz often gives new people trouble. Identifying QFL in a rock usually takes practice. A metric ruler or grain size chart (link). to pink. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .QFL CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS A Key For Clastic Sedimentary Rock Identificaton The simplest way to identify clastic rocks from composition and texture is with a key. etc. such as in Ca-plagioclase. lithic. to white. with large scale pictures available for comparison. especially with sand sized grains. Na-plagioclase. or rounded and frosted. they often want to identify it as feldspar. Feldspars. The problem is quartz can be clear and glassy. The key is going to drop the rocks into relatively clear-cut categories of arkosic. To use the key you might need several things: A handlens to identify feldspar and lithics. But. have cleavage faces (quartz has no cleavage) that can sometimes be seen with careful looking. on the other hand. One way to proceed is to have hand samples of quartz and the feldspars to compare with. and as weathering takes place it just keep increasing in abundance. It also varies in color from gray. with rare exceptions. most of the minerals in a rock will be quartz since it is the most abundant sand sized particle. and further subdivide them on grain size.

but are also combined into one diagram. or shale. Likewise. Thus. Then we begin to see that not all rocks are pure sandstone. The universal system used by geologists is based on the ternary diagram. And sometimes we need a chart to help estimate percent abundance Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . This classification requires two ternary diagrams. but also all the combinations in between. Ternary diagrams are not hard to read. but are often mixtures of grain sizes. but if you are not familiar with them read the short primer to ternary diagrams.until one begins to look at actual rocks. These diagrams are discussed separately below. And it should be easy to use.A Ternary System For Clastic Sedimentary Rock Identificaton The classification key used above seems very straight forward . we need a classification system that not only can handle the pure rocks. one for determining texture. a second for determining QFL. rocks are often not pure arkoses (feldspar rich) but may also have mixtures of lithics too.

are at the 50% boundary. The boundaries among the fields. and lithics on the lower right. It is always done this way. and at the 90% boundary and above the rock has so much quartz the rock becomes a "quartz something".QFL Diagram: The QFL diagram is to the right. . right at the apex. and up and down at the 75% and 90% boundaries. 25-100% feldspar or lithics. that is. F. with 100% being. >>>> The ternary diagram is divided into 5 fields. >>>> As you travel toward any apex the quantity of Q. Rocks with this composition have such names as feldspathic (arkosic) sandstone (both terms are used interchangably) and lithic sandstone. Observe the following: >>>> Quartz is at the top. or L increases accordingly. >>>> The lower two fields contain rocks that are felspar (red) or lithic (blue) rich. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 >>>> Notice that as we travel vertically the amount of quartz in the rock increases. such as a quartz sandstone or quartz conglomerate. here color coded. left and right. of course. feldspar on the lower left. That is. these rocks have more than 25% feldspar or lithics.

are at the 50% boundary. It is always done this way. here color coded. with 100% being. The boundaries among the fields.Quartz is at the top. or L increases accordingly. >>>> The ternary diagram is divided into 5 fields. feldspar on the lower left. right at the apex. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . >>>> As you travel toward any apex the quantity of Q. and lithics on the lower right. left and right. and up and down at the 75% and 90% boundaries. F. of course.

as feldspar and lithics weather the composition of the remaining sandstone migrates toward the quartz apex. So.Remember that all feldspar and lithic fragments are going to weather and disappear (to shale or dissolved minerals). No matter where you start on the diagram the sediment is going to evolve in almost a straight line right to the top. feldspathic. and 25% lithics (ternary with percent numbers). Thus. On the QFL diagram. We could just call it an arkose since it falls in the feldspar field. in these five places Observe that a composition plotted somewhere in the middle of the QFL indicates a mixed composition. This is the concept of sediment maturity. For example. subarkosic and sublithic. the composition of "A" to the right is about 50% quartz. the boundaries among the fields sometimes differ from this one. It all depends on what the geologist wants to do with them. Rocks in these fields have between 10-25 % feldspar or lithics and are thus farther along in their evolution toward pure quartz than feldspathic or lithic rocks. quartz Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . 35% feldspar. but below the quartz field are two more fields. One of the things we are very interested in is how close the sediment has gotten along its path of evolution. leaving only quartz. we can only plot the abundance of sand (or larger) particles of various compositions. on this diagram. and there may be more fields than 5 laid out. Such a name. >>>> In other classsification systems. but it would be more accurate to indicate that a lot of lithics are present too. is lithic. however. following the rules for naming rocks. But for this site we will always have these five fields. above the arkosic and lithic fields.

We could just call it an arkose since it falls in the feldspar field. but it would be more accurate to indicate that a lot of lithics are present too. following the rules for naming rocks. For example. Such a name. is lithic. feldspathic. 35% feldspar. and 25% lithics (ternary with percent numbers).Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Observe that a composition plotted somewhere in the middle of the QFL indicates a mixed composition. quartz . the composition of "A" to the right is about 50% quartz.

Observe here that sand has moved to another apex. >>>> WACKE :-). The fields have also changed boundary conditions.Texture Diagrams: The basic texture diagram is to the right. are difficult or impossible to distinguish from each other. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . even under a good microscope. To save ourselves a lot of grief we lump these together under the name "wacke". and clay. as to the right. Observe the following: >>>> This diagram is also divided into five fields. and shale are easy to identify. Always check the apexes. but the percentage cutoffs differ from the QFL diagram. siltstone. Later we will use some different apexes to explore some ideas. Where QFL apexes remain constant. texture apexes commonly change for different uses. Sandstone. matrix. silt. And even a sandy shale or sandy siltstone is not bad. But the shaley sand and silty sand fields. and that silt and clay have been combined into one category. in practice. >>>> If a rock has gravel sized particles then we need a ternary diagram with gravel at one apex. >>>> The apexes are sand.

Later we will use some different apexes to explore some ideas. texture apexes commonly change for different uses. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . silt.The apexes are sand. and shale are easy to identify. Where QFL apexes remain constant. Sandstone. even under a good microscope. WACKE :-). in practice. and clay. To save ourselves a lot of grief we lump these together under the name "wacke". siltstone. But the shaley sand and silty sand fields. Always check the apexes. are difficult or impossible to distinguish from each other. And even a sandy shale or sandy siltstone is not bad.

To save ourselves a lot of grief we lump these together under the name "wacke". siltstone. are difficult or impossible to distinguish from each other. in practice. Where QFL apexes remain constant. even under a good microscope. And even a sandy shale or sandy siltstone is not bad. WACKE :-). Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .The apexes are sand. texture apexes commonly change for different uses. Sandstone. Later we will use some different apexes to explore some ideas. and shale are easy to identify. Always check the apexes. silt. But the shaley sand and silty sand fields. and clay.

for a specimen plotted at "A" . and the texture on the texture diagram. However. See example below. and then combine the two to get the full name. when a composition is less than 10% we often leave it out too. If quartz is the most abundant composition it can usually be left out of the name. And.A couple of simplifying rules (after all names can get quite complex!). How do you learn how to estimate percentage abundances? The most common method is to use a percent abundance chart. it is implied then that quartz is present and most abundant. AND a practical consideration. if it is not the most abundant it must be included in order of its abundance. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 To name a clastic sedimentary rock we must plot the composition on the QFL diagram.

Sedimentary structures:

Cross bedding
Layering within a bed is inclined to the main bedding plane to form the cross beds. Steeply dipping parts of the layers are called foresets. It is a common type of sedimentary structure, often present in sandstones and other detrital sediments but also found in limestones and dolomites. Cross bedding mostly forms in response to the migration of sand dunes, sandwaves and ripples in the direction of current flow, downstream or downwind under conditions of erosion and deposition.

When layers within the bed are thinner than 1 cm cross-bedding is then named cross-lamination. Where cross-bedding and cross-lamination occur together examples are named crossstratification. Photo by Dipl. Ing. Ir. Andri S.S. Mubandi

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

Cross-bedding formation Cross-beds formed by the migration of bedforms such as ripples, dunes or sand waves as sediment is deposited on the down-current side. Migration of the bedforms results from the erosion of sediment on the stoss side of the bedform and deposition on the leeward side of the bedform. The strength of the current driving the migration controls the size and shape of the cross-bedding. The diagram taken from M.E.Tucker helps to explain the downstream migration of ripples and dunes which eventually give rise to cross-bedding. Cross bedding in a rock represents the former position of the ripple or dune Lee face. The dune formation example shows the erosion and deposition of the wind blown sand particles, resulting in the migration of the lunate crested dune downstream Photo provided by Dr R Suthren

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

Classification of cross-bedding
Two basic cross beds are Trough cross bedding produced by three dimensional bedforms (those with curved crests) and the Planar cross beds produced by Two dimensional bedforms (those with straight crests). An individual bed of cross strata is called a set, a group of similar set is a coset. Planar cross bedding - The foresets dip at angles up to 30 degrees or more and may have an angular or tangential basal contact this depends on the flow velocity/sediment transport. Tangential contacts - The lower of the cross bed is referred to as the bottom set. Tabular cross-bedding - The foresets are approximately planar, it results from the migration of straight crested bedforms. See http://www.geo.duke.edu/ss/ss007.gif photo shows large scale tabular cross bedding. Cross-bedding is useful as a way up indicator: the angle between the foresets /bottomsets and the base of the bed is smaller than the angle between the foresets and the top surface, which is often an erosion surface. Changes in flow velocity during migration will erode the dune/ripple. When deposition resumes the erosion surface will be present in the cross bedding. This is named the reactivation surface and is commonly found in fluvial cross bedded sandstones from fluctuations in the rivers velocity. A low angle cross bedding results in Antidune bedding. The antidunes form from the undulating bedforms which develop in the upper flow regime. They develop with erosion on the downstream side (lee) and deposition on the upstream side (stoss) under high velocity currents. Antidune bedding is rarely preserved but occurs in beach sands, washover fans and in base surge tuffs. Hummocky Cross-bedding - Bedding formed by wave generated oscillatory flows and combined flows (wave and currents) produced by the passage of storms Aeolian Cross-bedding - Have much steeper angles (25-35 degrees) than that of sub aqueous beds. They are also commonly thicker, several metres thick.

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

AGI.What is sedimentology? Here are some definitions: "The scientific study of sedimentary rocks and of the processes by which they were formed. 1974) "Sedimentology is that branch of geology concerned with understanding the characteristics of sedimentary rocks originally deposited in sedimentary basins". Avoid basing your interpretation on just one kind of information. this should never be used in isolation to interpret depositional environments. origin and interpretation of sediments" (Glossary of Geology. although the practical this week concentrates on sediment grain size. classification. . the description. allabout. For example.cc Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 One of the most important approaches in describing and interpreting sedimentary rocks is to take a holistic view: Obtain as many different types of information as possible before synthesizing them to make an interpretation.

copic view show subrounded-rounded fragments set in fine grained matrix.) •sediment composition (mineralogy.The following list shows descriptive features which are commonly available from outcrop studies.. packing.) •bedding and sedimentary structures •trace fossils •geometry of the sedimentary body •nature of the base of the sedimentary body Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Clast & matrix in megas.. grain surface texture. fossil content. sorting. .& micros. grain shape... Microfossil fragment in limestone (right). support. and which should be used in combination to interpret processes and then environment: •sediment texture (grain size..

sphericity (are grains equant.note overall colour of sediment. polymodal? •Exact grain size of mud grade sediment is impossible to determine by eye. Don't attempt to describe the sorting of mud-grade sediments.describe mineralogy of grains. etc. Is grain size distribution unimodal. and range of grain size. identify grain type (bioclasts. Estimate sorting. The use of a hand lens is essential if all possible information is to be extracted from the specimen. colour on weathered surfaces •Grain size and sorting .are they whole or fragmentary? Which groups are present? •Colour .) •roundness and range of roundness •surface features of grains (faceting. Rock fragments give identifying features and name. colour of individual components. Organisms or fossils . •Grain shape . •Composition . intraclasts. pellets/peloids.) and estimate percentage of each. ooids. elongate etc. For carbonate grains. bimodal.Describing loose sediments in hand specimen Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 This scheme may be used for the description of sediment samples in the laboratory or the field.) . and attempt to estimate the percentage of each mineral.estimate both mean grain size. frosting etc.

molluscan shell gravel. you may have direct evidence of the environments from which the sample was collected. (N. presence of a particular fossil group may indicate salinity.B. based on your description. do not attempt to apply schemes such as the Folk and Dunham limestone classifications. feldspathic medium sand. Photo by Andri SSM . depth or age. Examples: grain size may allow estimate of energy levels. Name should be based on both compositional and textural attributes. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Volcanic breccia & intercalation between sandstone and clay of Taraju area Tasikmalaya. West Java – Indonesia.give the sample an accurate name.From your description. mineralogical and textural maturity may indicate length of transport and reworking. light level. Do not try to push this too far . Use appropriate adjectives to qualify the name: e.there is a limit to the interpretation which can be made from a single hand specimen. which can only be accurately used for thin sections). draw general conclusions about conditions of transport and deposition. angular flint gravel.Sediment name .g. In the case of modern sediments. Deposition .

Credit card style comparators are also available.Grain size of sediments The grain-size comparator below uses real sieved sand which has been set in resin and then polished. The small divisions on the ruler are millimetres. Click on the sediment samples to enlarge Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . printed on plastic.

Volcanoclastics 3.carbonates (limestones) . evaporites) What are the terrigenous clastic rocks? They are mixtures of mineral grains & rock fragments derived by weathering & erosion of pre-existing rocks.g.Composition of terrigenous clastic sediments & rocks Introduction Four main groups of sediments and sedimentary rocks may be defined: terrigenous clastics (sandstones. Nummulitic limestone. Sukabumi Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .other chemical sediments (e. Tasikmalaya Calcareous lapili tuff. Tasikmalaya Tuffaceous sandstone. mudstones) . These processes are just one small part of the Rock Cycle . conglomerates.this page 2.biochemical sediments 4. Karangsambung Volcanic breccia.

2.physical sorting. chemical weathering creates new minerals) 3. are particularly important in modifying the mineralogy of the sediment produced from the original source rock. leaving only the more stable minerals 4. and chemical and biological attack may further change the composition of the sediment 5.feldspars mafic minerals clay minerals chlorites + ions in solution Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Factors which determine the mineralogy of terrigenous clastic sediments and rocks These include: 1. common changes at earth surface temperatures and pressures are: . and 3.mode & length of transport and reworking: when these processes operate over a long time.the mode of weathering at the source (mechanical weathering simply breaks up existing minerals for transport.controls rates and types of chemical and physical processes 6.climate at site of deposition .the nature of the source area(s) (provenance) .chemical.diagenesis .depositional environment . physical and biological changes to the sediment after deposition 2. the less stable and less durable minerals are broken down and destroyed.which minerals are available to form a sediment? The composition of a sediment may give evidence of tectonic setting. For example.

Minerals which are hard. Na-feldspar. some garnets. and its mechanical durability (hardness 7. K-feldspar. Mechanical durability is also important. particularly quartz. some plagioclase feldspars. tourmaline etc.Unstable minerals include: pyroxenes. amphiboles. some 'heavy minerals' (e. So. and the commonest component in clastic sediments. olivines. are susceptible to chemical weathering: they break down. black sand beaches on volcanic islands). clay minerals.g. particularly the mafic ones and Ca-rich feldspars. muscovite. zircon. In fact. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Cassiterite sands of Bangka-Belitung coast & gold detritus of Kutai placer. no cleavage). or which have no cleavage.). durable minerals. The concept of mineralogical maturity: a mineralogically mature sediment or sedimentary rock is one which consists largely of the stable minerals. double check your identification!! It is possible to find such minerals in sands and sandstones close to their source areas (e. if you think you have found pyroxene or olivine in a sandstone. are likely to survive longer: they are more resistant to abrasion during transport. Many igneous minerals. transport and reworking. many high temperature and/or high pressure igneous and metamorphic minerals are not stable under the low temperatures and pressures typical of sedimentary environments. It survives because of its resistance to chemical attack (it is soluble only in highly alkaline solutions). Mineralogically mature rocks are those which have undergone prolonged weathering.g. Stable minerals include quartz. Quartz is by far the most common of these stable. Photo by Andri SSM . and are not commonly found in sedimentary rocks. but not common.

mud-sized sediment between the grains. cement . It illustrates the four components: grains matrix . May be primary (deposited at same time or soon after grains).5mm This is a cartoon view of a sandstone in thin section.Components Of Terrigenous Clastic Rocks These rocks can be regarded as having four components: 0. Kalimantan .5mm Sandstone of Simenggaris East Kalimantan Cross bedding – Tenggarong. or secondary (formed by diagenetic alteration of grains.chemical precipitates in pore spaces pore space primary or secondary Tin sand of Bangka-Belitung Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 0.

because of transport & abrasion. A problem with sedimentary grains is that. they rarely show crystal faces.Grain Mineralogy You will already be familiar in thin section with most of the grains that you are likely to come across in sandstones: many of them are also found in igneous rocks. so we often do not have crystal shape or straight or inclined extinction as identifiable properties. In some cases. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Microphoto by Andri SSM 2004 . such as varieties of quartz. it may also be possible to recognize different types of the same mineral.

The properties of the common clay minerals are described in Mineralogy of clastic rocks. It may contain silt-sized quartz grains.Matrix So far. it is often possibly to determine the mineralogy of this fine-grained material by careful examination under high magnification. and in Clay Minerals. we have considered the composition of the grains. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . Clays minerals such as chlorite. whether a new mineral. and one or more clay minerals. Clays are seen better under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). illite and kaolinite are of great economic interest because of their effects (usually detrimental) on porosity and permeability of sedimentary rock Cement Sandstone of Simenggaris East Kalimantan Chemically precipitated material.the mud-sized sediment between the grains in many clastic sediments and rocks. may form a cement. or an addition to an existing mineral. Surprisingly. Now let us move on to the matrix . which binds the grains of the sediment together to form a rock.

Sandstone Classification Sandstones are named and classified according to their composition. which involves grain composition and percentage matrix. feldspar and rock fragments). but ignores cement Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . We shall use Dott's classification. This is usually defined in terms of the percentage of matrix present. and the proportions of the different grain types (commonly quartz.

fine-grained mud.medium-grained sand.coarse grained sand.Wentworth Sediment Size Scale Millimeters >256 64 4 2 1.031 0.medium-grained sand.coarse grained gravel.0625 0.coarse grained gravel.medium-grained mud.125 0.coarse grained gravel.0078 <0.0 0.0156 0.fine-grained Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .0039 Class boulder cobble pebble granule very coarse sand coarse sand medium sand fine sand very fine sand coarse silt medium silt fine silt clay Clastic texture terms gravel.medium-grained sand.medium-grained sand.25 0.fine-grained mud.5 0.fine-grained mud.

Contains much feldspar (found in sandstones. conglomerate) G. Contains feldspar fragments or grains H. Contains much calcium magnesium carbonate and some calcite K. Contains much calcite . Contains iron oxides (hematite/limonite) D. Contains quartz as a major constituent J. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 I. Contains chert in nodules or as replacement lenses. Contains much clay C.Argillaceous Arkosic Calcareous Carbonaceous Cherty Dolomitic Feldspathic Ferruginous Quartzose Siliceous A. Rich in carbon or organic matter B. Contains much free silica (rather than silicates as the principal constituent E.

Texture Cement Clastic Quartz/Chert Quartz/Chert/Mica/Roc k Quartz/Feldspars/Clay Chemical Silica Gel Calcite/Dolomite Gypsum Halite Limestone/Dolostone Gypsum Rock Salt Bioclastic Biogenic Marine Skeletal Organic Biogenic Organic Carbon Size/Shape/ Sorting Composition Crystalline Silica Carbonates Ferruginous Silica Carbonates Ferruginous Silica Carbonates Ferruginous Carbonate None Coarse grain size >2mm Breccia/Conglomerate Clean Sandstones Greywacke Sandstones Arkose Sandstones Siltstone Claystone Shale Gypsum Rock Salt Concretions Concretions Gypsum Rock Salt Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 Opal/Chert Limestone/Dolostone Anhydrite/Rock Salt Chalk Fossiliferous Limestone Chalk Fossiliferous Limestone Coquina Anhydrite Rock Salt Medium grain size >1/16-2mm Fine/Very Fine <1/16mm Open Fibrous Fossil Remains Peat Dense Coal: Lignite/ Bituminous/A nthracite .

such as geysers. swamp. Sedimentary rocks found within the chemical group may have precipitated origins.Origins The environment of deposition is responsible for the character of the sediments that are deposited in a region. and estuary deposits are transitional between marine and continental. Marine includes various oceanic environments. or hydrothermal replacement deposits. Continental deposits may be either on dry land (such as deserts. steam bed). Sedimentary depositional environments are classified in two main categories: marine and continental. Delta. landslides. Match the type of environment with the definitions on the right. barrier beach. gravity. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . glacial deposits) or subaqueous (such as lake. such as deep ocean. such as cave formations. shallow ocean. lagoon. or coastline with pounding waves. evaporites.

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

chemical) Three kinds of sandstone/conglomerate are recognized: quartzose. feldspar.ocean ridges (e. detrital. with a marine or coastal environment. They are poorly sorted "dirty" sandstones with angular grains. or silica. vein or cavity fillings in continental or marine rocks. glauconite. bioclastic biogenic.g. such as diagenetic replacement deposits in preexisting rocks like limestone (e.g.. chemical... especially volcanics) 4) replacement of silica for chemical components of other types present in preexisting rock.g.g. usually angular grains. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 . deposition of previously formed siliceous materials (e. mica. chemical. and arkose.. graywacke.Chert is often grouped under chemical. iron-oxide. with a continental alluvial fan or river environment. and seafloor spreading along mid. Graywacke sandstones are a mixture of quartz. silica replaces calcite in limestone) 5) erosion. calcite. usually lithified by cementation with silica.g.Arkose sandstones are a mixture of quartz and feldspar. lithified by compaction of clayey matrix with an oceanic trench environment. vein or cavity fillings in continental or marine rocks. lithified by cementation with calcite. geysers.. transportation. rock fragments.. and more. Quartzose sandstones are nearly pure quartz (>90%). chemical. especially volcanics) 3) hydrothermal precipitation in thermal waters as the solubility of silica increases and silica precipitates upon cooling in hot springs. diagenetic replacement or compaction of deposits in preexisting rocks like limestone) 6) diagenesis or a chemical conversion of opaline silica into quartz in nodules or bedded (e. although it may bioclastic biogenic when siliceous skeletons are found in the chert or detrital when converted by a compaction (diagenesis). The various origins of chert include: 1) biochemical precipitation or a process by which living organisms induce crystallization of solids from solution (e. iron-oxide. surficial deposits in deep to shallow marine environments) 2) hydrogenous precipitation from low temperature water based solutions that become supersaturated with silica (e. variable sorting.g. well sorted and rounded grains.

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Carbonates (Limestones) Micro texture & their constituent Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Graywacke &Arkosic Sandstone Micro texture & their constituent Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Arenite /clean sandstone micro texture & their constituent Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Arenite /clean sandstone micro texture & their constituent Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Oolitic limestone micro texture & their constituent Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Quartz-Feldspar detritus of microscopic view which are associated with granitic-metamorphic terrain. Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Carbonate Reef associated fragments in microscopic view Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Outcrops of Sedimentary Structure Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Outcrops of Sedimentary Structure Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 BIOGENIC & CHEMICAL SEDIMENTARY ROCKS .

Breccias & their packing texture Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .Conglomerates .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Cross Bedding and Active Sand Dune Sedimentary Structure Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Sandstone microtextures which mainly are associated with granitic – metamorphic provenances Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .

Compiled from various sources by Andri SSM @ 2004 .