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Berlin Chen

Department of Computer Science & Information Engineering

National Taiwan Normal University

Reference:

1. Applied Numerical Methods with MATLAB for Engineers, Chapter 17 & Teaching material

Chapter Objectives (1/2)

• Recognizing that evaluating polynomial coefficients with

simultaneous equations is an ill-conditioned problem

• Knowing how to evaluate polynomial coefficients and

interpolate with MATLAB’s polyfit and polyval functions

• Knowing how to perform an interpolation with Newton’s

polynomial

• Knowing how to perform an interpolation with a

Lagrange polynomial

NM – Berlin Chen 2

Chapter Objectives (2/2)

• Knowing how to solve an inverse interpolation problem

by recasting it as a roots problem

• Appreciating the dangers of extrapolation

• Recognizing that higher-order polynomials can manifest

large oscillations

NM – Berlin Chen 3

Polynomial Interpolation

• You will frequently have occasions to estimate

intermediate values between precise data points

• The function you use to interpolate must pass through

the actual data points - this makes interpolation more

restrictive than fitting

• The most common method for this purpose is polynomial

interpolation, where an (n-1)

th

order polynomial is solved

that passes through n data points:

NM – Berlin Chen 4

f (x) = a

1

+a

2

x +a

3

x

2

++a

n

x

n÷1

MATLAB version :

f (x) = p

1

x

n÷1

+ p

2

x

n÷2

++ p

n÷1

x + p

n

Determining Coefficients

• Since polynomial interpolation provides as many basis

functions as there are data points (n), the polynomial

coefficients can be found exactly using linear algebra

– For n data points, there is one and only one polynomial of order

(n-1) that passes through all the points

• MATLAB’s built in polyfit and polyval commands can

also be used - all that is required is making sure the

order of the fit for n data points is n-1

NM – Berlin Chen 5

Polynomial Interpolation Problems

• One problem that can occur with solving for the

coefficients of a polynomial is that the system to be

inverted is in the form:

• Matrices such as that on the left are known as

Vandermonde matrices, and they are very ill-conditioned

- meaning their solutions are very sensitive to round-off

errors

• The issue can be minimized by scaling and shifting the

data

NM – Berlin Chen 6

x

1

n÷1

x

1

n÷2

x

1

1

x

2

n÷1

x

2

n÷2

x

2

1

x

n÷1

n÷1

x

n÷1

n÷2

x

n÷1

1

x

n

n÷1

x

n

n÷2

x

n

1

¸

(

¸

(

(

(

(

(

p

1

p

2

p

n÷1

p

n

¦

´

¦

¦

¹

¦

¦

¹

`

¦

¦

)

¦

¦

=

f x

1

( )

f x

2

( )

f x

n÷1

( )

f x

n

( )

¦

´

¦

¦

¹

¦

¦

¹

`

¦

¦

)

¦

¦

Newton Interpolating Polynomials

• Another way to express a polynomial interpolation is to

use Newton’s interpolating polynomial

• The differences between a simple polynomial and

Newton’s interpolating polynomial for first and second

order interpolations are:

NM – Berlin Chen 7

Order Simple Newton

1st f

1

(x) = a

1

+a

2

x f

1

(x) = b

1

+b

2

(x ÷ x

1

)

2nd f

2

(x) = a

1

+a

2

x +a

3

x

2

f

2

(x) = b

1

+b

2

(x ÷ x

1

) +b3(x ÷ x

1

)(x ÷ x

2

)

1 2

1 2

2

1 1

) ( ) (

) (

x x

x f x f

b

x f b

÷

÷

=

=

1 3

1 2

1 2

2 3

2 3

3

) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

x x

x x

x f x f

x x

x f x f

b

÷

÷

÷

÷

÷

÷

=

Newton Interpolating Polynomials (1/3)

• The first-order Newton

interpolating polynomial

may be obtained from

linear interpolation and

similar triangles, as shown

• The resulting formula

based on known points x

1

and x

2

and the values of

the dependent function at

those points is:

NM – Berlin Chen 8

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( )

1

1 2

1 2

1 1

1

2

1 1

x x

x x

x f x f

x f x f

x x b b x f

÷

÷

÷

+ = ¬

÷ + =

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

1 2

1 2

1

1 1

x x

x f x f

x x

x f x f

÷

÷

=

÷

÷

designate a first‐order polynomial

Linear Interpolation: An Example

NM – Berlin Chen 9

The smaller the interval between the

data points, the better the approximation.

Example 17.2

Newton Interpolating Polynomials (2/3)

• The second-order Newton

interpolating polynomial

introduces some curvature

to the line connecting the

points, but still goes through

the first two points

• The resulting formula based

on known points x

1

, x

2

, and

x

3

and the values of the

dependent function at those

points is:

NM – Berlin Chen 10

( ) ( ) ( )( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( )( )

2 1

1 3

1 2

1 2

2 3

2 3

1

1 2

1 2

1 2

2 1 3 1 2 1 2

x x x x

x x

x x

x f x f

x x

x f x f

x x

x x

x f x f

x f x f

x x x x b x x b b x f

÷ ÷

÷

÷

÷

÷

÷

÷

+ ÷

÷

÷

+ = ¬

÷ ÷ + ÷ + =

Quadratic Interpolation: An Example

NM – Berlin Chen 11

Example 17.3

Newton Interpolating Polynomials (3/3)

• In general, an (n-1)

th

Newton interpolating polynomial

has all the terms of the (n-2)

th

polynomial plus one extra

• The general formula is:

where

and the f[…] represent divided differences

NM – Berlin Chen 12

f

n÷1

x

( )

= b

1

+b

2

x ÷ x

1

( )

++b

n

x ÷ x

1

( )

x ÷ x

2

( )

x ÷ x

n÷1

( )

b

1

= f x

1

( )

b

2

= f x

2

, x

1

| |

b

3

= f x

3

, x

2

, x

1

| |

b

n

= f x

n

, x

n÷1

,, x

2

, x

1

| |

Divided Differences

• Divided difference are calculated as follows:

• Divided differences are calculated using divided

difference of a smaller number of terms:

NM – Berlin Chen 13

f x

i

, x

j

| |

=

f x

i

( )

÷ f x

j

( )

x

i

÷ x

j

f x

i

, x

j

, x

k

| |

=

f x

i

, x

j

| |

÷ f x

j

, x

k

| |

x

i

÷ x

k

f x

n

, x

n÷1

,, x

2

, x

1

| |

=

f x

n

, x

n÷1

,, x

2

| |

÷ f x

n÷1

, x

n÷2

,, x

1

| |

x

n

÷ x

1

MATLAB Implementation

NM – Berlin Chen 14

Lagrange Interpolating Polynomials (1/3)

• Another method that uses shifted values to express an

interpolating polynomial is the Lagrange interpolating

polynomial

• The differences between a simply polynomial and

Lagrange interpolating polynomials for first and second

order polynomials is:

– where the are weighting coefficients of the j

th

polynomial,

which are functions of x

NM – Berlin Chen 15

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

3

3

3 2

3

2 1

3

1 2

2

3 2 1 2

2

2

2 1

2

1 1 2 1 1

) ( ) ( 2

) ( ) ( 1

Lagrange Simple Order

x f L x f L x f L x f x a x a a x f nd

x f L x f L x f x a a x f st

+ + = + + =

+ = + =

n

i

L

) )( (

) )( (

,

) )( (

) )( (

,

) )( (

) )( (

2 3 1 3

2 1 3

3

3 2 1 2

3 1 3

2

3 1 2 1

3 2 3

1

x x x x

x x x x

L

x x x x

x x x x

L

x x x x

x x x x

L

÷ ÷

÷ ÷

=

÷ ÷

÷ ÷

=

÷ ÷

÷ ÷

=

1 2

1 2

2

2 1

2 2

1

,

x x

x x

L

x x

x x

L

÷

÷

=

÷

÷

=

Lagrange Interpolating Polynomials (2/3)

• The first-order Lagrange

interpolating polynomial may

be obtained from a weighted

combination of two linear

interpolations, as shown

• The resulting formula based

on known points x

1

and x

2

and the values of the

dependent function at those

points is:

NM – Berlin Chen 16

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

2

1 2

1

1

2 1

2

1

1 2

1

2

2

2 1

2

2

1

2

2

2 1

2

1 1

) (

,

) (

x f

x x

x x

x f

x x

x x

x f

x x

x x

L

x x

x x

L

x f L x f L x f

÷

÷

+

÷

÷

=

÷

÷

=

÷

÷

=

+ =

Lagrange Interpolating Polynomials (3/3)

• In general, the Lagrange polynomial interpolation for n

points is:

– where is given by:

NM – Berlin Chen 17

n

i

L

( ) ( ) ( )

¿

=

=

÷

n

i

i

n

i i n

x f x L x f

1

1

( )

[

÷

÷

=

=

=

n

i j

j

j i

j

n

i

x x

x x

x L

1

Lagrange Interpolating Polynomial: An Example

NM – Berlin Chen 18

MATLAB Implementation

NM – Berlin Chen 19

Inverse Interpolation (1/2)

• Interpolation general means finding some value f(x) for some x that is between given

independent data points

• Sometimes, it will be useful to find the x for which f(x) is a certain value - this is

inverse interpolation

NM – Berlin Chen 20

Some adjacent points of f(x) are bunched together and others spread out widely.

This would lead to oscillations in the resulting polynomial.

Inverse Interpolation (2/2)

• Rather than finding an interpolation of x as a function of

f(x), it may be useful to find an equation for f(x) as a

function of x using interpolation and then solve the

corresponding roots problem:

f(x)-f

desired

=0 for x

NM – Berlin Chen 21

Extrapolation

• Extrapolation is the

process of estimating a

value of f(x) that lies

outside the range of the

known base points x

1

, x

2

,

…, x

n

• Extrapolation represents a

step into the unknown,

and extreme care should

be exercised when

extrapolating!

NM – Berlin Chen 22

Extrapolation Hazards

• The following shows the results of extrapolating a

seventh-order polynomial which is derived from the first

8 points (1920 to 1990) of the USA population data set:

NM – Berlin Chen 23

Oscillations

• Higher-order polynomials can not only lead to round-off errors

due to ill-conditioning, but can also introduce oscillations to

an interpolation or fit where they should not be

• In the figures below, the dashed line represents an function,

the circles represent samples of the function, and the solid

line represents the results of a polynomial interpolation:

NM – Berlin Chen 24

( )

function) s (Runge'

25 1

1

2

x

x f

+

=

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