A project of Volunteers in Asia

. The Sama,ka Gude by: Colin Hoskins

. to Homesite Farm'u

Published by: Samaka Service Manila,
P.O. Box 2310



Philippines is out of print in 1983.

This publication

Reproduced by permission Center, Inc.

of the Samaka Service

Reproduction of this microfiche document in any form is subject to the same restrictions as those of the original document.

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fche 1913 Samaka Guide

The founder and moving spirit of the SAMAKA concept, as well as author of The Sam&a Guide. Mr. Colin M. Hoskins. passed away in 1967. Similarly, Col. Andres Soriano, whose moral support and abiding interest in SAMAKA activities continued until his death in 1964. must be noted. Dean Conrad0 Benitez, a contributor to The Samaka Guide and a former Trustee of the Center, also passed away in 1971. This 1973 issue of The Samaka Guide is dedicated to the memory of Mr. Colin M. Hoskins, Col. Andres Soriano and Dean Conrad0 Benitez by a grateful incumbent Board of Trustees who will remember their leadership and friendship long after the last copy of Thee Samaka Guide will have been put to the good use they envisioned. SAMAKA SERVIlCk CENTER, INC. The Board of Trustees

Notes on The SAMAKA Guide The first printing of The Sccmuka G&e was published in 1954, and the 10,000copies were quickly exhausted. In 1956 secondprinting without revision was made and distributed chiefly to the public and private schools. There has been such an insistent demand for this booklet that Samaka Service Center has decided to print a revised edition in standard book form, to supply the tens of thousands of people who seem to be so eager to have a home garden and keep poultry, pigs and other livestock. This revised edition differs from.the previous editions by including two new features and amplifying another subject. In order to promote the milk production of the Filipino farm& we have included our previously presented Circular No. I, entitled “‘Let Us Raise Goats on Our Homesite Farm.” It has been found that milk goats produce a superior quality of milk, especially suited for infant feeding and cheesemaking, and they need very little extra feed. This booklet .was originally published in 1956, through the generous financial support of International Harvester Company. The other subject we have added is “The Family Chicken Cage,” which describes the most efficient type of poultry project ,for thelsmaI1 homesite, especially in regions where’ there are commercial hatcheries and distributors of certified poultry feeds. In view of the growing use of fertilizer and the nationwide appreciation of farmers that fertilizer offers one of the simplest ways to increase crop yields, we have written at greater length on the subject of fertilizers. This edition ,discusses not only the commercial fertilizers, but gives pointers on making our own fertilizer with the use of vegetable wastes miired with mdnure. This 1973 printing of the The Samaka Guide brings the total nun% ber of copiesprinted to 95,006. In addition, 10,000 copies of The &tie in Pilipino translation (Ang Gabay ii9 Samaka) have been issued.


z Copyright 1962 I _’ . INC. and to the ljrivate individuals who gave generously of their time and knolvledgr.000 copies First printing. thanks are especially due to the members of the faculties of the University of the Philippines College of Agriculture at Los Baiios. Rafael Zulueta. 5.t i P ce. 10. and the Central Luzon Agricultural College at Mufioz. 1962.~ : SAkIA&A.000 copies ond printing. 1965. President . 1962. It was after these comments XXI cosrections were received. INC. ‘. Tnc. . Thanks are also due to the officials of the Bureaus of Public Schools. President of San Miguel Brewery. A mimeographed copy of the first draft was sent to seventy-five experts for comments and corrections. whose moral support and financial contaibution made possible the publication of the first two editions of The Scrrmtrkn GGde. 20.x I) The author of The Sn~~2nkct Gz~‘cEe is Colin M. h. N. Among the many specialists in agriculture who assisted the author with their techniczl advice. SERIiCE CEtiTER. to continue his father’s solicitud or SAMAKA. Box 2310 Manila.6 Bdestly .000 copies .Jr.000 copies Third Edition : First printing.printirig.. 10.vof Samnka Service Center. With t!~ passing of Col.. The illustrations are the work of lVIr. has kindly accepted e %nlaka Service Center invit$ion . 5.000 copies S SERVICE CENT=.of. Andre’s Soria.000 copies d printing. Andres Sorian. Direction of the press work and final format was entrusted to Mr. 10. the Araneta University.iainls that he is ihe “compiler” of the agricultural tY ~zisdom clintainc:il within these pages.. When TI?c S~H~G?W Guidr ‘#as first published in 19. gardening First Edition. eiiii’iiti iGn to fuii credit as author. 1973. a longtime .all printed material on was gattered and used as the basis for the book.O.000 copies +qrintpg. Finallg. Hoskins. 1968. Yet his skill in putting into plain z+ndsimple English the highly technical subjects here treated. Philippines 2’ . evaluated. K:-. 1956.000 copies Second Edition.I?Terican resident of the Philippines who for ovar fifty years has been cloSe& identified urith various phases cJf Philippine agriculture. Gatmaittin of the Bureau of Animal Tndustry.~nd to San Miguel Brewery itself.no. 20. Trl:stee and Secretal*. and reconcil’edthat The Sam~kn Gkide was put in final form. 1964. 1962.The San &Iiguel Corporation._ . we :IW indebted to Col. 5. Andres Soriano. Plant Industry.000 copies printing. 10. F. Postpaid 0 paperback + At P. Animal Industry and Agricultural Extension. 1953.53. However.

.....$ .................... ... g Distances ......... ...................................... UP0 ........... Diseases of Fruit Trees .. Types of Wells ................. Herbs for Flavoring .......... Everyone Uses Fertilizers ............... LA a6 Ed66 IHurhrooms OUR FRUIT GARDEN .. Good Practices for All Gardens Fencing ..... pb.............................................................. Fertilizer for Field Crops ........ .... New Composting Methods .. . .... Some Good Flowers to Grow .............................................. Carrots .............. Mustard and Pechay Okra ..arcotting Care of New Trees .........................z af Planting in Garden ............. 105 106 107 ................................ Why Some of Us Have No Home Garden SAMAKA............ .......... How to Go the SAMAKA Way ....... . ... Selecting Our Baby Chicks Where to Buy Chicks ........................................................... Sweet ............ ... ............................................ .............. Corn ......... Cabbage ................ gw.................................. Seaied Dug iiieii Hand Driven Well ........ ............................ Radishes ........................... What We Should Know about Chickori Raising ......................... How to Plant .........AECA...pEECTIONS FOR EACH ......... Irrigation and Drainage ............. Sitao...................... ....................................................... Transplanting Cooperative Seedboses ..................... Family Chicken Cage ................. .... Vegetable Protein ........ Marketing Our Surplus ........ ........... Minerals and Vitamins Factory Poultry Feeds .... WHAT WE SHOULD KNOW ABOUT ...... ............ui ................... What SAMAKA Does ............s .. Seguidillas ....a..................... Gro&d Fruits Coffee and Cacao .eNTIN G CALENDAR ....... Managing the Family Chicken Cage ....... Organic Fertilizer Essential PL.. Buying or Making a Family Chicken Cnge Description of Family Chicken Cage ... ............... ............................... Open D’ug Well ............................ ....gw .......................... Getting cur ‘soil in Conditicn Tillage .......... Beans..... 51 51 >l 53 z 55 56 57 57 58 59 59 60 61 61 6d iii ti”5 tz 66 ti :: 70 7’: 73 ?‘i % 160 z: 77 77 78 7!1 8t 9’ 88 :: 81 81 82 83 8....... Watering and Feeding Containers .................... ............ . Making Our Own Poultry Feed Starchy Substances .... .......... Selecting Our Seeds ........ Muskmelons ......................o”: 102 IQ? 193 1Si What SAMAKA Means ....................................................... Pechay and MusBard ................................ Thinning ................................. Gabi ......... Poultry Feeds ................................ Where to Get Our Trer........................ Plant Pests and Diseases ..................................... Kadios .... Irrigation of Trees .... Soybeans ... Taking Water from the Well-Pumping Keeping ihe Well Watfi Pure ...................................... ................................ (Bountiful Kentucky Wonder} Beets ...... Planting Directions ...... Driving the Well .......a . 2pnaaE ..................... ............................ FERTILIZERS Our Compost Pile ... When to Plant .. i.................... Planting in the Seedbox ............ ...................e$otatoes (Turn to Camotes) c ...............................................................Are Best ........ Tapilan .... Sinkamas ............... ..................................................................... Baising Chickens in Cages ........ ...................... A Communal Tree Planting Center Helps .................................... .................... x...... What Kind of Fertilizer? Lime for Acid Soil ........... Equipment for Driving Well ............ ......................................... Air Shipments ..................... ................ ................. ... Sc Ldbox Recommended How to Prepare a Seedbox ................... ............................................................... ....... What to Plant .......................... ............. ..... Sitao ................ Artificial Fertilizers for the Home Garden ......................................... Patola ....................::.............................. Cucumbers .............................* ..................... ...................................................... ......... The Road to Success ......... ......... THE FAMILY CHICKEN CAGE .......... Our SAMAKA Leader .. ............................................................................... Assistant Leader ................ Squash ................................ WATER ..... Mortality ...... Pepper...................... Cassava ................................................... Cultivation ................ A New Kind of Home Poultry Project ............ ................................. Black .................... Tomatoes .... Batao ........... Eggplant .... ............... ~....................1 83 83 it SI gl ii 90 n? 98 04 136 In0 ...............r ...................................... Weeding and Cultivating Mulching ...... 32 What And When To Plant What To Plant Each Month SPg. ..... Garden Wells Location of Well . Operating Expenses Special Points on Operating the Family Chicken Cage .:.... Page .... ... ......... Chayote ........... Manufactured Poultry Feeds ................................... Kitchen Preparation . Peppers..... Onions and Garlic Patani (Lima Bean) .......Table of Contents I LIVING THE SAMAKA WAY ....... ......... When Storm or Drought Strikes HOW OUR TO PLAN HOME OUR HOMESITE SUPPLY FARM ............. OUR VEGETABLE GARDEN ..... Crop Rotation .................... SAMAKA Farmers FLOAyD%& ARE NEED ED IN EVERY .... Pineapples ........... Lettuce ....... Animal Protein (Fish and Meat) .......... Materials Needed .................. Ampalaya (Amargoso) ....... Pianting Directions far Fruit Trees ................ . Cauliflower .............. ........... ............. .: .. ........ ............................... Rewards of Fruit Trees .......... Bush .... Camotes ........ Pointers on M....... Kinds of Fruit Trees ............. Succession Planting .................I..................................Et.........................................

.... IA How to Select Milk Goats ................................. ................... Suggestions for Cooking Goat Meat OUR FAMILY FISHPOND ...... . RAISE DUCKS WITHOUT A POND ................... A Neglected Source of Abundant Milk Lactation Period .......... .............. 1’1 ................. GEESE .............................................................. 159 HINTS ON FOOD NEEDS ....... 159 125 Why Raise Goats? ........................ 15s Lechon ................................................ .... 125 Glossary of Goat-Raising Terms ..................................‘!l ..................... Inside Back Cover . 163 SEEDS .. Managing Our Fishpond ..................... Making Ham . ................. .......... ........................ 129 129 Mixed Feeds ....... 159 Decorations . Fish- A PIG WITHOUT .......... l.... How Our Barrio Can Start Home ponds . ...................................... Feeding Our Carabao ..... ........ How to Pickle Pork Pieces (Paksiw) How to Dry Pork (Tapa) ............ 131 Milk Producing Period ...................... 129 ..... Feeding the Fish ........ 130 Tethering and Pasturing IG3 Sanitary Water Closets ............. Straw and Leaves .. OUR CARABAO . _ .. ..... .................................. Building Our Piggery ........... Feeding the Piglets .. ..............:....... .. 137 138 Goats for Meat ............... 156 Corn....Page Cleaning ~o... Hrcedlng Ducks Starting Ducks with Eggs .. .. 161 HOME INDUSTRIES Grasses and Shrubbery .................. ....................... Pig Diseases ..... 161 Tuberculosis ............... Pork Sausage Made at Home .. HO$GyE$ISE TURKEYS.............................. ....41 Procuring Mllk Goats .......... ....... 150 150 151 151 152 152 151 How to Start with Ducks ........ .............. 137 Life Span of Goats ............... lG5 Milking Our Goats ...... .......... 164 Skiu Diseases .............. How to Make Lard ................................a....... .................... ........ Mra Eggs .................... Pregnancy and Weaning ........ Keep Our Grounds Clean ........ Selecting Our Piglets ..........................: How to Milk Goats ... 156 Increasing Our Pig Production ... THE SAMAKA FARMER’S CHILDREN .............................. ........ the Cages .......................................... Starting Operations Kinds of Fish ... Twice Daily MBking ..... 162 OUR FAMILY’S HEALTH Goats Help Soil .... L...................... 138 139 142 146 146 146 147 147 148 14s l-19 150 150 ....... THE SAMAKA SONG ................................................. ............................ 165 131 Separate Stalls........................... Killing and Dressing Ducks ... 121 Save Our Grass...... Construction of Fishpond Water Supply ....... ....: .... ............................... Slaughtering Goats .................................................... 155 Legumes Enrich Our Soil ................ Improving Our Milk Carabaos 11R HOME FOOD PRESERVING MADE EASY 153 119 120 CARRYING THE SAMAKA PLAN TO ..... Beans and Squash Together RA4m$SIts NEW MEAT FOOD FOR Planting Without Plowing ii1 Our Rice .............. Catching the Fish ... 128 Care and Feeding of Goats .....................................TGSFF$E GOATS ON OUR HOME125 ...... 123 .............. 107 IO8 109 109 109 110 111 111 111 112 1 ::* 113 113 113 114 114 116 116 1” PUgC Care off the Hide ... Operations Record .................................. More About the Milk Producing Period .. BUY................ 155 1-22 .................. ............................... 130 Shelter for Our Goats ........... PIGEONS....................................... Dry Floor ... 137 MODEL OF SAMAKA HOMESITE FARM 1GS Raising the Young Goats ............... Disposal of Garbage ............. Our Duck Pen ....... 123 157 Our Rights as Tenants How to Start Raising Rabbits How Do We Cook Rabbit Meat? ... 120 153 OUR FIELDS ...... Care of the Milk Carabao .... ..................................................... How to Salt Pork .............. ........................... Milking the Carabao ..... Making Balut at Home ......and Bacon ..... Water for Ducks ..... ... Preservation ..gif................. ........... 156 Fields .... 1............ Agricultural and 4-H Clubs ...... 135 WEE ESHE SAMAKA SERVICE CENI:{ i Milk Frteding Baby Goats . 133 Care of the Hoofs . Slaughtering ............. ............................. 124 157 OUR BARRIO FIESTA ............ ......... Operation ...... 131 Materials for Goat Shed ..... 167 ....

Maybe you planted a large number of tomatoes in your garden. It is a plan.” SAMAKA is not an organization. Some of us have tried a vegetable garden. who makes the fullest use of the land and the time at his disposal. an idea. the SAMAKA farm 5 Why Some Of Us Have No Home Garden Nearly all of us have at our disposal a home lot of between 400 to 1. that custom becomesthe habit of the community. every farmer who.” which in English means a united effort of a group to have more plentiful food for their families. So. Many of us are rice farmers’ and maybe have not had much expe rience in growing fruits and vegetables and in raising livestock.Living the SAMAKA Wa*y What SAMAKA Means The name “SAMAKA” is an abbreviation of “Samahan ng Masaganang Makanin. but found it was destroyed by roaming pigs. When we heard that the government had vegetable seeds for distribution. some to eat and some to sell. When to improve our condition of life by all. you did not continue. When we tried to learn about this. The Road To Success By becoming SAMAKA farmers. Many of us have neglected using this road to a richer life for r number of reasons. who encouragesand helps his neighbors through community spirit to do the same-such a farmer can proudly call himself a SAMAKA Farmer. with his family. But when your neighbors and relatives and compadres had admired your big luscious tomatoes. . we decide with our neighbors that The SAMAKA way is the way to we will unite in purpose and action overcotie these difficulties. Your success in adopting the SAMAKA Plan will encourage your neighbors to do the same. Although “Samahan” a 1s o means “association. we could not find out where we could get some. the road to a Mtc~ way of life. or nearly all of the families in raising more food in our home gar. a way of life. We all know that when most of the people in a barrio or sitio decide to follow a certain custom. So let us all get together in our barrios and decide to adopt this better way of life. and you could not refuse to give them some.a sitio decide that they will all esdens for the better health and tablish Subsistence Farms around nourishment of our families. and all be come SAMAKA farmers. Therefore. uses his home lot and his spare time to Produce more and better food for his family . we did not know where to get the information we needed. goats and carabaos. their homes.000 square meters on which we can raise food. What SAMAKA Does SAMAKA. you found out you had no more tomatoes.

and if our SAXIATCA leaders show us the easy and cheap way of preserving pork for many months. becausethey also will have gardens. or we may select someoneelse as our leader. our family will have pork meat all the time. or tethered. AS soon as most of the families of our barrio or our sitio have earnestly decided we want to iive the SAMAKA way. It can be sponsored by a PUROK or POOK association. or any other barrio improvement group. We can get a copy of this Guide telling us how to do some of those things which we do not know already. Once we and our neighbors have becomeSAMAKA farmers. everyone will construct a fence around his lot. what help is needed to increase our flocks of chickens with better kinds. by a barrio council.The principal thing is for the barrio people themselves to take the initiative and provide the leadership to make the SAMAKA way . by a 4-H Club. Maybe it will be the head of the local group that has called us together to decide on the SAMAKA way. If aZZof us agree to raise our pigs to maturity. An Agricultural Extension Man will soon come and find out what seeds we need. If all of us have a vegetable garden and fruit trees.6 THE SAMAKA GUIDE of life the more prosperous and happier way of life for all or nearly all of the people of the barrio or sitio. He may be able to send a breeding boar to the man we select as the best pig raiser. We will each begin getting materials together to build our piggery and poultry house. Meanwhile we will not be idle. He will examine our soil and discuss with us the best garden crops we should grow. The SAMAKA plan may be absorbed as part of the program of any of these local groups. so they cannot roam and damage the gardens of neighbors and pick up disease. At once things will begin to happen. We will start fencing our lots. our fruits will not be taken by relatives and compadres. by a local stem of PRRM. we should select a leader we trust to act as our spokesman. the government has promised to bring to us selected seedsfor our gardens. When our leader is selected he notifies the I%urea-u of Agricultural Extension that the people in his barrio want to follow the SAMAKA plan. or those of similar purpose. With aZZof us adopting the SAMAKA plan. we will suddenly see the entire village awakening to this new and better of each one of us can be a success. We will begin preparing our land. If we neighbors adopt the SAMAKA way of life. so we can get better pigs for our SAMAKA subsistence farms. How To Go The SAMAKA Way Any civic spirited local group or individual can plant the SAMAKA idea in a community. for our use. or telling us how to do them better. A separate organization is not necessary. to keep out roaming animals. Everyone will keep his own pigs in a pig pen. and also furnish us with fruit trees and breeding animals of good quality.

He will sometimes have to . So we must select him carefully.raise at our house. Deciding to live the SAMAKA way is only planting the seed of the tree. It is therefore the obligation of each SAMAKA farmer to pay for our leader’s time. and how to kill them. he will be spending too much time helping us. and advance us one ‘or two small piglets which we can . When we need fertilizer in smrill quantities. as a good neighbor. to the provincial capital to arrange to get breeding animals sent to our town. which our leader cannot do as well. The SAMAKA way of life is not something we start. honest. Assistaht Leader We may decide to select an assistant leader to do some special task for all of us. In m&ny barrios it would be a good plan to have a leader in charge )f pig raising. He is the man who will be our spokesman in getting the public services for farmers which we as citizens have a right to. intelligent. By our individual and united efforts. or to get good fruit trees for us to plant in our garden. so that it shall grow steadily . In the same way we SAMAKA farmers may want a special leader for chickens and ducks. he wiil have to 7 store the sacks at his house for distribution. He should be one of the best farmers in our town. in the care . how to raise them. If one of us seesa fellow SAMAKA farmer neglecting his obligations. He will be the one who orders seecls for us when we need them and who wili’ receive the seeds for distribution. we will help him oc counsel him. or a leader . The leader we select to guide us on the SAMAKA way must have our confidence and support. not with money. equal to the time and effort he is giving us. and he will have to guarantee that we will pay for our share. we will water the seed of the SAMAKA way. The task of the SAMAKA leader is not easy. following a steady course together. Sometimeshe may get the things we need on credit from the government. and then expect it to continue by itself. so that he will not be able to give enough time to his own SAMAKA garden. We can appoint him our leader for pig raising and he will get the government boar to improve the breed of pigs in our town. If our leader is a good one.Living the SAMAKA Way way of life. He will be given special training by the Agricultural Extension Man. Our SAMAKA Leader \I’? all know that group action needs leadership. There may be a SAMAKA farmer among us who is better than the others in raising pigs.into a giant tree to give all of us the blessings of neighborly shade and the abundant fruits of happy living. This is something like the “bayani” system we all understand. and hard working. but by giving him an hour or two of labor in his garden.of pigs. in order to get the best results.:(:.

such as duce if it will mean less abundant gabi. But as good SAMAKA ant leaders for special tasks is farmers. our SAMAKA home farm there are useful hints on how to m. our garden is flooded or broken But the SAMAKA farmer by a bad storm. By selling the excess So we will have corn and other in the market.” fields. we will have some preMarketing Our Surplus served pork in the kitchen.a long time. This is true. and if we KA farm is precisely better nou.ay be our only source of food for get this profitable activity start. If we have followed the SAMAKA plan. help all of us every day. ed. we can perhaps should nwtuy newer sell his pro. which food for his family. so that he can does not need.have planted a rimas tree.badly. are not destroyed. When a typhoon or flood desIt may also be a good plan to troys our palay and corn fields. Maybe we need some money very The advantage of having assist. guided us to become true SAMASome of us will be tempted at KA farmers. .water our s-mall home gardens getables. make stronger and healthier boSo we can thank God for having dies. which will spoil if not even though our fields remain dry.may still be standing. and saving us buyer who comes around and of. select some SAMAKA housewife when a long drought causes our as Leader In Charge of Food Pre. save our pigs from drowning. we resist this temptation. If earn extra money. Maybe there is a home harvest. used quickly. our barrio who knows all about When these acts of God visit our preserving” In the chapter of this book on “Home Food Preserving.fields to dry up without yielding a serving. Of course there will be more than Even in times of drought we can enough of seasonal fruits and ve.from hunger when disaster strikes. It is usually en meat and eggs.still find some root crops.8 THE SAMAKA GUIDE fers us 5 or 10 centavos per egg. producing abundant times to sell a dozen eggs to some food in good times. We can just enough for his family needs. He will When Storm or Drought Strikes be one of us. so as to our breadfruit. we have sj rishment for our family. that the government can give him and only sell things our family special training. . .The bananas becausethe purpose of the SAMA. there is a chance to garden foods to keep us alive. not a stranger. cassava. to become an expert in breeding and raising rabbits and goats. Our The SAMAKA farmer does not chickens in their elevated coops ordinarily sell the produce from are still alive to give us chickhis subsistence farm. and camotes. we barrio farmers face economics graduate or teacher in starvation.

. or our sugar. So we decide to use the maximum land the law says we may use. we will lose about one cavan of palay. we cannot follow the plan here shown exactly. So we will be sacrificing something of small value for more abundant food to’ give strength. You must decide the best place to locate your poultry house and pig pen.rt to figure it out we soon realize that our home garden brings us more profits than our main crop. On this extra 250 square meters of home garden we can raise corn. taking this small patch from our palay fields. What we raise in our home lot is all ours. chickens and pigs which will be worth IO to 20 cavanes of palay. Our palay land is already small. none of it has to be given to the landlord. fruits. We are now ready to plan how we will use our home lot. and the way many farmers think it should be arranged. If we extend our garden by adding only 250 square meters. and happiness to all the members of our family. On page 10 we show plan of a typical barrio home lot of 600 square meters. When we reach this decision.our rice. In the following pages there is much detailed information on how some barrio farmers have been successful in raising mere food for their families on their small home lots.000 square meters for home food production. If our lot is already established. health. Suppose we now have a homesite of only 400 sq. our first thought is that we need all of our land for growing our main crops . we know we are doing the wise thing. Yet when we sta. we have a right to use not less than 1. If we have no garden or trees at present we may like to follow this plan. so let us examine the suggested plan. or our corn.000 square meters of the land we cultivate for our home garden. But what if we do not have even 600 square meters of land for our home? In that case it will pay us rich rewards to increase the size of our home lot.How To Plan ur Homesite Farm When you decide to become a SAiiAKA farmer you will want to plan carefully where you will plant your different vegetablesand fruit trees. so as to raise more food in our home garden for our own use. to dedicate not less than 1. vegetables. The plan will give us some ideas that we may be able to use in our present home lots. If you are going to Rave a small fishpond you must choosethe best spot. When we hear this suggestion.m. Many of us are tenant farmers planting palay. But according to the Agricultural Tenancy Law. and the owner of the land does not: want us to enlarge our home garden.

m.00 meter apart) .10 THE SAMAKA G--‘IDE A auizges~~for a SAMAKA Homesite of 600 sq. (Checker board lines are 1.

They are the following : The open dug well. Garden Wells It is both convenient and cheap to have our own garden well. the artesian well (if there is one) does not give us the water wc need for our vegetable garden. stable. in which R pipe is placed. and at the same time a handy supply of water that is safe to drink. water will not carry germs of diseasesto our well. Open Dug Well Many open wells are simply mud holes. Location Of Well The water which supplies our well travels underground. so we have here gathered together the good practices of barrio farmers in many provinces. through seepage. Field and river stones can be ce11 . Also. which is made by driving a ZO-foot length of pipe into the ground until water is reached. Second: It should be at least 10 meters from any toilet.:he garden well are to provide abuqdant water for our garden and livestock. 01 have dug a well in our backyard. we are often tempted to drink water which is not pure. Many of us have had such wells. wherever there is sufficient underground water. and lined with stone. The purposes of . always observed the best practices in making use of them. we barrio farmers have taken our water from a nearby river or spring. bricks or bamboo. such as dysentery. on how to build and maintain a we!1 on the home lot. When we have a good artesian well nearby. or kitchen. and bathing. For centuries. The ‘best lining is stone or brick. that is a:1 right for our supply of drinking water. The Itan&chiven well. Types Of Wells We have found three types of garden wells which are easy to make and should give plenty of water for the home garden and for household use. laundry. it should be on higher ground than any surrounding houses that might carry filth to it. The two important points on location of the well are these: First: If possible. but we have not. and easy to bring to the house for the washing of dishes and clothes and for bathing. therefore.ome Water Supply Many of us find trouble in getting a sufficient supply of water for our home gardens and for drinking. But when we are far from an artesian well. and then the hole is filled up. which is covered with boards. The sealed dug well. It is therefore necessary to dig our well where the underground. A good garden well should be a round hole 1 to 2 meters across. with straight sides supported by a lining or wall. and which may bring sickness to our family.

If we cannot get these materials we can use bamboo. we dig a round hole 1 to 2 meters across. and to keep the children and livestock from falling into the well. Sealed Dug Well Another type of garden well which gives abundant water and is easy to keep clean is used in many barrios. i On the outside of the projecting well lining we should build a brick or stone wall.12 THE SANAKA GUIDE livestock and rubbish from falling in. 2) should also be covered with wood. 2. to keep out surface filth. The well head (Fig. Fig. 1. Fig. mented into place with a mixture of lime and clay’ mortar. . the lining should extend one meter above the ground.hick clay wall the way we make a pilapil in our rice field. If the earth down below is firm enough. until we reach below the underground water level as far as we can go conveniently. to keel) Fig. Bamboo 1 in in g for well prevents earth from cdlapsing. but we must use a pump to draw the water. An open well 6 to 7 medeep can be made sanitary Fig. (Fig. First. we enlarge the hole at the bottom so it will hold more water. and will serve Us very v41. Therefore. This is how we do it: First. Garden wells must be cowered to keep them clean. we install a length of pipe and a hand P-P. 4. It is cheaper to build than the well with a lining. The well lining is to keep the sides of the well from falling in. ters 3. or a t. 1).

To make the cost less. so our homemade well-rig can be for community use. we place a length of ordinary 1 or 2 inch pipe in the center. just like an artesian well. 60 centimeters long. if there is underground water on his lot not deeper than 6 meters.1 yani system. (Fig. Second. supported in a vertical position so as not to touch the earth at the bottom of the well. Any SAMAKA farmer who can afford the pipe and pump can have this kind of well. (Fig. from above is filtered through the 1 hand pump l-1/4 inches (Fig. they would Hg. This well is made by driving one ZO-foot length of small pipe (l-1/4 inch pipe is the best size) down into the ground until we strike water. 13 garden well became popular in the Philippines. We do not The cost of these have to build a brick or stone wall things in MaGia tclining or a wooden cover. is sealed with earth. cast- . earth.dI. then smaller stones until we are near the top. 4). 5). (Fig. ) .Our Home Water Supply During the excavation we can support the walls with bamboo. In some places such wells gave a fiow of water without pumping. and there day is less than P50. Third. Then we fill well tiith land the well is built must supply stones and gravel and seal it with earth. up to the top of the water level or a little more. even seepage 1 well-point. Materials Needed Parts of we&-To make a handdriven well. 3). Farmers in many barrios got clean drinking and household water in their yards by this system. 5. Next we piie on smaller stones. they had plenty for their gardens. g A urefd f. we place large river boulders or stones in the hole. and finally we pour in the earth we have removed until we fill the well and form a mound around the top. is no repair work to be done. With a cheap hand pump at the top. the following things which are perT!lis type of well gives us a manent parts of his well: iarge deposit of water at the bot1 length (26 feet) of l-1/4 inch tom. and because the upper part galvanized pipe.py$v of the war in 1941. If we could buy them Hand Driven Well through our governA few years before the outbreak ment. we should follow the ba. and if the underground water was abundant. the farmer on whose Fig. and helps prevent the water 6) from becoming impure. a new type of cost about P30. we can get a supply of clean water at all times.

It is sharp. Any hlarksmith can make a driving guide like the one shown. ready to drive the well pipe into the ground. to protect it from damaee. and let lt fall to drive the pipe deeper and deeper into the grouud. Fig. . it is filled with water. so we can drive it into the earth. 7. where it strikes the driving guide placed above the well pipe.THE SAMAKA GUIDE CDURING ---I Fig. and has hoies to let in the underground water. The water goes through the holes of the well point and softens the earth. This shows the bamboo well rig set up. and a screen to keep out large pieces of gravel. and is pushed up to the surface around the outside oi the pipe. the water in the hole becomes mud. 8. This shows design of the well point which we buy at the hardware store. 9. Fig. It is connected to our well pipe. As we continue driving the well pipe down. 10. When the well pipe has been driven into the ground. This SLOWS bow the l/binch iron bar guides the battering ram of weight straight down. Fig. One or two men pull on the rope to lit the heavy weight or batfeting ram.

In most barrios we can supply or make all of these things except the iron bar and driving guide. Driving The Well To show more easily how this well can be driven. The only thing to do then is to pull out the pipe and try another spot. ‘7.00kilos. bring water from a depth of 6 meters. The old fashioned hand pump with the open top. connecting both pipes to the same 15 pump. (Fig.00. we hit a large rock which our point cannot penetrate. which will store more water. 8. However. These will cost our group about 85. weighing about 1. In thai case we can attach another length of pipe to the first and increase the depth until we reach the water. we are presenting a series of pictures. These pumps keep the water in the well cleaner and save labor.Qur Home Water Supply Equipment l?or Driving Well The equipment needed for driving the well consists of the following : 3 long bamboos. we now have a much better way to raise our well water. the water from the garden well should always be boiled before drinking. Taking Water From The Well-Pumping We all know many ways of drawing water from the well. 1 long piece of strong rope.forget that if we use a dirty container. Then the thing to do if we need more garden water is to drive another pipe close to the first one. the waler in the well becomesdirty. (Fig. we should finish our well in one or two ‘days. Another alternative is to change to the Sealed Dug Well described before. if we do this we cannot use a shallow well pump. which any intelligent SAMAKA farmer can follow. pulley. which cost 812 to P20. unless we have a pump. called the pitch- . This kind of pump will. until we find a location without obstruction. and that is by the use of iron hand pumps. The traditional ways of lifting water were invented by our ancestors long before men learned to make iron. but we often . 1. showing each step in the procedure. This driving guide is usually worn out by the time one wei1 is driven and must be replaced. and are easy to install. l/2 inch. We must install the more expensive deep well pump. Sometimes as we drive the point down. and the germs left by the dirty container may make the water inside the well unsafe for drinking. The illustration shows how the driving guide is made. 1 reinforcing iron bar. With the use of iron. It will be to our advantage. to save enough money to buy one of these inexpensive hand pumps. Therefore. Following these simple methods. 11). I heavy piece of iron or block of wood. 1 driving guide. It may happen that we do not strike water at 6 meters depth. therefore. 9 & 10). to use as a driving ram. Sometimes we find that the underground water supply is not quite enough for ox garden.

and pump water to a high tank. That is what we should always do with our well water. A small hand pump can lift wah?r from S-meters deep. we may be producing extra produce from our home gardens which we can sell for enough to pay for one of these pumps and the pipes.16 THE SAMAKA GUIDE Keeping The Well Water Pure If we cannot find a good location in our garden for a well which will prevent it from getting dirty. Also it does not allow us to pump water higher than the elevation of the pump. A stone jar w&h faueet is twfer for drinkbag water. The same thing should be done with water we get from the river. The hand force pump costs only a few pesos more than the undesirable pitcher pump. with disease germs. because we often pour dirty water into the top to prime it. which we can elevate and in this way furnish running water our kitchen . After a half hour the disease germs in the water will be destroyed by the chloride of lime and the water will be safe enough to drink. This amount is enough to purify a well where the water is about 1 meter deep. we should at oncepurify the well. it is not good to drink this water unless we boil it first. but it is something to stir our ambition. It can be connwted by pipe or rubber hose to O. Also it has an outlet to which we can attach a pipe or a hose. and then later becomesimpure because some animal or other dirty thing accidentally falls into it. is no longer recommended. Fig. . The easiest way to do this is to throw into the well about 4 tablespoons of a disinfecting medicine called Cl&~i& of like. If our well water is at first pure. to Fig. Once we have a pump. It will have an unpleasant taste becauseof this disinfec- er pump.PT w&s ti.and bathroom. A sketch is printed here showing how a barrio farmer can have running water in his house. 11. This may have to wait untI1 x-e save money for the pipes. unless it has been tested and approved by a sanitary inspector. we can plan to connect it to a small water tank. 12. which we can get from the sanitary inspector. Oncewe becomesuccessful SAMAKA farmers. It is very insanitary. The newer kind of hand pump is call&l a “hand force pump” and is closed at the top.

so we can draw water without dipping into the jar and thus perhaps making the water impure. we can pump out the water in the well which has the medicine taste. until it is replaced by fresh and pure well water. in a clay jar with a faucet. or the artesian water when there is an artesian well. Until we have a handy supply of pure drinking water. Many barrio people use oil-drum for water tank and have running water for kitchen and bath. 12). If we wish. .Our Home Water Supply ting medicine. (Fig. we should 17 store our boiled water.

They say that when planted one meter apart along the fence line it keeps out animals and people because it has plenty of spines even on the trunk. This makes the stems stronger and thicker. we find that. it is better to use wood or bamboo corner posts. 18 and the pruning of these trees gives a supply of fi. A fence made of local materials is cheap and satisfactory. and they should be pruned occasionally at the top after they are growing well.Our Vegetable Garden Good Practices For All Gardens The SAMAKA farmer grows vegetables chiefly to increase his family food supply. Many SAMAKA farmers will like to try this kind of fence. and at the same time produces abundant food for the family and the livestock. We can continue harvesting the cassava roots on each side of the fence for many years.rewood. It is useless for us to start a garden until this is done. Fencing . The leaves and young fruits of the malungay are widely known for their food values. We all know t&t the “madre de cacao” (kakawati) and the ipil-ipil are also good materials for fences. so they become excellent posts for our chicken-yard or pigyard fence. However. These two trees are legumes and they also produce good. So we want to learn how to raise a lot of vegetables with as little work as possible. wholesomevegetables. close together. Pt should be trimmed in front and back to make side branches grow thick. The first thing we must do is to build a strong fence which will keep out chickens. Many farm wives say that the flowers of the katuray make a good salad when scalded. . Some farmers plant for fencing the bituiigol (palutan). Other trees ideal for fencing purposes are the malungay and katuray. especially to nursing mothers. pigs. The former can be easily grown by sticking the branches into the ground. More and more barrio farmers are discovering that cassava (kamoteng kahoy) makes a strong fence. carabaos and goats. F’airly large cassava stems should be planted.

let us leave them there. or feed the weeds (with earth attached) to the pigs. and put them in the compost pile. We know that the best method of getting these two conditions into our soil is to use on our land plenty of organic material. . All we have to do is to put it in good order and keep it in good condition. But in most cases our land will produce fair crops without commercial fertilizer. we can use a hoe to loosen the surface. Hoe is most convenient to01 for meaarinr ve. TilIage One of the labor saving methods which the SAMAKA farmer can follow is not to plow or spade the ground in such a way that he turns 19 the top soil under. 13). If the garden is started when the soil is too hard. we may need a plow to break the surface. and stir and break up the ground about 10 centimeters deep. like when we use part of a rice field. we should take a rake or other tool and make the clods of earth smaller. 13. Maybe the land around our house is already fertile. If the ground is not so hard. the food that the roots absorb to feed the entire plant. We should remove only living weeds and large pieces of trash. The earthworm is our friend. which we will discuss later. we can use a Filipino pointed plow. Then ot task is to keep it fertile. easy to work. If there are plenty of pieces of dead grass and weeds on top. Two things make good soil condition. straw. and the like. They will soon rot and make the soil richer. grass. The roots get most of their food from the top soil. In that case. (Fig. After the soil is broken this way. The other is plenty of plant food in the soil. Weeding And Cultivating After we have planted our vegetables a race will start between pig. or the width of the hand. it may need somemanure and maybe some commercial fertilizer. One is loose texture.Our Vegetable Garden Getting Our Soil In Condition Almost any soil can be made to produce plentifully. such as animal manure and rotted leaves. When our garden has plenty of compost the earthworms will multiply. then smooth and level the surface. but not over 15 centimeters.zetable plots. becauseit loosens up the soil and lets the air in. All we need to do then is to make the planting rows according to the width required for the kinds of vegetable we are going to plant. After this easy preparation the garden land is in condition for planting most of the vegetables. If it is very poor land.

Mulching keeps down tl growth of weeds. 2. especially in the dry season. Weeding by hand is necessary until the plants get well started. Fig. Irrigation and Drainage Many home gardens are given too much ‘water. around the plants or between the rows. saveslabor. 14 8~15). 6. such as corn. and saves on the cost of commercial fertilizer. mulching keeps the sun from drying the soil quickly. Mulching cuts the labor of weeding to almost nothing. Even on the hottest days. 15. tomatoes. Instead. and the like on the surface of the ground. if we lift the mulch we will find the soil underneath damp. such as straw. and also ditches to take the water to some low place. therefore. What does mulching do for the home garden? Here are some of the great advantages we have learned about mulching. prevents growth 1. (Fig. we can prace tice mulching. During the rainy season we must of course provide good drainage. Mulching Mulching as we speak of it here is the old custom of our ancestors of placing loose organic material. both weeding and cultivating can be reduced. 4. After that weeding can be done with a hoe. For larger plants and bushes. believing that loosening the top soil causes it to dry out more quickly. pepper. In two or three months the mulch rots and becomes organic fertilizer which we can mix into our top soil. okra. If the land does not drain well during the growing seasons of the vegetable garden.20 THE SAMAKA GUIDE the vegetables and the weeds. Others advise against this. and often damages the roots. . 5. and preven heavy rains from washing aw: our rich top soil (erosion). by making trenches between the rows. Mulching absorbs the ra and irrigation water. In the dry season. Mulching reduces the work of cultivation around the grooving plants. 14. Straw mulch keeps earth moist. Mulching. In some casesthe mulch is put between the rows only. leaves. it is ad&able to build our planting rows pig. and saves irrigation water. 3. Cultivating around the plants is recommended by many farmers. and fruit trees. cut grass. we can place it directly around the plants. Mulching weeds. For the SAMAkA gardener who wants to make his work easier. produces better crops.

One is with a dryHUM I 21 Fig. When the plants are young seedlings. without packing the dry mulch or loose soil. so the water will not run off quickly before ‘it has soaked into the ground. the top 5 centimeters should be kept moist. Many of us make the mistake of beina irregular in the watering of our plants. The illustration shows how the water from our irrigation ditch feeds the roots. if rain doesnot come. If the soil is compact. (Fig. but later discover that there was not enough to reach down to the roots. 17). Even in the dry season we do not have to water our garden every day. So we should try our best to maintain a uniform moisture supply during the growing season. So they suffer quickly in dry periods. the water deep in the soil will spread to the surface where the roots lie. This way we save water and do not have to cultivate the ground around the plants after watering.i:g 011~. The other is by putting water into irrigation furrows or ditches between the rows. Also many plants are harmed when water is sprinkled on their leaves. the top 5 centimeters can be dry. However. but the lower 25 centimeters should be kept moist. Ditch irrigation rQots. If we have to bring the water from some place away from our . on top. 16). Alternate wet and dry periods are very bad for many vege tables. We can make check dams with a board or srgfie to hold ditchthe water long enoul es. Sometimes when we see the top of the ground wet we may think we have placed enough water. Not only will it reach the roots this way. Too much water is often as harmful as not enough. When we lay out our ditch irrigation system for our vegetables we should keep the furrows level. Most of us find the irrigation ditch is the better way.Our Vegetable Garden somewhat higher. then the ground has to be soaked with water when it gets too dryMost vegetables do not have dee? roots like trees. When we throw water on top it causes the loose soil we have prepared to cake and become hard. wsters plant hose or a can where we sprinkle or pour the water on top of the plants and around them. Some plants. Some of it will go below the roots and keep the subsoil moist. garden. can stand more water than others. There a-e two methods of water. Later on. Many of us have found that our soil is like a piece of blotting paper. The ditch irrigation makes it certain that the water will reach the roots. so the roots will not be covered with water too long. 16. (Fig. we know. which also helps keep the upper soil from drying out.

the best time to do it is late in the afternoon after the sun is low. 18). 18. Fig. our tomatoeach in the same place every season. We should not plant our beans. By exchanging places each season. a gas we cannot see or taste. But even these perennials should be replaced or transplanted after a while in another part of the garden. Some crops do not have to be planted every year. but also it gives something back. to bring the water to our garden. (Fig. house. This is especially true with those plants which are called “legumes.” such as the beans. we should plant another.22 THE SAMAKA GUIDE to keep it busy all the time.our land will remain fertile longer and our crops will be more robust. The roots of these plants take a gas from the air. This invisible gas is called nitrogen. With our annual crops-the plants we have to plant anew each season-it is also good to practice crop rotation. -4 handcart will do the work satisfactorily. This practice is called %rop rotation. pipe haves Crop Rotation To make our SAXAKA garden give the maximum yield. batao. we want . Showing 3 ways of ditch irrigation. Plants of this habit are called “perennials. our corn. to give them new vigor from a change in soil. We dig down to the depth of the plant roots with a spade or hoe. 17. Every good farmer frequently investigates the condition pf the soil under the surface. peanut. patani. according to its season. and abundant food for our family. soybean.an spare the carabao for this work. When we have to water the plants. and mungo. to see with our own eyes whether the soil is too wet or too dry. it will save much time and labor to make a water cart. As soon as one crop is harvested. but a carabao cart is easier when we c. we can give the land a rest from one kind of plant and the soil gets richer from the other plant we put in its place.” Each kind of plant takes away something from the soil. By “hiring” our Fig. It is the same substance which is plentiful in guano and many commercial fertilizers we must pay for. By rotating these permanent or perennial crops from one part of the garden to another. and add it to the soil. cowpea.9’ They continue producing year after year. A bamboo water labor. A simple way to bring water from the well to our garden plots is to use bamboo tubes or pipes.

we find ourselves with so much okra getting ripe at the same time t&at we cannot eat it all and two weeks later we will have no more tender okra in our garden for another six months. but over a long period. In addition.Our Vegetable Garden beam and other legumes to manufacture our “nitrogen fertilizer” we keep our land rich. so it can grow strong again. It has long been known by farmers that it is good to give the land a year’s rest every few years. the harvest does not come all at once. We forget that we are tired and eagerly join the sport. We find our companions playing basketball or dancing. feeling “rested” by the change in activity. By doing this. when we describe each of the important vegetables. and it does not cost us money. after we have harvested our major crop. Most of our garden vegetables have definite planting seasons. We have already learned when ‘to plant many things by experience and observation. and so on until we have planted four or more rows. we must plan ahead of time when we will plant each crop. we cannot give it a year’s rest. another row 3 weeks later. We usually plant our field corn or our camotes. and that way we Iearn how to extend the planting season in our own barrio. The SAMAKA farmer should make use of this lengthy planting period. That limits the planting time. Later. But it has been the custom in many barrios for all 23 of us to plant the same crop at about the same time. or our peanuts.” and has many advantages. we will recommend the best time to plant it. Many times we come in tired from a hard day of work in the fields. If we do this. we will enjoy the fruits of these legumes. This is called “succession planting. by planting a few of each vegetable every two or three weeks. Changing the use of the Iand wisely is another form of rest. the same week. or other crop. The word “legumes” is therefore a word that every SAMAKA farmer is beginning to learn and remember. because we cannot stop eating for a year ! Crop rotation enables us to “rest” our land without keeping it idle. So in our home garden we do not have to follow the custom for our field crops. for example. We will then have a family . The SAMAKA way is to plant one row of okra this week. because our fields are busy raising another crop. or maybe boxing. Let us get away from the custom of planting all of our okra. SuccessionPlanting Yet we now know that nearly all of the garden vegetables can be planted equally well over a period of two or three months or more. But when we do not have enough land. We can try different planting times in our home garden. When To PIant In order to keep our land busy growing different vegetables for our family every month of the year. especially for vegetables which do not keep well after they are gathered.

we do not necessarily lose everything. and other livestock. from the store. “Diversif ied” farming means we are growing many different kinds of vegetable and fruits. 19. If any land is unplanted during the heavy rainy season. Succession planting gives us fresh veget. supply of okra for three or four months in succession. The SAMAKA way of farming is called intensive and diversified farming. As SAMAKA farmers we should also think about other reasons.ables for many months. chickens. we are getting the maximum production for every square meter of land. or that add richness to our land. and other live stock. When we think about these different reasons. pigs. we also want to grow things which we can feed to our pigs. There are not many home garden crops planted in Central Luzon between July and October. there are When we are ready to plant food crops again it is easy to chop up Planting CaPendar for the cow peas and mix the vines and Home G$y. We should think of the food value to our family. we will be able to make a wise decision. By using our family labor all the time. We know a farmer near Manila with only a small garden who has fresh corn during 9 months of the year by using “succession planting. As SAMAKA farmers. and raising poultry. so that we have to buy very little food. bles we decide to plant. 19). (Fig. We should select crops that are easy to grow on our kind of soil. Fig. The other rows may be saved. “Intensive” farming means that we are using every bit of our garden as many months of the year as things will grow.” Another advantage of succession planting is that if one planting is destroyed. Vegetables that are strong and resist insects and diseasesare to be preferred.24 THE SAMAKA GUIDE What To Plant We will select the vegetables we plant becausewe like the taste. because some vegetables are richer food than others. I . and it also protects the soil. This furnishes a good How To Plant vegetable from the tender shoots For each of the various vegetaand fruits and green feed for our pigs.rdens leaves into the top soil or put them Turn to pages 39 to 42 I in #be compost pile. it is better to plant cowpeas than to allow the wild grass and weeds to grow over the land.

to cover the cracks and holes. Seedtox Recommended The vegetables for which most farmers find it better to plant first in a seerlbox are the following: 1. There are a few basic principles we SAMAKA farmers should always remember about planting. The best soil for the seedbox is 1 part loam soil. 20). Onion (big) Cabbage 9. we can use a flower pot or even a shallow can. In another part of this book there are brief suggestions as to the best practices for each of the principal garden crops which successful barrio farmers have told us. and press it down with a board. Tomatoes Lettuce 25 Fig. we already know many of these things. then thin them out into another seedbox or seedbed. 21). For more detailed information on any crop we have not tried. Many garden books tell LIS to plant seeds in a seedbox first. we should not transplant unless it is necessary. or tell us personally what to do. . and 1 part sand. 2. On top of the firm soil we spread loosely a thin layer of finer soil to a depth of l/z centimeter. and 45 centimeters long. On the bottom of the seedbox we place pieces of broken pots or some gravel. the Agricultural Extension Man can give us a special paper about it. 6. How To Prepare A Seedbox For garden plants needing a seedbox. Pechay Cauliflower 10. We should have at least one seedbox made of wood. without stopping the drainage. 3. and finally plant in the ground. Ani::. Spinach 12. 20. . 4. because the plants do not remain there long enough.e ‘7.and small enough to carry easily. Pepper Eg.Our Vegetable Gatiea certain things the SAMAKA farmer must know. and takes too much time for the busy SAMAKA farmer who merely wants to raise more food for his family. Seedbox can be of wood or bamboo. Mustard Beets 8. Next we place a layer of moss or straw to keep the soil from washing through. Then we pour on top of the moss or straw our mixture of seedbox soil up to 11/2 centimeters from the top of the box. We mix it well and sift it through a screen to keep out large pieces of material. centimeters high. First. The bottom should have cracks between the boards to allow drainage. The soil in the seedboxdoes not need fertilizer. (Fig. a flat box that can be placed above the ground is recommended. Being farmers. 5. This is big enough for most of our garden seeds. 30 centime- ters wide. (Fig. or holes should be punched in the bottom. If we want to plant only a few seedsof a certain kind. about 71/r.gplant 11. 1 part rotted compost. That is a lot of work.

If the seeds are the kind which ants like to steal. 22. Planting In The Seedbox (Fig. so that the remaining plants will have more room. another seedbox should be made ready for the pulled seedlings. especially until the roots. The seedling pulled out Before we plant seed in the should be planted into the preseedbox we moisten the soil. Seedlings ready for transplantWhen we sow the seeds we can ing should be big enough to withmake even rows with a thin board. To produce strong plants it is better to pull some of the crowded seedlings.gthe seedlingsthe seedboxshould first be watered to loosen the soil. Before pullin. we can have supports or legs for the seedbox.26 THE SAMAKA GUIDE the seedlings. These rows seedlings are pulled out. 22). Then we cover the ling will not suffer from many seedswith fine loose soil and press broken roots. We must not forsuch as a piece of cigar box. help in lifting the plants from the soil without breaking the roots. the aid of a small pointed stick preparing it the same way as a about the size of a pen or pencil to seedbox. In the dry seasonwe can cover the box with a sheet of paper to keep it from drying out too fast. either viously prepared extra seed box with a fine spray. SemIbox should from sun and ints. by letting the seedbox stand ha!f its depth in a pool of water until Transplanting the soil absorbs enough moisture. 23). or get to water the seedboxbefore the with a pointed stick. set in cans of water (Fig. Before doing this. a small it gently. Thinning If the right amount or quantity of seeds is sown evenly. A garden trowel or a small seeds have sprouted. Fig. there should not be any need of thinning Fig. In pulling. stand handling. but often we farmers sow more seeds than what is necessary. or better still and watered gently. so that should be twice as deep as the size the soil will be loose and the seedof the seeds. 21 Prepare soil for seedbox careWe should do the thinning with fully. be protected . stick should be used so as to inThe seedbox should be kept in a clude enough earth to go with the shady place.

A good container for transferring seedlings is a shallow small basket or a banana leaf sheath of convenient length. but carefully so as not to break the roots. This depression should be filled or covered loosely with dry earth to help brace the stem and to prevent rapid evaporation and ba’king of the wet soil around. Transplanting should be done in rows at convenient distances depending upon the kind of plants to be grown as will be shown later. 23. (21 seedling transfer t0 hole. and each is assigned the task of planting a cer** tain kind of seed in his seedbox. Cooperative Seedboxes ’ In our home gardens we want to plant vegetable seeds frequently. 24). 24. distributing the seedling for transplanting by the neighbors in their own gardens. We must not disturb soil around roots of seedlings when transplanting.3 soil around roots from sides. With pointed stick (1) make hole. If we get seedsfrom the government it will be easier to get enough for all of us as a Fig. The soil should be lightly pressed down with the hand. The wabole ter will press the soil gently around the roots and a depression will be formed around the stem. (3) plTd. (Fig.Our Vegetable Garden Fig. trowel or stick a shallow hole is dug in the soil and the seedling carefully placed into the hole at the same depth it was in the seedbox. One packet of seed is usually much more than we can use for a home garden. . The newly set seedling should immediately be watered. without disturbing the ball of earth around the roots. the plant. It is a lot of trouble to plant small quantities of one kind of seedevery two or three weeks. so is to harvest them for many months for our use. With the aid of the small bolo. 2. In some barrios the farmers get together. or a thin stick is a handy tool in lifting seedlings from the box. The plant is held in hand to stand erect and the hole is covered until a mound of earth is formed around the stem. This is a good SAMAKA practice.

of course. The Agricultural Extension Man can supply us with selected seedsfor most of the native vegetablesand some of the imported seeds. In the SAMAKA garden a hoe is the best tool for this. A home made rake-hoe with pointed bamboo sticks can be made by any SAMAKA fa-mer. save the best seeds we can select from our Fig. but a rake-hoe is also good (Fig. If we adopt the cooperative seedbox system the farmer planting the seedbox of each kind should have the right to select the seeds he needs from all who participate. 25). Others we will have to pay for. Selecting Our Seeds The value of the seed we use is a very small part of the cost of what we harvest. we should always use the best seed we can find. 26. Two or three weeks later the farmer assigned plants another seedbox with the same vegetable. for all of the seedbox vegetables. We will. Drill planting of seed u&z pointed stick ta make furrows. we should select our planting material only from strong healthy mother plants which show a good yield in quality and quantity. own garden. If we plant from cuttings or roots. Fig. and in a loose and easily crumbled condition. . In order that we may be well rewarded for the labor and care we give our garden. another to plant the seedboxes of tomatoes. so that successionplanting will be easier to carry out. tomatoes and corn. Cultivation should never be deep enough to touch the roots. 25. and so forth. If we lack an iron hoe we can make a bamboo rake for cultivating. Only shallow cultivation should be given to beans. Cultivation By cultivation’ we mean the task of keeping the soil around our plants free from weeds. instead of getting them from others. The leader can select one farmer to plant the seedboxes of lettuce for everyone. than to get one packet of each kind for each home garden. Many kinds of seeds are furnished free for home gardens.28 THE SAMAKA GUIDE group.

28) m Interplanting. the soil from the other side of the furrow is drawn with a hoe around the plant. good for our large field. because we need space for the cultivator drawn by the carabao to pass be- . A “drill” 1s a very small furrow made for planting seed in a row. because different farmers follow different practices. Fig. 29). and as the plant grows. and also for irrigating the roots of the plants. and squash. That may be. It can be made with a pointed stick or the corner of the hoe. The seed is planted on the side of the furrow. 27. Furrow planting (1) seeds on side of furrow: (2) as plam grows earth is added. We learn from experience which is the best preparation according to the soil and climate in our own barrio. evenly spaced. A furrow or ditch the shape of a V is made for deep planting. One way to get the most productian and a large variety of vegetables in our small lot is to plant quick-growing varieties between slow growing varieties. hilling the plant and moving the furrow away. increases useful Fig. (Fig. We do not hate to follow these suggestions exactly. Furrow planting is common for corn. growing in a small circle. For instance. and is cut slightly deeper than the size of the seed. (Fig. Hill planting ing. 26). all except the strongest are removed. and row plant- Planting Distances In the planting directions for each vegetable we will find suggestions as to the correct distances between plants and between rows of plants. Methods Of Planting In Garden Different methods of preparing our garden plots are followed. and for the different kinds of plants. 30 to 45 centimeters in diameter. Many experts tell us we should plant corn in rows 1 meter apart. 29. 28. (Fig. melons. 27). and after the plants are up. Also we can plant one variety between rows which are soon to be harvested. This is the com- mon practice of having 3 or 4 plants. Hill planting. (Fig. Interplanting garden area.Our Vegetable Garden 29 Fig. Furrow planting. cabbage can be planted between rows of corn a month before the corn will be ripe. Usually double the quantity of seeds are planted in hills. Drill plunting.

We are not “doctors” of plant diseases and pests. We can use poison bait to kill these snails. and who gets plenty of good food. we can send for the “plant doctor. let the SAMAKA spirit bring several neighbors together to buy one for each to use in turn. Whenever we see 8 disease or pest attacking our plants which we do not know about. and also because we can afford to put more manure in our garden than we can put in large f ielda. If one of us cannot afford to buy a sprayer alone. Then we destroy them by pounding and use them for feed for the pigs and chickens. If he does not know. and where we can get it. But in our home garden we can plant our corn closer than this. . There are different medicines or ammunition to use against these different enemies of our gardens.30 THE SAMAKA GUIDE Many of them can be best applied as spray or dust. We can then pour cold water in the can and heat the water until the snails come out of their shells. and lives in a clean house. It is like the child. fighting the enemies of his garden. because we cultivate it by hand. worms. The best method for controlling this pest in the home garden is to have the children go in the garden each night and ga-. Insects. even when the other children have them. what kind of medicine to use. or use them for fertilizer. so that we can use our small homesite for as many plants as possible. with plenty of rotted leaves. ther them in a can. He does not get sick like other children. he can get the help of the many “specialists” of the government who can tell him. If we have rich fertile soil. and if we have used selected strong seeds. and diseases attack his plants. so we cannot know what to do to fight many of the enemies. So every SAMAKA farmer should have a sprayer to use when insects. also called the Japanese Snail because the. tween the rows. ” the Agricultural Extension Man. so he in turn can tell UB. which provide the right natural chemicals. our plants do not often get sick. Now here is the surprising thing many farmers have observed about plant diseases. and diseases are the principal enemies. The extra care we can give our garden vegetables makes this possible. and take good care of our garden. We will usually follow what our own experience teaches about the best planting distances. We must remember that plants also resist diseasewhen well fed and cared for. but sometimes our poultry may eat this poison. We have seen this happen many times. whose father and mother were strong. Japanese Army brought these snails to the Philippines as food for their soldiers. worms. grass. He can usually tell us what to do. and straw mixed in it. Plant Pests And Diseases Every SAMAKA farmer has to be a soldier part of the time. One of the new pests which is attacking our gardens in son-o places is the Giant African Snail. His body re sists so many diseases.

and that is. . 31 Now the doctors tell us another reason. They have found that excess water and overcooking take from the vegetables many vaIuable substances which our body needs. Now that we are about to start our SAMAKA garden. ‘*I use the water left in the pot to mix with soups. The farmers’ wives have learned Song ago that if we boil our vegetables too long. and let the steam cook the vegetables.weshould not boil our vegetables in too much .simple planting directions for many vegetables suitable for the home garden.Dircctions Each one of the vegetables we plant has a different custom.water and also we should not cook vegetables for too long a time. There is one important thing we are learning from the best cooks. and when to harvest it. there is a paragraph on kitchen preparation. tells us this: “With fresh vegetables. but not too soft. Most farmers’ wives already know many good ways of preparing vegetables: This is included for those who try for the first time one of the vegetables we tell about. Kitchen Preparation In many of the instructions on vegetables. One barrio farmer’s wife who is famous for her simple but delicious cooking. how far apart it should be planted.” . I take the pot from the fire. Planting . the flavor is not so rich. and use too much water. I use just enough water to make plenty of steam. “As soon as the vegetables are tender. To help us succeedin trying new kinds of vegetables we are now going to put down on paper . we will want to have many other kinds of vegetables we have not tried be fore. For many of them we have learned when to plant. When we throw away the vegetable cooking water we are often throwing away the most valuable part of the vegetable.Our Vegetable Garden But most important for us to remember is what we said before : Healthy plants in fertile soil do not often get sick. however. how to care for the vegetable.

cogon. carabao. Rice straw. 32 . In about 3 months the compost Fig. weeds. such as leaves. but not wet or flooded with water. Then we add another layer of plant wastes. chicken. the same in width and length. garbage. rice hulls. with more manure. Most farmers cover their compost with a grass or banana leaf roof in the rainy season so it will not get too wet.lh~ meters (5 feet) high. grass. 30. manure. Pig. and weeds are stored in compost piles for spreading on our fields as home made fertilizer. corn stalks. When this material is fully rotted it is called organic fertilizer. then add a layer of animal manure. trash. horse and goat manure are all rich fertilizers. Even the weeds and the cogon br . We keep our compost pile moist. vines. and in this way continue building up alternate layers until the pile gets about l. On top of this manure. It is the sameway the leaves rot when they fall to the ground and become a part of the soil.at We Should Know About Fertilizers Our Compost Bile Compost is rotted organic material.iI.ne useful fertilizer when they rot and break up into small particles. We have all noticed how this kind of material gets rotten when it becomeswet. straw. The old method of making compost fertilizer is to pile all our wastes on the ground until the pile is 30 centimeters (1 foot) high. we sprinkle some ashes and lime. Compost will not cost us anything except work and is the most plentiful fertilizer. leaves. and animal manure.

” It has been found that the best compost mix- ture is 30 parts of carbon to 1 part of nitrogen (C/N 30.S ture we should chop it into small pieces. Most of these garden and plant wastes are wood-like or fibre-like substances (carbon) which need nitrogen to help them rot and break into small pieces. Have plenty of animal manure and household garbage mixed with the leaves and straw.What We Should Know About Fertilizers 33 Fig.). Making 3 compartments permits us to keep adding to our compost pile. This has three advantilges : It will help the co pas? change quickly to organic fe ilizer. It will make the artifici ” 1 fertilizer we use easier for the @ants to take up and digest.er t. WC should add artificial or commercial fertilizer containing nitrogen to the compoat. 31. And it will be better fertilizer ! The secrets of this quick process are as follows: 1. The scientists call this the “Carbon Nitrogen Ratio. The second secret is to turn the compost pile every few days.hers a. a grass roof is needed. When we have the correct TPI. It is bett. Compartment at left is ready for the fields. If we lack sufficient animal manure and garbage. . New Composting Methods But now we have a better way to change compost into rich fertilizer.o have too much manure than not enough. to add more nitrogen to the mixture. pile will shrink to about one-tenth oi’ its original size and will be changed into rich organic fertilizer which can be spaded or plowed into our garden planting beds or fields. we can make our compost into organic fertilizer in 3 weeks. And it wiU prevent the nitrogen from evaporating or being washed away by the rain. The ot. Instead of waiting 3 months. 2.cess. to speed the rotting pro. To protect our manure compost pik from too much rain. 3 to 5 centimeters long. In our small farm we have no way to be sure of getting the right proportions of carbon and nitrogen except by trying different combinations and observing results.re still rotting. .

like a wet rag out of which we have squeezedthe water. Finally. with plenty of manure or nitrogen . When we clean the floor of the pig pen the cleaning wastes can also be added to the compost in the drain hole. When a plant grows it takes certain substances from the earth in order to grow. it means we should turr. are to the growth of our children. So we push a bamboo stick into the center and after 3 minutes. it is important to let the floor of the pig pen drain into a hole where we keep corn-. When we take away from the field a sack of palay. So every time we turn the pile. If we have pigs. it will need more water. we should turn the pile. If the stick is dry. The successful compost pile.nitrogen escaping into the air.’ riais broken up into small pieces. the pile will get very hot in the center. we must return to the earth the substances we have taken away from our garden or field when we harvest our crop. but not wetsomething. we should sprinkle enough water on it to keep it moist. it will always smell sweet. 3. everytime we turn the pile. so we are losing some of the fertilizer. and the pile becomes dry. Some kinds of plants take more food from the soil than others. If the stick is quite hot. Being dry. the pile. The hot temperature in the compost pile causesmuch of the water to .evaporate as steam. we first gather the material from the outside of the old pile and place it in the center of the new pile. we must keep the compost pile moist. When our rice sack is empty. In turning the compost pile. we are taking We find that if the right compost mixture is used. meat and vegetables . We then take the material from the inside of the old pile and place it on the top and sides of the new pile: In this way. and leave behind the straw and rcots. The bad smell is the smell of . so that the urine of the pigs will be added to our organic fertilizer.34 THE SARIABA GUIDE now learn. These substances are food for the plant. From time to time we transfer this material to our main compost pile and put more straw and leaves into the hole. Artificial Fertilizers for the Home Garden For thousands of years people have used animal manure. we I . fish. If the stick smells bad. we must replace the rice we have consumed or else we will be hungry later. If we let it stay too hot. it begins to have a bad smell. we pull it out. Likewise. (c) The right amount of water. They are just as necessary for plant growth as rice. If it smells bad. post. (b) Plenty of air. it is becausewe did not turn it soon enough. the mixture alternates its position from inside to outside and outside to inside. needs three things: (a) A good mixture of mate. we should turn the pile. If we turn the pile frequently and keep it moist. ash and rotted plant wastes to restore fertility to the soil.

magnesium. or sugar cane. Plants can get from the earth all the food they need. These three elements are: Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium Secondary and minor elements in addition to these three. to supply what is lacking or replace what 4s taken from the soil by the harvested crops. they do not cost. or malce fertile a garden or field that before was poor in plant food. and contains 20. and take it away from the field. The Atlas fertilizers are of several kinds.only a part of the plant food taken by tne plants from the soil. molybdenum and cobalt. But now we have two factories making c’ommercial fertilizers for the use of our farmers and gardeners. some of which have to be imported until they can be made locally. Today we know that three major elements make up most of the soil fertility or plant food in the earth. using locally produced sulphuric acid. sulfur. which are needed in small amounts but which must be present in the soil to make plants healthy are: calcium. First. phosphoric acid and superphosphates.powdered limestone which . to which are added other ingredients. But if we harvest a crop of cabbage. Fortunately. In this way we can increase or renew the fertility of our garden or field.What We Should Know About Fertilizers away.” For many years the Philippines have had to buy from other countries the commercial fertilizer we neededand the price was high.get the kind of fertilizer he needs for his crop. About one hundred years ago. iron. or lettuce. Poor soils do not hbve enough of some of these plant foods so the plants are not so healthy and harvests are small. the sclientists began to study what exactiy was in the soil that gave food to the plants. In the year 1958 the Atlas Fertilizer Corporation was organized to manufacture fertilizer. we are taking away nearly all of the plant food consumedby the plants.we gain three to ten pesosin inweased value of our crops. called commercial f wtilixers or artificial f ertilixers.5% nitrogen and 245 sulfur. It has been found that for every peso we spend for buying the fertilizers which are needed. the scientists found out that these substances could be made in factories and put back into the soil. This is called ammonium sulphate. boron. This factory has now been sold to a private company. in order to increase the yields of their gardens and fields. Everyone Uses Fertilizers 35 Today. It is often said that “fertilizers pay. combined with sulfur. zinc. Only the prosperous sugar planters could afford to use enough of this artificial fertilizer. farmers all over the world are using these manufactured substances. Also a number of companiesnow make . the National Power Corporation started to make nitrogen fertilizer. manganese. In fertile soils all of these elements are present in abundance so crops grow well and “harvests are big. so that eachfarmer can. wwr.

4. pea1. and talinum eat use depends on two things: more nitrogen than phosphorous First. tomato. In bean leaves. not enough. We also know that leafy vegeWhat Kind of Fertilizer? tables. When in doubt as to what fertilizer element is lacking. need phosphorous and potassium just a. what kind of crop are we or potassium. 3.soil. The grains are thin and light deficiencies. or where we gather the fruits or tubers. We ar drought. gray spotLime’ For Acid Soil ted crescents fortn on the edge of It is not only food which plant. peppers. we tilizer is mixed VC. patani. papayas.?nd seeds. The food must be seasoned. and some vegetables become pur. squash. Has light green or yello. pineapples. needed. Which kind of fertilizer we will mustard. . The ferIn our small home garden. Grains are thin and light in can be added to the fields when weight. When potassium is not enough: the be& thing to do is to use a 1. our garden needs. Growth is slow. such as corn. what does our soil lack taining all the three major eleto make this crop grow well? ments-before planting. A complete fertilizer containing the three small angle with the stem. Wij 01 elements in about equa1 If phosphorous is n. leaves. After two weeks if the leaves alyzed by an expert.35 THE SAMAKA GIJIIIIE 4. The leaves die along the complete fertilizer. in weight.wish nuts and string beans. sitao. 3. the plant: mongo. and it needs water. The stems are weak and need. So instead we of t.3 the leaves. Does not grow big and it such as cucumbers. pechay. such as lettuce. ubi and the like. Has leaves which form a they need nitrogen. Plants whi. brittle. M-hen people put salt or sugar 3. grows slowly.but even the weeds. 2.of cinowgh : 1. The stems and ieaves of corn examine not only our garden crops. we apply fertilizer conto detect in a practical way what taining only nitrogen to the soil. amounts is usually put into the 2. to detect sail shortages or what scientists c-aii ple in color.s stiff. 4. The plant is thin and short. Beans have dark green or soil before planting. resembling the leaves of plants during a long dry season tell us when there is a serious IMIC of some fertilizer element.!h have nourishing When the nitwgen in the soil is fruits . . cabbage. Has stalk which is thin and camotes. The appearance of the plant will bluish color.L’Y well with the cannot afford to have our soil an. edges. 2.bananas.he plants are not dark green have learned frcm experience how in color. We should therefore planting? conuse a complete fertiZizer-one Second.

too acidic. even with cogon grass. camotes. to add humus to our soil. Finally. When we can double the yield on the same piece of land wlcn the same amount of cultivation. Without these juices. tomatoes. phosphc~rousand potassium cannot all be “digested” by the plant. we will find that the 37 use of fertilizers pays big rewards. cabbages.roFs. As. and that the more organic material we mix with our artificial fertilizers. mix it with the compost first. But we must always remember that artificial fertilizers are a supp2enzent to organic fertilizers. we must add “seasoning” by mixing fine powdered lime into the soil at least two -[reeks before planting. And a large percentage of the artificial fertilizers we place in our fields may be washed away by the rain and evaporated into the air. such as nitrogen. If we live . For our home garden we often use fertilizers becausewe may lack animal manures.Especially if we are growing corn. enriched organic fertilizer. cassava sitao.we search for more materi@ for our compost piles. pineapples. niongo. is necessary to profitable farming and to a successful home garden. But if we mix our artificial fertilizer with our plant wastes. Artificial fertilizer is a valuable supplement which . and other field crops on a commercial scale.we should be sure to buy when we lack sufficient organic fertilizer. the better it will be for our plants and for the continued fertility of the soil.ot nourish us. it will become PYZ raicired compost. peanuts. we know that fertilizer brings big profits. the food we give our plants. In such cases. onions. squash. so the roots can take up these elements. sugarcane. Artificial fertilizers cost money. it makes the juices of the mouth and the stomach come out more abundantly.What Ve Should Know About Fertilizers ot’ pepper on their food. which is not easily washed away by the rain and does not evaporate. pechay. the food we take into our stomach canr. This will help the plant in absorbing and “digesting” the fertilizer we put in the soil. If the soil In our garden is too sour. And we must remember this: to save money on the price’ of aTtificial fertilizer. we are discovering many neglected sources. we need water to dissolve the fertilizer and the lime. Some successful farmers say that one sack of commercial fertiiizer mixed into compost and applied to the fields is better than three sacks of commercial fertilizer applied alone to the fields. Organic Fertilizer Essential Organic fertilizer. Waterlilies and water hyacinth make good compcst. melons. Fertilizer For Field Crops iiur experience with compost and artificial fertiiizers in our homesite garden will teach us many lessons which Ire can use in our field c. and make it into enriched organic f ertilixer-this will benefit both the crops and OUT pocketbooks.

including the urine. thus returning to the soil all of the waste plant and animal materials which accumulate in our neighborhood. and add it to 6ur compost pile. instead of burning them or throwing them away. they began imitating the natural forest. near the sea. Seeing this. We will be wise if we return to the old CUStom. we should always gather the sea weeds wh.ich at times are thrown on the beach. As . The poultry manure from 250 chickens in one year is all the fertilizer we need for one hectare of corn land. The cdigin which they cleared had a deep rich top soil made up of rotted leaves and grasses. mixed with the manure of wild birds and animals accumulated through the centuries. Sorri’eof us have forgott.38 THE SAMAKA GUIDE our forefathers settled in these cleared lands and cultivated them year after year. and manure they could find. and practice mulching and applying compost to our fields.en the lessonswhich our ancestors learned a thousand years ago. and in this way they 1::epttheir lands fertile. and add them to our compost pile. We must also gather all the animal manure we can find. they noticed that the land was slowly losing its fertility. They observed the rich harvests they gathered when they first cleared a virgin forest. Our ancestors learned about the value of using compost. bv restoring to their fieids all the leaves. grass. weeds.

So when we try to follow this calendar we may find that the planting times recommended are not the best times for our town. 110~0s Sur. Laguna and Mountain Provinces. there are sometimes local differences of climate. This kind of climate is what we find in Abra. The Planting Calendar indicates the customary. 110~0sNorte. Wizal and Tarlac provinces. A Central Luzon Planting Calendar Bataan Eatangas Bulacan Tarlac Ilocos Norte Ilocos Sur J-(on next page) For the Central Luzon type of climate. Pangasinan.Planting Calendar What And When To Plant The Planting Calendar on these pages is for those parts of the Philippines having the same kind of climate as Central Luzon.s the Type I climate. and in the west. so that our barrio may not have exactly the same kind of weather as most towns in our province. Cavite. However. Pampanga.hen there are only light rains. klll(‘l a wet season. and Negros Occidental. or discover whether the ba. This means places where there are two distinct seasons. a clry seasonfrom December to June. C 39 . Bulacan.rrio where the calendar was not satisfactory had unusual weather that year or a local variation in its regular climate. Iloilo. Nueva Vizcaya. we do not lose much by trying different planting times. according to the custom of one or more of the following provinces: La Union Nueva Ecija Pampanga Pangasinan Rizal Zambales * Means many farmers in many provinces plant during these month& I Means only in a few provinces do the farmers plant in these months.ern parts of Batangas. times for planting which most farmers follow. \j. La Union. Any SAMAKA farmer who gets bad results by following this calendar should tell the Agricultural Extension Man about ‘it. Bataan. since this calendar is only for our home garden. we can correct. However. when the rains are very heavy and very frequent. and also additional months when only a few farmers plant the various vegetables. the calendar. In this way. . We also encounter this Type I climate in the southwest part of Mindoro. Nueva Ecija. and we gain experience. It is the kind of climate which the Weather Rureau cal1. from June to December.

t l .

garden producing all the time. garlic p p’:%z Pcchap February Pepper.During certain months.aipa:apa Bean Beet Cabbage Camote f Cassava Cauliflower Carrot px&ote C’urumher 5 Gabi Lettuce Mung0 Mustard Muskmelon Okra Onion. any time. On the others. some of us plant In this way we can keep our other crops. For z.What To Plant Each Month $ Means For Provinces With Central Luzon Type of Climate only some farmers in some provinces plant at the time shown. Jamamy . Sometimes it is worth contrary. therefore. mungo. we now know that many while to have vegetables to harvest vegetables can be planted almost when the season is net the best. By their tomatoes are small and few. fields are free for such use. such as tobacco. ing us more abundant food.hig:h. we can plant some kind of vege.ayilla Squash Talinum Tapilan Tomato . melon. bean. consulting this Planting Calendar But prices at such times are very w can 1Parnthe months when far. thus anti watermelon. table every month of the year. Radish 0 Seguidilla Sitao B Soybean Squash Talinum Tapilan Eat0 Eggpkiilt Sweet Ampalaya Bean Cabbage Camote Cauliflower Carrot pyte Cucumber Eggplant # Gabi Lettuce Mungo Muskmelor Mustard Patola Pechay Radish R Se. The months we making it possible to practice “crop rotation” and also “successelect to plant these other crops 2I-c c. however. *Many of us are accustomed to mers in other barrios with the plant our principal field crops at same kind of climate as ours. sn tneg find it worth while. givsquash. \vest our palay.l&y 11 L!!tl ---mrrrtiJ*g !viiyI! 0111 sion planting.?t covered with other crops. onion.crops.” which are discussed -in the Guide. camote. corn. Bulacan farmers grow Qor our home garden. tomato. After we har. cabbage. actimes we have learned they bring tually plant these home garden the best results. Some vegetables give better reThis does not mean that these customary months are the only sults when planted in certain months when such other crops can months than when planted in be successfully grown. provided our fields are because there is a scarcity. tomatoes everyr month of the year. instance.

Radish Sitao Soybeau Squash sweet Talinum Tapilan 5 Tomato Tugui Ubi Juls . sweet Radish Seguidilla sitao Soybean Squash Talinum Tapilan Tomato Tugui Ubi UP0 November Ampalaya Batao Bean Beet Cabbagt Camote 5 Cassava Cauliffower Carrot Chayote Corn Cucumber Eggplant Gabi Lettuce Mungo Muskmelon Mustard Okra Onion. garlic 9 Patani Patola Pechay Pepper. Radish sweet Talinum Tapilan 5 Tomato Tugui Ubi 5 UP0 Ampalaga Batao Bean Camotc Cassava Chayote Corn Cucumber Eggplant Gahi Kadios LettucY! Mung0 Mustard Patani Patola Perhay Pepper. garlic Patola Pechay Pepper.THE SAMAKA GUIDE March Ampalasa Bean Cayobage Camote 9 Cassava Eggplant April Soybean Yqr1ash Talinum Tomato 5 TIIP.ldish SttgIlirlillil Sitao Sqllasll Cauliflower Corn Cucumber Perha> Radish 5 Seguidilla 5 Ubi 5 UP0 Cucumber Eggplant 3 Gahi Mungo rMu5tard Okra Patani Patola Pcchay Talinum $ Tomalo Tugui b Ubi 31 a y Ampalaga Batao Bean Camate Cassaya Chayote Corn Cucumber Eggplant Gahi Kadios Lettuce 3lJJngo . sweet Radish Seguidilla Sitao Soybean Squash. Talinum Tapilan Tomato Tugui 5 Ubi UPQ Ampalaya § Batao Bean Beet Cabbage Camote 5 Cassava Cauliflower Carrot Chayote Corn Cucumber December Eggplant Gabi Lettuce Mungo MuskmelOn Mustard Okra Otiian. garlic 5 Patani Patola Pechay Pepper.M115!3rd June Seguidilla Sitao Soybean Squash Okra Patani Patola Pechay Pepper. garlic g Patani Patola Pechay Pepper.4mpalaya Batao Camote 5 Cassava Chayote Cucumber Gabi Kadios Mungo Patani Seguidilla Sitao Soybean Talinum 5 Tomato -$ Ubi Ampalaya Camote 5 Cassava 5 Chayote August Lggplaut 5 Kadios Mungo Radish SoybeaJJ 5 Seguidilla g Sitao Talinum 5 Tomalo September Ampalaya Ej Batao Bean Beet Cabbage Camote Cassava Carrot Cauliflower Chayote Corn Cucumber Eggplant Gabi 5 Kadios Lettuce Mungo Muskmelon Mustard Okra Onion.IJ~ Ampalaya Uean Camote 15 Cassava Corn liadios Lett11cc Leltuce Mung0 Mustard R. sweet Radish Seguidilla Sitao Soybean Squash Talinum Tapilan Tomato UP0 Ampalaya Batao Bean Beet Cabbage Camote 5 Cassava Cauliflower Carrot Chayote Corn Cucumber October Eggplant 4 Kadios Lettuce Mungo Muskmelon Mustard Okra Ouion. sweet Radish Seguidilla Sitao Soybean Squash Talinum Tapilan Tomato Tugui 5 Ubi UP0 - .

When And How To Plant We can plant the ampalaya anytime of the year. but we seem to like it just the same. When one plant blossoms. and later we remove all but the two strongest looking plants. od retains all of the rich minerals. Usually the ampalaya is planted in hills about 1 meter apart with 3 or 4 seedsto the hill. Some . The plant will continue bearing fruit for about two months after the first fruits are harvested. is cooking. and then slice the vegetable into thin slices and cook the slices in boiling water for 3 minThis methutes witkout stirring. Time from seed to matwity: 90 to 129 days. tomatoes.be mixed into the hill a week before planting the seeds. Most of us know many ways of preparing ampalaya. Then all we have to do is to cut it in half lengthwise. Those of us who have tried this method prefer it to the other method of squeezing the sliced ampalaya in salt -water and washing and draining it several times. Maybe this is because it contains substances which our bodies need. Even the herboiarios recommend the leaves and juice of the ampalaya for certain kinds of sickness. is this: DO NOT STIR THE AMPALAYA while it. although many of us allow the ampalaya to grow on a fence or a part of the house. remove the seeds and soft pulp. Some like it as a vegetable mixed with shrimps or meat. We wash the ampalaya before cutting it. Kitchen Preparation One of the secrets of preparing ampalaya so it will not taste too bitter. garlic. and keeps the vegetable from tasting too bitter. A bamboo trellis should be built for the vines to climb. Others prefer the ampalaya guisado. and The ampalaya vine is found everywhere in the Philippines. salt.Special Directions *For Each Vegetable AMPALAYA ( AMARGOSO) animal manure should . made with fried onion. it is time to plant another. The fruit is bitter. HDW Many Two or three ampalaya vines are enough for our home use.

can be planted during most of the year. We do not plant them all at once. to which we add the boiled countries. if the from November to May and a soiI is kept rich with manure or rainy seasonfrom June to October. 70 to 80 days._ . How Many Three rows each 20 meters long will supply a family plentifully. hatao. The other kinds of beans BATAQ are ciescribed under their individuai names. It will continue Central Luzon. with enough left over for canning or giving away. October. centimeters. when the pods are young and fresh. When To Rant AMostfarmers in Central Luzon plant the batao in May and June. *./il centi- meters. apart Time front planting seed to muflrritjy: Bush beans. rolt:: 10 l~istance lw!t/v(~m ). Some grow on bushes ampalaya slices and beaten eggs.ws:l+$ meapart in T*OIO: llbz meseed to bar- ters.ows: 40 to 50 The batao is cunsieiel*edby mixny to have the best taste of any of our green beans. end of rainy season. Distance I in. with a dry season producing for 2 or 3 years. Hbw To Plant The batao needs poles or a trel. Tarlac farmers plant it from May to December. such as sitao. and sorts OII \*ines supported by ]~OkS. timeters. say.4!4 THE YAMAKA GUXDE pepper. compost. (BOU’NTIFUL. Distance ters. X+-i0 days.When To Plant 5s for the long vines. But probably it. are varieties imported from other to May. The tender leaves are also eaten. KENTUCKY WONDER) and continuously until the beginThese beans. we can plant these beans at the BEANS. pole beans. Time from planting vest: 120 days.called “snap beans. say.” ning of the next winy season. Lkpth Distance to plant seeds: 21/z cen- to 20 centimeters for bush beans. 50 centimeters for pole beans. and so forth.~*o. and is usualIn places with a climate like ly planted in hills. but in succession every two weeks. L Ikl)th to’plrcnf wwls: 2l. . between .

makes a delectable dish. topsoil moisture from rain or excessive overhead watering may cause the stem or roots to rot. Fresh beans are good cut into Bush Bean (Bountiful) small pieces.Kitchen Preparation dered soil.‘ipeci. of dry pow. If we find we have more fresh beans than we want to eat. reach full size. Properly grown ing. and some garlic every week after the bean pods and onion. leaving only the English (remolacha in Spanish 1 is stron-est-looking seedlings. plants 30 to 40 centimeters high. Even after the seedshave sprouted. Left-over into the ground to 25 to 30 cen. straw.We do not cover the cooking pot. Cold boiled fresh beans make a brittle. If there is any liquid left in bush beans are stringless.same as our seed beans. Before we plant the beans we stitute for meat. after planting. scraps for a longer period. We usually water the pole beans of ham or bacon. They are also good when builed in If we pick the beans before they salted water until they are tender. This can them for our table when our garbe corrected by mulching with den is not producing. and pick them reg. good salad when served with oil and Pole Bean (Kentucky Wonder) vinegar dressing. and we use so little water that we will have tender beans and also most of it is used up in the cooka longer season. and succulent. fence or trellis. Later we thin out BEETS The red root crop called beet in half of the plants. We plant 4 to 5 beans make a delicious fried rice. around each pole. we add it to our soup stock. tender. ularly during the bearing season. Dried beans should be soaked longer to reach maturity than the overnight and boiled slowly until bush bean. Boiled dried beans are a good subappear. Dried Beans \Ve always allow thp largest healthiest bean pods ripen to maturity so we have the best seedfor the next season’s planting. Pole beans can also be planted grown widely in some parts of the along a wall. we can let Ext r-z\Precautions In heavy soil where a hard top the excess quantity mature the crust is formed. pressing the soil . or 2 ems. and Philippines but is not known in . and save ticult to break through.s makes a tasty dish.ll Directions For Each Vegetable 45 trained on wire or string. They do hot like soil that is too wet. and are tasty lfisert poles 2 to 29$ meters !ong mixed with our rice. beans find it dif. grass. Beans like light soil. cooked with lard These varieties form compact (guisado) with meat or shrimps. Adding a pork bone. Adding chopped The pole bean takes somewhat raw 0nion. the pot.beans and rice can be mixed to timeters.. but it produces heavily soft.

Why Plant Beets? Beets are easy to grow throughout most of the year in any kind of soil. They also are good with very good “gulay... grow well only in Baguio. Depth to plant se. we can sow them broadcast. If grow large. fertilizer. many of us have had successwith Planting cabbagesin the lowlands where we Beet seeds are usually imported. but :. Distance apart in row: 5 to lr3 CABBAGE centimeters. firm heads. It is Distance between ‘rows: 40 to also good to mix with “sapsoy. After cookmany places. turity: ‘<. The green leaves are rich in vitamins. and place in are rich in vitamins when eaten . For the beet roots. and the roots have plenty of sugar. The root. cut them up too much garden space.” 50 centimeters. but the seeds have a long life. We plant the seeds by Distance between 7’02~s: 50 to 60 centimeters dropping them in shallow furrows made with a stick. and they need plenty of the roots.. .ing we take off the skin and slice cious vegetable and the leaves are them.” some vinegar or in a salad. planting.yds: 1 centithe soil is light. . we find it best to soak the seeds in water before meter. If we have too many beets they are excellent feed Tr/Ianypeople think that cabbages for our livestock. is a deli. we harvest them when small and tender and cook them a short time only in boiling salted water. Time from seed planting to ma60 to 90 days. plant them in another row or bed.:. they and cook them and forget about are attacked by many pests and diseases. Why Plant Cabbage? If we like only the beet leaves The best reasons for not plantfor greens. and when the tender ing cabbages are these: they Cake leaves are high enough.46 THE SAMAKA GUIDE a small amount of boiling salted water. Later we can Time from planting seed to mathin out some of them and transturity : 90 to 125 days. Kitchen Preparation There are also strong reasons in We cut the greens an inch from favor of planting cabbages: they the top of the root.

Special Dil’ections For Each Vegetable 47 raw.vy head. If the green cabCabbages grow well in medium bage worm becomestoo much of a and heavy soils. we must dust or spray an They are fond of plenty of animal insect poison on the plant. Time To Plant At the end of the rainy‘ season. leave the That may be why we are not al. growing fast again. This we can correct by applying lime to our plot. and we then start it 10 minutes. and continuing to March. then add shredded cabbage. Raw cabbage is tasty when Irrigation A steady and uniform supply of shredded and served as a salad. moisture is necessaryfor cabbages. How To Plant The cabbage is transplanted from seedbeds. Unless the root is firm in the ground the plant may blow over in the wind. If cabbage is to melt some lard in the the growth of the cabbages is pan. When cabbage is boiled. as i’. because the root has to support a large. Time from planting to maturity : 80 to 90 days. bages in a different place each year. Pests And Diseases We find it best to plant cab(b Depth Distance to plant: 5 to 8 centi1 me- meters. If the cab‘bages do not form heads. protection against some of the diseases which multiply in the soil of a cabbage patch. One of the best ways to cook that mature in the dry season.pot open so the bad smell can esways successful with late cabbages cape. hea. we will tisually CAMOTES find that the heads of the cabbage crack. such as “puchero. the flavor adds something we like to many of our dishes. In the IJTountainProvince they are grown tb roughout the whole year.” and other boiled viands. betwee?~ ~0~:s: ter. to encourage heading. The root maggot (a small white worm which tunnels into the roots and causes plants to wilt) can be controlled somewhat by placing heavy’ paper around the Soil roots in planting. we can tie the outer leaves together with a string. and they like lime. Distance apart in YOW: 45 cen- timeters. siowed up by lack of moisture in cover it and let it simmer for about the roots. occasionally stirring it. A serious disease called club-root may develop if the soil is too acid. which should be spaded Kitchen Preparation into the ground before planting. . pest. ‘beginning as early as S&ember. The seedling should be planted firmly. manure.

because we like the leaves for greens. They until they are cured in an open but arc so small that they do not concovered pla. They best to harvest our camotes by digging with a fork.It is best centimeters. to do this after the camote has Tim. rich flavor and its health-giving The cuttings at the tip are the best qualities.” CARROTS Khy To plant While camotes are generally a field crop they are a good home garden crop also. tain enough moisture. It is also good for frying ur mixin ivith “guinataan” or “guinatan. It is easy to tinuously moist until they germiroast camotes in the ash compart. .nate.i place a thin mulcht . timeters. we can cut a camote into sections Distance apart in row: F>to 7 and plant the sections. each end exposedabove the ground. Depth to plant seeds: 1 centiand we plant the piece of vine with meter. other countries the carrot is called the king of root-crops.48 THE SAMAKA GUIDE ment of the clay stove. we can . Harvesting And Curing Seeds In our home garden we find it Carrot seed must be fresh. Even earth so as not to cut the tubers. or mix them during rainy weather. twity : 65 to 85 days. and boiling the tubers as substi. about Camotes are not very good to eat three weeks after planting.4 from planting seeds to Imusome sprouts on it. Distance between rows: SO cellIf we do not have vine cuttings. with moist sa.nd when planting.o harvest them reason we find it a good practice to soak the seedsfirst. some people prefer bos needed. It is a perennial piant. . or spading from lose their power to germinate more qhe side of the row to loosen the quickly than most seeds. and we want an extra supply for our pig feed. We are How To Plant The customary way to plant the learning to appreciate its sweet camote is by using viue cuttings.ce for a week or more. Time To Plant Our farmers plant carnotes as 8 field crop almost any month. 1:) year or more.” and continues Xore and more Filipinos :~rc‘ producing leaves p!*ofitably for H learning to appreciate carrots. No seedtute for rice. For that It is better not t. f rcsh seed germinate slowly. To keep the seedscon-the camote roasted.into the growing plot. Kit then Preparation Planting in addition to using camote Carrot seeds are planted direct leaves as a wholesome vegetable.

11. The seed cutting Depth to plant: 10 centimeters. Raw carrots are very popular When To Plant with children.s at the beginning of the rainy health-giving minerals and vita. In a couple of Distance apart in row: 60 cen. Yet the soil should fences and any other vacant spot. We can get amount of salted water. mins found in raw vegetabies. We our livestock. Aipin Mangi. Time from planting Harvesting 300 to 360 days. How To Plad CASSAVA Cassava is planted from cutt. We scrub information about commercial casthe carrots. of Plant Industry at Mawe like to add some melted mar. starting. but do not take off sava growing by writing to the the skin.ings from the stem about 25 centimeters long.ke a light rich soil. We can also plant our carrots in the shade Why To Plant of our bush beans.season.and Kitchen Preparation follow different methods from Carrots are boiled in a small those described here. Mandioca Bamanure over the row and sprinkle siarao. we ture quickly. because it causes the plot. We should not use the top of the stem. it with water every day. and is often planted along roots to split. be rich to allow the carrots to ma. garine for flavor.weeks we should see the growth timeters. The cassavais a good home garSoil den crop because of the ease with Carrots li.be loosened with a spade to a depth of 30 centimeters. should use the bitter cassava. and asking for Farmers Circular No. clods or stones. which it is grown. Other vaof chopped straw or powdered rieties: Baker.If we want to grow cassavain our fields to sell for starch-making. but the woody sections. especially sickly The best time to plant cassava children who naturally crave the i. is then stuck into the ground at Distance between rows: 1 me.nila. or closer for fencing. The land should. Varieties: For the home garden The harvesting in the home garthe sweet cassava known as den is easiest done by pulling up4 to maturity: . After they are cooked Bureau. It has high which should be broken into fine food value for the family and for pieces without.an angle and the soil lightly ter.Special Directions For Each Vegetable 49 “balinhoy” is best. It does not have to never use fresh new manure in be planted in a regular garden carrot beds. pressed around it.

because the roots begin to rot very soon. We cut off and plant the sections of stem we need for replacing the plants harvested. It makes a strong fence and cooked before feeding it to the at the same time produces cassava animals. Many families use ters. Storage If we want to save some of our cassava for future use. The pigs will dig into ground for the cassava roots on their side of the fence.bitter cassava should always be pose. so it can the chicken yard and the pig pen. . used for making bibingka.and kalamay. But the This way it serves a double pur. The sweet Many barrio farmers find that cassava doesnot have much of this the cassavamakes a good fence for poison inside the root. the whole plant by the roots. and close the table. We use wood or thick bam. suman at intervais of 20 to 30 centime. especially in the skin. roots for our use. Cassava fence grows thicker by pruning at top. which Kitchen Preparation are then dried in the sun. It is best to plant and harvest our cassava continuously. We find it best to gather only enough cassava roots to use during the next day for our table or as feed for our animals. about 11/z meters long. we prune the stems at the top to make the lower branches thicker and causethe stems to becomestronger.” poison. 32). so we must always peel the cassava Cassava Fencing before using it as food. When the cassava is well rooted and the leaves become thick.the young cassava leaf as a vegeboo corner posts.50 THE SAMAKA GUIDE Fig. This is The cassava contains a certain called “gaplek. (Fig. For fencing we Fresh grated cassava can be plant cassava stems that are somewhat thick. or fasten a woven bamboo netting to the fence for our chicken yard. 32. we peel it and cut it into thin slices. fence by lacing bamboo strips between the stems for our pig pen. Both pigs and chickens like the cassava leaves. be safely fed to animals.

or toyo. Bne plant months of the year. It is a good “gulay” if we cook the sliced fruit with lard (guisado) mixed with shrimps or meat. CHAYOTE Corn as a garden crop is a faThis vegetable is a perennial. Kitchr. Depth to plant : 21/zcentimeters. is enough for a home garden. Time from planting to harvesting as boiling or roasting corn: 60 to 180days. . especially with “sapsoy. We Dlant the seed at an angle. we should keep adding manure or fertilizer from time to time as it is a very active pla. How To Plant We select a place near a long fence or trellis. When it starts growing. Plant the entire chayote fruit.” It also makes excellent pickles.beaten egg and bread crumbs and frying until brown. To keep the “heart” of the cauliflower white. It is then placed in a covered pot of boiling salted water and cooked $5 or 20 minutes. Distance apart in row: 15 to 20 centimeters. or just until tender.Special Directions For Each Vegetable CAULIFLOWER 51 by the soil and the small end sticking out of the ground.n Preparation For boiling we cut the chayote crosswise through the seedas thick as a slice of bread. it continues producing corn from our garden many fruit for several years. After about 3 months we can begin harvesting the vegetable. as it contains only one seed. with the large end covered Distance between rows: 50 to 60 centimeters.lt.tomato sauce. CORN This veget. we tie the outside leaves together with a string. We follow about the same planting and cultivation practices for cauliflower as for cabbage. Then we pare off the skin with a knife. cream sauce. becausewe can enjoy fresh that is. Fried chayote is prepared by dipping the slices of boiled chayote in.ableis gaining in popularity in the Philippines. It is good served with margarine. because it is good as “gulay” when boiled with other vegetables. vorite.

USDA 34. 33. leaves. Cagayan Yellow. We can correct this by adding powdered lime (apog) to the soil. but not so muoh water that we flood it. By placing the fertilizer in a hole near to and lower than the seed. But if we plant the corn close together and use enough fertilizer. This is especially important when our soil is a clay type. Or if seed is available. Cebu White. But hybrid seed needs fertilizer for best results. Then. to conserve moisture and suppress weeds. i Mulching For corn in our garden we find it worthwhile to fill the space between the corn plants with rice straw. How To Plant If ‘we buy hybrid seed we need only one seed to the hole. Because of the close planting we need richer soil for plant growth. rice hulls or other form of mulch. we. Placement of seed and fertilizer for “spot fertilizing” corn. When we do not have hybrid corn seed we usually plant 3 or 4 seeds in each hole. the weeds do not get the benefit of the fertilizer. When the seedssend out roots they find the fertilizer and if there is the right amount of moisture the corn will grow so fast that it will shade the ground and make weeding unnecessary. Some of us prefer the glutinous Lagkitan corn which is very tasty. maybe our soil is acid. and drop in one seed. such as Golden Cross Bantam. and into this second hole we drop a tablespoonful of ammonium sulphate fertilizer or a large handful of manure. cogon. Liming Corn does not like soil that is sour or acid. So with a stick we make a hole 21/s centimeters deep. Hawaii Sweet. Caring For The Corn If the soil is moist when we plant the seeds. which is more tender. etc. we can plant sweet corn. if the grounh is dry. after the plants are up. we allow water in the ditch between the rows. we remove all but the two strongest plants. If our corn does not grow vigorously. such as Yellow Flint. such as ca- . We cultivate the corn by loosening the top soil with a hoe and we remove the weeds. Then. should follow the same system of applying manure or fertilizer. Fig. We do this as soon as the corn plants come up a few centimeters.52 ’ THE SAMAKA GUIDE Varieties: We can plant the same varieties of corn in our garden which we plant in the field. This mulch gradually rots and enriches the soil. Even if we do not use hybrid seed.we do not have to irrigate the corn until it is 20 centimeters tall. Then we make another hole 5 centimeters from the first hole and 71/s centimeters deep.

If we follow the mulching system already described we will not have to do much cultivating or watering. Ee planted the seed through openings he made in the mulch with his fingers. post 30 centimeters deep in the We have found that if we add a ta. Time from planting seed to maturity : 60 to 75 days. so we should bury. We plant 3 or 4 seeds per hill. so he did not have to water it even during the dry season. we won’t have much of a weeding problem.. After gathering the corn he spaded the rotted mulch into the soil as organic fertilizer. By the time the corn was ripe the mulch had become rotten. By that time he did not care. he covered the plot with a thick mulch of straw and grass about 15 centimeters deep. Then we train l/2 meters. the pointed ends of the seed down. 53 Distance apart in row: 1 meter. centimeters. housewife tells us that she never Soil picks the corn in her garden unThe cucumber likes plenty of til the water on the stove is already boiling. until it reaches the top. How To Plant To save space in our small garden. She also tells us we manure. evenly spaced. We all know how to cook corn. the lateral stems sideways. A farmer told us that be fore he planted his corn in February. and . about 1 meter high. As the plants grow we se lect the best and leave 2 or 3 plants Kitchen Preparation in each hill. This mulch kept the weeds from growing and kept the soil from drying. One when necessary. about 4 should remove boiled corn from handfuls of rotted manure or comthe water as soon as it is tender. and only then were the weeds beginning to come up. we will probably find it best to plant our cucumbers in bins about l-1/2 meters apart and let them be trained on bamboo trellises.Special Directions For Each Vegetable rabao or chicken manure or ammonium sulphate. Then we Distance between rows: 1 to Ipin& off the top.planting hill. men the center stem is well CUCUMBERS started we train it upwards on our Depth to plant seeds: 1 to 295 trellis. We provide irrigation ditches In addition to what we already around the hills (or between the know we must remember that corn is most tender when cooked at rows) so we can water the roots once after it is gathered. blespoonful of sugar to the boiling Training Of Vines water it improves the flavor.

Distance apart in row: 50 to 60 Kitchen Preparation Favorite ways of serving eggcentimeters.practice to add liquid manure ‘Iads. and fried or baked after stuffing the eggplant with turitg : 90 to 150 days. produced on these lateral stems. soft makes a good salad. it is best to destroy the plant and Soil Eggplants grow in almost.attack the cucumber. Sliced boiled eggVutieties: Long Purples. If ing in their own gardens. they are tasty when around the roots every 3 weeks. One centimeters.54 THE SAMAKA GUIDE pinch them off when the blossoms at a time and enjoy eggplants durappear.ween rows: 50 to 60 centimeters. chopped meat. In some barrios it is the custom for one of the farmers to plant a Pests seedbox with enough for all his Most of us will not have sprays neighbors. After the plants are Kitchen Preparation well established. who get a couple of to kill the insects and worms which seedlings at a time for transplantsometimes. We find that 4 or 5 large fruits for each plant is sufficient. any burn it. because the best fruit is ing a long season.l. Distance bet. without removing Care Of Plant the skin. Time from seed planting to ma. has appeared. The Mulching around the stem with cucumber is an important addition straw or leaves is a very good way to our homemade pickles. Also. Time from planting to maturity: transplant two or three seedlings 8 to 14 months. The To Plant The eggplant can be grown most GABI months of the year. and eaten with salt. to keep the weeds from growing EGGPLANT . we find it a good Cucumbers are good raw in sa. Long plant that has not been cooked too Green. we car. kind of soil. We can start Depth to plant: 30 centimeters.lcato keep the soil moist. planting in the seedboxjust before Distance between rows: 80 to 90 the end of the rainy season. plant for each member of the famDistance apart in row: 50 to 80 ily is usually enough. It is also Depth to plant seeds: Not quite a good practice to pinch off the end of the stem after enough fruit 1 centimeter.plant are fried. . a few seeds every 3 weeks. sliced very thin. If there are too many blossoms we pick off some of them so the plant will not produce too many small fruits. and Round Purple. the leaves wilt badly from disease. so if we sow centimeters.

It furnishes food for both man and when they are tender and use them beast. It can grow even in standthe home garden. Gabi is planted from the har. Time To Plant Time from planting seed $0 maI In most provinces of Central Luturity : 6 to 8 months.” soft and mixed with sugar and How To Plant grated coconut. Gabi is often boiled until it is bi San Fernando. It is rich in vitamins. However. The gabi Leyte is especially a full basket of roots. slightly covered with Distance between hills: 80 censoil. some farmers harvest only the fully mademand. and has very few pests. ing water if the water is not deep. If our land good when fried or roasted the is not moist or easy to irrigate we should try to get this dry culture same way we cook potatoes and cavariety called “gabi Leyte. Both as a fresh vegetable.” or “ga. Not enough gabi is grown the leaves becoming dry and not in the Philippines to supply the growing any more. But a salad. timeters. The roots the roots and young leaves are are ready to harvest when we see eaten.irrigate regularly unless it is sheen” is considered best for planted in a place which is always moist. The varkty called “da. tured roots and let the plant conChoice Of Varieties tinue producing for several years. This around the sprouts they will bevariety is spreading very rapidly. We plant Depth to plant seeds: 2 to 3 centhe gabi tubers about 30 centimetimeters. Care Of Gabi If we plant the ordinary gabi Varieties : Purple leaf and green which needs moist soil.KADIOS vested tubers or roots. Most of our gabi is grown where Kitchen Preparation the soil is nearly always moist. If we hill up the earth there is also a variety which grows in soil that is not very wet. come white and very tender like and one plant sometimes produces asparagus. Why To Plant Harvesting Gabi is a rich energy food. wet culture and dry culture.motes. easy We can harvest the sprouts to grow. as The gabi sprouts are served as it needs plenty of water. ters deep. . we have to leaf.Special Directions For Each Vegetable 56 zon. But some farmers plant almost any month of the year with good results. gabi is planted from April to June and again from October to November.

. For the home farm it has the advantage of using less space than the mungo. and about 50 centimeters across. We can plant some lettuce every 2 months of the year. well-drained soil. and our cattle relish eating the nourishing leaves and pods. Time To Plant Kadios is generally planted in May and June by some farmers and others plant it also in April and July. in der. Varieties : Big Boston . for a fresh vegetable. If this way gives us more lettuce than we can eat.6 centimeters high. It is usually planted in hills about 80 centimcters apart. when planted late it suffers from the hot sun of the dry season.56 THE SAMAKA GUIDE Why To Plant LETTUCE The kadios is a sturdy bush which grows easily and produces abundant beans for our food. Time from seed planting to maturity : 60 to 70 days. Black SeededSimpson. Imperial. Other. The soil in the hills should be finely pulverized to a depth of 20 centimeters. When To Plant Lettuce grows best when planted at the end of the rainy season. Grand Rapids. We will learn by experience how to lengthen the planting season in our own locality. Most of us find it better to plant Aarvesting the lettuce in our seedbox first. Compost. It can take the place of mungo as a food crop. or dry cattle manure. This way. Iceberg . we let the pods get mature can transplant it to any vacant space in our garden or along the and harvest the dry beans. How To Plant The kadios grows best in loose. etc. Distance apart in row: 20 cen- timeters. starting with October.addition to planting it in plots. the extra can be fed to our chickens and pigs. ter. Depth to plant seed: 1 centimeDistance between rows : 25 to 40 centimeters. and transplant it when it is 3 to The kadios can be harvested’ while the pods are green and ten. However. or poultry manure should be mixed with the How To Plant soil. we wise. and continuing to March.

or between the MUNG0 rows of maturing crops. as yellow. If we have some vine growing on a trellis.at the: end of the rainy sewon. and other livestock. Distance between rows: timeters. one-third above. It is 8 good substitute for meat. Distance apart in row: 30 centl- meters. ing. or floating on the water. black. plant growing wild in muddy places and green. Constant water. May and June.enis infested with the Giant African snail (Japanese snail) we have to gather these ieaf eaters. they should be at . we can plant our lettuce under its shade. If our gard. ing is necessary in the beginning When To Plant to make the plants grow quickly.unless our lot is rather large. The mungo can be planted alIn addition to using kangkong most any month of the year. Varieties : Determined by color Most of us know kangkong as a of their seed.But kangkong also grows well crops we can raise. Lettuce is not attacked by any serious pests or disease. All it needs is to be ri-beri. again during April. stem cuttings are used for plantIn addition to the mungo beans. . Time from planting seed to maturity: 80 to 90 days. centimeters. and is highly when planted as a vegetable in recommended as a remedy for bethe garden. it is also a good addi. tion ‘to the feed we give our pigs. one of the most nourishing food . Care Of Lettuce The lettuce that matures during the hot season needs plenty of water and plenty of shade.feed. Aa for our sinigang and as a fresh a field crop we generally plant It vegetable. and twa# ‘stems piant. Two-thirds of the We do not find it worth while to stem should be in the soil and plant mungo in our home garden. the mungo ed a little apart in hills every 50 enriches the scil where it is grown. from September to February and chickens.Special Directions For Each Vegetable path a~ borders. Being a legume.the fresh plants are good livestock timeters long. If portant food during pregnancy. The mungo is also an imwatered like other vegetables.least 30 cen. KANGKONG 51 Depth to plant seeds: 29$ to 8 50 cen- centimeters. This Saves a lot of space in our small garden. It is such a tasty green vegetable that Why To Plant we miss it when we are not close As a garden crop the mungo is tc where it grows. or under a large tree.

Distance Distance between rows: 2 to 21/z bekueen hills: I. MUSKMELONS How To Plant For the home garden we plant the mungo in furrows. Time from planting the seed to maturity: 90 to 120 days. We find it best to pick the ripe pods in the early morning. Kitchen Preparation How To Plant The boiled mungo can be mixed The field for melons may be with chopped onion. If the .58 THE SAMAKA GUIDE water with a small piece of pork or ham for flavor. For our small garden crop the best way to thresh the mungo is to put the pods in a sack and beat them with a bamboo. or black in the case of the black mungo. Some of ~8 like it boiled in salted preparation of the hills. meters in the row. When the bushes are well grown. and garlic and onions added. they occupy too much space. Mungo is also used in a number of sweet dishes. say 30 centimeters.34 to 2 meters. hot season lettuce can be grown between the rows. to benefit from the shade. the leaves will soon extend from row to row and keep down the growth of weeds. They are ready to harvest when the pods turn pale yellow to yellow-brown. This dish tastes good mixed with our boiled rice. When To Plant October to December. we harvest them as they mature. when the pods are soft and will not crack open and cause the seedsto be lost. like we do in the field. But home gardens are not the place for muskmelon. It is a good practice to hill up the rows slightly when cultivating. about 50 centimeters apart. We can winnow the seed in a flat basket. To utilize the space between the rows we can plant radishes or carrots between. We cultivate the mungo only when the weeds get too thick. Melons should be grown in the open field. If we plant the rows closer together. Depth to plant seeds: 2 to 3 cen- timeters. We need our lot for more important vegetable crops. Harvesting As the mungo pods ripen at different times. oil and vineplowed and harrowed before the gar and served as a cold salad. Home grown melons ripened on the vine taste better than those we buy. We dry the pods in the sun a few days until they are dry enough for threshing. Fresh seeds (preferably imported) of varieties found suitable to Phiiippine conditions produce more and better quality fruits.

by a light pressure of thumb. At the seedling stage muskmelons are easily attacked by insect pests. it should be done before flowering. and it breaks clean withon. cari separate the stem from the This will facilitate thinning later melon. The young plants should be dusted OKRA or sprayed regularly with any suitable insecticide as soon as the false leaves have spread. they should be thinned to 2 to 3 plants per hill. will germinate without difficulty. By limiting the number of fruits per vine to about a dozen and spacing their maturity period.Special Directions For Each Vegetable 59 good sized quality fruits will be harvested. 34. If irrigation is necessary. Excellent flavor and fine quality come with the full maturity of the fruit. When the young plants have 3 to 5 true leaves. Good quality crop is assured in a dry soil towards maturity. Mnskmelons raise”. Depth to plant seed: 21h centi- meters. Irrigation The muskmelon does not like wet soil. The most vigorous and stout plants should be left to grow. Just sprinkle a thin layer of water over the field and drain at once. Harvesting Fig. ness. Distance apart in row: 25 to 35 centimeters. When harvested rather Fi -e to eight muskmelon seeds green. . Time from planting seed to maturity : 60 to 80 days. The melon is ripe when you ters far apart in the prepared hills. it lacks flavor and sweetare sown singly about 5 centime-. hedc -we-. One irrigation of this nature will be sufficient to mature the crop. Guide the vines to spread evenly over the field. out the skin of the melon coming off with it. The hills which are about 1 meter in diameter are dug and hoed and liberally applied with well rotted manure. Distance between rows: ‘70 to 80 centimeters. Care Of The Plants If the soil had the right moisture MWTARD AND PECHAY Turn to PECHAY for planting content at planting time: the seeds directions. are planted in soil is dry. it should be irrigated first.

when it is used as a fresh vegetable. Singapore onion has rich flavor. with the juice+nd salt and pepper. 35. These are of two kinds.60 THE SAMAKA GUIDE ONIOM AND GARLIC mrne To Plant Farmers customarily plant okra from April to June and again from October to January. or boiled in water flavored with vinegar and afterwards served cold as salad or with meats. and the so-called Singapore onion. Care And Harvesting Of Okra Okra is cared for about the same way as our garden corn. which are used for planting materials. In other countries dried okra beans are an important food crop. 36. Fig. Now add the tender fresh okras and let the mix‘ture cook slowly for about 20. Although the large Bermuda onion is being grown in many places as a field crop. They can be used later the way we cook dry beans. Both kinds have two or more segments. the small one called the Chinese. called cloves or bulbils.chopped tomatoes. about 2 centimetera in diameter. for our home garden we will find the native onion easier to grow and sufficient for our kitchen needs. and also called the shallot. with a long neck and about 35 centimeter wide by 234 centi= meters long. In our home gardens we may discover by trying Distance between rows: 30 cwthat we can plant okra successfultimeters. and more rounded. Time from planting to matur- ity : 120 days. . and green onion. Dtita~~ce 3G”““c purrI#in rw. garlic. Perhaps that is because these are the periods when their fields are not producing other crops. Fig. ly during other months. It is harvested before the seedsare too big. With successionplanting we can have plenty of okra for many months If too much okra matures until the pods are dry. minutes. Kind of Onions For the home garden we find the native onions best. Here is a favorite way of pre paring fresh okra: Put a tablespoonful of lard in a pan and add chopped onion. Tagalog or Chinese onion is very tasty.l: 10 to 16 centimeters. or fed to the chickens and pigs. After cooking for 6 or 8 minutes add some. Kitchen Preparation Fresh okra is stewed with tomatoes. we can remove the seedsfrom pods and dry them.

. It is better to plant a fai. Distance ter.me1 me- ters. and hung in the kitchen or storeroom. before the seedsbecomehard. PATCLA Depth to plant: 2% centime1 . Time To Plant The patani is generally planted in Central Luzon from April to July. Varieties : White seed variety and colored seed variety. light cultivation. Distance between rows: apart in row: ter. Many housewives tell us that the colored patani seeds should be boiled in several changes of water. a. Distance ter.ATANI (LIMA BEAN) Time frcm seed to maturity. with poles to support the vines. Harvesting The patani is harvested for home use as a green bean. How To Plant The patani is planted in hills. and we press the soil around the buried portion. from September to January. and regular watering. In addition we should plant a few extra from time to time to have a supply of green onion tops for our table. Kitchen Preparation Patani is usually cooked in salt+ ed water. meters. Distance between rows: apart in row: 1 me1 me- ter. 61 120 days. so as to have a good supply to dry and store for our use during the whole year. as they sometimes cause sickness. Harvesting And Drying When mature the onions and garlic are pulled and dried a day or two in the sun. Time from planting Depth to plant seeds: 21/ centito harvest: 100 days.Special Directiuns For Each Vegetable When To Plant We can plant our onions and garlic beginning right after the rainy season. When the tops are dry they are tied in bunches. Onions and garlic need hand weeding. although some farmers find that it can be successfully planted also from October to January. How To Plant The segments of onion or garlic are planted direct into well drained beds made of finely broken loose soil. The onions are planted with the tips exposed above the ground. They also warn us against eating the wild patani gsL thered in the thickets.rly large plot during the month we have learned they grow best.

BLACK Black pepper berries are an important seasoning or condiment for our food. U’hen Planting We can broadcast the seed or Harvesting plant them in furrows. and mixed with salad dressing. If we have some ammonium sulphate fertilizer. centimeters. Time from planting seed to maturity: 90 to 100 days. ‘Irwovines of this spice will supply us enough for our family needs. and also from September to January. Durother vegetables. or we can sow Tile fruits that are allowed to get the seed first in a seedbox and fully ripe for next season’s plant. Soil The pechay grows fast and needs a rich soil.” Some of us like it raw. Depth to plant: 1 centimeter. with a trellis to support the vine and fruits. it is good to add some twice a month.62 TIIE SAMAKA GUIDE The patola is usually planted in hills. with plenty of manure or compost. a thick mulch of leaves or straw to PECI-IAY AND MUSTARD keep the soil from drying out too quickly. prevent crowding. . so Kitchen Preparation we have to examine the earth rePatola is eaten cooked with gularly to see if it is moist. chopped or shredded in thin pieces. Hitchen Preparation Pechay is boiled and served as “gulay. like cabbages. Distance between rows: 60 to 70 To Plnnt In Central Luzon the patola is planted in May and June. plenty of water. We remove centimeters high. PEPPER. the seeds and pulp. Pechay is improved by fertilizing the ground with urine from our livestock.transplant when they are about 6 ing have another use. and later The patola is harvested while thin out the plants if necessary to the fruit and the seeds are tender. and the fibers that remain furnish us a useful Care Of Plants The roots of the pechay need bath brush or sponge. or with shrimp ing the dry season we will find it best to cover the pechay bed with or pork. The soil should be well raked and broken up fine.

or bag. or under the bananas. and when the mulch rots. many pepper vines. we pull it down and train it sideways. . Distance apart in row: 30 cen- timeters. the soil moist. Distance between rows: 35 to . Depth to plant seeds: 1 centi- meter. During the dry seasonit is important to pile a mulch of grass. Care Of Black Pepper Vine When the vine reaches the desired height on the support. It The picked pepper berries are can be planted along a fence of dried in the sun two or three days. planted directly in their permanent places or are started in a pot PEPPERS. When the outer should have a bamboo frame to skin or pulp of the black pepper climb on. Only the black mature ones How To Plant The black pepper vine needs should be harvested.Special Directions For Each Vegetable 63 Harvesting And Drying The black pepper begins bearing fruits in one year to two years. turning yellow. leaves o’r straw around the base. to keep. SWEET until they take root. The cuttings are either plants after the first year. and the vine produces continuously for 15 years or more. and then black when they are ready to harvest. bag. so it will not climb on berry is removed it becomeswhite one of the banana stalks which you pepper. it adds fertility to the soil. will later want to cut down after Producing Black Pepper For Sale it has fruited.and then cleaned by winnowing. We by means of cuttings from the can take cuttings from our own vines. madre de cacao. When the outer skin of the black Some of us with unused space pepper berry is removed we get in our garden may want to plant the white pepper. so as to have Black pepper is best propagated a small extra crop for sale.40 centimeters. so the fruits will be easy to reach. shade and plenty of moisture. The fruits on a bunch do not mature at the same time.anas the vine used as needed. If and stored in a jar ready to be planted under the bar. The fruits are green at first. say. ipil-ipil. 2 or 3 meters. If only one stem arises on the support we cut ‘off the top to induce more shoots to grow.

When To Plant In Central Luzon we plant the sweet peppers beginning right after the rainy season. The native pineapple grows well in the sun or shade. . and added to many which produces larger fruits. How To Care For Peppers The peppers do best in a welldrained rich soil. or fry it until it is wel! cooked. Thick mulching with leaves.trees. or fish. chicken. We should cut off the stem end. grass. chopped meat. as early as September and continuing to January. or straw is recommended. We can start pine appies ’ by planting the green “crowns” from a ripe fruit. and every home garden should have just a few plants producing PINEAPPEES as many months as possible. It can be planted along the borders of the pathways. Next we stuff it with a mixture of boiied rice or corn.64 THE SAMAKA GUIDE vegetable dishes. So after the plants are growing well. How To Plant Sweet peppers are planted first in the seedbox. Time from planting seed to maturity: 70 to 100 days. or around each plant. or the “slips” that form along the . remove the seeds. and later transplanted to the garden plot. such as the “tsile” and the long pepper. Some people prefer the Peppers are siiced and served spineless pineapple (Hawaiian) with salads. The hot peppers. and then boil the pepper for about 5 minutes until it is tender. that have a sweet taste and are not too hot. We like the taste of the large green and red peppers. at the bases of old stems after we pick Kitchen Preparation the fruit. We find it best to pick the peppers as they ripen. we make ditches between the rows. the same as eggplants and tomatoes. Then we bake it. next to fences and under fruit. so we can irrigate the roots without flooding them. so the plant can continue producing fruit for a longer period. the pineapple is a good fruit for the SAMAKA garden. In addition to the vegetablesand melons. Watering every 10 days is usually enough. also called bell peppers. are for our plot of fiavoring herbs. We can plant them again in May and June. or the suckers (ratoons) that develop . The sweet pepper belongs to our vegetables plots. and some chopped tomato. Stuffed peppers are very good.stem of the mature plant.

Special Directions For Each Vegetable Pineapples should be planted during May-June and NovemberDecember. The plants should be spaced 45 to 60 centimeters apart. y;jll h-d an-d c!?;Ym T-ha CJrrJfo iii-v cpv~~~yg fruit in about 12 to 13 months,-b% when the crown is planted it takes about 24 months to bear fruit. While the original plant bears fruit only once, it sends out suckers (ratoons) from the mother plant, so that the pineapple hill will continue bearing fruit every year for several years. It is better to pull out the old plants after about 5 years, when heavy base roots are already exposed on the ground surface. Cultivation should not be deep because it might injure the roots. It is better to place a mulch of straw, grass, or leaves on the ground around the plant, to prevent the growth of weeds and to keep the ground moist. RADISHES


easy to grow and mature very quickly. When To Plant R.afg&clhps =7x --v-e”” Tee-rA*uy L-.it? -t---z plamed r’rom the close of the rainy season to the end of the dry season. Soil Radishes grow well in almost any kind of soil but preferably loose soil. We should never use fresh manure in the soil where we plant radishes. How To Plant The radish seedsare dropped into a shallow furrow and covered lightly with fine soil. If we want large radishes, we should ridge the soil around the plant. If our garden space is small we do not have to set apart a separate plot for them. We can scabter the seed be-, tween rows of plants that grow slowly, or in any spare corner of the garden where there is moist friable soil.


to plant:


Care Of Radishes The soil of the radish bed should always be kept moist, otherwise the roots may become tough and stringy. Occasional weeding and 11/s centime- cultivating is needed.

between rows:

Distance apart in row : 21/s cen-

timeters for small varieties and 6 to 8 centimeters for big varieties.
Time from seed planting to maturit2/: 25 to 50 days.

Radishes are popular in the home garden because they are so

Depth to plant: 3 centimeters. Distance between rows: 1 meter. Distance apart in row: 1 meter.


Time from seed planting to maturity : 120 to 150 days.

How To Plant Seguidillas grow fast in hills, with 2 to 5 seeds per hill. While they grow on poles, we find it better to build a trellis of bamboo slats about 11/zmeters high.

When To Plant Farmers in Central Luzon have planted seguidillas successfully nearly every month of the year, although April to June and Septem- SITAO ber to December seem to be the preferred months. The seguidilla continues to bear abundant fruits for several years? if we add compost fertilizer from time to time. SINKAMAS

house or of the stable where they will not be damaged by rats. In GOto 90 days they will dry up considerably and will send out young growth. As soon as these shoots begin to grow, the entire root is planted in rich soil. It is given all possi’ble attention and a stake is supplied for the vine, which grows rapidly and profusely. In about 40 days a large number of pods containing many seeds is produced.

Depth to pZaT2tseed: 3 centimeSinkamas is an edible root of a ters. leguminous viny plant that trails Distance between rows: 1 meon the ground like the camote. ter. Sometimes it is trellised. Several Distance apart in row: 60 to 80 roots are produced in one hill. centimeters. Sinkamas is a dry-season plant. Time fro.m seed to harvest: Almost any good, rich, loose soil Green sitao, 60 to 80 days. can be used for the growing of sinDried pods, 90 to 100 days. kamas. Sinkamas are grown from Varieties : Singapore Bean, Siseeds which are planted in the tao Morado. place where the plants are to grow. They are usually planted 15 cen- Time To Plant timeters apart, in rows 70 centiAlmost any month of the year, meters apart. They are cultivated except March and April, until the vine begins to cover the ground. In 2 to 3 months, the edi- How To Plant ble root is ready for harvesting. The sitao is planted in small furrows in our prepared plots, or Sinkamas seeds are obtained as in hills 60 to 80 centimeters apart, follows : 2 or 3 seedsto the hill. They must When a crop of sinkamas is har- have a stake or pole for the vine vested, the largest and best roots to grow on. If planted while our are hung up in some part of the corn is growing, we can plant the

Special Directions For Each Vegetable sitao close to the corn, and the corn stalks become the stakes for the- vines.


Before planting we prepare enough bamboo stakes or poles to provide one for each sitao plant. We first use the point of the stake Care Of Sitao to make a hole for planting the siWeeding and occasional culti- tao seeds, 2 or 3 to the hole, and vating are needed. In the dry sea- then after covering the hole with son we should water the sit.ao earth, we drive the stake into the about every 10 days. It is a hardy ground near the hole, to provide vegetable that does not need too a pole for the climbing sitao vine. much care, but the application of This stake is driven at an angle, m~llUl’tf 01’ COliIlIOSt to the soil insloping away from the pilapil toci~mcs tlie yield. wards the field. In this way the Sitao As Ausiliury Field Crop growing vines will not obstruct our passage along the top of the pilaBarrio farmers who plant rice are more and more following the pil. (Fig- 3’7). profitable custom of planting sitao If we are tenant farmers, the along the dikes of the rice fields. law gives us the right to 80 perThis gives us an additional crap cellt of the sitao we raise in our and does not reduce the rice yield. rice fields as auxiliary crop. Most The sitao planted here not only landlords probably will not ask for gives us an extra vegetable for a share, because the sitao enour home, but if we let the poda riches the field, espectally if we mature it gives us plenty of dry plow the o!d vines back into the beans for our poultry and pigs. field. However, if the landlord deThe farmers who practice this mands a share we can deliver it method of planting sitao do it this without threshing, as dried sitao way: The sitao seeds are planted can be stored in the form of pods. on each side of the dike (pilapil) We find this method of piantabout 15 centimeters fram the top.

Fig. 37. Plant-

ing sitao.aIong dikes of rice field brings extra crop and enriches so%

instead of on vines. pigs. because the soybean Care of bush sitao: Same as is sure to be planted in many fields beans. these things.boiled and eaten as a fresh vegeters. with chopped onions. SITAO. The bush sitao is becoming very popular becauseit produces abundantly and does not require the use of poles or trellises. Distunce between ro?us: 50 110 80 centimeters. because as SAMAKA farmers we are raising chickens. After shelling the beans. This variety is harvested while the pods and the beans are still green. oil and vinegar makes a tasty salad. Seeds of this “bush sitao” are now being sold in some stores. In this swaywe will learn more about Time To Plant Almost any month except March how to grow this valuable plant. The dried sitao beans can be cooked as we cook mungo. BUSH In recent years the University of the Philippines College of Agriculture has crossed native sitao with the cowpea (paayap.68 THE SAMAKA GUIDE ing sitao very profitable. Distance apart in TOW: 10 ten. as 8 commercial crop. For the SAMAKA garden we find the best variety to be the vegetabte soybean.to mature for seeds. Depth to plant seeds: 4 centi- meters. try the soybean in his garden. and need the extra sitao to feed the animals. or Bansei variety. also known as utao and balntmg. Kitchen Preparation Fresh sitao is boiled in a small amount of salted water for a vegetable dish. they are Depth to plant seed: 3 centime. and other liveetack for cjur famiiy use.Why To Plant Every SAMAEA farmer should timeters. table. Distance apart in rolu: 15 to 20 centimeters. But some should be allowed Distance between rows: 50 cen. Cold boiled sitao. or made into adobo. timeters. Time from planting seed to mafurity : 90 to 100 days. has been grown in most parts of the Philippines. The soybean. as soon as . It is important for us to learn and April. balatong) and in this way produced a new type of sitao that grows on bushes.

Special Directions For Each Vegetable more farmers of the Philippines appreciate its value. We can start with a small plot. But we predict that our children will soon be planting soybeans by the hectare as a field crop, instead of as a garden crop. This is because the soybean is one of the most useful plants in the qohole world. A kilo of soybeans has about the same food value as a kilo of meat, and takes the place of meat. But it has many other uses, among them the following : It is rich in fat, and the oil factories will buy all that we can produce, to extract the oil. After the oil is extracted, the meal is rich food for poultry, pigs, and other livestock.


Time To Plant In Central Luzon the farmers plant soybeans in the fields between September and January, and again in May and June. But in La Union province they are planted any time from May to December. How To Plant If we plant soybeanswhere they have not been grown before, we must first apply some innoculant to the seeds. This innoculant can be obtained by asking the help of the Agricultural Extension Man.
This is important!

After our garden plot is pre pared we make small furrows and drop thi: seeds in at intervals of 15 to 20 centimeters and cover by pressing the soil. Only fresh seed should be planted, as we have The soybean is made into milk for children when there is not learned that if the seedshave been enough animal milk. It is the ba- long in storage they may not gersis for making toyo sauce. It is minate. It is best to use a soil also made into curds or cakes that where a bean or mungo crop was grown before. can be eaten as meat. The soybean is a legume, and its roots therefore make our land more fertile. The vines and leaves make good forage for our livestock. The barrio farmers who have successfully grown soybeanscall it the “miracle food,” and say it is better and more profitable than mungo. If every SAMAKA farrner grows soybeansin his home garden, we will learn for ourselves how to grow it well and how valuable it is. We will then be able to decide whether we want to grow it for profit in our fields. How To Care For Soybeans It is a good plan to cultivate the soil between the rows a couple of weeks after the soybean has come up. Then a week later we c&n hill up the rows with a hoe. If our land is acid we should apply some lime to our soybean plot to increase the yield. Harvesting And Threshing We harvest the soybean when the pods have turned yellow and have becomedry. 3 is best for us to cut off the entire vine with a bole, leaving the roots in the ground to enrich the soil.



The vines are thoroughly dried that if our home garden is small in the sun, and then threshed with we will not bother with squash, bamboo beaters. The threshed although we may plant a few hills seed.s are then winnowed and in our nearby field. Also we can save spaceby plantagain dried in the sun for about three days. After that they are ing squash to grow on a trellis stored in tight cans or jars. The (balag) , the same as upo. dried vines are excellent food for Time To Plant ou.r livestock. The farmers of Central Luzon Kitchen Preparation plant squash in their fieIds duSoybean sprouts can be prepared ring April, May and June, and in the same way as mungo sprouts. again from September to FebruaWe can also pick the soybeans ry. when fully grown but still green, How To Plant and boil them in their pods with In preparing the ground for salted water. The dried soybeans are often squash we dig a hole and place roasted and ground, and used as manure and compost 10 centimea tasty substitute for coffee or ters deep in the bottom. The hole is then filled with rich moist earth chocolate. Many people like the soybean and the seeds are planted at a ground in grits and cooked like depth of 3 centimeters. We, plant 3 or 4 seeds, and later thin rice. them out, leaving the two strongest plants. SQUASH Care Of Squash The squash needs enough water to keep the roots moist, but not too wet. Over-watering causesexcessiveleavesand less fruit. If the. leaves becometoo many, we should pinch off the ends of the vines. Sometimes the first squash fruits rot and fail to mature. We cut these off with a sharp knife until Depth. to plant see&: 3 centime- more blossoms appear to assure. ters. fertilization of the blossons. Distance between rows: 11/ meHarvesting And Curing ters. Distance apart in row: 11/2meMany of us’ harvest our squash, ters. before they are mature and lose. Time from planting seed to ma- some of the flavor and food vaturity : 4 months. lue. When we harvest them we Squash takes so much space should leave 5 centimeters of the.


Special Directions For Each Vegetable


stem, and dry them in the sun a very quickly, is resistant to plant couple of days, and then store diseases and does not need much them in a dry shady place, not care. It is excellent green feed for touching each other, until the skin chickens, rabbits, and pigs. It dries out. The squash will keep a keeps growing all months, for selong time when properly stored, in- veral years. crease our food supply, and fur- How To Plant nish extra feed for our pigs. The soil is loosened and preparKitchen Preparation ed as for other vegetables. Cuttings Squash can be prepared by cut- of heavy stems 10 to 15 centimeting into slices, either boiling it ters long are best. The leaves are with salted water, aa,ng shrimp, cnt off and the cutting is stuck in pieces of meat or roasted fish, the ground 5 to 8 centimeters, and preferably mud fish (dalag) . It th.e earth pressed around it. It is is also made into cake or pie. The then watered and in less than 2 tips and flowers are also good for weeks takes root and sends-outnew “gulay.” stems and leaves. Harvesting It is better to let the talinum plant reach a height of 30 centimeTALINUM ters before starting to harvest it. Then we cut off the stems back to the main stalk for our gulay, and new shoots will immediately start growing to replace them. If we want to eat the raw talinum it is better to pick the tender stems on1s. This is an easy-to-grow green, with succulent leaves and tender Kitchen Preparation stems, which became so popular The best way to cook talinum is during the recent war. to steam it with very little water Depth to plant cuttings: 5 to in a covered pot for a few minutes. 8 centimeters. Vany people make the mistake of Distance between rows: 40 to 50 cooking it too long and that makes it mushy. centimeters. Distance apart in row: 20 to 30 Raw talinum tips, mixed with centimeters. chopped onions and some oil, viTime from planting to first harnegar and salt, make a delicious vest: 2 or 3 weeks. salad. SWEET POTA.TOES (Turn To CAMOTES) Why To Plant TAPILAN Talinum is a wholesome vegetaDepth to plant seeds : 2 to 3 cell ble, cooked or eaten raw. It grows timeters.

Pearl Harbor. and plenty of sun. After harvest the vines can be cut. First.72 THE SAMAKA GUIDE Ponderosa. but it pays us in good results. centime- ter. Most f&mers find May and June. Time from planting seed to harvest: 120 days. Why To Plant Distance between hills: 1 meter. TOMATOES Depth to plant seed: 3. Time To Plant Tapilan is planted during both dry and wet seasons. about 10 centimeters apart. How To Plant The tapilan is. and from September to February to be the betit planting months. The soil should be pulverized to a depth of about 30 centimeters where the seedsare planted. where we let them grow to a height of 15 to 2G centimeters. rich in food value. and transplant them to our tomato plot. Most of us have found that for the home garden. . How To Plant Tomatoes are so important to our home garden that we should be willing to take more trouble to get satisfactory results. John Baer . enough waWhy To Plant Tapilan vines produce a bean ter. we get the best results by transplanting two times. in addition to our loving care. It succeeds in all types of soil. and very pleasing to the taste. Marglobe . dried and stored as hay. It is easy to grow. is ordinary soil. which many like better than mungo. we sow the seedsin the seed box. The tomato ranks as the most important vegetable for the home garden. When we plant tomatoes in our field to produce for the market we do not spend so much time and labor. . Distance between rows : 60 to 80 centimeters. to be used as livestock feed when other forage PSnot available. planted in hills about 1 meter apart. That is a lot of work. Then we take a trowel or a wide board. After the plants are 3 to 5 centimeters high we transfer them to a second seed box in regular rows. When our lot is small we usually plant it along the fence or plant a long bamboo stake to support the vine. All it needs. Varieties : Native Marikina . easy to use. Time from seed planting to maturity : 90 to 100 days. Pearson .

straw or leaves. corn. but grows best when planted early in the rainy season. We will have to learn from our own experience how much water we have to give our tomato plants according to the conditions in our own garden. Irrigation ers. it is best to cut them off. This should be done while the branches are young and tender. This will make the remaining branches give more fruits. as it needs plenty of moisture. The branches of other varieties lie on the ground. but put just enough soil to cover the tuber. planting seed to nub turity : 200 to 250 days. When the eyes have sprouted. we make a hole the size of the section of earth with the seedling which we are transferring to the plot. we do not have to irrigate the plants often. we can keep the moisture from drying out fast by covering the tomato plot with a thick mulch of grass. Why To Plant The tugui is a root plant which is easy to grow in any well-drained fertile soil. If the ground is moist when we plant the tomatoes. Distance between rows: 1 meter.Special Directions For Ea. Tomat 0 Trellis Some varieties of tomato form sturdy bushes. .pared field. .It is grown from pieces of the root or tuber. so that we can bake out the complete ball of earth without disturbing the roots. we are very careful not to disturb the roots. which are planted in the preout too many branches and suck. Some of us separate the second seed box into sections separated by paper or banana leaves. We know that the roots of the tomato will go as deep as 2 meters and spread out 1 meter on every side. and camotes. TUGUI 9 lb j ’ \ k 4 Depth 15 centimeters or more. the root is cut Pruning into pieces with 2 or 3 eyes to 8 When the tomato plant sends piece. and should be supported by low bamboo trellises to keep the fruits from contact with the soil. For each plant we . and furnishes a palatable substitute for rice. If the soil is moist. When we are ready to transplant these plants to the tomato plot. The experts tell us different stories about how much water we should give our tomato plants. to plant: Distance apart in TOW: 75 centi- meters. The seed roots are planted in seed beds.ch Vegetable 73 When we make the secondtransplanting. How To Plant Tugui can be planted any time of the year. Time from.

However. November en bamboo basket. We can store the roots May and June. and The upo is widely grown and liked in our country so that no home garden should be without it. be cut into square pieces and used Varieties: Although there are as a vegetable or as a substitute several varieties of ubi. calamay. How To Plant Kitchen Preparation To get the best results we need The tugui is boiled and served like potatoes or camotes. if we wash the tubers which we are-go. We should dig up the large roots carefully so as not to cut them.have a good supply of garden water we can plant ubi any time. After harvesting we store the ubi in a well ventilated place under a shed or in the kitchen until they are dry.ed usually in October.depth of 25 centimeters in a circle 1 -meter wide.sing a loosely wdv. and other delica. u. although in Pamfor several months in a well ven. UBI Harvesting Depth to plant seed tubers: Un- Distance 1 me. But it can 10 mcnths. into sections. UP0 between hills: til covered. We cut the ubi cies. . the for potatoes. need a bamboo pole 2 meters high for the vines to climb upon.Kitchen Preparation ter. each containing 2 or 3 eyes or buds. kind most favored is the one with the puilple roots.------I 14 THE SAMAKA GUIDE most farmers plant it in their garden so the vine can grow on a trellis or fence. It is bad to and December.a rich soil.panga and’ Pangasinan it is planttilated place. It is al. Its leaves are very decorative. which should be preso used for the preparation of pared by pulverizing the soil to a sweets. Why To Plant Why To Plant The ubi produces abundantly and furnishes a nourishing food. ing to store. Harvesting And Storage In harvesting the tugui we are Time To Plant Most farmers plant the ubi in careful not to cut the roots with our spade. The ubi is ready for harvest when the leaves become dry. When dry the ubi will keep well for several months. Most of us use the ubi for makTime from planting to harvest: ing sweets or halo-halo.

room bed with bundles of rice How To Plant straw. Usually. kutchai. parsley. We can start harvesting every week for two or three months. We pile the rice straw.Special Directions For Each Vegetable 75 MUSHROOMS Many of us have heard about the growing interest in raising mushrooms. Many other herbs may be added. according to our individual tastes. mushrooms will begin to appear in about a week. HERBS FOR FLAVORING Every SAMAKA garden should have a small plot of flavoring herbs for the wife to use in her cooking. so it is suitable for a home garden. and get shade un. to page 169 for cmplete information on this subject. tsile pepper. 25 centimeters high. pandan. All we need is surplus rice straw for the mushroom beds. It does not take much space. in a bed 80 centimeters wide. in As it needs a trellis for the long vines. we plant two or three seedsto a hill.bundles. peppermint.long 3s we wish: We dig a draiqder it for our lettuce and other age ditch around the sides. and lemon grass. it is good to have ginger. To save space we can also foundation for the rice straw bed. In some places the tender leaves of the upo are used as a vegetable. plant it next to our back porch The mushroom spawn. and as lis in our yard. It is not hard to raise mushWherry To Plant rooms. kinchai. where the vine can be supported is planted as we build up the mushby a trellis or the roof. anise. or seed. using shade-loving vegetables in the hot the excavated earth for a raised season. In addition to garlic and onions. Some of us have found waterlilies equally suitable. we can make a bamboo trel.) (Please refer . With regular watering the \Ve will get a very much bettei yield from our upo if we mix plenty of well-rotted manure or compost with the soil where we plant it. which we plant in our main vegetable garden.

And what if we move from the land before we enjoy the fruits of the trees we plant? The tenant who succeeds US will bless our name. and then what kinds. We have to leave space for the vegetable garden. If we have a Iarge enough lot the following are good trees for the home garden : Nangka Banana cr rimas Papaya . Some of us are tenant farmers. m. XOWthat we have decided to increase our fruit production. We did not see any good reason to plant trees just to improve the land owned by someone else.. but too often he plants only a few bananas and perhaps some papayas. chickens and other livestock. our pigs.Every SAMAKX farmer would like to have plenty of fruit trees in his home garden. and our poultry. Most of us have lots of only 400 to 600 square meters. we may move to a farm where trees have been planted by the man before us. and a yard for our pigs. there is room for a big vegetable garden.000 sq. how do we start? Kinds Of Fruit Trees First we must decide how many fruit trees we can plant on our small home lot. The fol!owing fruit trees should be in every home garden. because we do not like to plant trees that will not give us fruit for 3 to 6 years. so that the land and the person living on it are partners helping each other. But consider how happy we would be today if we had planted many different trees in our home garden when we first occupied the place many years ago. Yet the SAMAKA way of life is to make the fullest use of the land. Maybe some of us do not have other fruits. and we did not plant fruit trees because maybe we would leave the land before the trees gave fruit. So we must reduce our tree planting to leave enough room for our vegetable garden. And if other SAMAKA ‘76 farmers have done the same. If we have a home lot of 2.

such as the kalamansi. If our neighbor on one side plants santol and the neighbor on the other side plants a sampalok tree. but this is good only for trees which do not cjhow much difference in quality. or with compost from our compost pile. straw. All of us have often noticed that even when the grass in the fields is dry. A farmer in Los Bafios . we must consider water for our fruit trees. such as sampalok and duhat. This helps to keep the ground from getting dry from the heat of the sun. because in time they will add to our earnings. Another way to keep our fruit trees supplied with water is to surround the trunk with a pile of mulch. If our ground is somewhat moist at a depth of less than 1 meter. or other vegetable matter. If the ground a meter deep is dry. Recently a way of keeping fruit trees watered has been found which does not require labor. to see if we get equally good results. but are not so important a food as bananas and papayas. But if our lot is too small. are very popular. Where To Get Our Trees We can start our fruit garden from seeds. After a few months it gets rotted and becomes fertilizer. The banana stalk stores so much water during the rainy season that it feeds plenty of moisture to the roots of its neighboring fruit tree even in March and April when there is no rain. We may want to try it for one or two trees first. a mango tree will not leave enough room for the fruit trees we need for the family food. In most casesit is better to plant parts of fruit trees which have been observed to be producing a good quantity and quality of fruit. Often we can get the planting material from our . because it stores water. which feeds the roots of our trees. made of grass. to see how deep is the damp earth in the dry season. This method has been tested for many years by one farmer and proved very successful. Irrigation Of Trees As this book tells about farming in places where there is a long dry season.with his trees on a high place without water now keeps his trees irrigated by planting bananas close to his fruit trees. then we should also have one or two mango trees.Our Fruit Garden 77 Avocado Malungay Chico Santol Orange Kalamansi or pomelo Guayabano Kaimito or atis These trees are important for their food value and should form a part of every family’s diet to maintain good health. green weeds continue to grow near the banana stalk. If our home lot is big enough. The three of us can then trade the fruits from these trees with each other. then we may have to water the trees during the dry season. leaves. that is enough to give . So we should examine our ground water. then we could plant a duhat tree.water to the roots even in the dry season. Other trees.

Pomelo. temporary shade and perhaps it is necessary to marcot. the nurplaces we have selected. Instead of planting a One or two months later we can seed. We surround the roots lings : Orange. Nursery trees.grows on some other fruit-bearplant is early in the rainy season. is what we farmhand high. or straw around it. also leavts.which gives selected quality and ing we dig a hole in our garden earlier production of fruits. ters from the small tree. width of 4 to 6 centimeters. ing tree. Marcotting. maging the roots.tree. it well.10 to 15 meters fruit garden as other farmers have Avocado -. which we hold t?le distances they should be plant.-We plant Apple) __--__ 10 to 15 meters the seeds of the selected fruit in Guayabano and a box until they are 10 to 20 cenAtis ________ 5 to IO meters Then we transtimeters high. ways of starting our SAMAKA mas ___--__. After covering this place with a plaster the names of the trees are shown of heavy clay soil. to give But before cutting the branch.Marcotting. Also.----. We The following fruit trees are reremove the small plant gently commended to be planted from from the growing plot without da. with rich powdered earth and pack and Mango.in place by wrapping it with co- . we plant a branch from the plant a banana about 3? centimcL. about 30 centimeters deep. ly the same kind of fruit that The best time for us to trans.10 meters done. Otherwise we should ed from other trees.-Many times we plant them carefully into a pre. We do moisture to its roots in the dry this by removing the bark from around the selected branch for a season. and The above directions are good for the trees listed below. Chico ---______ 10 meters Orangeand PomPlanting Directions For elo --__---__ 6 to 10 meters Fruit Trees Kaimito (Star Planting from seeds. seedling ready for final transplant. This is very good if we can to 1 meter). because such trees will for planting in the permanent give fruit sooner. one called layering. Then they are ready get them.it4 THE SAMAKA GUIDE neighbors. and place it in instead of using our own seedthe hole. For each sery trees are budded or grafted.can get fruit trees to plant from pared growing plot until they are the municipal or provincial nuras high as our knees or hips (94 sery.grafted or budded nursery stock. meters and Kalamansi 3 to L1 Now let us discuss the different Nangka and Ri. . Kaimito. Then we place grass. except the ask for budded or grafted small banana companion : growing plants from the municiLime (Dayap) pal or provincial nursery. to keep the ground ers do when we want to get exactfrom getting too dry.

The branches which we marcot should be 1 to 3 centimeters thick. Do not make the marcot branch too long . The cut portion is then covered with a plaster of heavy claysoil.about 1 to 2 meters is usually the best. tamarind (sampalok). It takes from 3 to 10 months Fig. we saw the branch below the new roots. Some of the trees and shrubs which can be easily marcotted are orange. After new leaves begin to appear we can plant the tree in our garden. star apple (kaimito). The clay should be slightly moist. 35).Our Fruit Garden conut husks. After many of the roots have grown through the fiber or husk. Marcot only from a tree which we are sure is healthy and gives plenty of good fruits. or cabonegro fiber. Then we transfer it to our garden. just before the start of the rainy sea“IL 2. G. 38 We select a branch 1 to 3 cm. The pictures here show how to marcot a lm~nch (Fig. guava. do not cut deep. just below a node or joint swelling. only the thickness of the bark is best. thick and completely remove a ring of bark around it for a length of 4 to 6 cm. and then we plant the branch in a pot until it is growing vigorously. Select healthy branches. but be sure tp get all the bark off or new bark will grow instead of rootsv 3. 4. pomelo. santol. . In 3 to X0 months small roots will come through and we trim off half the leaves. In removing the bark of the branch. If we keep it moist. roots will soon grow above the stem where we cut away the bark. Then we cut off the branch from the tree and plant it in a pot. Chico and makopa. not rich humus soil. The clay is held in place by wrapping it with coca husks or cabo negro fiber and tie it with string. 79 Pointers On Marcotting 1. 5. just like planting a small seedling tree. The best time to start a marcot is during April and May. Don’t cut too deep but remove all bark.

The banana is such trees that we will be confused if a rich fobd that people have been we try to learn about all of them. If ed the following practices which they do. the need spray for our vegetable garmarcot every other day when there den. trees in our home garden our task Bananas is not finished.for cooking dry weather is better than daily and eating fresh. we should big enough to cut and plant the have a cheap spray and spread DDT or chlordane on the tree. well cared for cially successful in growing banaas described here. Do not pick the bananas too help. a thick mulch around the trunk.some of us may not yet have heard cultural Extension Man for his about : 1. we can spray the mulch When we have planted fruit also. and which prowatering. We branch.ock we must protect the young trees from the animals that like to well understood by all of us that eat their leaves.plant several varieties. which is furnished free. duce much fruit : During the first year we should Latundan Bungulan Saba add animal manure or compost to Lakatan Inarnibal Catungal the mulch around the trunk. used for our small trees. In that terial which will not keep out the way we will not get tired of eating the same kind of bananas day eunlight.of 1.rich and cheap food for the pigs rneases and pests which attack fruit and chickens. The following varieties are reheavy watering every 10 days in commended as good. beDiseases Of Fruit Trees cause what we do not eat make There are so many kinds of di. and the same spray can be is no rain.80 THE SAMAKA GUIDE before the roots of the mar& are For insect pests. able to live on nothing but banaBut one thing that successful nas for months at. If we Farmers who have been espehave healthy trees. we should woven bamboo twigs or other ma. If the mulch becomesthe breeding place Care Of New Trees of pests. We cannot have too many bananas in a SAMAKA garden. If we have placed next to our fruit trees. a time. very few di. . The easiest way there is not much new to say. farmers have learned is this. But to do is to place strong sticks if we want our bananas to give ua around the tree. as the roots do not go deep easily have 20 banana plants withenough to suck the moisture from out crowding. with a fence of the greatest happiness. it is better to call the Agri.000 square meters. If we have liveThe planting of bananas is so st.nas in Central Luzon recommendseases will attack our trees. For a SAMAKA farm to keep it watered in the dry sea. Do not forget to water. we can son. 7. When the tree is small we ought after day. including the ones the deep earth.

We can plant a few new papayas each year to . or next to our kaka. These include pineapple. it is best to cut out some of them by removing the growing point. When the banana hill produces many suckers. This same need for root drainage is found in the case of other fruit trees.Our Fruit Garden soon before they are ripe. Ground Fruits Other fruits which the SAMAKA farmer wants in his garden 81 do not grow on trees. a good idea for all the SAMAKA farmers in a barrio to plant the same kind of papaya. watermelon. Another advantage is that both of these trees need partial shade. which tells about these vegetable fruits. It is.replace the so% Papaya trees do not withstand continuous flooding. wati fence. 3. Coffee And Cacao In addition to the trees which produce fresh fruit. and muskmelon. Papayas Papayas are easier to grow than bananas. Many of us have grown coffee and cacao in the lowlands. so as to reduce the number to 5 or 6 in each hill. About six trees of coffee and the same number of cacao will give us a generous supply of coffee and chocolate for our table. Papayas should be cut down when they are about four years old. For the home garden we can plant both our coffee and cacao trees fairly close together. the roots of these trees cannot toIerate standing water. 2. it will be profitable for us to plant some coffee and cacao trees in our garden. The only trouble with papayas is that their seed gets mixed with the seed of neighboring trees very easily. so they will be more uniform in quality. bananas do best when fertilizer is added to the soil. Like other plants. or when their production of fruit declines. Tagaytay. We often hear that coffee and cacao grow well only in the highlands. such as Lipa. A distance of 2*/g meters each way is satisfactory. Therefore. so we plant them on slopes or slight rises and provide good root drainage. especially oranges. even when they ripen in the house they do not have such a good flavor. as they do not give enough fruit to pay for the space they occupy. In other words. so we can plant them next to our bananas or under our fruit trees. but we have learned that the land must be elevated above the floods. If there are too many stalks crowded in one hill they will give small fruits or maybe none at all. If we want to grow these things we can turn to the chapter about vegetables. Caguio and Bukidnon. we find that the seed from a very tasty papaya fruit doesnot always produce a plant which gives the same kind of fruits as the parent. ground. therefore. When picked too green. but on low plants near the . Rewards Of Fruit Trees With a few fruit trees in our P .

By that time ing center . and it does not sortment of trees and seeds. When we get the land for our planting center. in addition to small peopls to . or malungay along the fence to give additional . About 2. Unless the land adjoins the hbuse of a S AMAIL4 farmer who will guard it. or . Iii most places a well 2 or 3 meters deep can be dug.long visiting for the time when the Agricultural Extension Nan czn come. Each SAMAKA farmer may not be ready at the same time to -plant fruit trees. with a few large fruit trees already growing there for his own use. katuray. If xv-e can get some landowner in OLX Slid?. But there is a much more convenient way to do this. which will be his reward for letting us use the land. When we have the lot ready. We can get fruit trees for our home garden from the Provincial Nursery.!rsery will ter.can provide us with all of us sl~oulcl be able to have our 0~11 fruit o~:cha& planted. the barrio to lend us a small parcel of land. T:‘t>do not want to cut clown shrubs and trees that arc there.lZiit in our garden.000 square meters of be able to supply us with an asland is enough. We have to be the best quality of land. We a!so need a wat. We sl~ould also plant kakawati. and this will mean many estra trips. Some towns have manicipal nurseries. Fresh fruits are not only pleasant to eat. should try to get some trees large In many barrios the big landown. the shed shoulcl have one sleeping room. We should get trees already should save the seeds the right to use the land for not from our fruits so that the plant less than 5 years. In some bari’ios the farmers have already established their 0~11 nursery or planting center.seedlings.er supply.I. *bve should build a strong fence around it to protect it from roaming animals.r:!nl.garden we will soon be enjoying the taste of many luscious fruits on our family table. which will give enough water to irrigate the small trees. ipilipii. We should get the advice of the Agricultural Extension Man as to how the land should be prepared. All of us who have good fruit munal use for raising fruit trees for distribution. The land can be returned to the owner then. So every SAMAKA farmer should start his fruit trees tl~is 2Jear. The Agriccltural Extension Man will also he!p us get these small trees to i.:l or rt77tnici:3. because they arc needed for shade. it is easy to have our own one in charge of the nearest proSAMAKA plant propagation cen. Then we should build a small shed to store tools and equipment.enough to provide budding and ers have been willing to allow the grafting stock. They are also ncccssnry for health and strength of body.-iu:ci. They have in them vitamins and minerals which the body needs. kapok.Gse a parcel for CO1~1.

Also we will receive more frequent visits from the Agricultural. We try to make our house as attractive as we can afford. especiallv flowering trees and shrubs which we Iack in our barrio.Our Fruit Garden more seedlings. We try to have one handsome set of clothing to wear on special occasions. either to adorn our body or our home. We should have as many different kinds of bananas in our nursery as we can find. Haybe we cannot eat or sell beautiful flowers. But we can allow him to sell all the papayas. The cheapest and most satisfying kind of beauty we can add to our SAMAKA garden is flowers. He will see that a trained man comes to supervise the budding and grafting of the seedlings at the proper time. Flowers Are Needed In Every Garden We barrio farmers are proud men. But a few flowers adorning our home add richly . Once we have established our planting center. which can be budded or grafted later. The Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources has issued orders that when the people of a barrio start their own plant nursery. grafting. When some of our neighbors have good trees that we need more of. to help us make our planting center a success. and inarching fruit plants.. the branches can be marcotted and later transferred to the nursery to be cared for until they are needed for our gardens. a salary to the in-charge. we SAMAK-4 farmers want our children to appear neat and clean. The expert in fruit trees will be sent to teach us the art of budding. such as tree planting material. Even if poor. so that in time all of the farmers can get the seeds and grow the same choice variety. Also it is wise to plant a few papayas of the best variety. Extension Man. bananas and other fruits from the planting center as a part reward for his public service to us. But one of us will _ have to be in charge as Assistant Leader. we may be able to get special plants to grow there for future distribution. 83 marcotting. so as to have a large supply of suckers for distribution to our home gardens. special seeds and other help. all agricultural agencies will give special help. so all of the SAMAKA farmers will contribute their labor and help. Who will manage our plant nursery? It will be a community project. All of us like beautiful things. We cannot afford to pay .

and in most places we can find kamuning. bougainvillea. and in this way satisfies our own natural pride. We always have bamboo. there are many beautiful plants. We will also have plenty of flowers to make garlands for the people marching in the procession. to the joy of life. and lilies. they will be amazed and delighted. and amaranth (butonisan) . If at fiesta time our visitors discover all the houses and streets decorated with fresh flowers of many colors. Also we want plenty of green material for streamers. San Francisco. suerte. . . bitones-bitonisan.)etunia. chiclii?icas. It is therefore good to plant a few flowers in every SAMAKA garden for the joy they bring us. mil flores. and the fame of our barrio will be carried to many other towns. agoho.84 THE SAMAKA GUIDE Among the flowers which are easy to raise and do not take too much space and which stay fresh all day are the following : Gardenia (rosal) Kamia Sampaguita Cosmos Yellow trumpet (cAmpanilla) Canna (tikas. each town has many kinds of suitable plants and vines. and bougainvillea. rainflower (kulug). Flowers are much more beautiful than artificial imported decorations. In addition to the flowers we will gather. Instead we can string vines mixed with flowers of many colors. Some Good Flowers To Grow In order to have plenty of flowers for the fiesta. such as hibiscus (gumamela) . balete. bandera espaiiola) Sunflower (mirasol) Lily Santan Zinnia If many people in the barrio plant just a few of these flowers. such as kamantigue. For making green streamers. For our window pots. If we SAMAKA farmers of a barrio all raise flowers we will also save money. daisies. the same kinds that are used for wreaths. and it also gives pleasure to our admiring neighbors. When fiesta time comes we do not have to buy expensive flags and strips of colored paper to string above the streets. pitngo. It gives to us the joy of seeing. gladiolus. we want the kinds which stay fresh a long time. ferns. there will be plenty for decorations when fiesta time and All Saints’ Day come. begonia. papua. we would also like to have some in the garden just to make it beautiful.

or destroy our garden. The “backyard” project has now become somewhat obsolete for the family raising chickens for its own use. if we use the new and tested methods of chicken raising we can start raising chickens even before we plant the vegetable garden. or be stolen. with little risk of loss. Often we become discouraged about. Why? Because chickens are not as cheap as * they used to be. Or perhaps our flock escaped into the vegetable garden and uprooted the plants and a. The Family Chicken Cage is taking the place of the backyard poultry project. and later establish our vegetable and fruit garden. -4 garden is a fine thing to have. As a matter of fact. Also a good garden needs good soil.te the tender seedlings. and papayas. People who live in the large towns do not often have chickens on their tables nowadays. Those of us who have tried both chickens and vegetables find that we gain more in the form of abundant food and savings of market expenses. poultry.The Family Chicken Project Cage A New Kind of Home Poultry As the family increases in size and the children get older our thoughts turn to raising part of our food. Ey raising poultry in the Family Chicken Cage we can avoid these misfortunes. plenty of water for irrigation. from raising chickens than from having a vegetable garden. With the Family Chicken Cage method we do not have to fear that our chickens are going to wander off. We need not fear they will die off suddenly from contagious disease. Perhaps we tried it. This is so because many of us in the populous towns lack yard space for a garden. We usually start with a garden. But many of us should start with chickens. These fears have kept many people from starting or continuing with a “backyard” poultry project. and *considerable knowledge of the cultivation practices required for each vegetable. Once our chicken project is going well we will have plenty of chicken rnanure for OLW vegetable garden. and our small flock of chickens may have all died from some epidemic disease. except for special occasions. bananas. and giving us confidence that we can prcfitably and conveniently raise chickens for eating and for egglaying. Many families do not get enough eggs to satisfy . We plant vcgetables. Later we decide to raise a few chickens. because every family needs plenty of fresh vegetables for better health. in order to make our money go farther. Maybe our chickens roamed around the neighborhood and were lost.

right in our homes. who do not live on a farm? RIaRy of us in the large pobluciones and cities have very small lots. the meat and eggs from our chickens are among our cheapest foods. even sunlight is not needed. We used to think that in order to be healthy t!le chickens must have sunlight. and other things to feed his chic. The chickens do not need much exercise. The feeds contain every substance needed for the chicken’s health and growth. either. Today we can buy these specially prepared chicken feed. that come in sacks. and he has a farm from which he can get rice bran (darak) . The prices are reasonable because the feeds are made in Philippine factories. This way they grow faster and lay more eggs. We can start right in our homes. How about the town people. They give the chickens exactly the kind of feed they need. or we may live in a rented accesoria. If they have the right kind of feed. or corn. But the barrio farmer has a large garden for his chicken yard. is because the scientists have learned just what kind of chicken feed the chickens should eat. The first edition of “The SAMAKA Guide” had a chapter giving full instructions on h ILV the barrio farmer can raise more and better chickens and eggs for the family table. crowded with houses. The reason why we can now raise chickens. even if our lot is small. Many books have been written to tell us how to keep chickens in our backyard. even if we live in the crowded city.86 THE SAMAIlA GUIDE their appetite for this nutritious food.s. yet their muscles and meat remain tender. apartment or entresuelo. In this way we save market expenses and improve the health of the entire family because of this bctter nutrition. Raising Chickens in Cages We have now learned that chickens do not need a chicken yard. But if we establish a Family Chicken Cage. Each year more and more people who raise chickens for the market are producing chickens and eggs in large indoor cages. This will reduce the cost of the chickens and eggs we eat. The chickens take it easy. their lazy way of life in cages makes them grow fast. in or- . without a large yard. the chickens and eggs we need for our family food. der to grow fast at the least expense. The money we have been spending Even if we have no garden. instead of wasting their energy scratching in tM fields. and what kind of feed we should give to laying hens to produce the most eggs. kens. which our family can enjoy severaEtimes a week. most of us can produce cheaply. if we are willing to work 20 to 30 minutes a day managing the Family Chicken Cage. We have now learned that if the chicken feed we give them contains the right kind of vitamins. and when we eat the chicken meat we are delighted to find it so juicy and delicious. Can we then raise chickens profitably? The answer is 1~es.

the xaguan (basement). we can enjoy abundant chicken meat and eggs at a price we can afford. They will then weigh about 1 kilo. in a shed.30 to f1. 39). thz pa. straight run.with 25 baby chicks. Let us have a little arithmetic on the cost of producing these delicious chickens. and feed the same to our own small flock of chickens.our 250 chickens each year to our tio. the money garage. 39.7 kilos of prepared well-balanced chicken feed costing (at 30 centavos per kilo) PO. in the past for eggs and chickens to eat at home will give us twice as many eggs and chickens if we spend the same amount of money to buy these special scientific chicken feeds. and each month we add 25 more chicks. During those two months each of the 25 chickens will eat 2. the friends and neighbors. The b. (Fig. at 45 centavos each. who can baby chicks. or even on a porch or azowe receive would pay for all the tea. will cost us only Chicken Cage is suitable for B1. So if we are willing to work 30 minutes a day caring for our Family Chicken Cage. The Family Chicken Cage is small enough for the teenage children to manage. of steel frame and iron grills. If. yet big enough to supply our household with five or six large size eggs daily. or half the townspeople who have an open price we have to pay in the city space of only 2 by 3 meters or 6 markets. If we should sell half of square meters in the yard.roiler type chicks will be ready for our table when they are about two months old (60-62 days) . It is equally suitable for the feecZ zoe bull and the cost of the homesite of the farmer. or under cost. i Operating Expenses . What we call the Family weighing 1 kilo. Factory-made ‘Family Chicken Cage. and 250 chickens each year for frying or for our adobe. they will cost 45 or 50 centavos each. so we would get the keep the Family Chicken Cage uneggs and chickens we eat without de? the house.The big fresh eggs we raise this way will then cost us about 8 to Family Chicken Cage 9 centavos each and our broilers. Fig.81. The plan calls for starting our project .50 each. That gives us a cost as follows: baby chicks. We can buy male baby chicks of the dual purpose type at about 25 centavos each. a grass shelter in his yard. we get male and female chicks mixed (str’aight run).

as here recommended. hatcheries. In that way n-e can If. There are seases so often carried from the now several of these reliable sick chickens of our neighbors.80. Each hen will eat during the year 36 kilos of feed.1 new laying hens. 4. The special feeds have tasty flesh and which lay ma.?g them Lviti.000 square meters. if we have one. Each of our laying hens should produce Tzot less than 130 eggs a year. and avoid (:ur l-day-old chicks from a reliacomplaints from neighbors. bought from a very responsible manufacturer who has a testing laboratory and guarantees his feeds.80. We should accumulate the dry chicken manure (a paper sack will do) and sell it as fertilizer to someone with a garden or use it in our own garden. If we raise chickens in a Family What We Should Know Chicken Cage. We s3lould buy only the best clean. Special Points On Operating The Family Chicken -Cage That is. of course. 3. we buy eliminate the rooster. and the chickens we eat have plenty of meat of good flavor. Our chickens will be conselected baby chicks one day old fined in the cage. or about 8 centavos each. At first the eggs are small and few.26 for each 1 kilo chicken. they to learn about hatching chicks only fertilize eggs.fairly safe from the contagious diducing chicks for sale. the layers lay many eggs.chiclml fcccl worth PO. We should use only feed of good quaiity. and add 25 more every month. And. eggs for a year or so.gi.ve our chickens sufficient feed and water and keep the cages out a rooster. 2. The chickens we . All we have to do is lay just as many eggs. we can gradually start eating the large hens. It is not worthwhile for ~1. The chickens do not need breed or variety of chicks. the following pointa About Chicken Raising we important to remember : 1.s to 6 months old. 5. but as the chickens get older the eggs increase in size and number. even with. which at 30 centavos a kilo costs P10. I*eplarni. It is convenient to start with 25 chicks. so they will be from people in the business of pro. chicken. after the hens have been laying. we do not have not cause hens to lay eggs.of today provide all that the ny eggs. It is more convenient to buy experts.s To operate a Family Chicken to hatch eggs laid by our hens at Cage we do not have to be polAltry home. We He commercial breeder who opeshould remember that roosters do rates a hatchery. The chicken manure from a Family Chicken Cage is all the fertilizer we need for a garden of 1. or a total of B1. divided by 130. The hen will from eggs. So our 130 kwge-size eggs will cost us P10.81 for each tlUal-pulJ~ose chicken. which sunlight or grass. so we will soon have a continuous supply of chickens ready for the dinner table. This kind is called a chickens need. The hens start laying I\-hen they are 5 1.

These raise for cooking will grow fast and be tasty. Selecting Our Baby Chicks. 1. Buying or Making a Family Chicken Cage. since a rooster is needed only IThen we -wish to make the eggs fertile for hatching.ce of some of us who hay-e ery equipment.commercial poultry farms. and \vhat are the chances of stic“Brooder” cages for chicks raiacess. will n-ant. o:lr neighbors will not complain of being awakened by its crowing. 2. Managing the Chicken Cage. or wood and poultry netting. “Broiler batteries” succeeded with this method of rais.female chickens iye lieep foi* egglaying will go on laying regularly without a noisy rooster.many details wood. Family Chicken Cage made of bamboo. using bamboo. . Since we have no rooster. 4. The . So we are setting don-n the ed in incubators are regular hatchexperier. and tion. The following: topics will be “laying cages” for poultrymen who discussed : supply the egg market. If we are handy with But everyone \vho decides to tools we can make our own-Famioperate a Family Chicken Cage ly Chicken Cage. 3.have long been made for the use of ing chickens for home consump. Poultry Feeds. to kno\. Buying Or Making A Family Chicken Cage A Girl Caring for Family Chicken Cage Fig 40.The Family Chicken Cage 89 Metal chicken cages are made in shops specializing in this kind of business.

dinary skill in bamboo craft should The bottom floor is 30 cm. that falls through the poultry them for f50. (36 in. to keep rats Chicken Cage. a large laying hen. the Brooder where the baby chicks are first placed.y. For over three years now the procedures described in this book Slave been successfully carried out by several families in Manila and nearby towns who have used these inexpensive Family Chicken Cages made of bamboo.posited. each big enough to hold dropping pans to catch the manure. with wood frame and chicken Under each deck is a galvanized wire.manure (droppings) of the chickes as a home industry. A rat guard of We are therefore giving detail. is dewho01 students or anyone with or. with bamboo framing. Make a Family Chicken Cage” to help you. (1 be able to make his own Family ft. (Fig. one above the other. sloping down so that eggs will roll (Fig. 46 and 47). 7 in. as we see from the illustrations. with a floor the rat guards. or floors. ful Family Chicken Cage of local The middle deck is the growing materials? So that is what *rye unit to which we transfer the have done: We have made i&em chicks after 4 to 5 weeks.) wide. and a few nails. and are very satisfactory. The bottom deck is divided into The only metal parts used are the 10 cages. 45. not for the family raising chickens for home consumption.) above the ground.90 THE SAMAKA GUIDE ‘pieces of equipment are made oLF metal frame. floors. out of the cage. being made of imported materials. (5 ft. is a cage of three decks.re now making these cag. It is 2 meters (6 ft. ed plans and pictures of “How to 41 and 45).00 to F J30. The top deck is divided into two sections. broiler battel. So we have designed a new kind of equipment called the “Family Chicken Cage” which is a combination of brooder. wiring. Others. ~p$ where we raise them to eating size.they can move around. (Fig.) high. Description Of Family Chicken Cage The Family Chicken Cage. (Fig. and keep warm by crowding together. have cost several hundred pesos. The Brooder has an inclosed portion. 40).65 m. 41). and the Live Storage Unit. They sell ens. But they are intended for the chicken-raising business.00. and sheets. and. Some farmers in iron Droppings Pan.. 40) e Another model is made into czreceiving tray. %:xde netting or bamboo floor. and 1. an asbestos or galvanized iron top. (See Figs. where the Rulacan a. and laying cage. . 117 cm.metal is attached to each leg. where the baby chicks can be protected from cold winds. where we keep some of the chickens which have grown to frying size until we are ready to eat them. But why use imported materials and an open Brooder Range where when we can make an eqjlally use.) long.

frarm 41. (b) Glass jar screwed into metal base. Bamboo joints make excellent containers for chicken feed and water. Metal water containers. Cage made with wood Fig. sides Poultry a. (cl Metal waterer made by tinsmith. 44. wire far of Family Fig.The Family Chicken Cage Fig. FYg. 42.nd floors Chicken Cage. (a) Discarded can filled with water and inverted in a gan. 43. . Family Chicken and chicken wire.

. -. ea. 46. 60” OR !?.-. ea chicken t PLAN OF Fig. in. chicken BG?OODER PANGL 30 sq. S-TORAGE UNIT 82 5q in each chicken !2RClODl3? *UJARMER 9 59.THE SAMAKA GUIDE IP DECK -hi _ h.0” . . in. 45. GROUJING UNIT CR055 SECTION Fig.

in.The Family Chicken Cage GROLLMIG UNIT 70 *5q. . I 47. each chickm F-xX? TEN HENS PLAN OF BOTTO’M PECK Fig.

Fig. wire to the Fig. Family Chicken Cage made oi wood frame. poultry wire and CWTW gated roof. Adding Family Chicken the poultry Cage. Fig. 48. . LAWANIT. 49.34 THE SAMAKA GUIDE AS eEstos. 50.

28 -Lineal. 51. IT&W of 5-foot uide poultry wife for floors. $ kilo of 2 inch Common LUire nails.The Family Chicken Cage 95 LUMRER 30 -\ineal feet of 2 inch 61~ 2 irich lumber or approximately 10 board ft 944 -‘liwal fee t of I~inch by Zirlch lumber or approximately 36 board ft. HARDWARE k kilo of 3 mch Common Ulire nails. Fig. inch lumber or approximately 14 board ft. 62 board feet. List of materials we need for wood frame Farnib Chicks 0~8. partitions. 6 -lineal ie. . lbtal lumber approx. HO -1i11ea1feet of 1 inch by 1. 2 kilo of 1 inch Common Wire nails. 6 -Iirlcdl feet of L inch by 4 inch lumber or approxi@ely 1 board ft. and sidings.ei c$ 1 inch by 1 inch lumber or appt-onirrlately 1 board ft.

which we know to be heaithy. 42). The Dropping Pan for the chicken manure is shown on a subsequent page. no . 43). The construction details and finished job are shown in Figures 45 to 51. That is why many of us prefer to keep our Family Chicken Cage under the house or in a shed. About the only sickness we are likely to find is the occasional weak chick that is found in any hatching. As we may keep our Family Chicken Cage in the patio or backyard. the top cage will be too hot. and which soon dies. (Fig. we should provide curtains which can be hung from the top. aluminum. which can be made with an empty can and plat. (Fig. If the metal roof is under the bright sun. Some people will prefer metal water containers. We see the same thing among many large families . Each chicken is kept in an elevated cage. The preceding five pages show pictures telling how we can build a wood frame Family Chicken Cage ourselves or have a carpenter build it for us. Empty sacks of jute or kenaf make satisfactory curtains. We may find a tinsmith to make for us a galvanized pan like that shown in Fig. Imported varieties from healthy stock (ancestors) are successfully raised under the cage system. or which we can buy at the store. because they are not exposed to the poultry diseases that are spread by contact with the ground. 44).96 THE SAMAKA GUIDE Feed and water troughs or containers are made of bamboo joints. or tempered lawanit make the best roof. and has contact only with the other chickens bought from the same supplier. where it will be somewhat exposed to wind. (Fig. Sheets of asbestos or corrugated iron. and let down when necessary to protect the chickens. 01% we can even make the dropping pans in the form of sawale trays nailed to a wood frame. 57. Selecting Our Baby Chicks What variety or breed* of chicks should we buy from the Poultry Supply Man ? Can we use native chicks which we buy from a neighbor? Are imported varieties sufficiently resistant to tropical diseases? Let us discuss these questions in reverse order. another may live but be weaker than the others. we should cover it with sacks or other material when the sun shines on it. some children die in infancy. and sun. If disth&i()n k made betweenthe terms breed and variety. rain.e. 4:For the purpose of this program. If we decide to make our own Family Chicken Cage with poultry netting and wood we need the pieces of wood and other materials shown on the plans. The most importaat part we must follow is not to make the spaces alloted to each chicken so small that the chickens will be crowded. and a roll of 3/4-inch mesh of poultry wire. Each one of us Can USt? his reSOUrCefUlneSSand ideas according to the materials available. If we use iron or aluminum roofing. But these pictures are guides only.

m. The White Leghorn is not a dual-purpose chicken.w I~al(+lttd 1)y llirti. The great advantage of the im- ported varieties of chickens is that thelj gain more weight a?ld lay more eggs for each kilo of feed WC give the. I. These imported varieties have usually been selected from among the best of many generations over a long period of years. One man v. hut this is not recommended. The espert commercial poIlltryman who operates a hatchery does not hatch the eggs of native hens. Thcl of iillpOl+tCtl chick. and the flavor is not’sa .‘tmong fh0.U xv*arieties ens recommended for the Family Chicken Cage are Ii-hat 11-ecall the dual-pIirpose type. Tts greatest achievement is laying more eggs than most varieties. Red Hampshire we buy our chicks from a successful breeder n-e should not lose rnore than 1 or 2 chicks out of each 25 Lve buy.‘.lt they lay many eggs and also carry plenty of tasty meat on their boclies.Pali ~.. This rule will apply equally to native and importetl chicks \l. TM means th.hic:h some neighiwr rn:iy sell to us. may c.mtiy Chicken Cage Fig. at!d the? rooster and hen. So if TI’C b11y nati\-c chick. than is the case with the native chickens.ith a Family Chicken cage lost fi’ciiii diwasc all of llis flock hecause he accepted a gift of chicks from a friend.hen raised in cages. Rut many people do not care much for the White Leghorn.trt-y diseasesio 0111% ctqc. because it has less meat.liick~ . U’C can use native chicks \. I[-:> Ii-ill haw to buy them from someone ~\-ho ma> have many !!. 52.The Fa.

Rhode Island Red. on the reputation of our supplier of baby chicks and second. 53. The poultrymen call this result “hybrid vigor. Lancaster rooster and hen. Where To Buy Chicks tizo or hybrid chicks by crossing There are a number of reliable one of the above varieties with the poultry hatcheries near Manila and . New Hampshire.mes- other for each hatching. They claim that this brings greater vitality and strengthens the desirable qualities of the offspring. and will be saiisfied if our 10 laying hens give us an average of 5 or 6 eggs a day. based first. (Fig. which can be found at the different Philippine chicken hatcheries : Lancaster. on actual results we experience in operating our Family Chicken Cage. 52 and 53). good as dual-purpose varieties.’ 98 THE SAMAKA GUIDE F’ig. we will prefer one of the following dual-purpose varieties. Since we are primarily interested in the chicken’s meat. Many poultrymen who operate hatcheries are now producing.” So let us select only the best varieties.

It is carrying shipments of chicks almost daily by airplane. You r local Agricultural Extension Man may also be able to help you locate a good hatchery. They are born with enough substance from the egg to keep them alive this long. we can get our chicks from one of these commercial hatcheries. The rates are from PO.The Family Chicken Cage a few other major cities or towns where we can buy one-day-old chicks. Citherwise vvemust find some poul- 99 tryman near us who will supply WI with the chicks we need at monthly intervals. Newly hatched chicks can live safely for 60 to 72 hours (2-1. PAL informs us that in aU this time it has not had any claims from the public due to the death of chicks or to delays or losses. Air Shipments The Philippine Air Lines (PAL) has been successfully shipping baby chicks by air for the past 12 years. bus.36 to PO. or air express in less than 3 days from the time the chicks are hatched. railroad.2 to 3 days) without food or water. One-day-old chicks are usually sent in light cardboard or “carton” boxes with holes for ventilation Each box contains 25 to 100 one day-old chicks.60 per . The hatcheries with chicks for sale advertise their service in the newspapers. If our home can be reached by mail.

50 for each shipment (10 centavos per chick mini. For our Family Chicken Cage there will be less of the feed spilled on the floor if we use the pellets instead of the dr! mash or meal. As we plan to produce 250 chickens during the year. They sell at wholesale to retail dealers or to large poultry farms which buy 50 or more sacks at a time.8 kilos of feed up to 2 months of age. with a minimum charge of 8’2. The manufacturers of poultry feed are not interested in selling u3 one or two sacks of mash. we must make arrangements for a steady supply of feed with a local retail dealer. (Fig. which are broken into smaller pieces. Gq*ox+ng mash. Pellets. however. and to remain healthy. for profit. That is 2 sacks a month. They cannot afford to have a truck go to our house to deliver one or two sacks of poultry feed. Poultry Feeds A successful Family Chicken Cage is made possible because we can now buy special feeds which furnish every substance which helps the chicken to grow fast. Luyin~ mash. therefore. cost more than mash feeds. Those who live right in the town where the airport is situated will receive the chicks either delivered to their address. that means 2. for laying hens to increase egg production. These special chicken feeds are manufactured for the people who produce poultry and eggs as a business.mum)‘. SO we ‘have a total of 1. called crumbles. for raising broiler chickens for meat and for laying hens until they are old enough to lay eggs. to lay more eggs. for baby chicks until they are about 6 weeks of age. Man!* people believe the pellets are better. So the feed manufacturers make various combinations for different purposes. but as pound scales are illegal for merchants in the Philippines there is no way to be sure of the weight unless it is marked in kilos. because each pellet is sure to contain all the good substances the chickens need.8 x 250 or 700 kilos of feed a year for the chickens we eat. These “mash” feeds come in the form of meal. Poultry feeds come in 4%kilu bags. kilo. Those who live away from the airport will have to arrange for someone to receive and forward them to their destination. 54). or notice will be immediately sent by PAL of the arrival of the chicks. on the average. but some factories . Some are said to be lOOpound bags. Our 10 layers will consume about 360 kilos. Manufactured Poultry Feeds The principal types are the following : Starting mush. THE SAMAKA GUIDE make them into pellets or smalj pills. How many sacks of chicken feed will we need? Each chicken will consume about 2. Before we start our Family Chicken Cage.lOc.060 kilos or about 24 sacks a year.

. but will scatter them. Also. for larger chickens.order all three kinds of feed. Most of 11s eat all the “scraps” of anything that is good to eat. Many of our scrap3 are wilted or spoiled leaves. when our chickens are used to commercial feed. is the starting mash. we shall have to make our own mixture. But if the chicken3 prefer the. For our small project the 3ame kind of feed will serve all our need3 very well. and boiled eat motes. so there is not much left for the chickens which has real food value. Making Our Own Poultry Feed If we are unable to buy complete poultry feeds in our town.getable garden.. or other spoiled material. it usually means the scraps will not be good for the chickens. So if we have a standing order with the poultry feed dealer for 2 sacks of starting mash or pellets a month. This grain is a starchy food needed by chickens. or clam and oyster shells. 101 If we do use fresh kitchen scrapa and vegetable3 4~3 chicken feed. They may cause the chickens to get sick or die.o say.m& nufactured feed. This does not always work well. ubi. Broken rice (binlid).& The white corn may also be fed to our chickens. If they are what the chickens need they @jl be eaten first.in$. If we have surplus bananas . we may have surplus fresh feed fvhich can be fed to the chickens. Some of us will want to use our table scrap3 and garden surplus to feed our chickens. one kind for small chicks. By limiting our type of feed to starting mash we are omitting something our laying hens need. The one most suitable for all.g?$i are also good substitutes for $he corn meal when they are cheaper. cassava. calcium or lime. molasses. The experts in poultry raising have found that chickens need a variety of substances in their feed. so a3 to buy less of the factory-made poultry feeds. If we have a ve. i purposes. ‘ Starchy Substances One of the principal substance3 used for poultry feed is geZZow corn. we believe. in order to be healthy and grow fast.The Family Chicken Cage Xt svill not be worth our while to . and thus reduce . they should be in addition to the regular complete feed and given at the 3ame time. we should be able to operate our FamIly Chicken Cage very successfully. or leafy vegetables or grasses cut into small pieces should be given to supply the needed Vitamin A. so as to add calcium to the feed of the laying hens.r.&he need for the manufactured fqI. tugui and . but in that case ipil-ipil leaves. that is t. and a third for laying hens. and is rich in vitamins. especially Vitamin . The hens need calcium to form egg shells and for the bones of the growing chickens.in our garden they may be added to the poultry feed to replace part of the yellow corn meal. So we should grind up egg shells. they will not care for scraps. one k.

as it may cause loose bo.. Animal Protein Another source of “animal pro(Fish And Meat) tein” is snails. This is cheaper than “anirntil protein. First class rice ture. Many of us who have started a if kept too long. The com.which damage our gardens are altein” part of the feg:d. the shells supply calcium worms and insects they catch. What can we use as a substibran obtained from the cone type tute? rice mills should always be preIf small fish. We in the town we can pound them should not keep darak for long into a paste and mix some of this periods because good rice bran has with dry ingredients of our chickplenty of oil and easily gets spoiled en feed. or perhaps some They can be pounded or p&bed .. meal.102 THE SAMAKA GUIDE Rice bran (darak) is another meal they use in making the comprincipal substance which is also plete poultry feed they manufacrich in vitamins. In th@ case of snails. and then pounding this later in the mortar after wels.lt and cheap when feeding baby chicks.mucd and dried meat scraps. or use grated coconut meat.amount of salt. They have about the amount of fish meal. meal.” It is found most eign countries much of the f9 ._I. The large African snails They call this the “animal pro. Sma#l &imps The chickens in their natural state and crabs also can be tpoqnded and get this “animal protein” from the used as fish meal. We may dry this give too much coconut to small under the sun. especially minnows.so good for poultry feed. Fish meal is for sale mo& ly in big towns where large quanVegetable Protein tities of fish are prepared for the In addition to “animal protein” market or for canning. can prevent over-crow-ding and at from which most of the milk has the same time get fish for our been extracted. adding first a small chicks. same feed value as fish meal. shrimp meal.tein. Termites (anay) are also a very and order so many gantas of fish good source of animal protein. copra after we have extracted the By catching some every day we oil. are abunC. We cannot usually go to a store also. it is dry. We should not chicken feed. which can bc Another very necessary sub-’ pounded and mixed with the corn etanceis fish meal or meat scraps. The Philippine poultry feed manufacturer-* our chickens need vegetable prousually have to import from f . or fish scraps. through a grinder. and a plete poultry feeds we get from garden pest is thus put to some the factories have a certain good use. If coconuts are abundant in our tilapia pond have found that thoutown we can use copra meal from sands of tilapia soon fill the pond. such as tilapia or ferred to second or third class darak for poultry feed.

Milk can is a good meSStiC cup for home-mixed poUatrJr feed.should be used if we can get it. But if we mix our own poultry feed. codliver oil and other fish oils may be hard to find or be . However. The chickens need these greens. which is fouid in fish oils such as codliver oil. Complete poultry feeds contain a substance called vitamin D. The extra leaves of our pechay. or snail If we shells into fine particles. Finally. especially soybeans. If we cannot get ground shells. If the garbage is old and spoiled. cowpeas. This vitamin D permits the chickens to enjoy good health even without sunlight. we must expose the Family Chicken Cage to direct sunlight two or three hours a day by keeping it in a house with a !-ard. . and all the heads.zlls. ground or pounded into small pieces. This is given by pounding oyster. This includes the entrails and other waste parts of animals. including the sb. or lime. table and kitchen scraps should be fresh.to mix our own poultry feed. and kadios (pigeon pea). we will feed our kitchen and table scraps to the chickens. As stated above. are excellent additions. mixed with the chicken feed. Minerals And Vitamins In order to make egg shells the laying hens need to eat some calcium. The beans have to be broken up by Soybeans pounding or grinding.tapilan) . feed our chickens crushed snails. and fresh. If we have. 55. camotes and talinum are all excellent. this will satisfy the lime requirement. boiled. This is ne’ .The Family Chicken Cage 103 Fig. The greens should be young and tender. we can use ground limestone (apog) . clam. 0~’ patani. abundantly in beans. it is probably because we live in a rural community or barrio where we can get green things.and shells of fish and shrimp. We can then roll the IQmily Chicken Cage out in the yard to get the sunshine. mungo. it may cause the chickens to get $ick. we must add a certain amount of salt to the chicken feed mixture. kapilan (. properly chopped. bones. lettuce. entrails and other parts of chickens killed for table use shouZ& not be fed zcnlege tietl cooked or. In that case.too expensive.and soybean meal give the best vegetable protein for chickens. and . If we cannot buy complete poultry feeds in the town where we live. But we can also use dried sitao bt3lllS. We should give our chickens chopped green vegetables every day. to take the place of the substances found in the complete feeds made in the factory. Well-ground ipil-ipil dried leaves.

we find the following proportions to be about right. 55) . We can increase or decrease the amount. sitao. anima1 wastes.‘will need l$j. or 60 chickens in all. 56). . . to l+$ gantas of feed per day. our 25 small chicks of 1 to 30 days old.. such as fish. patani. $ For each ganta or 8 chupas of home-made chicken feed. or soybeans l/2 cup dry ipil-ipil leaves. we should do it daily because we will be using substances which become spoiled. plus our 10 laying hens. we should probably prepare 1% to 2 gantas every day. as a substitute for corn meal. Mortar Crushed snails Cracked corn and pestle can be used for grinding snails and corn to mix with darak for homemade poultry feed.. or camotes. or fresh bananas. Qnce the\Family Chicken Cage is being operated fuby. using either a stand- ard measuring cup. tihich swell in size corn-. a chupa measure (l/8 liter) or a milk can. 56. ‘E’or our home-made mixture. 4 chupas yellow corn meal or broken rice l$ chupas rice bran (darak) 1 chupa of dry fish meal (or 2 chupas of fresh fish OI meat scraps or ground snails) l/2 chupa copra meal l/2 chupa ground mungo. to give allowance for any increase in feed consumption. :’ ‘?. depending on how much the chickens actually eat and consume. : cessary to prevent the spread of diseases. MS-sava. plus our 26 broilers 30 to 65 days old. ubi.104 THE SAMAKA GUIDE Snails Fig. with a tablespoon of salt and a handful of powdered shelB” or agricultural lime long exposed to the air (apog) If we use boiled gabi. pared with dry corn meal. RW fcse double the amount to make up for the wet condition of these sub-stances. ( Fig. cowpeaa. +i r. and shrimp scraps. (Fig. When we mix our own poultry feed.

and 12 to 15 broilers in the storage cage. Managing The Family Chicken Cage In discussing how we manage our chicken cage let us first consider briefly what we do step by step from the beginning. First. When our first 25 chicks. We start our project with 25 one-day-old chicks that we have bought from a reliable poultryman. (Fig.” 0% “fryers. At the same time when we transfer Flock A to the growing unit. we clean the brooder and place 25 new one-dayold chicks in it. We then clean the growing unit and transfer Flock B from the brooder to. We buy 25 more baby chicks. that is to say. we keep Flock A in the growing unit for one month. and weigh about one kilo each. have grown to the eating size in two months. 41). The growing unit is big enough to accommodate 25 young chickens until they are ready to be killed at the age of two months. In buying our poultry feed in mash or meal form. ‘during the second month of our project. after cleaning it well. While Flock B passes its first month in the brooder. a concentrate which must be supplemented by the purchaser with ground corn. where we leave them for about one month. 10 laying hens in the laying cages. Flock C. that is. By continuing this process. and place them in the brooder. because Flock B will now be one month old. (Fig. because some factories also make a mash which the poultryman is supposed to mix with grain. Flock A. we should always have 25 baby chicks in the brooder. we must feed the chopped fresh greens to our chickens. which we will call Flock B. it will pay us to buy the feed instead of mixing it ourselves. it. we know that whenever we can get a poultry feed made by a reliable manufacturer. This may not be convenient for us when we are operating a Family Chicken Cage.” in the growing unit. We place the baby chicks in the top unit of the cage which is the brooder. we have chosen a chicken cage that will hold 25 baby chicks in the brooder. and 25 larger chickens (for cooking or for slaughter) in the growing unit. When they are one month old we transfpr them from the brooder to the larger unit below called the growing deck. Factory Poultry Feeds Are Best Although we now have an idea of how to mix our own poultry feed to operate the Family Chicken Cage. we must be sure it is a complete poultry feed.The Family Chicken Cage In addition to this mixture. and 12 to 15 of the larger chickens in the storage . we take them out and place those we want to keep in the storage unit and slaughter the remainder. The greens are especially important if we lack yellow corn meal. 41). For convenience we will call this first bunch of 25 chicks Flock A. On our first order we get both the 105 males and the females: what the poultrymen call “straight run” chicks. 25 larger chickens called “broilers.

We keep poultry feed in the feeding containers at all times. which are 2 months old. Out of each flock we will select four or five of the largest and healthiest female chickens for our laying cages. That gives 11s about 3 chickens a week for our table. We have to sell or slaughter about half of the two-month-old chickens. because the storage unit is big enough to hold only about 12 to 15 broilers or fryers. and learn.106 THE SAMAKA GUIDE unit. we discover that we will be operating a small factory. so the chickens we take from the growing unit are transferred to the storage unit until we are ready to kill them. we will only have to sellect the choice ones from our growing cage to replace those which do not lay enough eggs. Suppose we sell 12 of our Flock A. If they get hungry for lack of feed they are apt to peck each other and cause wounds. and while they are in the storage cage they are growing larger and larger. clean them and put them in their electric freezer for cold storage until they are needed in the kitchen. because that causes a lot of it to spill. We will want one for dinner today. Mortality Now for some bad news. so that the chickens will alxvays have feed. that leaves us 13. they kill them. But we cannot expect to get something for nothing. In the United States. observe. ’ 1 Thus we have live storage instead of cold storage. (Fig. Now that we have seen the general system of managing the Family Chicken Cage. to our neighbors. Those of them that delay laying eggs or do not lay enough eggs. We will quickly learn how much they consume in a day. 41). we find it a good plan to sprinkle a little water on dry feed in the cage feed containers. 41). with an assembly line which turns baby chicks into delicious food. To prevent spilling feed on the floor by the chickens. (Fig. we have for dinner and replace them with new layers. Most of us feed them once in the morning and again late in the afternoon. and Europe. The first three or four months we will not have 25 chickens to sell and eat. and we must expect some adversities. It is not good to put too much feed in the containers. This storage unit is something especially designed for the Philippines. The sale of these delicious chickens should bring enough money to pay for the oneclay-old chicks and for the feed we give to our chickens. when people take ‘the 2-month-old chickens from their growing units. We are not likely to have always 25 . Many of us will sell half of our 25 chickens (preferably the males first) when they are two months old. Of course. and keep about 12 or 15 in our live storage unit. So we place the remaining 12 in the storage cage for our family use during the ensuing month. if we can buy 10 young female hens (pullets) ready to lay from ti reliable poultryman. Most of us here do not have large electric freezers. We must study.

Cleaning The Cages Cleanliness is the key to healthy chickens. In addition to cleaning the water and feed containers.. without getting the containers too dirty. Bamboo is cheap and convenient. 44). Watering And Feeding Containers Some Family Chicken Cages have watering and feeding containers on the outside of the cage. 39 & 40). because some of our chickens are likely to die. However. But it really does not make much difference whether we leave our chickens in the growing and stor- 107 age units one or two weeks longer than we expected. may die. The advantage of a regular schedule is this: we can have a standing order with our supplier for 25 chicks and a certain amount of feed every month. Some of us may prefer to work on 5-week. If they begin to have a bad smell they should be scrubbed with a brush and dried in the sun. too. In any flock of chickens there are a certain number which are born ‘too weak. Sometimes the hatchery operator will be late in delivering our order of chicks. and see that there is always plenty of fresh water. or the hatchery may lose most of its flock from some chicken disease.we must also remove the poultry ma- i Fig. This will give us priority of service. But. because the hatchery and poultry feed dealer can plan their operation to serve us. The chickens reach their heads through the cage and help themselves. (Fig. . if we lose only 1 or 2 chicks out of each 25 we buy. (Figs. Galvanized dropping pan for poultry manure. We must not be slaves of our schedule of 25 chicks every month on the exact day. under the open floor of each deck. Another thing. But we must clean these containers frequently.The Family Chicken Cage chicks in our brooder and 25 broilers in our growing cage. One is needed .intervals instead of months. Others are born with some defect which we do not see. because the brooder is too small when they grow larger. made of metal or bamboo. and they. 57. that is to be expected. and die very young. as stated before. we should transfer the chicks from the brooder not later than 5 weeks old.and an inverted jar type of watering container. Some of us find it better to use a plate for water and feed in the brooder compartment during the first week. Perhaps a typhoon will cause the shipping service to be suspended.

or is unnoticed. A 50-watt lamp. 58. But ry the nights get too cold. rice ficient to put a small lamp or lanhulls. daily clean. tal trays. (Fig. It is important that smell disappears. We sho. 57).108 THE SAMAKA GUIDE Fig. may make them sick. If during and dry the tray before returning it. We also scrape off any accumu. Below the open floor-strips or ippines it is not usually necessary poultry wire floor of our cage is to give artificial heat to the broocler. and make scrape off the manure and wash their own heat in the inclosed brooder compartment. the chicks can keep (chicken manure) fall. burning night and day for the first 15 days. if the manure is im. 58). or even sawdust on the me. so it is important to keep rat poison near the cage. Manure can for storing poultry droppings.is enough. If we have powdered lime (apog) to scatter on the litter. rice hulls. Rats might carry disease. and can be stored for use as fertilizer.uld chicks will not burn themselves. it should not smell bad. (Fig. If not place rice hull litter where the we have electricity we use an elecsmall chicks can peck at it. . It quickly becomes compost. away from the ground. Brooder Operation‘ nure every day. Remember. or place rat guards around the supporting posts so that rats cannot get into the cage. warm enough by crowding togeWe remove this each day and ther when they are cold. because we do not In the warm climate of the Plzilwant our home to have a bad smell. If we drop a curtain to keep the galvanized iron “droppings tray. December.tern in the brooder compartment. 59). so that the ing is not so necessary. it is sufif we spread old newspapers.rounded by a screen. It is best to keep a special can for the chicken manure until we have enough for the garden. tha.” into which the droppings out cold winds. mediately mixed with sawdust. or similar substance. Disease is not a problem with the Family Chicken Cage. if we buy healthy chicks and keep them always in the cage. straw. and that it be sura well ventilated place.November. we may find that the (Fig. also reduces odors. the lamp be fixed firmly so as not If our Family Chicken Cage is in to cause a fire. and Janualation of manure on the floor. as it tric lamp.

because August. we should re port it to the hatchery where we buy the chicks and ask for replaceIf one of ments or adjustments. they will lay very few eggs. or litter. they do not need artificial heat. Fig. which we can plade alongside our Family Chicken Cage. if our Family Chicken Cage is exposed to strong winds. we can start with the 10 laying cages. 59. they may start to molt three or four months after they start laying. This is especially true for chicks which we get from November to February. After a year such a record will show us whether our project is worthwhile. During this period. we can place straw or wood shavings on the floor of the brooder deck and broiler deck. In that case it is easy enough to make an extra section of laying cages only. the 5 or 6 eggs we average daily from our 10 laying hens. which will keep the cage warmer. some losing all their feathers. If too many of our l-day-old chicks die. especially those with large families. and add more after we have them a11 filled with laying 109 hens. September. will pick up the chicken manure (droppings) and can be stored in the fertilizer bags or cans. will not be sufficient.The Family Chicken Cage Even in the cool season we find that aft(l:!r our chicks are a week or two old. and October are the usual molting months in the Philippines. Molting After the hens in the laying cages have been laying eggs for about 10 months they will usually start to molt. Operations Record We want to keep a daily record of our operations of the Family Chicken Cage. our layers is not laying enough eggs during the year. some only part. Purchases of feed and chicks should be recorded. Lamp for enclosed brooder compartment. which lasts 2 to 3 months. This straw. we replace her with a new one and eat the hen we cull out as a poor layer. protected by wire cage. Extra Eggs For some of us. and decide that we want more eggs for our kitchen and table. or maybe none at all. . However. However. In the *case of the young layers (pullets).

” This project could also raise enough extra chicks to be able to sell one-day-old chicks to the pupils who have Family Chicken Cages at i their homes. so that the pupils may learn all the basic skills of poultry raising from “egg-to-eggagain. * Another vocational activity of the schools could well be the making of these family chicken cages of bamboo and other local materials. Ducks and. . and many of them are too far from hatcheries and feted dealers to be able to. The school project could mix and supply the correct type of feed. The barrios have * more space for “backyard” poultry.110 THE SAMAKA Agricultural GUIDE And 4-H Clubs are ready to start their Family Chicken Cage. and the 4-H Clubs in the more &t&d barrios would not as a rule find the Family Chicken Cage very suitable. could breed. operate a Family Chicken Cage profitably. operated by the school as a whole. Hence. the Family Chicken Cage is primarily for the towns and cities. 60. As pointed out earlier. The school poultry project could be self-supporting. and collect payment in the form of chickens and eggs. Muscovs (bibe) ducks resist disease and do not need pond. hatch. their a?ms are tasty. the Agricultural Clubs. In the case of 4-H clubs. The Family Chicken Cage should prove a worthwhile activity for the Agricultural Clubs organized under the auspices of the Bureau of Public Schools and for the 4H Clubs promoted by the Bureau of Agricultural Extension. which can be sold in the neighborhood. they would have to form a committee to handle the supply of feed and chicks. The school project’ could also have its own facilities itfor mixing complete scientific feeds for sale to pupils with home chicken cages. operate an incubator or other form of hatchery to supply chicks to its members. unless commercial suppliers can do so. For instance: the school poultry project. rather than for the barrios. and raise chickens. once a few members of the agricultural club Fig.

we and set them under a setting can allow the ducks to forage ala ternately with the chickens (Fig. chicken. .i short. They gain weight rapidly and produce plenty of eggs. ippines. which we in the Philippines call the “pato red” and “bibe. We should not let the ducks that are well known in the Phil. Ducks are easy to take care of.mix with the’ chickens. page 110). Our Duck Pm If we can get one male and two We need only a small coop and female ducks. 13. They are suitable wherever chickens can be raised. But some farmers have found that they can feed the “itik” other kinds of food. which are cheap food. You can raise ducks in addition to chickens. and ponds.” is well-suited for the farmer who wants a tasty meat and also good eggs. where green ducks we can start with duck eggs things grow for our chickens. instead of for the farmer raising his own food. The flesh of the ‘Wk” duck is not very tasty. and they catch very few diseases except the “avian pest. How To Start With Ducks A Pond The “itik” duck is found mostly where ducks are raised near the rivers. and they have been very happy to find that these ducks do not get sick very often. One farmer tells us that he gets more eggs without using a pond. The eggs hatch in 33 days. we recommend you raise a few ducks in your yard. lakes. especially in a small yard. that makes a very yard. They can be raised much the same way as chickens. when diseases began killing all of their chickens. (Fig. and if the ducks do not feed on too many snails the eggs do not have a fishy taste.” and seem very resistant to that sickness. They eat the same kind of feed as chickens. the “itik” duck is really for the commercial farmer.Raise Ducks Without Do you like duck meat or duck eggs? If you do.gh good beginning for the SAMAKA farm. The muscovy duck. These ducks do not sit and we have to set the eggs under hens. If we cannot get grown double chicken yard. Ducks do not need a river or pond. The eggs are very good. There are two kinds of ducks 61). 60. The eggs of the “itik” duck hatch in 28 days. If we have a large enou. There are many advantages to duck raising in our backyard. or raise ducks only. They are good sitters and brooders and can hatch the eggs they lay. We usually raise this kind of duck only &here there are plenty of snails and small clams. They are raised chiefly to produce eggs for the b&t industry. Many barrio farmers in Luzon be gan raising bibe (muscovy) ducks a few years ago.

The wet feathers of the Fig. and the ducks will build their own nests there. and they grow very fast. Everytime the hen leaves the nest we have to sprinkle the eggs with lukewarm water.112 THE SARIAKA GUIDE Ducklings start eating 1 day after hatching. 62. Starting Duck@ With Eggs If we begin raising ducks by setting the eggs under a sitting chicken hen. After that we can raise the little ducklings like chicks. Breeding Ducks If we start with one male and two females. Bibe (muscovy) ducks can hatch 12 or 15 eggs to a sitting. but then we should put a fence around the fishpond so the ducks will not get into our vegetable garden. We must allow her to leave the nest every now and then for feeding and watering. Then we would have to keep changing the water. with straw scattered around the ground. Fig. . because the ducks will make the water dirty. it may be because there are mites. It takes a week longer for itik duck’s eggs to hatch than chicken eggs. and 11 days longer for the bibe eggs. hen carefully when she is setting on duck eggs. 62). 1 Then we put in a thick spread of new litter and place the eggs back. The duck does not need a pond. A couple of nest boxes can be placed in the shelter or coop. To allow the duck to bathe. it is important to place the eggs under the hen when she first gets broody. or use a laundry pan set in the ground. only a bathing pan. If we have a home fishpond we can let the ducks use a small part of the fishpond. we can place a section of a barrel. Keep ducks separated from chic- Water For Ducks The pen for the ducks should have a drinking water can at least one hand deep and two hands wide. tThe eggs of these ducks hatch in about 33 days. In that case we should burn the litter and spray the empty nest with k&osene or dip it in boiling water. a chicken can take care of only 7 or 8 duck eggs. We will not find it good to use the fishpond for ducks unless there is plenty of water. 61. If she does not go back before the eggs get cool. As duck eggs are large. We have to care for the chicken. we should keep them in the duck pen. (Fig.

We can pluck the feathers dry. but not bring a good price in the City ma.ing And Dressing Ducks The young ducks will be ready for our table anytime after they are IO weeks old. we may Geese not have enough grain feed to raise Geese are raised to a small expigeons also. . so it raising can ask the Bureau of Ani. The young pigeons one month is better to buy a young one and old are excellent for the table and raise it in our own yard.ilI. the Raising turkeys is not a good geese “honk” very loudly and wake business for the SAMAKA gar. but when water. we may decide to make some for our table by gathering the eggs from the setting duck about the 16th or 18th day after the setting began Then all we have to do is hard boil the eggs for about half an hour.is profitable to raise geese only mal Industry to send them a book when we have adequate grassland. Turkeys. pigeon grass as their principal feed. moving it about continuouswe use a chicken hen. If we want Raising pigeons is not very diffia turkey for a special occasion. it cult.rwith the chickens. They can be raised at far from a large city decides to less expense.II&e Dneks Without A Pond 113 duck moisten the eggs. Turkeys take special care and a large area of land. K. we must do it. Many barrio farmers like to of directions. the only class of poultry able to use Farmers interested in. of grain and mungo. tent in many towns of the PhilIf a SAMAKA farmer living not ippines. or they can consult with the Agricultural Extension have a few geese at their house because they serve the purpose of Man. a watch dog. Whenever a stranger Turkeys or some animal comes near. it is better to scald the duok in a pot of near boiling ly until we find that the feathers come out easily.. so if we are raising chickens and pigs.everyone around. Pigeons Geese den. Chickens often kets. Making Balut At Home If we and our family enjoy balut. but this is a lot of work. the young pigeons (called squabs) Geese grow rapidly. They are and his family can eat the other half which will cost them ‘nothing. and less attention raise pigeons he can sell half of than other poultry. Pigeons. We have to feed them a lot cause turkeys to catch diseases. To make plucking easier. We kill them the same way we kill a chicken.

For our SAMAKA farm. The SAMARA farmer can easily raise enough pigs in his own backyard to supply his family with pork three times a *week all the year through. 8 to 10 weeks old. It is n. 63. The following points are to be considered by the SAMAKA far114 mer who wants abundant pork for his table : Building a piggery Selecting the piglets Feeding Diseases Slaughtering Preserving Building Our Piggery The place where we raise our pigs is called a piggery. we should try to get some farmer who breeds pigs to give us a small pig and allow us to pay him with a percenttage of the meat of the mature hog when it is killed. We may either keep him inclosed in the pigshed or within a fenced inclosure. and any farm byproducts we may have. This is the job for the man raising pigs for the market.ot usually wise for us to breed our own pigs. which we will call the pigshed and a small fenced yard adjoining. with . which we will call the pigpen. In this chapter we are not going to talk about how to raise pigs for sale in the market.amboo and cassava fence. He might catch some sickness. Hs destroys our garden and the gardens of our neighbors.fatten our pigs chiefly with OUY surp!us garden products and table scraps. If we can only afford one pig. Animals raised for breeding purposes should not be kept al- Fig. If we have no cash to buy the pig. we should get two or three good piglets during the year. let us start with one and get another later when we can afford it. It requires a lot of time. The secret of raising pigs for our own family food is to raise and . and raise them to maturity.How To Raise A Pig Without Buying Feed Pork is the most popular meat in the Philippines. It usually consists of a shelter or shed. experience and work. It does not pay to let our pig loose to wander around the town. but few of us farmers get enough pork to satisfy our appetite. Here we are going to talk about raising pigs to eat in our homes. Pigshed and pigyard l.

is the best material. (Fig. The pigpen also front must be open to the sun.-our pigshed should sickness. The pigshed can be built of bamFlooring : For the SAMAKA boo.d meters in strong enough to keep the pigs front and 1 meter in back. Fig. light. be 2 x 2yz meters. but must be farmer. For 2 or 3 pigs Fig .. 65). which is a good disinfectIf we wish to keep the pigs unant. the easiest and cheapest floor for the pigshed is made of Mother Earth.How To Raise A Pig Without Buying Feed ways in the pigshed. . A sanitary house. we change it. 65. such as straw or dry banana leaves. 63). but we do pigpen. is good way to prevent . If we want our pigs to move around the field where they have access to grass we and sunlight. or piggery the same way. with a height of 11. (Fig. about 21/g x 234 meters. cogon and nipa. Keeping. 64). pig shelter under . A good clay. should always tie them with a rope fastened to a harness or through the ear. or similar material. 64. not need the roof. as it is easier to keep clean. After the litter gets dirty. In front or at the back there der the house. we can build the should be a small fenced yard. as the manure and urine make this litter excellent fertilizer when fully rotted. but this practice is all right when we raise pigs for the table. (Fig.needs a strong fence. Our pigshed should be built on the best drained part of our land. pig tethered . We then place on this dirt floor clean dry litter. The from escaping. but we should always place the dirty material in our compost pile. which we can pack hard.

short legs best they get their noses in the ground. .” There are certain special feed meal. although the best na. The plus avocados can be used for pig small extra charge for this service feed. That is why we leave the dirt attached to the roots of the weeds dinary feed. They are very rich food for is cheap insurance. it is very important to add these mixtures so as to inSelecting Our Piglets crease our profits. adlay. pig feed. cassava and calearn the lesson of “How to Feed mote.116 THE SAMAKA GUIDE Some farmers use home made bricks for the floor of the pigshed. batad. which have va. and be treated for good price. but rious substances to promote growth also are rich in the minerals and and health. make too much lard.) camotes. It will pay us to get good mesThe fresh left-overs from our tizo piglets. it is worth while to add some have. type of pig. we should select ings and left-overs of rice and a lively young pig with long body corn. for sale. and mixtures for pigs which we can (3) greens of all kinds. In part of the pig feed. bananas. treated this way rarely die from We should all have a corn patch sickness. and soybeans. Successful pig raisers tell us that their pigs are healthier when Fig. If we do this. it is important to have a large enough pen or yard outside where the pigs can exercise. because pigs our livestock. which conbuy at the store. ger the better-to supplement the and for hog plague. and all the other scraps. because they trees find that during the harvest grow faster.tain some starch and proteins. As SAMAKA farmers we should corn. coyra A Pig Without Buying Feed. 66. the gills and entrails of fish. The chunky ones the peelings of papayas.fibers needed for good digestion. The vaccination for hog in our SAMAKA garden-the bigcholera lasts for 8 to 12 months. mungo. peanuts. The washchoosing our pig. vaccinated against hog cholera and they cannot sell them at a and plague. -Long body. The pig breeder from whom we are wholesome hog feed. (2) proteins. buy the pig should supply us with Some farmers who have avocado castrated animals.. The greens also contain the of this special mixture to the or. When we can afford vitamins which every animal must it.table and kitchen supply a valuable tive breeds are satisfactory. In that case our surworms before we take them. like fish entrails. meat scraps. For pigs to grow well we know that they need three Feeding The Piglets kinds of feed : (1) starch. (Fig. if fresh. and short legs. If we later raise pigs which we pull and feed to the pig. Also they shouid be they have too many fruits to eat. like rice. 66. 6 months.

-on . The most common diseases are hog cholera. The basic rules for keeping our .. Here are a few of the green feeds recommended to the SAMAKA farmer for his pigs : Camote leaves or shoots Kangkong Talinum Pechay and cabbage Grass Waterlily Banana stalks Tapilan Buying Feed 117 Pig Diseases Pig diseases not only kill our pigs.When weeding our garden we can’ throw these weeds into the fenced pigpens rdots with attached &il included. We should keep them in the pigpen. corn. Diseasegrows ‘.i luable amounts of starch and pro?. our pigs can be kept free of them by keeping the pigshed and pigpen clean. we should ” feed our pig darak or rice bran. If we have to buy some supplementary feed for our pigs. Chopsed corn piants Mongo leaves Bean leaves Ipil-ipil Mani-manian Pufigapong Kulosiman These greens also contain va. the same way that our “kanin” (rice) and “ulam” (viand) should be balanced. swine plague. Hog cholera is the sickness that kills the most pigs. fast breathing. If we cannot get vaccinated piglets. Whenever we can get it cheap.How To Raise A Pig Without Greens are the cheapest feed for pigs. If we buy piglets that have already been found free of worms. if we have coconut trees. corn bran (tahup) . 2. or tied . . They may also cause sickness to those who eat the pork. when’ we live in a rice region’. i&estinal parasites and tuberculosis. A Pig suffering from this sickness shows loss of. . then we should at once get the nearest Agricultural Extension Man to vaccinate our pigs. They may catch the disease from edting human feces. Pigs have the same kind of tuberculosis as people. It can be treated with injections. . and also when people having tuberculosis spit on the ground and on the pig feed.rope.with a . Swine plague is another pig disease we must watch for. appetite. shredded coconuts (sapal). darak. Intestinal parasites of various kinds attack pigs. tein. need a ’ balanced diet. Pigs. high fever and coughing. We must keep the pigshed and the yard as clean as we keep our house. pigs healthy are: 1. camotes. in addition to minerals and vitamins. and fish wastes if our house is in a fishing district. and many of us do not give our pigs enough. and copra meal are the cheapest. That is why we should get only piglets which have been immunized against it by vaccination. like human beings. Never let our pigs roamaround. .filth.

The heart should be left uninjured so it can continue pumping out the blood rapidly. only. Killing a hog calls for skill and special equipment. because that stops the heart from beating. He ing pigs. 6’7).a 3 months’ old pig weighing only lary to help us control live. 5. stock and plant diseases. 6. It should be given no food for 24 hours before killing. Pigs should never be killed when they are overheated. But when our pig is to be slaughtered. (Fig. If our pigs get sick. we should notify the Agricultural Extension Man at once. The pig should be kept in the pigpen 2 or 3 days before it is killed. 4. It is cheaper and better lets it grow to maturity. We must not give our pigs rotten feed. or tired. but should be perfectly quiet and rested. In this to get the help of some neighbor way he will have 90 to 100 kilos who has the skill and equipment. The of meat for his family instead of government pays him a sa. 2. so we will not carry diseases to our pigs. where they can eat human wastes. excited. never pierce the heart. there are a few things we want to be sure to remember: 1. It does not pay Slaughtering for each SAMAKA farmer to get The SAMAKA farmer does not his own materials for slaughterkill a young pig for lechon. 67. In killing pig cut the throat Have a large barrel of near 4. We should never allow the pigs near an open toilet. . Fig. The butcher should cut only the large blood vessels of the throat. If we have visited our neighbors we should wash our feet before we enter our pigpen.118 THE SAMAKA GUIDE 3. He should never stick the knife into the heart.10 or 15 kilos. 3.

we can also take pieces from the pickling solution. tongue. That makes a total of 65 kilos of viand from one go-kilo live pig. and also some sausage. As SAMAKA farmers. Unless our SAMAKA leader or someone else in our neigborhood is skilled in making hams and bacons. and when it is not The pig should be raining. trimmings. and cook it in the ordinary manner. If we follow the SAMAKA method we can have pork from the one pig for many weeks. which keeps fresh for many days. The best way to do this is for us to kill the pig very early in the morning. When we are ready to eat it. about 4 o’clock. We salt some of it. p’615 preserve some of the meat. It is a good addition to our gulay. and part can be pickled (paksiw) which also lasts long. As most barrios do not have ice. If it stays hot too long. we must try to get the meat cool in the air. or 195 kilos for three pigs. we are assured of nearly 4 kilos of pork meat every week. Boiled with mungo or beans it is a tasty dish. and “Ai& bb n. Chilling the butchered pig is very important. fat will become rancid quickly and that gives the meat a bad flavor. 20 kilos of side and loin meat. the 1lcaL h~nr+ b. the easiest way to preserve the meat is by salting. 68). lard. Then the preserving of the meat should start within three hours after the pig is killed. we do it differently. wash it. Part of the meat can be made into adobo. . Salt pork can be used in many ways.How To Raise A Pig Without Buying Feed boiling water ready to scald the pig without de!ay after all the blood has drained from the carcass. we take a piece from the jar. It is a good practice to cut off from the meat all the extra fat and make it into lard. feet. So if we raise only thran TVC. unless most of the fat is first removed. before the sun is up. We preserve most of the meat in several different ways. so we do not have to make the sausage all at one time. a year to flu!! size. if we make lard. We can also preserve all the small pieces of meat. That way the family has too much pork one week. pig feet. (Fig. etc. If we want to make sausage meat. backbone. split in half to help it get cool quickly and to remove the animal odor and heat. and spare ribs by putting them in a glazed stone jar (gusi) and covering them with a pickling solution. Second. make tapa. liver. the meat begins to get rotten quickly. Preservation r: 119 Many families when they kill a large pig must eat it right away and give it to their friends because they have no refrigerator. and about 20 kilos of sausage meat. 5. First. It can be soaked in water first and used in our adobo. all the year. From a 90X10 live pig we can get 25 kilos of legs and shoulders. This is goold for two reasons. and then no more pork for several weeks or months.

Pack tightly in a container (stone jar preferred) and cover with hot and sweetened vinegar with. ginger. sun steaks of suitable sizes. tongue. heart. prepare the meat by cutting it into suitable pieces. as our individual preference may d. sucn as spare ribs. pour water into a clean petroleum can t-wo-thirds full. pack the pieces of pork into the jar. or make it into sausage meat. Pigs’ feet are among the best part for pickling. Crushed bla&k pepper. Second. Before using or cooking the salted meat. prepare a suitable jar (tapayan) as container. we usually soak it in water for half an hour or more. the size of the palm. Cover the jar with a piece of board and set aside in a well-ventilated room to cure for eight days. The meat may be with fat and skin. as we may prefer. etc. While waiting for the salt mixture to cool. This is done to remove any excess of salt. be thoroughly scalded with boiling water before it is used. We can fry this pickled pork in butter. l?Lz cups brown sugar. How To Pickle Pork Pieces (Paksiw) When we kill our pig for preserving we will always have a surplus of trimmings and small pieces. use it to season our soup. Fifth. Pack -the salted pork into a container. liver. and garlic in sufficient quantities may be used in spicing the vinegar or sweetened vinegar. Clean the pork pieces thoroughly and boil them until cooked. At the end of the curing period the pork is removed and placed to dry for changing the water at least twice. Sprinkle on both sides of the steaks a generous amount of the mixture of salt and sugar that we have made. Pf:ur enough of the salt mixture over the meat to cover it with the salt solution. or lean meat alone. While it is still warm dissolve the ingredients and stir thoroughly. say. Here is a simple. Salt to tast& when about half done. and boil it.120 TRE SAMAKA GUIDE it gives us abundant cooking fat for our kitchen. Fourth. or bigger or smaller. Pour on it enough hot spiced vinegar to cover the . It should. easy way of preserving these pieces in pickling solution until we are ready to use them. How To Dry Pork (Tapa) Mix four handfuls of salt with one handful of brown sugar. How To Salt Pork First. as individual tastes vary. feet. prepare the ingredients by measuring 6 cups of salt. Third. Cut the clean fresh pork into thin thj=ae successive days tinder the Afterwards wrap it well in banana leaves and store in the kitchen cabinet or any other food storage place. backbone. and 114 teaspoons of saltpeter (sslitre) . The meat thus prepared can keep well for sixty Idays or longer. Pork piecesstored in the pickling solution will keep for a long time without spoiling.ecide. to be used from time to time. spices. wash ?he pieces of meat with plain water and drain.

what in the kettle. After drying. and placed in a clean place. and then put UPside do+wn to dry without wiping. If ‘we add a pinch of cooking soda (bicarbonate) to the fat when we begin cooking it. Cooking should be very slow until the fat has started to melt and can be easily stirred. Then it should ‘be poured into dry jars or cans Tyhich have been washed and ke@ fop 10 minutes in boiling water to sterilize them. place the dried pork in a basket hung from the kitchen ceiling. preferably over the stove. The sausage ineat may be cased or placed in the small intestine of pigs and linked into proper lengths by tying with abaca or cotton thread. the crackPings will become darker but the lard will be whiter. One tablespoon of toyo may be added if desired. Cover the jars or cans immediately and store the lard in a cool dark ?Gicup fine salt. For each 10 cups of sausage meat add. we can store it for 4 or 5 months. Dry the sausages under the sun for one or two days and thereafter hang them ‘in the kitchen. cook with a little water in a frying pan. A little clean water should be put in the bottom of the kettle when we start cooking. 2 teaspoons of ground black pepper. and it is ready to fry. We have to keep everything very clean and sanitary. stored in th& kitchen.sE sink to the bottom of the kettle.When most of the lard is extracted from the. The cracklings will first come to the top and float. wil B keep *well for a month or more. Serve hot. containing 2 parts lean meat and 1 part fat. If the pig has been properly scraped. Mix this seasoning thcroughly with the chopped meat. 2 teaspoons of chopped fine garlic. We should not fill the kettle too full or it will boil over. In using.ausage. Pork Sausage Made At Home After the pork meat is chopped fine enough. Then we place the pieces of fat in a large kettle or kawa over a medium hot fire. measure it in a cup. The basket should be an open weave kind that allows the air to pass through. the following: 121 hot lard. How To Make Lard To make good. We should let the lard cool some. The fat should be trimmed as soon as the carcass has cooled.How To Raise A Pig Without Buying Feed steaks. we can leave the skin on the fat.ngs ti. the crackli. pieces of fat. When we make a lot of sausage and want to keep it a long time. The fat should be stirred frequently. Let it stand for a night. Turn the steaks or tapa now and then while drying. we find that by covering the sausage in a. The sun-dried. The following day dry the meat under the sun for one day.. % cup brown sugar (if you like the somewhat sweet sausage). white lard that will stay fresh a long time we should make it the same day the pig is killed. jar of very . where it can be cut into small pieces. .

bacon we must have special knowl. and sell our pigs for profit. we bacon. There arrangements can be made to send are many books available to help this assistant leader to the Bureau us in such an enterprise. the time and taste as good or better cracklings also should be placed in than the imported kind. clean jars or cans for future use. If we select a leader for this.122 THE SAMAKA GUIDE @ace.of the cured meat. After we have raised 2 or 3 large er In Charge of Pig Raising be. and bacon. and the curing is done unraising only 2 or 3 pigs ayear can der the direction of the expert leader. pigs a year. When we have drained the bacon which will stay fresh a long lard from the cracklings. and The salting and pickling of our preserving materials. None of us tered. But it of Animal Industry or some other will probably be better for us to ham-making center for a short try the SAMAKA way first. some of us may decide come our expert in making ham to breed pigs from our own sows.The pigs are weighed and slaughedge and equipment. The leader our group want to make ham and will be given in payment for his bacon from our pigs. it can be services and materials used a share done by having our Assistant Lead. After that we can have ham and to us. as that experience will be very valua. Our Assistant Leader In Charge of Pig Raising should have all the Making Ham and Bacon necessary equipment. When sevpig meat as just described is not eral of us SAMAKA farmers are the same as making good ham and ready to kill our mature pigs. with each owner of a pig afford to do this himself. .ble course of instruction. tools. To make good ham and agree with the leader on a day. But if the SAMAKA farmers of helping in the work.

corn meal. 3. copra meal. It tastes something like chicken. 2. Some use the Spnnb nish word “conejo” but most pe+ ’ pie now use the English w~rcl “rabbit. As soon as we have tried raisixg rabbits \x+ewill find that they are easier to’ raise than chickens. the best way for SAMAKA farmers to start raising rabbits is for about 20 of LIS to get together and collect enough money to* buy. They should also be given rice bran (darak) . How To Start Raisins Rabbits If thc:re are no rabbits in the barrio. not much bigger than a large cat. The rabbit is a small animal. so now we can Iearn from their experience. so we do not have to buy feed for them. mongo or soybean in places where the farmers raise these crops. and the flesh is firmer.abbit-A New Meat Food For Filipinos The rabbit is an’ animal so new COthe people of this country that there is no name for it in the Filipino language. TlLey are not attacked by man.” In recent years more and more farmers have been raising rabbits for focd. (buck) and 2 females (cloes) we can easily have 40 or 50 rabbits in a year. Their feed consists of the green things and extra vegetables we grow in our gardens. That is about one meal of rabbit meat every week of the year. Other advantages of rabbit are the following : 1. 2 males and 12 fe031 males from a rabbit breeder or 123 . Its meat is delicious.J diseases. for instance. One reason why Filipino farmers who have tried it like to raise rabbits ’ is that they multiply SC Starting with 1 male quickly.

The Bureau of Animal Industry has a special bulletin called “QuesCons and Answers on Rabbit Raising. What -will. they can be taken from their mothers. or from P’70 to f140 for the 2 males and 12 females. and each of the 20 in our group will get 1 male and 2 females. it will take several weeks before all of the females produce young. So he will have 20 males for himself plus the 2 females which are his share. If he lets them grow larger. Meanwhile. About 30 days after our Assistant Leader starts the rabbit breeding. we will observe if our males are good breeders. we must choose one of our group as Assistant Leader For Rabbit Raising. he can sell them for more. That means that if there are 20 in our group.00 as his share. so our leader can sell some of his share as breeding animals. When the baby rabbits are 8 weeks old. By following this cooperative method each SAMAKA farmer will have a permanent supply of fresh rabbit meat for his table after only one year. How Do We Cook Rabbit Meat? We can cook rabbits the same way we cook chickens. About half of the young will be males and half females. Then he lets the rabbits multiply.first litter among us? We do not want him to work for nothing so we let him keep all the male rabbits except the 20 distributed to us.” which you can get through your Agricultural Extension >1an. which he can sell as meat for P)40 right in the barrio. He must learn all he can about the business and then buy the rabbits with the money we have contributed. If not we can exchange it for a better one with our leader. Each female gives birth to 5 to 8 baby rabbits.50 to f7. The 20 males kept by our leader will weigh about 1 kilo each in 6 weeks. We read one . As the males cannot mate with the females more than 2 or 3 times a week. so we will know how to follow his example. and we can soon start breeding our own rabbits. instead of killing them all for meat. We will have observed what our leader has been doing.our Assistant Leader For Rabbit Raising get for all the work he has done in producing the .124 THE SAMAKA GUIDE from the Bureau of Animal Husbandry. fry the young ones and boil or make a stew of the old ones. He will raise these extra males to large size for sale as meat. We will have to wait about 6 months for our rabbits to reach& good age for breeding. each of us has to contribute P3. road to more abundant meat for our fqily. They will cost between P5 and PlO each. When we have decided to raise rabbits this way. and lve n-ill be well started on the . the first baby rabbits will be born. but in 7 months after we receive them we should have 2 females giving birth to IO or 15 young rabbits. so our 12 females will produce about 80 young rabbits. Also many other farmers in our barrio will see ow success in rabbit raising.


New Meat. Food For Filipinos


which is given below: After cleaning and washing the rabbit, cut it into pieces about 3 inches square. Yut it in a jar and cover it with vinegar and water, to which you add sliced onions, bayleaf, pepper, spices and salt. Let it soak in

a cool place fpr not more than 1 day. Then you take out the rabbit meat and dry it. Next you fry it in lard until it is a dark brown color. Gradually you add the vinegar you soaked it in &nd cook it slowly until tender.

Let Us Raise Goats On Our Homesite Farm
Glossary or Dictionary -of Goat Raising Terms
Bills goat - Male goat Buck - Male goat Chevon - Goat meat Doe - Female goat Doe in Kid - Pregnant goat Kid - Young goat, male or female, less than a year old. Kidding - Process of delivering young by pregnant female. Milch goat - Milk goat Nanny goat - Female goat Stag - Castrated goat, castrated after maturity.Wether - Castrated goat, castrated at any age.

Why Raise Goats? ‘CVhenwe are tilling a small farm of 2 hectares, we need to produce everything we can. As soon as we harvest our crop of rice or corn, we get the land ready to plant mung0 or peanuts or carnotes, or some other food crop. In our backyard we are keeping chickens and maybe two or three pigs. We also have a vegetable garden and have planted bananas and papayas and other’ fruit t&es. By using our SIW# ,piece of land all the time and raising many different things, we are able to feed our children rice or corn, meat and poultry, eggs, - --

fresh fruits and vegetables, and beans. But we do not have as much milk as we want. If we are lucky enough to have a female carabao we get some milk, but not every day. We know that our children’would glow stronger and resist sickness if we could give them milk or cheese every day. In some provinces the farmers have.been able to get plenty o$ milk , -for their family by keeping milk goats- some even have extra milk to sell in the town, at 60 centavos a small bottleIn order that the Samaka Farm-




er may add this rich food to his family table, and perhaps make some extra cash income, we have learned from the successful barrio farmers in different provinces how they breed and raise goats, and use them for improving the health and increasing the wealth of their families. Their wisdom has been gathered together in this book so that all of us can produce enough milk and not spend for canned milk. The Institute of Nutrition tells us that we Filipinos do not eat enough milk products, such as milk, butter, wean? and cheese. In

other countries one-quarter of the cost of the family food is for milk products. Also, imost of us’ do not eat as much meat as our bodies need. Jf we keep two or three milk gosjts we get plenty of these milk pwducts, and the extra young goats can be slaughtered to giw us frequent delicious additional meat for our table. The shortage of goats has always made it difficult to get enough goats for our fiestas, but those of us who have been fortunate enough to have goat stew i caG-wta j and barbecued goat

A well-formed

native milk go&.

Let Us Raise Gds

On Our Homesite Farm


(lechon na kambing) at. a fiesta fore, is to select the best native will always want TV have it again. female goats we can find, and try Goat meat, which is also called to get our Agricultural Extension Man to lend us a selected male “chevon,” is a real delicacy. So let us add milk goats to our breeding goat to improve the milk If Samaka farm as soon as we can production of the offspring. get some female goats to start each year we select only the best females for milking, and discard with. the undesirable ones, in a few Procuring Milk Goats years we will steadily improve the The native goat that most of us milk yield. This kind of breeding know about does not produce much is called upgrading. If enough of milk. The imported milk goats us in the barrio decide to raise are especially selected because goats for milk, we can be more they produce plenty of milk, but certain of getting a government they cost too much for most of us. breeding goat sent, to our barrio The best thing for us to do, there- to improve our native goats. Es-

Fig. 69. Diagram 1. 2. 3. 4. 6. teats udder milk vein belly claw 8. 7. 8. 9. 10.

showing parts of the goat% body. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. mu&e knobs withers heart girth back 16. hip bone 17. rump 18. pin bone 19. hock 29. pastern

hoof knee chest shoulder wattles

A motherly. . traits are points to consider in selecting a good milk goat. and hanging. which is 15 to 18 months old. docile expres. Body sheape. If ‘we steadily improve the variety by selective breeding and “upgrading” in a few years we should double this production. Well developed female goats can be bred as early as one year 01% If some nearby barrio has f previously adopted the raising of milk goats as a community custom. to assure grazing abili’-y. than others in the neighborhood. We should always try to procure the goats we start with from a goat raiser who is known to have healthy animals that yield more milk than others. and have female that weighs about 42 kilos learned how to select the more deand stands 67 centimeters high sirable native goats to start with. Once n-e have decided we want Size. “Where do we gei the feed for these goats? ers) is a good size. we will be able to get* a better supply of young female goats to start with. tame and f. is also important. . Personality. Of course our neighbors with good f emalc goats will prolpably not be willing to sell us mature animals.The udder or milk bag of a good milk goat should be large. Here in the Philippines the present variety of native goat grown for milk purposes produces about a half to one liter of milk a day. ly. and raise them to breeding age.A large goat will give more milk than a small one. . In that case it will be cheaper for us to select young females about 4 months old. The lower front teeth should be strong. Care And Feeding Of Goats we will prefer her. The udder should feel soft and yielding to the touch. These two .Goats have per..goats?” These are good questions. A to have milk goats. if the female goat give 6 to 8 liters a day when they is known to produce more milk start giving milk.x&3 THE SAMAKA GUIDE pecially is this true if the people of our barrio get together and decide to adopt milk goat production as a community custom. we now use for our chickens and Gettin a goat that is gentle in pigs have to be given to our handling. To start with. good milk In selecting native milking goats goats produce 3 liters of milk every for our Samaka farm. that is. goats do not have upper teeth. a good udder appears shrunk or wrinkled and much reduced in size. above the shoulders (at the with. with uniform large teats. if she has been selected for her milk production and is given some grain feed. wide.the green stuff and kitchen scraps sion.V/W we have to buy feed? Will sonality. Like the carabao. there are a day for 7 to 10 months yearly. Prize-winning milk goats often iew points to consider. but only a tough pad. Just after milking. How To Select Milk Goats In Europe and India. (Fig. 69).we suddenly ask ourselves. indicates fondness for young.c=iend.

Two pastures were set apart. but they usually refuse to eat food that has fallen on the floor or become dirty. they do like shrubbery. camanchile. manimanian. and t. . 3 cans Copra meal . But if we wa.urting the goats. when the outdoor plants are still wet with dew. madre de cacao. . because of the wet ground. saluyot. and place them in a dry box or basket where the goats can get at them in the shed. the following mixture has been found very good: Rice bran .: Mixed Feeds 129 We should try to keep some rice hay or other hay for the goats. However..>lants the goats like are the leav(:‘s of ratiles. Among the . For grain and mash feed to increase milk production. When we are short of grain 01’ mash it will merely diminish milk production.t they can be raised solely on grass pasture feeds grown in well-drained land. If grass only is found. That is why we usually wait until the sun is well up. acacia. Generally they do not even eat stanting rice plants. They also like to eat the fresh corn stalks.thrive well. . At . Hays made from good grasses and from bean vines are liked by goats and are good for ChCiVWl V11b4. Goats Help Soil In coconut groves the goats will be especially valuable. Brush lands and the common pasture grasses afford an ideal combination. . . tamarind. We never pasture our goats on swampy land. because they will eat the lower branches and damage the bark. and a wide variety. With pasture feed alone they will . the =goats will get along all right. and also to add to the feed of pregnant female goats. to give a little to them early in the morning. .1. The goat seems to know what.alisay. Actual tests werle made in one barrio. and cattle grazed in one pa&we and goals in the other. before we pasture the goats. aroma. bean and peanut leaves. feed is good for him. 1 can Salt and ground shell l/10 can each. Goats also like kitchen scraps if they are clean. without h. .. about 8 o’clock. . Goats enjoy feeding on a large variety of plant growth.nt them to produce abundant milk we find it best to add some grain or mash feed. . and kangkong and camote leaves.Let Us Raise Goats On Our Homesite Farm Grasses And Shrubbers Goats are browsers and seem to prefer shrubbery bu. because they keep the brush down without destroying the green grass which protects the soil. 5 cans Ground corn . But it is not good to keep goats in other kinds of fruit. It Is a good practice to gather leaves of the talisay and pods of the aroma and acacia. gumamela.-&chards with xnall trees. ipil-ipil. A lot of people blame goats wrongly for destroying too much vegetation. . . . We have often noticed that some days a goat will eat certain PIants and the next day will reject them in favor of other plants. talinum. and the females will give some milk.

If we nails. When not being pastured and the milk from absorbing the they should be kept in our back smell of male goats. esherded by one of the children. we may crops. and also have a small yard That means a section of our fields strongly fenced for the goats to only 30 meters by 40 meters. two milk goats. Also we must be careful not let them loose inside a iarge fenced to cut too far. We find that if we trim the hoofs’ When we pasture our goats we do not keep them too many days of the goats every two or three at one place. we mnst keep some feed under the house to give them Tethering And Pasturing in rainy weather. but only ting wet. But on the goat goats will be healthier if they arc pasture there was no brush. even on the garden and the garden of our roadside. ready. When tethered or accomShelter For Our Goats panied.imported milk goats than the Dature was eroded and topsoil washed tive goats. yard or in the shed with a dry Care Of The Hoofs floor. But even the native away by rains.as a commercial opxtion. we can find some place to find that they have destroyed our pasture our goats. we notice that the goats how much it hurts when we acgo from place to place to get the cidentally cut our fingernails too food they need without being short. the kept ‘out of the rain and . . Plenty of clean drinking water destroying other people’s gardens. Goats should be either tethered in If we have a male goat.are protopsoil was richer. or him away from the milk goats. happier.gather green feed and bring it to ready learned the lesson of not let. But goats suffer much from get.them during heavy rains. That keeps the female loose. :wc keep the pasture with a long rope. With a sharp knife we so that new plants may grow and trim off little by little the projectalso to give the goats the variety ing rim. and the grass tected from cold winds. If we do not do this beeven when we are planting &her fore we get our goats. or on the pilapil if the neighbors. We pecially at night and during milknever let our goats wander around ing time. ting our animals roam around. This is more true of the as an addition to 1~1r family sub- . like we trim our fingerof growing feed they crave. and also we must As Samaka farmers we have al. Each goat needs about 1. we should let them do the Before we start raising goats. guided. We move them from months it keeps them healthier and one part of the fields to another. We are not startirrg goat-raising goat is held by a short rope. because we know pasture.200 we should get a shed or shelter square meters of yearly pasture. So move in. So for our was as good as at the start. is of course necessary for the goats. same.130 TBE SAAIAKA GUIDE the end of 4 years the cattle pas.

we can bring the goat down to the ground level. with the floor a meter above tlie ground. We should see that a feed box 131 has been placed near the gate of the stall. rain and wet ground. The X-holder is easy tt~ build. Some of us find it best to I-:Gld the goat shed under the house fnsafety and for convenience. 71). Materials For Goat Shed ‘Ne need a shed for our goats to protect them from strong winds.hn sistence farm. A shed or compartment 2 meters wide and 3 meters long is big enough for our two milk goats. and the floor should be elevated above the ground to keep it dry. If we prefer to squat. to keep the goat quiet. 72). Milking on the right side is the more customary. 73). Milking Our Goats The important thing we must remember in milking the goats is cZeanl&ess. It can be built next to the poultry shed. (Fig. we can build cur goat shed of the materials at hand. it helps to relax the udder. we can place the milk goat in front of her stall and milk her while we stand. With these needs in mind. This is for the salt. . and from attacks by dogs. This holder will also be us<ful when we are brushing the goat or trimming her hoofs. Dry Floor Each goat should have its own stall. We find it convenient to have the goat’s neck held between two upright or Xformed bamboos. so that no loose Lairs or dirt will fall into the milking can. but extra space where the young can be kept separated is also important.and manure to fall through to the ground below. and should not be far from the house.. The partition betwv th* stalls should be strong enough to prevent the goats from knocking it down when they try to butt or bump each other. with cogon or nipa roof and sides. The chief disadvantage of this method is that the goat might drop something dirty into the milk can. (Fig. and aroma and acacia pods we feed to the milk goats. (Fig. (Fig. even in play.Let Us Raise Goats On Our Homesite F. Separate Stalls. If we have the elevated goat shelter. We have found a bamboo floor satisfactory.o goats to begin with. Many of us are accustomed to milk the goat from the rear. 30 dirt will not get into the milk. as the slats allow the urine . (Fig. Before we start we should brush the goat carefully. so probably we will only have t::. Goats get accustomed to being milked from the same side. 70). 74). The pictures here shown will give us some useful ideas on how to plan our goat shed. it should be on a separate frame so it can be removed now and then for deaning the dirt or cement floor underneath. We want a clean dry place to do the milking. If our platform is low. and is shown in the picture. such as bamboo. If we put a feed box or basket with grain in front of the holder during the milking. hay and grain mash.

71. 70. for greater safety. Suggestions for a goat shed nest to poultry shed. Mans fanners prefer stab&g goats under home. . Fbr.132 THE SAMAKA GUIDE Fig.

we should nudge her udder a few times and some more milk may flow.y. they become so attached to people that they give more milk to the person who has cared for them at the time they bear their young. to keep her from moving away from the milker. 72. The udders and teat. (Fig. 73. If milking is strange to us.Let Us Raise Goats On Our Homesite Farm Goats are sensitive to changes in ownership and it takes them several weeks to become accustomed to a new location and new people. When we think we have taken all the milk. so milking a goat will be easy.s should be dried with a clean cloth. Finally. We all know that the milk pan into which we collect the milk should be cleaned first with soap and water and then rinsed -~~+A boiling water. and also was?1 our hands with plenty of soap and water. Milking sition. But by pressing our right shoulder against her right leg she will learn to stand steady. Milking form. 133 We should use both hands from the beginning. It also helps to have a bamboo rail or fence close to her left side. Most of us know how to milk cows or carabaos. They give the milk easier if the same person does the milking. we can visit the milk goat raiser and watch him when he is milking. goat on elevated plat- Fig. It is easy to learn by following the procedure illustrated here. In fact. goat in squatting po- . Even visitors around at milking time may cause the goat to hold back her milk. 75 and 76). we press our fingers down the teat to squeeze out the last drop. Before we start the milking we must wash the udders with chn2 warm water. and keep a firm hold even if the milk goat tries to move around to test us. Fig. It is necessary to keep dogs awz.

so that the teat can again fill up.134 THE SAMAKA GUIDE or three months before the goat is ready to give birth again. Finally we close our little finger and squeeze with the entire hand until the milk has come out. cess with the other hand on the other teat. and not allow strangers or dogs around to make the goat nervous and hold her milk. Now we release the pressure of our hand on the teat and open our fingers. This causes the goat to give milk more freely. 1. 74. Next we close our second finger. anti stop two . and we do not jerk the teat down. as it will not be clean. 3. and continue alternately until very little milk comes. Warm water is preferred. After we milk the goat we transfer the milk to clean glass jars or bottles with covers that have been cleaned with soap and water and rinsed with boiling water. We must be gentle. so the milk will get cool more quickly. 4. the first stream of milk from each teat should be squirted away. We discard the first squirt. 2. When the milk flow becomes fig. Milk Producing Period The period of the year during which goats produce milk begins about the time the female goat gives birth to her young. This is called the “lactation period. Next we close the third finger.” It may run for as short a time as 3 months or as long as 10 months. until a few months after she has become pregnant again. The washing of the udder should be done immediately before the milking. 8. We use steady pressure. How To Mlk Goats In milking goats we should follow the same procedure each time. so the milk will not go back to the udder. 5. The hands and udder should be dry when the milking begins. We must always remember that when we start the milking. Next we wash the udder of the goat with a clean cloth.he goat when the young are born. 7. After the milk bucket is ready we wash our hands with soap and water. X-holder to keep goat in PO- sltion. The milk in the teats can go back into the udder or down into the milk bucket. 6. The milk will keep fresh longer if we set the bottles in cold water at once. We repeat the pro. So first we close the thumb and first finger around the teat. We begin milking t. and that should cause the milk to squirt out.

. To do this we take the teat between thumb and first finger and press firmly. We run the pressed fingers down the length of the teat. The final drops of milk should be “stripped” or squeezed out.er pig. Most f exnale goats quit producing milk about three months after they become pregnant. This is necessary so that she can use her strength for producing her young. If she continues to produce milk we should help %. she becomes dry. But when the goat’s pregnancy is well advanced. .Let Us Raise Goats On Our Homesite Farm very slight. but we should not prolong this final squeezing as it harms the teats. 10. we nudge the udder te see whether the goat. Fkst steps in milking goat. 135 More About The Milk Producing Period The period of pregnancy is about 5 months. 9. that is. Sometimes the nudge will release more milk into the teats. or 148 to 152 days. has released all of the milk in her udder. This final milk is very rich. she stops giving milk. 75.

We teach them to feed from the pan by dipLVilk Feeding Baby Goats ping a finger into the pan of milk? Many of us do not get as much and letting the baby goat lick it.136 THE SAMAKA GUIDE become dry. milk as we should from our goats. tainer and take the milk unaided. ._Further steps in rn~k~g goat. . and feed them from a pan with the milk we take from the goat. but we do not throw it away. 76. The baby goat learns’to follow the because we let the young goats finger down to the milk in the contake milk from the mother goat. We have The first milk is somewhat yelfound it more advantageous to take low. Fig. when they are young. by milking only once a day. . then every other day. and gradually less often until the flow of milk stops. the baby goats from the mother right after they are born.

This way a!I of milk the goat twice a day. have found that goats produce and deprive LIS of milk. The milking period of female goats may run from 3 months to as long as 10 months. we try to select our milk goa. Her best milk production is during the ages of 4. We them will not go dry at one time. we do not let them nurse because it contains a substance that newly born goats need for their health. we may find it wise to milk the goat in the afternoon. A male is good for breeding until he is 8 years old. we place the mother and the young together the first three* days. The life span of a milk goat extends to 12 years or more. frequently t. and 6 years. In the Philippines the goats may become ready for breeding any month. After the female has produced young and has been milked for several months she gradually becomes dry. Life Span 0f Goats . We separate the young from the mother beginning the fourth night. according to the climate of our town. Each of us must make our own breeding calcndar. Milk. We should count ‘on an average of two each season. the task will be entrusted to one of the older children. On the fourth clay we start: milking. 5. In five to seven days after the goats are born we can start the regular milking for our household miik supply. A period of 7 to 10 months is good.hree. If the baby goat will not take it at first and it gets thick. six o’clock in the morning. more milk if we milk them twice Raising The Young Goats 1 a day. who will do the milking before goiirg to school. it is best not to let them breed during the 5 months before the rainy season. in the evegoats produce the greatest yield ning. We take all the milk from the ucJder and offer it to the newly born goats and use the excess for feeding to the chickens or hogs. ‘as of mjlk. goats are seasonal breeders in northern countries. early in the morning. If. and then separate them again late in the afternoon. We do not use such milk for human consumption for several days after the birth of the young goats. If we notice that the udder seems full after the baby goats have had their share. so that the young will not be born during the heaviest rains. Therefore. and we have to mate her with a male goat in order to “freshen” her. However. and then put them together again all day aftm the milking. instead of pan feeding. we should warm it carefully and if necessary thin it somewhat by adding a little clean warm water. and sometimes four.ts Twice Daily Milking so that they will have different After the young are weaned we breeding seasons. WC follow the old method and allow the mother goat to nurse her young. early in the morning and If we wish to make our milk about 12 hours later. This will mean for most of us.Let Us Raise Goats On Our Homesite Farm 137 A female usually gives birth to two young.

sell it to a tannery agent. We rub fine salt into the fleshy side of the skin and allow it to cure. meal when they are three weeks some of LIS j~lil cofn. milking. and we usually start feed. and the only time we will straw. be warm. Instead we should dry or salt cure it as here described and . corn mea-l. . If they will not produce milk. and will still be adding young goats. The the mother J! I:YGL:.OOO) pounds of goatskins every year for making shoes.:.have to feed them is when it is ing them hay and a mixture of raining too hard for them to graze rice bran. r:k milk whenever young which we do not keep for it is hungry. WC three to four so they will keep dry and not get months old the milk feedings can cold. Care Of The Hide The hide of the goat is a valuable product. flesh side up. her young. and copra out in the open. Unless a few WC&Y:. The United States imports more than sixty million (60. so them to lie on at night at first. should be raised for meat. pocketbooks and other leather articles.ilated place until it is very dry. all.f ?ting thz baby goats take their m. we offspring of this mating. we 3 glassfui of fill. that when the:. In rainy or damp weather we find it better to preserve the hide with salt.~‘e can reduce the we mate the milk goats to a male feeding to f’.id because of reproduction. we their mother. Goats for Meat The milk-feetilrig by hand should If we decide to keep only two or at first be I’WX tjmes a day.-i.000.135 THE YAMAKA GUIDE the baby g:c-::?es af.i~ from the teats of set aside for the young goats. .r-~ together so the young male goats and the female baby goat cti.\fter the milk siJrJi. about three female goats for milk. However. It should be kept stretched in a well vent. When we slaughter only two or three goats each year it will not be worthwhile for us to try to make it into leather.+ ::mes a day. both the should lea\*:: tn\.inue the old old. -. who will pay about PLO0 for each goatskin of the ordinary Filipino goat. Even when !it>*JTly born goats are They can grow well on pasture a week old they will nibble at food. In the section of the goat shed practice !.*. be discontinued. Tn both cases we should pile dry straw thicklv for will have t3 tvc~i‘r the young. . The hide may be air-dried by hanging it over a fence.i. at a time.

if the hair of the goat rubs against the flesh during the skinning. The outer skin or hide. so we keep it tied in its stall. Also they can be kept with the female or milk goats. We will also want to slaughter 139 for meat any females which after a season show they do not yield much milk. is removed before we cut* the goat open to clean it. Especially if you have only one milk goat. covered with hair. it is good to disinfect the wound. (c) An i. The best ages for slaughtering goats are between 8 months and 2 years. it is good to have a castrated male. (a) A strong bamboo or wooden table . We slaughter goats differently from pigs. With the other hand he sticks the . Only after the skin or hide is removed do we start taking out the entrails and butchering the animal. . They reach their full size by 2 years. until our race of goats is better and better. so we replace them with new females we have selected because of their bbtter qualities. it is better to call on the municipal agriculturist or other expert to do the castration. and so on successively.go. because goats suffer when they are lonely. 77). When everything is ready for the slaughter we brush the goat very well to get the dirt out of its hair.Let Us Raise Goats On Our Homesite Farm It is very important that we castrate the males WC raise for meat when they are about a week old. saying they are more tender and have a sweeter flavor. Of course when milk goats get too old. e. (b) A sharp knife . it may give a bad taste to the meat. The advantage of castrating male goats is that they produce sweeter meat and grow larger. Sut often the flavor of the meat is spoiled because breeding males have been allowed to mix with the females and the castrated males. Setind step: We place the goat on the tibIe on its side. The older milk. The skin is removed carefully because of its value as leather and because we want to keep the hair from touching the flesh. so it is no use keeping them longer.ron hook : (d) A coil of rope . they yield less milk. and pressing so that the testes or eggs come out.. The goat is given no food but plenty of water for 18 to 24 hours before it is killed. after they are 6 or 7 years old. First step : We have the following things ready (Fig.. Someone holds the legs. so as to get offspring with more milk production. During our early years we may be continually selecting new female goats which have been mated with a fine breeding goat. Most farmers do this by cutting off the tip of the bag or scrotum.meat. The butcher presses dowx’the head with one hand. Also. If we have tincture of iodine or pine tar. If we let the male get too big. i.at will then be replaced by her b&t offspring. Slaughtering Goats Many people prefer young goats for . both in size and in milk production. which are then bitten off or cut off to separate them from the body. (e) A pan.

(Fig. 78. . (a) From the neck to the point of the jaw. Things to prepare for slaughtering goat. We remove the Fig. Third step: After bleeding. .140 THE SAMAKA GUIDE Fig. and by ES single outward movement he cuts the blood vessels and bleeding begins. 77. we run the knife and then skin the head. the goat is placed on its back and its hide is opened by ripping. blade pointing out. e point of the knife in the throat behind the jaw. We must be careful not to cut or tear the thiu membra??e under the hide. 78). Killing the goat by cutting throat. (Fig. 79).

we cut the breast bone apart. 80). 81).downward from the shoulder and upward from the hind legs. (b) Next WC cut skin down to the breast bone. Follow the nu- . We then tie a string around the bladder. and open up the belly to remove the entrails. 79. until finally the entire hide falls off. The hide must always be removed. Sixth step: Now we are ready to clean the carcass. (Fig. 80). (c) Then we cut inside of the front legs and rip the skin loose. With a bolo or saw. (Fig. and the opening is tied to keep the material from corn ing out. (e) A cut is made around the rectum or anus. (Fig. We pull the skin backward to the point of the breast and over the neck. (Fig. This way all of the insides or entrails can fall out together. Fourth step: We start loosening the hide by pressing our fist between the hide and the breast 141 and then between the hide and the belly. skin.Let Us Raise Goats On Our Homesite Farm head at the first joint of the neck. (f) The hoofs are cut off. Fifth step : We rip the skin down the middle of the breast bone and push it back. 80). (g) The goat is hung from the hind legs on a hook. After Fig. (d) Next we cut inside the hind legs and rip the skin loose. How to cut the sk:n of a goat before removing merical order of the numbers. Then we cut loose the wind pipe and gullet at the throat. using our fist the same way. and finally we cut around the diaphragm. We start by cutting loose the rectum. and wash it in cold water and remove the tongue and brain. With the knife we make a cut in the belly.

81. Fig. cavity. Cut. Suggestions For Cooking Goat Meat If the goat is properly slaughtered.142 THE SAMAKA GUIDE Fig. placing the entrails in a basin we wash out the inside. the delicious flesh delights the palate of the lover of good food.ting open belly for cleaning. Remove skin by pushing fist between hide and thin underskin. Skinned goat. 82). Entrails fail into hands of butcher. waiting . and loosen the blood vessels along the back by massaging inside the. 80. In the next pages are givdn a few of the many ways of preparing goat meat for the table. and butchered. skinned. cleaned. (Fig. Fig. 82.

slaughter the goat. and can be left in the pit longer until we are ready to serve. While the fire is burning. We serve this goat curry by pouring it over our plate of boiled rice. When the fire has burned down - to coals. place an iron grill over the coals or cover the coals with dry sand. and mix it together: Grated coconut Hardboiled eggs. and the stones are almost red hot. Immediately cover the hole with iron sheets and s’hovel earth on top one foot high and extending a foot around the edges to keep the heat inside. matchbox size 4 onions 1 piece garlic 1 cup of lard 1 bay leaf 3 chiles 1 teaspoon salt Black pepper. for 1 kilo of goat meat: lye tablespoons vinegar llh tablespoons salt 1 tablespoon sugar 3 pieces chopped garlic ll/~ tablespoons toyo Black pepper The next day dry the meat on. and add enough salt. we should start at 4 o’clock in the morning. Place paper and tinder in the bottom and pile firewood on top until the hole is filled. firm ground about 1 meter deep and 1 meter square. skin it carefully so the hair does not touch the ftesh. Barbecued Goat (Paradise Farms Style ) Dig a hole or pit in dry. Many people like to serve other condiments with the curried goat. Tapa Goat meat tapa is made by cutting the meat very thin and soaking it overnight in the following mixture. spices Boil the goat meat in water un- . and piping hot. fire. and light the.144 THE SAMAKA GUIDE Then place in the curry pot three cups of chopped cooked goat meat. Sprinkle or brush barbecue sauce or toyo on the pieces of meat and salt and pepper them. Wrap each large piece in banana leaves. and then place the banana-wrapped meat on the coals. Place a layer of large river stones 15 to 20 centimeters deep in the bottom and inclined upwards on the sides as far as they will go without falling. chopped Sweet pickles Chutney Peanuts. juicy. In 6 to 8 hours the meat will be tender. and after bleeding and cleaning the carcass. We add a tablespoon of one or more of the following condiments on top of our serving. chopped Crumbled tinapa or other dried fish Chopped onion greens. Goat Meat Pilaff (Malayan Fried Rice ) 1 cup raw rice 10 pieces of goat meat. bamboo sticks under the sun. cut it into large pieces. kinchay. To have this barbecue for lunch at two o’clock.

kinchay and s~j~&s in 4 tablespoons of lard until golden brown.Let Us Raise Goats On Our Homesite Farm til it is tender. Serve with fried rice. let it cook until slightly brown stiring constantly. The egg. and then place the goat feet in the liquid and cook fok 10 minutes more. Chop two onions fine and fry until brown. Place the uncooked rice in the pan with the rest of the lard. and cook slowly for about 10 minutes. salt.ce them in a cooking pot cooked. Meanwhile fry 2 onions. then anothw piece of water and remove every bit of meat. Grill or hair. and clean and scrape the feet. When cooked sufficiently off easily.i liter broth onions lengthwise. then a Salt and pepper 6 kalamansi slice of green pepper. salt and garexcellent Yecipe : (If you have some tinto or lic. barbecue this over a fire until Then pla. Let the excess moisture escape before serving. Now we add two cups of the broth in which the feet were cooked. the goat meat and the goat broth. a little ginger and some salt. chopped garlic. that can be used instead 12 goat feet of vinegar. Then add the condiments. and sprinkle with barbewith boiling water. then add a tablespoon of flour and continue cooking until the flour is brown. Cut large bell peppers and I. Remove the meat and let the liquid boil until it is reduced to about two cups bf Ehquidgoat broth. Always grease 6 chopped kalamansi (juice and the stick first so the meat will slip skin) . and cook slowly until the rice is tender. Soak overnight in oil and viFrench people have the following negar with pepper. next a piece Scald the goat feet in boiling of onion. I ’ . we may slaughter three or four Cut pieces of raw goat meat goats. add salt and cue sauce or toyo. with 2 sliced onions. ckiles. and remove these from the pan.) 2 onions. That will give us a lot of from leg about the size of a large goat feet to make use of. Goat Meat Siskabab Goat meat Salad oil Vinegar (or tinto) Green Bell Peppers Onions Garlic Goat Feet Salt If we have goat meat for a fiesToyo sauce ta. bayleaf. pepper. all close together. Cooking oil Place on a bamboo stick (tuhuFlour gan) a piece of the meat. and cut the feet into e-inch pieces. red wine. 145 t&e out the big bones.

ilapia matures in from two to t. Even though this fish may be new to some of us. something like apahap. Starting Operations As soon as the fishpond is built we fill it with water about 1 meter deep. They say it has a very good taste. Under unfavorable conditions sexual maturity and breeding may be delayed as long as six months. we are re’ady to put in the small fish to seed our fishpond. The baiigus reaches a marketable size of 25 to 30 centimeters in six months and weighs from a half kilo to nearly a kilo. because other barrio farm- Fig. to fertilize the pond. and South Africa are growing tilapia very successfully. fishpond may be built above ground. We can get the seed fish free from the Bureau of Fisheries at Manila. If high floods reach our homes. it ia worth trying. pigeons. weighs about a third of a kilo and grows to a length of from 15 to 25 centimeters in one year.5 kilos. From fry stage it &ows to sexual maturity and breeds under very favorable conditions within ’ one month. Thailand. and grows very fast. Farmers in many barrios are already rais’ing tilapia in their home fishponds. Many farmers think it is better to plant the seed fish a week after the pool has been prepared. ducks. or any animal manure from chickens. carp (carpa). 84.8 centimeters long. into the ground and which evaporates under the sun. They are the giant gourami. goats. when they have a supply. The giant gourami and the carp take more than a year to mature. The fishpond should be in a sunny place. A pair of tilapia under favorable conditions can multiply to one and a half million fish in one year. ers have had such good results . When these preparations are completed. Thousands of barrio farmers in Indonesia. Private fishpond owners also sell the seed fish. baiZgzcsand tilapia. Then we throw into the water about 20 handfuls of powdered rock lime (apog). to disinfect the water. Many farmers now consider the tilapia the best. For our small fishpond we can start with about 12 very small seed fish (fry) or about 6 fingerlings about 2 to . They grow to a size ‘of 30 to 45 centimeters in length and weigh from 1 to 1.hree months under fgvorable conditions. The t. and 20 handfuls of superphosphate.Our Family Fishpond 147 Kinds Of Fish There are several kinds of fish suited for a backyard fishpond. or pigs. and adding to their family food supply.

This net is !owered until it lies flat on the bottom of the pond. $8. Then some feed. such as rice bran. The methods described here are for the tilapia. These particles are living plants and animals. the net is lifted as fast as possible to prevent their escape. But those of us who Fig. When plenty of fisrl? are above the net. Gill net. iack this experience will want to know the different methods of harvesti>gg the fish from our backyard fishponds. which multiply and grow in the water. Fig. Catching The Fish Farmers living near the sea or river knqw many methods of catching fish. But the same methods can be used for harvesting other kinds of fish. and that is why we’ have to add fertilizer to our fishpond. 85). Fig. too small to see with our eyes. Dip net. The size of the mesh varies with the size of the fish to be caught. the insect eggs and tarvae. Plankton is the name given to the very small floating green particles. Par catching tilapia not smaller than the fingerling size.-Usually a dip n? for catching tilapia is square. is spread on the water surface just above the net. These fish also eat the green substances that grow on the bottom and walls of the pond. Lift net. . (Fig. a mesh of 1 centimeter should be used.Feeding The Fish The food of the fish we plant in our home fishpond is ‘mostly the plankton or algae. and snails. 85. Dip net. 87. Fig. Bamboo fish trap. which is a new kind of fish for many of us. 86. Plankton is a word we will learn and remember. which grow naturally in standing water and soon make the water green.

As the young fish get larger we have to keep taking out the larger ones. As soon as this is set. That will mike the fish grow faster and allow the pond to hold more fish. allowing it to hang vertically on the floatline.-This fish weir is made out of bamboo splits tied together with coconut coir. The size of the net varies with the width of the pond. either superphosphate or animal manure. The fish are taken from this weir with the use of the scoop net. (Fig. (Fig. 89. Gill net (Pante) .we have too many small fish. Some of us line it with a net.-The gill net is used to catch the fish through entanglement. The frightened fish swim around to look for shelter to hide. For catching tilapia from fingerling to marketable size a mesh size of 1 centimeter is recommended. there is not always enough in a small pond where the fish multiply very rapidly.Our Family Fishpond Lift net--This net is operated much like the dip net.ftih trap. We transfer the larger males t. we should give some to our neighbors who want to start fishponds. The breeding pond does not have to be large. The mesh size also varies with the size of the fish to be caught. The tilapia multiplies so rapidly that many farmers build separate breeding ponds and growing ponds. 89). The excess females can be eaten as . The only difference is that it is much larger than the dip net and it requires two to four men to operate it.he pond. the faster they will grow. Disturbances are then made on all other parts of the pond. so we can lift the net and take out the excess fish from the breeding pond.ty of food. Or. before growing pond. if we want. We can start breeding pond. Many take refuge inside the heart of the trap. When. 87). the fish-are frightened by beating the surface of the water with bamboo poles or pieces of wood. becauseit increases the supply of 149 Fig. (Fig.dilis or made into patis. Thus they will not be crowded and can grow to large size. to leave more room. to our fishpond. with a small building the plankton in the water. like a curtain. where they will not multiply because they are all males. we can have another growing pond for only female tilapia. The male tilapia is recognized because of its projecting sexual . It is operated by spreading the net across the center of the pond. The fewer the fish in t. (Fig. 88). Managing Our Fishpond Every three weeks we should add a few handfuls of fertilizer. 86). sometimes nearly 30 centimeters long. “diliman” or other kinds of vines or strings. But even with pler.o the growing pond. Bamboo .

our harrows. Our milk-giving (lactation) period. in addition to having a greater milk production. values. We either save this much on our purchases producer of baby carabaos.we the carabao milk. we should try $0 earn this fl. a thousand years. we Also. They are also an important source of food. we can get two liters of fresh That means an average of one caramilk daily during the carabaos’ bao for every seven people. When a carabao pay for genuine evaporated milkis too old. The dalag often travels through the rice fields seeking a body of water like our pond.1 so THE SAMAKA GUIDE organ under the tail. our carts. therefore. ter. A Neglected Source of Abundant Milk . Chr Carabao wjll no longer have to buy canned milk at the tienda. should. We must keep our eyes open to see that no cEaZaggets into our fishpond. How Our Barrio Can Start Home Fishponds To get fish raising started in our barrio we shouid get together and establish a community seed fishpond where we can raise small fish to distribute among ovrselves. So we have to go to the tienda and buy imported canned milk. farm production depends upon That is more milk than two tall strong and healthy carabaos. because the dalag will eat the tilapia. The female tilapia has a round swelling under the tail with a curved opening. The hito and martiniko are also killers of the tilapia. and our Whep we consider the price we sleds. we only have to get a few seed fish. or earn it by selling milk from our carabaos as . and after that we can raise all we need in a few months for distribution to those of us who build our home fishponds. If we have a female carabao. about 80 centavos a tall can-we If we have a female carabao. more butterfat and other food Carabaos not only pull our plows. carabao milk is richer than have usualljr taken very good care ordinary cow’s milk. we Lactation Period Of course the carabao does not give milk every day of the year. we siaughter it for meat. because it has of these animals. Many farmers have found that if we feed and In 1964 there were about 4 mile care for our carabao “cows” betlion carabaos in the Philippines.60 a day get milk and cheese as a part of extra by using our carabao for our diet. For cans of evaporated milk every day. That way. Many of us do not get as much at the tienda.

If we have a carabao.:stomary milking period is about 23T days or neariy eight months. If tropical kudzu is fed N-e LISP our carabao for many to our milk carabaos. Also we will feed to our hauling crops by cart or sled. Feeding Our Carabao The milk-giving The carabao is called a “roughage” feeder. such as darkk atid ground corn. but if she is giving milk or to care for the milk carabao so doing hard field work. We can make the lactation period last longer by giving the correct feed and care to the milk carabao. With a caranot forget to use the corn cobs baa he can rent land for growing after we have shelled the corn. we are probably raising rice. and milking her regularly. So during that period we will not be able to milk the animal. copra meal. Our rice straw is excellent feed for the carabao. ar cane part of the year. corn stalks. and other plants. corn. and we thereThe carabao eats about 30 kilos fore ah-eady appreciate our carabao and treat it well. I . crops. cowpeas (paayap) . and carabao the ears of corn which he can earn from plowing and barare defective. And we must not forget to supplement this roughage with we have been getting. Sugar cane tops are very much relished.asses. And we must anything he cwns. such as cracked corn. green tapilan. But we are of grasses and other roughage a only now beginning to learn how day. or sug- Salt is another substance which our carabao needs. The c. she will eat she wit1 yield much more milk than more. stubble. it reduces purposes. straw. This is obtained by growing plants especially for feedihg to the carabao. He can hire his carabao cobs have almost 6OOJoas much to others who do uot have a carafeeding value as shelled corn l-rao. or whatever else may be availatile and nourCare of the Milk Carabao ishing. field. if he does not already own We have recently learned that corn a.Our Carabao 151 season may be . rice bran (darik) . s Pregnancy and Weaning The pregnancy period of a carabao is about 324 days-nearly 11 months. molasses. That means it eats gl. But if we want to increase the milk yield we should also feed our carabao with grains or other concentrated feed. knows these things. or by giving the carabao the farm wastes that she enjoys. cobs should be ground before feedThe successful Fiiipino farmel ing them to the carabao. He can earn money from grains. A small amount can be added to the mixture of concentrated feed. Of course the corn rowing contracts. The carabao is more imthe amount of grain and other portant to the Filipino farmer than concentrates needed.E short as 130 days and sometimes as long as 310 days. vines. moye concentrated feed.

Many of us neglect this “stripping. the production of milk increases. The final drops of milk should be “stripped” or squeezed out. we really should have two female carabaos. Before the calf is weaned. Sometimes a resulting from this second upgradnudge will release more milk inte ing will be a better milk producer than her mother. in the early morning and at the end of the day.a day. we nudge the udder breed. we wash our hands with soap and water. The government began importing Murrah carabaos in 1917. we should completely separate it from its mother. The Indian carabao called the Murrah gives an average yield of s1/2 liters daily. Milking the Carabao The carabao should be milked twice . They have multiplied since then.152 THE SAMAKA GUIDE To have enough milk for our family every day of the year. we can let the calf suck the mother’s milk during the daytime or nighttime only. Here is our best milking procedure : 1. and if supplementary feed is given the milk carabao. To do this we take the teat (ut6ng) between fhe thumb and first finger. If we can find a Murrah bull in our province.Murrah bull. When the milk flow becomes an upgraded female is ready to very slight. This is called “upgrading. The hands and the udder are dried and the milking begins. we can mate her with a to see whether the carabao has re. 3. as soon as the calf is able to subsist on roughage and concentrates.milk the other time. according to when we want the milk for our own use. and the female calf leased all the milk. .“’ When 4. we should have our Philippine carabao mated to the Murrah bull. Five days after birth of the calf we can remove it from the mother and give it a share of the milk we ti-t from milking the carabao. Improving Our Milk Carabaos The Philippine carabao does not yield as much milk as some breeds of foreign carabao. and the calf can suck the. In this case. the milk-giving period may be somewhat prolonged. The female offspring will inherit some of the ability of the Murrah carabao to produce more milk than the native carabao. Or. and press firmly as we run the fingers down the length of the teat. Next we wash the udder of the carabao with a clean cloth and water immediately before the milking is begun. We now know that if we empty the udder and teats completely. the teats.” so some milk is left in the udder and teats. Warm water is pref erable. 5. compared with 2 liters average for the Philippine carabao. 2. After the clean milk bucket is ready. the hand milking can be done at one time.

In this case. or non-acid fruits and vegetables (such as beans. at a price we can afford to pay. Every family cannot afford one. then fill the jars with hot juices or syrup. and 25 jars of pork sausage. for example. and heat the jars in a tub of boiling water.d make us sick. (See Figure 90. and okra). but here the price is much higher.00. We can also get a free recipe booklet on food preserving by writing to San Miguel Brewery Glass Factory at Manila. the food we put in the jars may get rotten a. Of course we can use these jars.Home Food Preserving Made Easy For many years the domestic science classes in the schools have been teaching how to preserve fruits. a domestic science expert will be sent to give our group personal instructions. or will preserve the fruits and acid vegetables that do not need a pressure cooker. we need a large 204iter pressure cooker. This costs in the United States about $30. 25 jars of fruit preserves. The San Miguel Brewery Glass Factory is now making home preserving jars in Manila. about Pl. corn. Our Assistant Leader in Charge of Food Preserving will be furnished all the instructions by the Agricultural Extension Worker and if we adopt this SAMAKA way. and kalamansi. oranges. We barrio people have not been able to practice food canning because we lack the best equipment. again and again. But if we want to preserve. santol. If we plan to preserve meat.20 each. her Assistant Leader For Food Preserving. eggplant. vegetables and meats. Maybe one of the SAMAKA housewives is somewhat expert in food preserving. Another difficulty has been the high cost of imported glass preserving jars. fish. guava. it would be a good plan for us to appoint. So it will now be possible for us to preserve much of our season’s harvest for future use. so that in the seasons of plenty we can save food for the seasons of scarcity. pineapples. mangoes. After the water has been 153 . such as tomatoes. they can group together and each contribute something to buying a community pressure cooker. Then we simply prepare the fruits. Unless very good methods are followed. 25 jars of tomatoes. we would have to invest about BlOO only for the jars! Now here is the good news for the SAMAKA housewife. bignay.) Probably most of us will preserve our fruits and vegetables as pickles. place them in jars. But if a group wants to preserve these kinds of foods.

we seal the jars and put them on our shelves.56 12 354. Suppose there are 50 SAMAKA familiesin our group and ea&h of these families preserves 72 jars a year.28 117.... Since the preserving is done under her directioni she will know that it is of good quality. the Leader would receive altogether as ._ _ _ .10 . Con. Will it be profitable for us.12 709. 4 118. cu.50.1.. . because we use the tomato to flavor so many of our foods.. divided by 5 years useful life . P5. say 2 jars out of each 12.00. so she will neglect her own household duties while helping us.42 .) Jai’s.Total.35 3. not counting value ’ of tomatoes . One of the most useful vegeta- Glass Jars Made in the Philippines Sizes Fluid OZ. At the 1963 prices.28 Metal Covers What will our Leader in Charge of Food Preserving gain by helping us with this work? Many of us will be calling on her for her time and labor. But we have a surplus during other months. We have no tomatoes in our garden during many months of the year. we shohlld give her a share of the preserved foods. bles for us to preserve is the tomato.. to preserve tomatoes? Suppose we want to preserve 25 jars of tomatoes in the Size No.. here is what it will cost us: 25 jays tops _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Pl.05 To buy these 25 jars of tomatoes in cans at the store would cost us not less than P50... 24 jars that hold I$$ pints (about vk liters).. 8 236.84 16 473.154 THE SAMAKA GUIDE boihng for the time stated in the recipe.5 pillt (16 oz.-10 Spices _ .P3.Therefore.50 Fuel ‘for cooking _ _ _ .

Home Food Preserving Made Easy

Fig. 90.


pressure cooker best for safe food preserving.

her share, from the 50 families she helped, a total of 600 jars of canned food. That is enough quan-

tity for her to sell, and will pay her for her valuable help and hard work.

Gmying The SAMAKA Plan To Our Fields
After we have followed the SAMAKA plan for a year we will probably decide that some of the things we have learned in our home garden will bring us rich rewards in our rice field, or corn field, or tobacco field. If we grow only one crop, we will ask ourselves, “Why not plant something ,in our farm fields after we have harvested our rice?” Legumes Enrich Our Soil We learn in our SAMAKA garden that when we plant beans, or mungo, or some other crop of legumes in our garden, the land becomes richer and produces more the next time. It is well known that if we plant mungo, or peanuts, or patani in our rice fields after the harvest, we will get more rice the next year. In addition, we can harvest the beans and get extra income.. Mungo, for instance, produces 15 cavanes a hectare, if we do it right. Save Our Grass, Straw And Leaves We also learn in our home garden that the rotted leaves and grass in our compost pile are good fertilizer. So we leave the mungo plants in the field to rot and plow this rich fertilizer back into our soil. Many farmers are finding that it is very profitable to build large compost piles right in the fields, where the surplus straw, leaves, and vegetable wastes are




systematically gathered and made into rich fertilizer for their. field crops. We have often seen some. farmers burn their rice straw in the field. That is burning up the richness of the soil. It is the same as burning up a cavan of palay, because we are making our land weaker. In China the farmers buy rice straw when they can get it, and the price they pay is one-tenth of the price they get for an equal weight of palay! But as SAMAKA farmers we have learned the lesson in our garden of using all the vegetable wastes to enrich our soil.

veral things together. The reason this method is successful is now understood. The beans climb on the cornstalks so we do not have to place stakes for them. At the same time the roots of the beans bring fertility to the soil. The leaves of the camote or squash shade the ground and keep it from getting dry and stop the weeds from growing, so we do not have to cultivate. We harvest the corn, the beans and the squash when they are ripe, and sell them or keep them to feed our hogs and chickens. After we have harvested these things we let the pigs and goats pasture thelie, Increasing Our Pig Production being careful not to let them roam. Maybe we become very success- What they clo not eat we plow back ful in our home garden in raising into the ground to make it more 2 or 3 pigs. We may decide to fertile. What they do eat will be breed pigs and raise More, so we converted by the bodies of the anican sell them. mals into rich manure in 24 hours. Then we must plant pig feed in This system of planting several our fields. Nobody can make mo- crops at one time which help each ney raising pigs if he has to buy a other and also help the soil is calllot of feed for them. But if we ed the lazy man’s system. But we plant camotes, or corn, or mung0 do not think so. We call it the way in our fields after the rice harvest, to get the best reward for our lathat will give us enough food for bor. After doing this way for two many pigs. years we will find that our rice

Corn, Beans And Squash Together

field will give us 6 to 10 cavanes more a year.

A good way to plant for our pigs is to plant corn, then in the same Planting Without Plowing In Our Rice Fields row as the corn we plant sitao or other climbing beans and then In Mufioz, Nueva Ecija, and in in between the rows of corn we other towns around there, the plant camotes or squash. farmers follow a very easy and Corn was first grown by the profitable method of planting veAmerican Indians thousands of getables in their rice fields immeyears ago, and the farmers of diately after harvesting the palay. those days, barrio farmers like us, Their method does not require any followed that way of planting se- plowing or furthei cultivating.




Plan To Our Fielcls


They apply to their fields what we out sharing with the landlord. We t~ve learned in our home garden. are entitled by law to have a homeThis method is most successful site of at least 1,000 sq. m., where the soil is sandy loam, like although many landowners allow more than this. the “turnanal” areas, with irrigaBefore we produce extra crops tion. Immediately after the rice is on our rice field outside of our harvested, the straw or stubble is homesite, we should have an uncut close to the ground and piled derstanding with the landlord. If we agree to plant legumes, to one side, to allow the excess water in the soil to dry for a week such as sitao, beans, cowpeas, or two. When the field is suf- patani, mungo, peanuts, etc., which ficiently dry, the straw is placed add to the fertility of the soil, a evenly over the surface, making a wise landlord should agree to letmulch at least 5 centimeters thick. ting us use the land free, because Then the field is irrigated enough it will increase the yield of the to soften the surface, and the next principal crop the next year. Also, if we promise to graze day the vegetables can be planted, either with seeds or seedlings, ac- plenty of livestock on the field, cording to the kind of vegetable, which will make the land produce more! a wise landlord may be glad and without plowing. The farmers in Nueva Ecija to allow us to plant extra crops. If the landlord does not agree have used this method successfully for growing onions, garlic, to this, and we pay all the expenbeans, cabbage, pechay, mustard, ses, we may grow additional crops and we have to pay him only 20% tomato, eggplant, and ampalaya. (one-fifth) of our produce. In that case we would keep our liveOur Rights As Tenants stock in our own homesite, and If we are tenant farmers grow- bring the hog food from the field, ing rice, we do not have the right so as to have the manure for our to use the field we cultivate with- own gardeni

Our Barrio Fiesta
Many people criticize the barrio fiesta. They say it forces poor people to spend more than they can afford and go into debt. They consume all at once the food they should save for future weeks. After the fiesta is over many families do not have enough to eat for a long time afterwards. Therefore, some people say, the barrio fiesta should be abolished. We do not agree with these critics. We believe the barrio fiesta is a very necessary part of rw life. It should not be abolished. It should be made bigger and better. WC SAMAICA farmers can have

In a SAMAKA barrio. we must start preparing for the fiesta next year. and plenty of chickens. The important thjng is for us to prepare the special things we will need: in advance. Then let us decide among ourselves who will be assigned to raise the pigs for the fiesta. How can we satisfy this taste? The best way to use large fully grown pigs and get the lechon taste. ly food all at one time for the fiesta. Some of the ways to have a successful fiesta without hardship are given here. That requires 6 large hogs. That is about 500 mouths to feed.158 THE SAMAKA GUIDE a better barrio fiesta than we ever had before. If our SAMAKA barrio does not have a community banquet. During the year each one of us will have to contribute a little feed to the 6 hogs being raised for the fiesta. and how much meat will be needed to feed them. .000 people. The other foods are not so difficult for the SAMAKA farmer. but sometimes there is also beef. For his own personal guests he sacrifices a young pig for a lechonada that he should keep until it grows big. or goat meat. where people work well together. and then go hungry. and at the same titie we need not go into debt or consume food that we will need later on. The most important item is meat. Lechon It is wasteful to use small pigs. so we will not be for&d to con&me our regular dai. and this way they become community hogs. The secret of success is to prepare in advance. or have a few extra chickens and ducks for our personal visitors. If each’ family is allowed to invite 5 visitors to the banquet. that makes altogether 1. In some barrios the burden is made easier by having a community banquet instead of having special food at every home. the community . is to make the well known ‘LLechOng Macao. Usually it is pork.9j This means rve steam or boil the meat a short time before putting it over the open fire. because all ‘of us will have plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables in our garden. If this plan is followed.banquet seems a good idea. But every one craves the taste of crisp skin of the small roasted pig. USUdly the hardworking farmer ‘who has saved more livestock than his neighbors is forced to contribute more than his lazy friends. then each of us who will entertain visitors should raise one extra pig just for the fiesta. Let us suppose that we have 100 families in our SAMAKA group. We give some for the community banquet and keep some for our house guests. we detide a year in advance how many people are expected. We will need for so many people 300 kilos of meat. These things we have learned by watching how the people in some barrios provide the food for the barrio fiesta. As soon as we have recovered from the celebration of this year’s fiesta.

We will about growing a few flo. better farmers and homemakers. but also how to be better citizens. A projthe SAMAKA way of life. he cct may be almost anything-from adopts it for the whole family. sion of the Department of AgriculSome of the children will be. All raising a pig for market to designthe children are given their spe. SAMAKA Farmer’s Children When a barrio farmer adopts one 4-1-l project each year. They learn by doing how to become better farmers when they are Who Sponsors 4-H Clubs? important lesson. It teaches the children the learn by doing not only how to be work for the good things of life. Every club represent the extension bureau in member is required to carry out the provinces. from cooking rice to This not only distributes the work preparing a complete meal.work in the school garden. These other children in the barrio. If they go to school. Membership supervision of the agricultural and is open to young people between home demonstration agents who the ages of 10 and 21. .more beautiful and typical than tions in the other part of this book the artificial decorations. from growing a vegecial tasks in taking care of the gar. front yard.wers.ing a dress. and others who are The 4-H clubs are organizations all in encouraging of boys and girls who want to interested worthwhile activities among the learn by actual practice the betgroups they are working with.table garden to landscaping a den and the chickens and the pigs. The 4-H the local 4-H Club.ture and Natural Resources. that we have to The 4-H clubs are sponsored by the work they do in the home garthe Bureau of Agricultural Extenden may be allowed to take the place of. club also depends upon the support What Are The 4-H Clubs? aud cooperation of school teachers and officials. much If we have followed the sugges. 159 ing the house and streets with paper streamers. They better. ter methods of farming and home making as well as the how and The club members are under the why of doing things. grown up.Our Barrio Fiesta This is the prudent SAMAKA way. we also have plenty of garlands of do not have to spend for decorat. Instead we will have plenty of all kinds of flowers Decorations to string across the streets.flowers for the procession. Then groups act as the 4-H club advisthey should be encouraged to join ory council ‘which sponsors prizes and awards for contests. They come enthusiastic and eager to do draw a great deal of support from some particular work better than business and civic groups.

potatoes. cassava. We need energy food called carbohydrates.s The human body needs four basic kinds of food. cowpeas. such as rice. gabi. Some foods are especially important. Every day we should eat the fresh fruits and vegetables which have so many minerals and vitamins that our bodies need. We need muscle and tissue building foods.hat children do not have strong bones and do not grow tall. If today we have pork. sugar. called proteins. i=u. and beri-beri. But if necessary we can do without fish and meat.the Philippines is the banana. peanut. If we have nothing else to eat. corn.they eat the foods that have the right kinds of minerals. pellagra. instead of eating the same thing every day. such as mungo. with a viand of fish. because they have plenty of the same substance we find in meat (protein). as everyone knows. chicken. plenty of bananas can keep us strong and healthy for many months. malungay. and good red blood. teeth.t if we cl0 not eat either fish ancl animal flesh or these beans our bodies will be weak. corn. kangkong and banana. Each one of these basic foods contains some of the things we find in the others. For repairing and building our muscles and other parts of the body. because they have substances which certain parts of the body need. potatoes. and ripe papaya.Hints On Food Need. we need’ plenty of fish and meat. and some vegetable or gulay. it is good for us to eat many different kinds of food. The balut is also very good for making strong bones and teeth. and fats. tomorrow we may have tulya. When a grown man breaks his arm. and the other foods that have plenty of starch. and soybean. To be sure that we get all of the substances our body needs. In this way. the things lacking in today’s food will be found in to- . camotes. We need minerals for building bones. which is rich in all of the food substances. We know t. the doctor tells him to drink plenty of milk to make his broken bones heal. And finally we need vitamins to keep us healthy and promote growth. One food that is very common in . banana. Eggs and milk are especially important for children and for pregnant and nursing mothers. but generally not enough. or bread. or meat. For the energy foods there is no true substitute for the rice. when we can afford it we always try to have each day our rice. Therefore. and take in their place beans. rimas. They contain the substances which promote growth and keep us healthy and prevent such common diseases as scurvy. corn. unless . such as fish and meat.

den to increase his food supply Maybe! our town already has and make better use of his time some home . when an application for an agricultural loan is receiv.and livestock will not keep us very ing to an extent commensurate busy.industry which only a and idle land. Others son inspecting the applicant’s have not started home industries far-m will report whether the ap. Home Industries It Is Easier For SAMAKA Farmers To Borrow Money When a barrio farmer follows the SAMAKA way of life he gets better food and becomes a stronger worker. Diversified farming. poultry. things for sale. with plenty of fruits.” Home Industries For SAMAKA Farmers The SAMAKA Guide is intended to help the barrio farmers to produce more and better food for their families. Then . all of us can be stronger and healthier than before. supplementing other factors prescribed by existing regulations. Also everycne admires him because he is helping himself in an intelligent way.because they do not know what to plicant has a successful home gar. A good system of diversified subsistence farming will be considered a factor in the consideration of a loan application. there is no steady market. for agricultural loans who practice taking care of our home garden supplementary subsistence farm. the inspector or other per.money in our pocket? That is what many barrio farmed. vegetables. so as to have more “Therefore. especially from a working farmer. few people are following. If he needs to borrow money for his farming activities people will trust him more than they trust farmers who do not follow the SAMAKA meth&The I%lippine National Bank has sent the following instructions to all of its branches and agencies : and Iivzztcck. The extra food he produces in his home garden is the same as increasing his income. we “It will xxx be a general policy will find all the members of our family filled with energy.Hints On Food Needs 161 morrow’s meal. and meats. After our home garden is more productive. is a sign that the farmer is prcgrcssive and will be more able to repay his obligation. Between of this Bank to give special favorable consideration to applicants the harvests of our regular crops. Every barrio farmer has observed that his neighbors who eat many kinds of food usually resist disease and have strong healthy children.So why not use this spare time between crops in making with their potentialities.ers are already doing. because including home gardens. With our SAMAKA home garden and livestock.make that people will buy. .

Another way. If we want to start home industries in our barrio. or expand the this way to make more money. If the SAMAKA farmer and his children have a home garden. the germs of malaria then enter the body of the mosquito. Other germs pass through the air or from touching. with fruits. But most of us know how these germs secretly enter our bodies. Our task is to keep these agents away. our SAMAKA leader can get information and a teacher to tell us about Pottery Weaving Hats Baskets Mats Artificial flowers Our Family’s Health It is the ambition of everyone to have a strong healthy body. If a mosquito sucks that person’s blood. cholera.--When s. Here are a few of the things that we SAMAKA farmers can do to keep our families free from the germs that bring sickness: Malaria. if a fly alights on the wastes it will carry some of the wastes and the germs to our food. we should call on the sanitary inspector to destroy the places where the mosquitoes grow. it can give the germs of malaria to the other people. If many people in our barrio have malaria. is when a person having this kind of sickness does not wash his hands after discharging his bowels. But it is even more important that people who already have malaria sleep under a mosquito net. and when that mosquito bites other people. When we eat that food. If he touches the food or dishes. and Qphoid. the germs enter our mouth and we get the sickness. he ‘leaves invisible specks . Many of the germs use mosquitoes. and in that way we keep away the invisible germs. the germs are carried in the wastes. If we always sleep under a mosquito net. When someone with these sicknesses discharges his bowels. -The germs which cause these diseases enter the body through the mouth. Then. they will be better able to resist disease because they eat the good kinds of foods. The germs of disease that most people in the barrio should fear are invisible to the eye. But that is not the only key to good health. Among the many home products which we might want to make. it means the germs of malaria are in the blood of that person. vegetables and livestock. Dysentery. flies and cockroaches as their agents.162 THE SAMABA GUIDE let us see how we can find a better market. the follo~ving 2U-e mmsted: industries we have already. We mast also arrange the conditions of our house and keep its surroundings clean and sanitary so that the germs which bring sickness cannot enter.ome person in our town has malaria. perhaps the mosquito cannot bite us.

should follow to keep the germs of dysentery. If angone gets sick from dysentery. mixed with sand. Plans and directions for building a cheap and good toilet with local material is shown on the opposite page. and keep it covered so flies will not alight on it. 2. 5. inserting B bamboo pipe for ventilation” 4. 3. Then. Keep our water jar eovered.if it is so small we cannot see it. Cover the opening with half bamboos to support the floor. Wash all fresh food carefully before eating it. If every SAMAKA farmer in our barrio carries out these simple precautions. Teach everyone to wash hia hands with soap and water after using the toilet.. pretty soon nobody will be attacked in our barrio by the germs of dysentery. Build a wooden box around opening with a seat above. Make a dirt floor on top of bamboos. or water which we have boiled for 10 minutes. either the bored-hole latrine or antipolo type. Here are the chief rules we. when we eat that food we may let the germs into our body and we get that sickness. Build a simple sanitary toilet. with soil from termite (anay) hills.Our Family’s Health 163 of the wastes and the germs on that food. it is enough to make us sick. 1. or typhoid. or with clay-loam earth. 4. 2. 1% to 2 meters deep. . Drink water only from an artesian well. it is because he has taken some human feces into his mouth! Even . 6. and do not dip into the water a cup that flies may have touched. 1 meter square. Fig. 5. Walls and roof can be made of bamboo or sawate. so that no flies can ever touch human feces at our house. A sanitary water closet for every barrio home can be built with local materials. cholera and typhoid. Support the earth Walls with bamboos. 3. 61. and typhoid from entering our bodies : 1. cholera. cholera. Dig a hole or pit in the yard.

The germs of tuberculosis travel on the. the tuberculosis germ is usually defeated. it is important that no one else touches his clothes. That is why we see so much tutxxulosis among the poor people. All of us know that if we touch someone with skin diseases. if the germs of the disease are too many they may win. If the barrio farmers earnestly follow the SAMAKA plan. In almost every case of tuberculosis. Therefore we get tuberculosis from kissing a sick person. they can make tuberculosis disappear from their barrio. For that reason. When our bodies are well fed. sleeping or weak. such as ringworm. As SAMAKA farmers we should all be proud that by following the SAMAKA way of life. we can do more to drive tuberculosis from our country than can all the doctors and the government health officers. But if we breathe too much of the sick person’s air. breath of the sick person and try to enter the lungs of other sleepirig people who breathe the same air. or using the drinking glass or utensils used by the person who is sick from tuberculosis. we try to keep the germs from entering our own body when we are tired. That is why we must always have the persorr in our family who suffers from tuberculosis sleep in a different room from the healthy people. With our home garden. . we sometimes see rich people getting tuberculosis. and our livestock we will all have more food. and the person who touches anything which the sick one has touched should quickIy wash his hands with plenty of soap and water. our home poultry. The germs of tuberculosis are also found in the mouth of sick persons. Many of us forget that the same thing happens if we touch some object which the sick person has touched. are also caused by invisible germs. The clothes of the sick one should be frequently boiled to kill the germs on them. That is because some rich people do not always eat the right kinds of food. and we will all have ~CUNJ differmt LGzclsof food necessary to keep our bodies healthy. and scabies. Skin Diseases Skin diseases. the germs will be so many that even strong people cannot resist. While the person with a skin disease is being treated. But even when we have strong healthy bodies that can resist the germs of tuberculosis most of the time. his blanket.164 THE SAMAIM GUIDE Tuberculosis Tuberculosis is the disease which kills more people in the barrios than any other sickness. or he coughs in our face. or because they work too hard or get some other sickness that weakens their bodies. yaws. if someone in our house gets sick from tuberculosis. Of course. we now understand that the person who gets tuberculosis has not been eating the right amount of food or the right kind of food. we are likely to transfer the germs to our own skin. or the chair he sits on.

If we want good harvest from our SAMAKA garden we must plant good seeds. Empty cans and co. If we have burned. How do we get seeds that have these three necessary qualities of high rate of germination. and hairs of they become too many. We cannot abolish flies from The SAMAKA farmer should keep his ground well drained so a farm.Our Family’s Health 165 flies become too many in our barrio.‘:. Also trees all animals that die of sickwe can ask the sanitary inspector ness. and dead cats and dogs we to spray the place with DDT if find near our home. Keep Our Grounds Clean -- Seeds from the most reputable producers of seed. The garbage Disposal Of Garbage and refuse from our kitchen we either feed to the pigs and chicThe garbage and kitchen wastes kens or place in the compost pile. If we select the poorest instead of the best seed from even a strong plant. they will not harm us.ing the germs of sickness to our conut shells scattered around the food. yard are also bad. feathers. If the entrails. Plants are like people: the seed inherits the physical qualities of the parent plant. By good seeds we mean that most of the seeds we plant will germinate or sprout. we will probably get low yielding crop plants. and generous yield? We get them by buying them . been careful :c keep the flies from This is especially necessary for our food.-made. then it is the chickens and livestock we kill. and that the harvest from each seed planted will be plentiful. or in some cases by selecting seeds from our own plants with the same care that the most reputable seed producers use. that we cannot feed to our pigs or The manure is used for fertilizer in our gardezr. A good seed producer starts with good parents or seed @ants. that the plants will show strength and vigor as soon as they germinate. If we plant the seed of weakly sick parents. maximum vigor. better to cover the compost pile We should also bury near the fruit with a layer of garden soil. we will probably get a crop of weakly sick plants. plies may breed in use in our compost pit should be the manure when the compost pile buried deep in the ground or is not prop> 1. but we can reduce the standing water will not support number and keep them from bringmosquitoes.

medicines that keep fungus and insects from eating the seeds have found best are Asgrow. Fronda Arcadia G. Secretary-TreasureT . Testing equipment is needed to see when the seed is drl:ed just right. . Mr. Mr. and weeds. and FerryMorse. . disease. . SAMAKA SERVICE CENTER. . Carandang . . Angel C. Col. . .. some 10% some 13%. Aguas . . to remove dirt. . Pineda . Mr. . The seed of each kind of plant has a different percentage of moisture to keep it alive--some 8%. . P. . Cha&zan and President . Vice-President . they are treated with fmgicides and insectiAmong the brands of seeds we cides. . . . He nex” b%es the seed to the exact percentage of moisture which he knows will allow the seed to be stored for a long time without losing its ability to sprout when planted (viability). Tmstee . Mr. . .. It is much better for us to buy our vegetable seeds from an txpert seed producer than to gather seeds from our own garden.. : After drying the seeds. Cayetano C. . Tmstee . .. . . . 3acinto T. Mr. Eliseo C. so that the moisture inside will not change before planting time. c.. ._. Cornelio V. . . .. Matela . . Francisco M. pests to the garden. and so forth. . . Vice-President * . the seeds are stored in sealed containers..166 THE SAMAKA GUIDE Finally. Gavin0 . .. and from carrying diseases and Farmseed.. Box 2310 Manila. . INC. Burpee._. . and since bought seeds usually double our harvest it is a cheap price to pay for big yields. Rafael Zulueta . Crucillo .O. Trustee . . Executive Secretmy . . PhiEppines . . . . Many seed dealers now sell vegetable seeds in the various towns of the Philippines or we can order them by mail. A packet of vegetable seeds can be bought for 60 centavos. 1973 BOARD OF TRUSTEES Mr. Mr. the expert seed producer next clcn92~ the seer!. After selecting the best seed from the best p?&ats.. .

No. entitled “The SAMAKA Guide to Supplementary Subsistence Farming. pigs.” means a group united to have more plentiful food. poultry-using the part-time labor of all our family.” and printed 35. is to produce it in our own backyards.. Under its successful School and Home Garden program. With the generous sponsorship of Colonel Andres Soriano. to his food production. and other livestock. where most homes have 600 to 1. tens of thousands of families planted home gardens and raised poultry. This organization mobilized its resources and prepared a loo-page manual entitled “The Masagana Rice Farmer. San Miguel Brewery defrayed the cost of publishing 10.000 copies of a manual on home gardening. was published Later. When he discovered that no comprehensive manual on rice growing in the Philippines had ever been published. an American old-timer who since 1909 has been closely identified with Philippine farming. Bureau of Agricultural Extension.000 copies were published in Tagalog under the title “Ang Gabay Ng SAMAKA. to help the rural people increase their milk and meat supply. The Samaka Service Center does not engage in rural field work. vegetables. 167 . NARRA. In January of 1958.000 square If we will use this idle land wisely for food production meters for their homesite. The cost was curttributed by supporters of the Samaka Service Center. non-profit corporation organized to help the Filipino family enjoy more abundant and nutritious foodIts name is derived from the first syllables of the words eXPreSSinK its Purpose in which in English the Pilipino language : “Samahan ng Masaganang Kakanin. the nation would be adding more than P1.” Through the generosity of International Harvester Co. YMCA.” The public demand was SO great that San Miguel Brewery supplied 30. Hoskins. we can produce easily 1700 worth of additional food a year at each homesite. It was organized to help existing rural groups carry out their work among the people. Honorable Manuel Lim. Altogether 31. In 1956. production! The home garden is therefore the COPRA. -fruits.000 copies. “Ang Magsasakang Pilipino. 25. PRRM. He is a member of the Agricultural Council of the College of Agriculture. AND TOBACCO PRODUCTION! greatest underdeveloped industry of the Philippines. Most bookstores carry it in stock.? primarily The Samaka Service Center is a non-stock. The PRRM was handicapped by the lack of a home gardening manual. The public and private schools. and 4-H Clubs are the principal recipients of Samaka publications.500 copies were donated to public and Private schools and the rest were offered to the public at Fl per copy.” Another 10. The supply of “The SAMAKA Guide” is now all distributed and is out of stock. For 66 *years the Bureau of Public Schools has been promoting the backyard farm. “The Family Chicken Cage” is the fourth publication of the Center. Colin M. pigs. without an increase in ordinary income from wages or crops. Especially is this true in the rural areas. PACD. The quickest way to get more food for the family.4 BILLION to its THIS IS MORE THAN THE VALUE OF OUR ANNUAL SUGAR. The author of all four publications is Mr. so that every elementary school in the Philippines could get a copy.006 copies were printed and distributed. 12). announced a National Self-Sufficiency and Food Production campaign under the auspices of the public and private schools. *‘Let Us Raise Goats on 0~ Homesite Farm. “The Masagana Rice Farmer” has become the rice-growing bible among r&al leaders and English-speaking farmers. In 1953 the Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM) made the home garden a main target of its barrio uplift program. Inc. There If every farmer added f’700 a year are some 2 million farms in the Philippines. he called on Samaka Service Center for help. the then Secretary of Education. the Samaka Service Center published its second circular. University of the Philippines.000 more. a Tagalog translation in the DANR magazine.What Is The S&MAKA Service Center.” (Volume II.

9. manure etc. 23. 20. Compost pile for fertilizer--leaves. . 8. 12. with katuray and malungay. onion. q. Camotes and mongo 3. 22. 4. upo.. 24. pepper. 14. Vegetables of different kinds. Bananas Ptgeons Pigshed Carabao shed Chickens Sanitary toilet Garden well Ducks Fishpond for tjlapia Papayas Trellis for squash. straw. 18. 13. 2. 16. 18. Pomelo Guava Guayabano Atis Kamyas Kalamansi Avocado Fences of madre de cacao or ipil-ipil. 6. ampalaya 17. eggplant. .\ 1 lettuce. tomato. radish. rows every 3 weeks ‘. 11. PRINTED BY LIWAYWAY PUBLISHING. 19. etc. ~-ip \ garlic. 21. Succession planting of corn4.)(_ MODEL Froih The BABTAKA GUI OF SAMAKA MESITE FARM What we can do on our GO0to 1.000 square meter yard a ‘-q 1. 7. such as pechay. 10. ‘*I.

3. natural growing mushrooms are 2. Materials : of land.after planting.Let Raise Mushrooms US Mushrooms are easy to grow. Rizal. Peel the potat.ral College in Magalang. leaves. Tanay. enough water.P. Enough wwter. Plug the test tubes with 169 . powder and stir. Add 21) gra. of Vocational Education.al. 3.e hot soltition The seeding materials or spawn . dried 4. Pampanga and Agricultural 8. 150 bundles of 6” dia. a little 1.ot?s and dice during the summer months when them into 1” cubes.~~ 4. The 2. Old ncwspapel~ sheet 3.h. PouY 1:‘) can be obtained from the U.in the test tubes. Other sources are mouth of the tube to proRizal National Agricultural School vent the cotton from stickin Sampaloc. Dextrose powder20 grams This fleshy fungus thrives best 3. Manila. . 6. lege of Agriculture in Los Bafios Take care not to wet t. Boil the diced potatoes in not in season. tiaterials needed for a mushroom bed measuring 5 meters loug by 4. Three 6-02. Paming. corn stalks.Disyetlse th. Return the vcw-rk? of the decoction to me liter and 1 meter high: place it back in the casse1. 7. a small piece 1.!sc at I$2 a bottle. Colml.nrs of dex’i’r~. bottles of spawn. can be harvested. 2. water lily and other leguminous wastes. banana. Education Division of the Bureau They can be grown the whole year. Strain the d e c 0 c’t i 0 n c through cheese cl0t. Fourteen to twenty a liter of distilled water days . into every test tube. corn stalk. 2. Potatoes-200 grams sweat <andlots of love. role. rice straw. Bacto agar-15 grams on rice straw. The selected plant refuse must be thoroughly dried. Procedure : best time to grow niushrooms is 1. ptinga *Agricultu.. Distilled water-100 cc banana Ieaves or stalks. mushrooms until soft. All that is needed are the followPreparing the Culture Medium ing : a modest capit. x 3 ft.

.‘I to ‘7 days and wash several times changing water every now and then.ipil Leaves. Slant some: of the test tubes at a 150 angle while medium is still in liquid state.e botties. 2. Continue to fill up the bottle loosely with the substrate to about an inch from the rim. Ferment the midribs from . Materials : 1. a. e. Ipil-ipil leaves 4 Coconat coir dust 5. 1). after which they are ready to be inoculated with the pure cult. For every part of ipil-ipil leaves_mix thoroughly 3 parts of coconut coir dust and 1 part of wheat b&n.n~. Sterilize for 15 minutes in a pressure cooker OF any suitable substitute at 120°C or 15 lbs. slightly packed. If wheat bran is not available. pressure from 2 to 3 hours. Chop t. b. When allowed to cool in Upright position. with inchthick of layers of . College of Agriculture in the I*ntio of 1:3 :l. wash thoroughly and wring. neither ton hose nor tt)o tight.ley hull) 2. 10. Bottle and process this substrate in the same way as the Brewer’s dried grains. Preparing the Substrate d. Pull out the test tube and put back the cap tightly.kiR of mushroom organism. If an improvised sterilizer is used. a. Set aside the sterilized Jottles to cool. Brewer’s dlsied grains (i.P. Stir once a day to get an evenly Materials A. 3 :l ratio will make a good spawning medi ~11. Sterilize the bottles with substrate in an autoclave or pressure cooker at 121OC or 15 Ibs. (a. 1). coconut coir dust and ipil-ipil leaves in a. heit a test tube at thct center of the layer. Fedent in water for 8 days.kewer’s Dried Grains. Coconut Coir. Be sure that the agar does not reach the plug. d. the slants are used to start petri dishes for isolation. 9. The slants are for growing organism in pure culture..7% THE SAMAKil GUIDE cotton wsrl. . Secure the thoroughly dried tobacco midribs. Pi-ocedures : I. C. Tobacco midl?bs 2. The mixture of these materials as substrate has been used in the U. pressure. boil the test tubes for 20 mill&es for three consecutive days. ‘Tobacco Midribs z. Ipil .hem into inch-long sections. 1~ Soak for 5 hours. Soak the grains for ha~i’ 0 an hour atld wring.l. Fill th. Wheat bran IBS. Wheat Bran. 3.brewer’s grain.

partially i 1. Procedure : ditch about 25-30 cm% deep. ” cent chlorox.j to 90 ems. Place the first layer of stl2~w or water lily bundles ~CFOSS the soil foundation with the butt ends on one side.re method: Keep on watering the lager una* Cut the newly opened ii1 the. Co Cut the inner tissues into small Pieces. high and ’ Preparing the Pure Culture 8f. lift a porover ferment because the leaves tion of the mass of spores will dissolve during washing and plant it on the surc. Aportion plump spawn. Lift the umbrella. Fold the tips under-if the da Place the cut tissues in bundles are longer than the width a ste$lized petri dish. b.the size of a thumb) along the room on a clean coupon sides . lating needle. Bottle and process the subThe mushroom bed must be built strate in the same manner as the on . . reddening of the per. wide of any length desired. water runs off the bed.Inoculate substrate . The 1. Bubling. then mushroom underneath the press the. the bed is being made. Method : bed may be an open field. four sides to allow chances then wash in three times. of the mushroom.aterials as they are laid. Let ns Raise Mushrooms 171 minutes. remove the outer covering .with ends hanging by the sides. Wash the whole mushused to build the foundation. . lOOsen the substrate for bottling. The site of the mushroom . the bundles close to one ‘another. TAG .: ‘. Tissue culture method. of the fouudation. It should Brkwer’s dried grains. Plant on container filled with fresh water. Spore cUb. Wring the fermented mateface of planted potato rials and transfer them to another dextrose agar... Around the foundation.for at least 30 about 3 to 4 inches from the edges. Spore culture method. Umbrella. Do sot let these e. cliz :i B. Planting Procedure 2. fermented product and to prevent c. Tissue culture method: soil dug from the ditch may be a. 2. the smaller the better. room with 1 percent mer.prevent it fVom crumbling while . (about be Lay the cap of ithe mush. bichloride or 5 per. .. With the aid of an inocuDo not cate good fermentation. 01’ completely shaded. Spores the growth of molds on the SUP will drop on the bond paface. measure about 25 ems. Pat!.A. d. With scalp blade or knife. of growth.m.a firm foundation.from G-8 inches apart and bond paper. Preparing the Mushroom Bed e. After the last wringing.and level the foundation well +o curie. the tissue culture. matter and unpleasant smell indid.

It is the weight of the layers t. Good judgement therefore must be used in determining the right amount of water hose to distribute water evenly. which is the membraneoussac enclosingthe mushroom. This temperature is favorable to the growth of mushroom fungus but not to other organisms. The best time to harvest mushrooms is when they begin to emerge from the volva. It is not advisable to spray t-he bed with insecticides because the residual effects on mushroom have not been studied. mushrooms come out in flushes within water hose to distribute water five to seven days intervals for a period of two o+ more months. Repeat this’ procedure until the bed has six layers and is about one meter high. Each harvest yields about twenty to twenty-five kilos. the rice straw . These develop into buttons in three to six days. then insert the spawns inside the layer to insure even seedlings. Next to good spawn. Trim the sides of the layers and mound the trimming? together with any left over soaked straw on top of the bed. and certainly not at all during the rainy season.e butts should be in the opposite direction so that the bed will be level. If mushrooms are in the shade. small white bodies about the size . Th s keeps the air moist and prevents crawling insects and other pests from entering the bed. no watering is needed during the dry season. The most common disease of mushrooms is the soft rot. Th.172 THESAMAKAGUIDE evenly. See to it that the ditch surrounding the bed is always filled with water. At the end of this time. The mushroom bed should be covered with a thicker mound of straw during the wet season. After the initial harvest. temperature and moisture are the most important factors in mushrooms growing. in places with a long dry season. especially if the bed is in the open field. Arrange the next layer of bundles on top of the first layer. Damage from soft rot may be minimized by proper harvesting and prompt removal of infected mushrooms and by not watering the infested beds. Without water or too much of it will kill the organism. Harvesting . Watering is not necessary in placeswithout a distinct dry or wet season. Use a sprinkler or One week after the bed is planted. watering is a must. However. The materials have to be pressed down tightly because they Imust reach a temperature of 40 to 45 degrees centigrade in 3 to 4 days.of radish seeds appear on the spots where the pieces of spawn were inserted. Water and plant as in the first layer. Care of the Mushroom Bed Just the right amount of water will make the mushroom grow.h& induces the organism to produce mushrooms.

Tips for Proper Harvesting Mushrooms should be harvested properly to obtain the best results. ning. as their caps have lost their firmness. Add.I s mushrooms are tastier than the g preserved ones. 1 cup soder running water. however.. when harvested as buttons or new1’ ly opened. skimming it from time to time until it is reduced to twothirds its original volume and has the consistency of heavy cream. Add 1 sliced onion. i Procedure : Melt the lard in a saucepan.3. Thev should be packed loosely in a basket after they are gathered. Add the boiling stock. 2 cups *the mushroom are retained during rice water and simmer u&i~S$%? cooking. Twist them off carefully without leaving any stumps which are likely to rot and produce bacterial infect ion.*<~ I c* . Add flour and mix well. Straip the sauce through a fine sieve. Wash the mushrooms un. Evidently.ohm Ousiy wiih a Mtl~. Cook for a few minutes without letting the flour take on color. Cook the sauce stirring frequently for about one hour. AUU bhG~~~~~~~~ rooms. Food technologists report that Saute together. salt and pepper. Stale mushrooms are known to be poisonous.uced by National Media Prodqcvor rather than their nutritive tion Center in line with the Navalue. below : Ingredients : 4 tablespoons flour 4 tablespoons lard e 1 cup chopped. Preparing Mushrooms for Procedure : Saute 3 cloves of the Table crtished garlic in 5 tablespoons of All parts of the Volvaria mush. drying. stirring occasionthe vitamin and other nutrients of ally about 3 minutes. tablespoons soy sauce. Mushrooms are no long_)’cr fresh twenty four hours after ’ picking. Fresh mushrooms taste better ). no not harvest them by cutting. fresh 9 Jj.mushroS& Mushroom Sauce 6 cups boiling stock Salt and pepper ioom from cap to stem may be cook 5 minutes. two cups at a time. eaten. freezing and can.Let us Raise Mushrooms is already decomposed and exhausted of nutrients. in coo*of recipes. mushroom>go into a variety tion’s green revolution. Extracted from pamphlet pr& Appreciated more for their fIa.and vegetables are well d&e. Tear down the bed and make a new one for another crop of mushrooms. Add 1 cup chopped pork and . The used materials can be utilized as fertilizer for other plants. cups fresh.lard. Spread this sauce over cold ox tongue or boiled chicken breast. but do not soak tanghon (previously soakedin cold them so they will not l&e their water for 10 minutes) and l-1/2 flavor. stirring the mixture vigorA-1-lLLr. wtr. two of which are given ration with BP1 and PRRM. quartered mushrooms.

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