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Stress and Strain

(3.8-3.12, 3.14)
MAE 316 Strength of Mechanical Components
Y. Zhu
Stress and Strain 1
Introduction
Stress and Strain 2
MAE 316 is a continuation of MAE 314 (solid mechanics)
Review topics
Beam theory
Columns
Pressure vessels
Principle stresses
New topics
Contact Stress
Press and shrink fits
Fracture mechanics
Fatigue
Normal Stress (3.9)
Stress and Strain 3
Normal Stress (axial loading)
Sign Convention
0 Tensile (member is in tension)
0 Compressive (member is in compression)
A
F
= o
Shear Stress (3.9)
Stress and Strain 4
Shear stress (transverse loading)
Single shear
Double shear
A
F
A
P
ave
= =
t
A
F
A
F
A
P
ave
2
2
= = = t
average shear stress
Strain (3.8)
Stress and Strain 5
Normal strain (axial loading)
Hookes Law
L
o
c =
c o E =
Where E = Modulus of Elasticity (Youngs modulus)
Torsion (3.12)
Stress and Strain 6
Torsion (circular shaft)
Shear strain
Shear stress
Angle of twist
L
u
=
T
J

t =
TL
GJ
u =
Where G = Shear modulus (Modulus of rigidity)
and J = Polar moment of inertia of shaft cross-section
T

Stress and Strain Review (3.6)


Stress and Strain 7
Beams in pure bending
Normal stress only
Plane sections remain plane
Sign convention
Positive bending moment: beam bends
towards +y direction
Negative bending moment: beam bends
towards -y direction
Right angle
Beams in Bending (3.10)
Stress and Strain 8
Beams in pure bending
Strain
Stress

c
y
x
=
y z
y v
c c

= =
Where = Poissons Ratio and
= radius of curvature
x
My
I
o =
Where I = 2
nd
moment of inertia of the
cross-section
Beam Shear and Bending (3.10-3.11)
Stress and Strain 9
Beams (non-uniform bending)
Shear and bending moment
Shear stress
Design of beams for bending
w
dx
dV
= V
dx
dM
=
S
M
I
c M
max max
max
= = o
allowable
Factor of Safety
applied
=
It
VQ
avg
= t
Where Q = 1
st
moment of the cross-section
Combined Stress in Beams
Stress and Strain 10
In MAE 314, we calculated stress and strain for each type
of load separately (axial, centric, transverse, etc.).
When more than one type of load acts on a beam, the
combined stress can be found by the superposition of
several stress states.
Problem 1
Stress and Strain 11
Determine the normal and shearing stresses at points K
and H. The radius of the bar is 20 mm.
Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels (3.14)
Stress and Strain 12
Thin-walled pressure vessels
Cylindrical
Spherical
1
i
t
pr
t
o o = =
2
2
i
l
pr
t
o o = =
Circumferential hoop
stress
Longitudinal stress
1 2
2
i
pr
t
o o = =
Column Buckling
Replace the length L with an equivalent or effective length L
e
.
L is the actual length of the beam & L
e
is the length for use in P
CR
.
EI
L
P
e
CR
2
2
t
=
2D and 3D Stress
(3.6-3.7)
MAE 316 Strength of Mechanical Components
NC State University Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Stress and Strain 14
Plane (2D) Stress (3.6)
Stress and Strain 15
Consider a state of plane stress:
z
=
xz
=
yz
= 0.
Slice cube at an angle to the x-axis
(new coordinates x, y)

Plane (2D) Stress (3.6)


Stress and Strain 16
Sum forces in x direction and y direction and use trig
identities to formulate equations for transformed stress.
( ) ( )
'
cos 2 sin 2
2 2
x y x y
x xy
o o o o
o t
+
= + +
( ) ( )
'
cos 2 sin 2
2 2
x y x y
y xy
o o o o
o t
+
=
( ) ( )
' '
sin 2 cos 2
2
x y
x y xy
o o
t t

= +

Plane (2D) Stress (3.6)


Stress and Strain 17
Plotting a Mohrs Circle, we can also develop equations
for principle stress, maximum shearing stress, and the
orientations at which they occur.
2
2
min max,
2
2
min max,
2
2 2
xy
y x
xy
y x y x
t
o o
t
t
o o o o
o
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
( )
2
tan 2
xy
P
x y
t

o o
=

R
R
R
R
ave
ave
=
=
=
+ =
min
max
min
max
t
t
o o
o o
( )
tan 2
2
x y
S
xy
o o

=
Problem 2
Stress and Strain 18
For the given state of stress, determine the angles at
which the principle stresses occur (principle planes). Also,
determine the orientation of maximum shearing stress.
Plane (2D) Strain
Stress and Strain 19
Mathematically, the transformation of strain is the same as
stress transformation with the following substitutions.
2 t c o and
2 2
min max,
2 2 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
xy y x y x
c c c c
c
( )
tan 2
xy
P
x y

c c
=

( ) ( )
'
cos 2 sin 2
2 2 2
x y x y xy
x
c c c c
c
+
= + +
( ) ( )
'
cos 2 sin 2
2 2 2
x y x y xy
y
c c c c
c
+
=
( ) ( ) ( )
' '
sin 2 cos 2
x y x y xy
c c = +
3D Stress (3.7)
Stress and Strain 20
Now, there are three possible principal stresses.
Also, recall the stress tensor can be expressed in matrix
form.
(
(
(

z zy zx
yz y yx
xz xy x
o t t
t o t
t t o
3D Stress (3.7)
Stress and Strain 21
We can solve for the principle stresses (
1
,
2
,
3
using a
stress cubic equation.
Where i = 1,2,3 and the three constant I
1
, I
2
, and I
3
are
expressed as follows.
0
3 2
2
1
3
= + I I I
i i i
o o o
2 2 2
3
2 2 2
2
1
2
xy z xz y yz x xz yz xy z y x
xz yz xy z y z x y x
z y x
I
I
I
t o t o t o t t t o o o
t t t o o o o o o
o o o
+ =
+ + =
+ + =
3D Stress (3.7)
Stress and Strain 22
How do we find the maximum shearing stress?
The most visual method is to observe a 3D Mohr's
Circle.
Rank principle stresses largest to smallest:
1
>
2
>
3

2
1 3
max
2
o o
t

=
Problem 3 (3.7)
Stress and Strain 23
For the stress state shown below, find the principle
stresses and maximum shear stress.
(
(
(

0 0 0
0 6 4
0 4 9
Stress tensor
Problem 4 (3.7)
Stress and Strain 24
Draw Mohrs Circle for the stress state shown below.
(
(
(

25 0 0
0 35 30
0 30 60
Stress tensor
Curved Beams
(3.18)
MAE 316 Strength of Mechanical Components
NC State University Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Stress and Strain 25
Curved Beams (3.18)
Stress and Strain 26
Thus far, we have only analyzed stress in straight beams.
However, there many situations where curved beams are
used.
Curved structural beams
Hooks
Chain links
Curved Beams (3.18)
Stress and Strain 27
Assumptions
Pure bending (no shear and axial forces present will add
these later)
Bending occurs in a single plane
The cross-section has at least one axis of symmetry
What does this mean?
= -My/I no longer applies
Neutral axis and axis of symmetry (centroid) are no longer the
same
Stress distribution is not linear
Curved Beams (3.18)
Stress and Strain 28
Where
M = bending moment about centroidal axis (positive M puts inner surface in
tension)
y = distance from neutral axis to point of interest
A = cross-section area
e = distance from centroidal axis to neutral axis
r
n
= radius of neutral axis
Flexure formula for tangential stress:
( )
n
My
Ae r y
o =

Curved Beams (3.18)


Stress and Strain 29
If there is also an axial force
present, the flexure formula
can be written as follows.
Table 3-4 in the textbook
shows r
n
formulas for several
common cross-section shapes.
( )
n
P My
A Ae r y
o = +

Calculate the tangential stress at A and B on the curved


hook shown below if the load P = 90 kN.
Problem 5 (3.18)
Stress and Strain 30