Stress and Strain

(3.8-3.12, 3.14)
MAE 316 – Strength of Mechanical Components
Y. Zhu
Stress and Strain 1
Introduction
Stress and Strain 2
 MAE 316 is a continuation of MAE 314 (solid mechanics)
 Review topics
 Beam theory
 Columns
 Pressure vessels
 Principle stresses
 New topics
 Contact Stress
 Press and shrink fits
 Fracture mechanics
 Fatigue
Normal Stress (3.9)
Stress and Strain 3
 Normal Stress (axial loading)
 Sign Convention
 σ 0 Tensile (member is in tension)
 σ 0 Compressive (member is in compression)
A
F
= o
Shear Stress (3.9)
Stress and Strain 4
 Shear stress (transverse loading)
 “Single” shear
 “Double” shear
A
F
A
P
ave
= =
t
A
F
A
F
A
P
ave
2
2
= = = t
average shear stress
Strain (3.8)
Stress and Strain 5
 Normal strain (axial loading)
 Hooke’s Law
L
o
c =
c o E =
Where E = Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s modulus)
Torsion (3.12)
Stress and Strain 6
 Torsion (circular shaft)
 Shear strain
 Shear stress
 Angle of twist
L
µu
¸ =
T
J
µ
t =
TL
GJ
u =
Where G = Shear modulus (Modulus of rigidity)
and J = Polar moment of inertia of shaft cross-section
T
θ
θ
Stress and Strain Review (3.6)
Stress and Strain 7
 Beams in pure bending
 Normal stress only
 “Plane sections remain plane”
 Sign convention
 Positive bending moment: beam bends
towards +y direction
 Negative bending moment: beam bends
towards -y direction
Right angle
Beams in Bending (3.10)
Stress and Strain 8
 Beams in pure bending
 Strain
 Stress
µ
c
y
x
÷ =
y z
y v
c c
µ
= =
Where ν = Poisson’s Ratio and
ρ = radius of curvature
x
My
I
o = ÷
Where I = 2
nd
moment of inertia of the
cross-section
Beam Shear and Bending (3.10-3.11)
Stress and Strain 9
 Beams (non-uniform bending)
 Shear and bending moment
 Shear stress
 Design of beams for bending
w
dx
dV
÷ = V
dx
dM
=
S
M
I
c M
max max
max
= = o
allowable
Factor of Safety
applied
=
It
VQ
avg
= t
Where Q = 1
st
moment of the cross-section
Combined Stress in Beams
Stress and Strain 10
 In MAE 314, we calculated stress and strain for each type
of load separately (axial, centric, transverse, etc.).
 When more than one type of load acts on a beam, the
combined stress can be found by the superposition of
several stress states.
Problem 1
Stress and Strain 11
 Determine the normal and shearing stresses at points K
and H. The radius of the bar is 20 mm.
Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels (3.14)
Stress and Strain 12
 Thin-walled pressure vessels
 Cylindrical
 Spherical
1
i
t
pr
t
o o = =
2
2
i
l
pr
t
o o = =
Circumferential “hoop”
stress
Longitudinal stress
1 2
2
i
pr
t
o o = =
Column Buckling
• Replace the length L with an “equivalent” or “effective” length L
e
.
• L is the actual length of the beam & L
e
is the length for use in P
CR
.
EI
L
P
e
CR
2
2
t
=
2D and 3D Stress
(3.6-3.7)
MAE 316 – Strength of Mechanical Components
NC State University Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Stress and Strain 14
Plane (2D) Stress (3.6)
Stress and Strain 15
 Consider a state of plane stress: σ
z
= τ
xz
= τ
yz
= 0.
Slice cube at an angle φ to the x-axis
(new coordinates x’, y’)
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
Plane (2D) Stress (3.6)
Stress and Strain 16
 Sum forces in x’ direction and y’ direction and use trig
identities to formulate equations for transformed stress.
( ) ( )
'
cos 2 sin 2
2 2
x y x y
x xy
o o o o
o ¢ t ¢
+ ÷
= + +
( ) ( )
'
cos 2 sin 2
2 2
x y x y
y xy
o o o o
o ¢ t ¢
+ ÷
= ÷ ÷
( ) ( )
' '
sin 2 cos 2
2
x y
x y xy
o o
t ¢ t ¢
÷
= ÷ +
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
Plane (2D) Stress (3.6)
Stress and Strain 17
 Plotting a Mohr’s Circle, we can also develop equations
for principle stress, maximum shearing stress, and the
orientations at which they occur.
2
2
min max,
2
2
min max,
2
2 2
xy
y x
xy
y x y x
t
o o
t
t
o o o o
o
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
± =
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
±
+
=
( )
2
tan 2
xy
P
x y
t
¢
o o
=
÷
R
R
R
R
ave
ave
÷ =
=
÷ =
+ =
min
max
min
max
t
t
o o
o o
( )
tan 2
2
x y
S
xy
o o
¢
t
÷
= ÷
Problem 2
Stress and Strain 18
 For the given state of stress, determine the angles at
which the principle stresses occur (principle planes). Also,
determine the orientation of maximum shearing stress.
Plane (2D) Strain
Stress and Strain 19
 Mathematically, the transformation of strain is the same as
stress transformation with the following substitutions.
2 ¸ t c o ÷ ÷ and
2 2
min max,
2 2 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
±
+
=
xy y x y x
¸ c c c c
c
( )
tan 2
xy
P
x y
¸
¢
c c
=
÷
( ) ( )
'
cos 2 sin 2
2 2 2
x y x y xy
x
c c c c ¸
c ¢ ¢
+ ÷
= + +
( ) ( )
'
cos 2 sin 2
2 2 2
x y x y xy
y
c c c c ¸
c ¢ ¢
+ ÷
= ÷ ÷
( ) ( ) ( )
' '
sin 2 cos 2
x y x y xy
¸ c c ¢ ¸ ¢ = ÷ ÷ +
3D Stress (3.7)
Stress and Strain 20
 Now, there are three possible principal stresses.
 Also, recall the stress tensor can be expressed in matrix
form.
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

z zy zx
yz y yx
xz xy x
o t t
t o t
t t o
3D Stress (3.7)
Stress and Strain 21
 We can solve for the principle stresses (σ
1
, σ
2
, σ
3
using a
stress cubic equation.
 Where i = 1,2,3 and the three constant I
1
, I
2
, and I
3
are
expressed as follows.
0
3 2
2
1
3
= ÷ + ÷ I I I
i i i
o o o
2 2 2
3
2 2 2
2
1
2
xy z xz y yz x xz yz xy z y x
xz yz xy z y z x y x
z y x
I
I
I
t o t o t o t t t o o o
t t t o o o o o o
o o o
÷ ÷ ÷ + =
÷ ÷ ÷ + + =
+ + =
3D Stress (3.7)
Stress and Strain 22
 How do we find the maximum shearing stress?
 The most visual method is to observe a 3D Mohr's
Circle.
 Rank principle stresses largest to smallest: σ
1
> σ
2
> σ
3
σ
3
σ
1
σ
2
1 3
max
2
o o
t
÷
=
Problem 3 (3.7)
Stress and Strain 23
 For the stress state shown below, find the principle
stresses and maximum shear stress.
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
0 0 0
0 6 4
0 4 9
Stress tensor
Problem 4 (3.7)
Stress and Strain 24
 Draw Mohr’s Circle for the stress state shown below.
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ 25 0 0
0 35 30
0 30 60
Stress tensor
Curved Beams
(3.18)
MAE 316 – Strength of Mechanical Components
NC State University Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Stress and Strain 25
Curved Beams (3.18)
Stress and Strain 26
 Thus far, we have only analyzed stress in straight beams.
 However, there many situations where curved beams are
used.
Curved structural beams
Hooks
Chain links
Curved Beams (3.18)
Stress and Strain 27
 Assumptions
 Pure bending (no shear and axial forces present – will add
these later)
 Bending occurs in a single plane
 The cross-section has at least one axis of symmetry
 What does this mean?
 σ = -My/I no longer applies
 Neutral axis and axis of symmetry (centroid) are no longer the
same
 Stress distribution is not linear
Curved Beams (3.18)
Stress and Strain 28
Where
M = bending moment about centroidal axis (positive M puts inner surface in
tension)
y = distance from neutral axis to point of interest
A = cross-section area
e = distance from centroidal axis to neutral axis
r
n
= radius of neutral axis
Flexure formula for tangential stress:
( )
n
My
Ae r y
o =
÷
Curved Beams (3.18)
Stress and Strain 29
 If there is also an axial force
present, the flexure formula
can be written as follows.
 Table 3-4 in the textbook
shows r
n
formulas for several
common cross-section shapes.
( )
n
P My
A Ae r y
o = +
÷
 Calculate the tangential stress at A and B on the curved
hook shown below if the load P = 90 kN.
Problem 5 (3.18)
Stress and Strain 30