Book 4 – Brasas Teacher Rachel Pinheiro

Form
Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive

irregular verbs: form of 'have' + 3r column of irregular verbs
Example: ! " #ou " $e " the# have spoken he " she " it has spoken

form of 'have' + been + verb + ing
Example: ! " #ou " $e " the# have been speaking he " she " it has been speaking

regular verbs: form of 'have' + infinitive + e
Example: ! " #ou " $e " the# have $orke he " she " it has $orke

Exceptions Exceptions when adding 'ed' :  $hen the final letter is e% onl# a
love & love

Exceptions when adding 'ing' : d
Example:

silent e is roppe + (but: oes not appl# for -ee* ',ample: come & coming aber: agree & agreeing after a short% stresse vo$el% the final consonant is ouble
Example:

 ouble

after a short% stresse vo$el% the final consonant is

',ample: sit & sitting after a vo$el% the final consonant l is ouble in British 'nglish (but not in )merican 'nglish*+ ',ample: travel & travelling final ie becomes y+ ',ample: lie & l#ing

a mit & a mitte

final l is al$a#s ouble in British 'nglish (not in )merican 'nglish*
Example: travel & travelle

after a consonant% final y becomes i (but: not after a vo$el*
Example: $orr# & $orrie but: pla# & pla#e

See also e,planations on Present Perfect Simple an Present Perfect Progressive

Use
Both tenses are use to e,press that an action began in the past an is still going on or has -ust finishe + !n man# cases% both forms are correct% but there is often a ifference in meaning: .e use the Present Perfect Simple mainl# to e,press that an action is complete or to emphasise the result+ .e use the Present Perfect Progressive to emphasise the uration or continuous course of an action+

Result or duration?

ample: ! have kno$n him for 3 #ears+ Emphasis on completion or duration? /o #ou $ant to emphasise the completion of an action or its continuous course (ho$ has somebo # spent his time*0 Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive Emphasis on duration Emphasis on completion ! have one m# home$ork+ (Meaning: My homework is completed now.) Result or side effect? /o #ou $ant to e.press $hat has happene so far or ho$ long an action has been going on #et0 Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive Duration (how long) Result (what / how much / how often) ! have $ritten 1 letters+ " ! have been to 2on on t$ice+ ! have been $riting for an hour+ ertain !er"s The follo$ing verbs are usuall# onl# use in Present Perfect Simple (not in the progressive form*+  state: be% have (for possession onl#* '.press that a complete action le to a esire result or that the action ha an un$ante si e effect0 Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive unwanted side effect desired result ! have $ashe the car+ (#es$lt: he car is clean now. "t does not matter whether the car is clean now.ample: 3e has touche the painting+  "rain wor#: believe% kno$% think% un erstan '. "t does not matter whether the homework is completed now.ample: .h# are #ou so $et0 & ! have been $ashing the car+ (side effect: " %ecame wet when " was washing the car.e have been on holi a# for t$o $eeks+  senses: feel% hear% see% smell% taste% touch './o #ou $ant to e.) .) ! have been oing m# home$ork+ (Meaning: hat!s how " have spent my time.) .

ercise 1 Result or si e effect: '.ercise 3 9ompletion or uration: '.ercise <% '.ercise = >i. Since the last time or since the beginning: '.press ho$ much time has past since the last time the action took place or since the beginning of the action0 Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive since the last time ! haven't pla#e that game for #ears+ (Meaning: "t!s years ago that " last played that game.ercise 45% '.) since the "eginning ! haven't been pla#ing that game for an hour% onl# for 45 minutes+ (Meaning: "t!s not even an ho$r ago that " started to play that game.) &ermanent or temporar'? !f an action is still going on an $e $ant to e.) (ignal words Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive   ho$ often +++ times ho$ long since for Exercises on &resent &erfect (imple and &resent &erfect &rogressi!e       Result or uration: '.ercise 4% '.ercise 8 9ertain verbs:'.ercise .e '.ercise 44 $ests on &resent &erfect (imple and &resent &erfect &rogressi!e .ercise 4% '. May%e he is an exchange st$dent and only here for one or two years.press that it is a permanent situation% $e $oul usuall# use the Present Perfect Simple+ 6or temporar# situations% $e $oul prefer the Present Perfect Progressive+ This is not a rule% ho$ever% onl# a ten enc#+ Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive permanent 7ames has live in this to$n for 45 #ears+ (Meaning: &e is a permanent resident of this town.) temporar' 7ames has been living here for a #ear+ (Meaning: his sit$ation is only temporary.$ime % negation: last time or "eginning of an action? !n negative sentences: /o #ou $ant to e.ercises: '.ercise :% '.

a#s+ since mi night+ the bus t$ice this $eek+ )egati!e (entences 6ill in the correct form (Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive*+ 4+ 8+ 3+ 4+ 1+ Cou (eat " not* 3e (speak " not* The# ($ork " not* .  Test 4 Test 8 9hange : 54st 6eb 855< 55:34 ?R2: http:""$$$+ego4u+com"en"cram&up"grammar"prepersim&preperpro ontact @ ) vertising on ego4u @ )bout us @ Press @ Partner sites 9op#right A 8554–855=% 2ingo4#ou BbR &ositi!e (entences 6ill in the correct form (Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive*+ 4+ 8+ 3+ 4+ 1+ ! (practise* Bob (run* The chil ren (be* The og (bark* .e (miss* the piano for 35 minutes+ 45 km+ on holi a# for si.e (kno$ " not* She (hang " not* up #et+ on the phone for half an hour% -ust a couple of minutes+ since 1 o'clock+ The# -ust starte an hour ago+ them for a long time+ up all the pictures #et+ *uestions 6ill in the correct form (Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive*+ 4+ 8+ 3+ 4+ 3o$ long ($ait " she* 3o$ man# times (tell " !* 3o$ often (clean " #ou* 3o$ man# months (take " #ou* for us0 #ou0 the $in o$s this #ear0 piano lessons0 .

ico there recentl#+ Check answ ers some nice books about Use .ico+ >a#be $e coul )na: That's a goo i ea+ There is a goo bookshop in the big shopping centre+ ! (see* >e.ell% she (learn* get her a gui e book+ $hat she $ants0 Spanish for a #ear an $ants to spen her ne.t holi a# in >e.hen to use $hich tense0 4+ 8+ 3+ '1 times' is a signal $or for +++ Present Perfect Simple 'for t$o hours' is a signal $or for +++ Present Perfect Progressive 'since = o'clock' is a signal $or for +++ Present Perfect Progressive &ositi!e (entences 6ill in the correct form (Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive*+ 4+ 8+ 3+ 4+ 1+ ! have been practising Bob has run 45 km+ the piano for 35 minutes+ The chil ren have been The og has been barking .+ <+ Tom: 3i )na+ ! (tr#* )na: ! (be* phone ring+ Tom: (#ou " clean* )na: Do% not #et+ ! (ti # " not* to ring #ou several times to a#+ .e have misse on holi a# for si.1+ (sta# " #ou " ever* in a castle0 $ext 6ill in the correct form (Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive*+ 4+ 8+ 3+ 4+ 1+ :+ . a#s+ since mi night+ the bus t$ice this $eek+ )egati!e (entences 6ill in the correct form (Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive*+ .here (#ou " be* at home all the time+ But ! (clean* 0 the house all a#% so ma#be ! i n't hear the ever#thing no$0 up the kitchen #et+ But $h# are #ou here0 us to her birth a# part# an $e (bu# " not* a Tom: /on't #ou remember0 7ane (invite * present for her #et+ )na: Eh% that's right+ (#ou " fin out " alrea #* Tom: .

ico )na: That's a goo i ea+ There is a goo bookshop in the big shopping centre+ ! have seen there recentl#+ Table of Tenses hec# out the following lin#s to read a"out and practise important aspects of this test .e have not kno$n She has not hung them for a long time+ up all the pictures #et+ *uestions 6ill in the correct form (Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive*+ 4+ 8+ 3+ 4+ 3o$ long has she been $aiting 3o$ man# times have ! tol 3o$ often have #ou cleane for us0 #ou0 the $in o$s this #ear0 piano lessons0 3o$ man# months have #ou been taking 3ave #ou ever sta#e in a castle0 1+ $ext 6ill in the correct form (Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive*+ 4+ 8+ 3+ 4+ 1+ :+ .ell% she has been learning a gui e book+ $hat she $ants0 a present for her #et+ Spanish for a #ear an $ants to spen her ne.+ <+ Tom: 3i )na+ ! have trie to ring #ou several times to a#+ .here have #ou been )na: ! have been at home all the time+ But ! have been cleaning Tom: 3ave #ou cleane ever#thing no$0 up the kitchen #et+ But $h# are #ou here0 0 the house all a#% so ma#be ! i n't hear the phone ring+ )na: Do% not #et+ ! have not ti ie Tom: /on't #ou remember0 7ane has invite us to her birth a# part# an $e have not bought )na: Eh% that's right+ 3ave #ou alrea # foun out Tom: .ico+ >a#be $e coul get her some nice books about >e.t holi a# in >e.4+ 8+ 3+ 4+ 1+ Cou have not eaten up #et+ on the phone for half an hour% -ust a couple of minutes+ since 1 o'clock+ The# -ust starte an hour ago+ 3e has not been speaking The# have not been $orking .