Fatigue Strength

(6.4, 6.7-6.8, 6.11)
MAE 316 – Strength of Mechanical Components
Y. Zhu
Fatigue Strength 1
Fatigue Strength(6.8)
Fatigue Strength 2
 Up to now, we have designed structures for static loads.
P P
w
d
t
y
S s
max
o
P
t

max
is also constant)
Fatigue Strength (6.8)
Fatigue Strength 3
 What if loading is not constant?
 Even if σ
max
≤ S
y
, failure could occur if enough cycles are
applied.
P
t
S-N Diagram (6.4)
Fatigue Strength 4
S
f
(fatigue strength) - stress level
at which a corresponding number
of cycles (N) will lead to failure
(crack initiation)
S
e
(endurance limit) - stress
level below which failure will
never occur
Fluctuating Stresses (6.11)
 If σ
min
= - σ
max
, this is known as “fully-reversed” loading.
Fatigue Strength 5
σ
t
σ
max
σ
min
max
min
min max
min max
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
o
o
o o o o
o o o o
=
÷ = =
+ = =
R
g alternatin a
mean m
Endurance Limit (6.7)
 The simplest design rule to prevent fatigue failure is
 This is a valid concept, but not quite so simple in reality.
 S
e
is determined experimentally.
 Simple approximate S
e
formulas exist for steel, but must be
used carefully – better to have actual data.
 where S
ut
= ultimate strength and S
e
’ = unmodified, laboratory
determined value
Fatigue Strength 6
e applied
S < =
max
o o
' 0.5 200 kpsi (1400 MPa)
' 100 kpsi >200 kpsi
' 700 MPa >1400 MPa
e ut ut
e ut
e ut
S S S
S S
S S
= s
=
=
Endurance Limit (6.7)
 For real design we will modify S
e
’ to account for the surface
finish, stress concentration, temperature, etc.
 These effects decrease the effective endurance limit.
Fatigue Strength 7
 High-cycle fatigue life (N > 1000 cycles)
 Typical S-N diagram for steel
Predicting Fatigue Life (6.8)
Fatigue Strength 8
c N a S
f
+ =
+ =
) (log log
: c) ax (y line a of Equation
c a c a S
l
+ = + = 3 ) 10 (log ' log
3
c a c a S
e
+ = + = 6 ) 10 (log ' log
6
'
) ' (
log
'
'
log
3
1
2
e
l
e
l
S
S
c
S
S
a
= ¬
÷ = ¬
(log S
f
)
(log N)
S
e

S
l

a
-c
f
a c
f
) (S N
N N S
1
6 3
10
or
cycles 10 10 for 10
=
s s =
Example
 Find S
f
of 1020 hot-rolled steel if the required life is
250,000 cycles, bending loads.
 Given: S
ut
= 57 ksi for 1020 steel
 Note: For steel, S
l
’ = 0.9S
u
(bending), 0.75S
u
(axial), and 0.72S
u
(torsion).
 What is the life if S
f
= 40 ksi?
Fatigue Strength 9
High Cycle Fatigue
(6.9-6.10)
MAE 316 – Strength of Mechanical Components
NC State University Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
High Cycle Fatigue 10
Modified Endurance Limit (6.9)
 Modified endurance limit is defined as
 k
a
= surface finish factor = aS
ut
b
High Cycle Fatigue 11
'
e a b c d e f e
S k k k k k k S =
a b
Surface finish MPa (kpsi)
Ground 1.58 (1.34) -0.085
Machine or cold drawn 4.51 (2.7) -0.265
Hot rolled 57.7 (14.4) -0.718
As-Forged 272.0 (39.9) -0.995
Table 6-2 Surface finish factors k
a
Modified Endurance Limit (6.9)
 k
b
= size factor
 Axial loading
 k
b
= 1
 Bending and torsion
 k
b
= 0.879d
-.107
(0.11 in ≤ d ≤ 2 in)
 k
b
= 0.91d
-.157
(2 < d < 10 in)
 k
b
= 1.241d
-.107
(2.79 ≤ d ≤ 51 mm)
 k
b
= 1.51d
-.157
(51 < d < 254 mm)
 d is the diameter of the round bar or the equivalent diameter
(d
e
) of a non-rotating or non-circular bar (Table 6-3).
High Cycle Fatigue 12
Modified Endurance Limit (6.9)
 k
c
= loading factor
 1 (bending)
 0.85 (axial)
 0.59 (torsion)
 k
d
= temperature factor
 If endurance limit (Se’) is known, or use
equation
 If Se’ is not known, use k
d
= 1 and temperature-corrected tensile
strength (S
ut
) (see Example 6-5 in textbook)
High Cycle Fatigue 13
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 5 2 8 3 12 4
0.975 0.432 10 0.115 10 0.104 10 0.595 10
d
k T T T T
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= + ÷ + ÷
(Table 6-4)
T
d
RT
S
k
S
=
Modified Endurance Limit (6.9)
 k
e
= reliability factor
High Cycle Fatigue 14
Table 6-5 Reliability factors k
e
Survival Rate (%) k
e
50 1.00
90 0.89
95 0.87
98 0.84
99 0.81
99.9 0.75
99.99 0.70
Modified Endurance Limit (6.9)
 k
f
= miscellaneous-effects factor
 Corrosion
 Electrolytic plating
 Metal Spraying
 Cyclic frequency
 Frettage corrosion
 If none of the above conditions apply, k
f
= 1
High Cycle Fatigue 15
Fatigue Stress Concentration Factor (6.10)
 K
f
= fatigue stress concentration factor
 K
f
= 1 + q(K
t
– 1)
 q = notch sensitivity
 K
t
= stress concentration factor
 K
f
can be used to reduce S
e
(multiply S
e
by 1/K
f
) or to modify the
nominal stress (σ
max
= K
f
σ
nom
).
High Cycle Fatigue 16
Fatigue Stress Concentration Factor (6.10)
High Cycle Fatigue 17
Figure 6-20 Notch sensitivity for bending and axial
Figure 6-21 Notch sensitivity for torsion
Example
 For the plate shown below, find the maximum allowable load F
for the plate to have infinite life.
 Given: 1018 cold-drawn steel, S
y
= 373 MPa, S
ut
= 442 MPa
High Cycle Fatigue 18
F F
w =
60 mm
d = 12 mm
t = 10 mm
F
t