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(6.4, 6.7-6.8, 6.11)

MAE 316 – Strength of Mechanical Components

Y. Zhu

Fatigue Strength 1

Fatigue Strength(6.8)

Fatigue Strength 2

Up to now, we have designed structures for static loads.

P P

w

d

t

y

S s

max

o

P

t

(σ

max

is also constant)

Fatigue Strength (6.8)

Fatigue Strength 3

What if loading is not constant?

Even if σ

max

≤ S

y

, failure could occur if enough cycles are

applied.

P

t

S-N Diagram (6.4)

Fatigue Strength 4

S

f

(fatigue strength) - stress level

at which a corresponding number

of cycles (N) will lead to failure

(crack initiation)

S

e

(endurance limit) - stress

level below which failure will

never occur

Fluctuating Stresses (6.11)

If σ

min

= - σ

max

, this is known as “fully-reversed” loading.

Fatigue Strength 5

σ

t

σ

max

σ

min

max

min

min max

min max

) (

2

1

) (

2

1

o

o

o o o o

o o o o

=

÷ = =

+ = =

R

g alternatin a

mean m

Endurance Limit (6.7)

The simplest design rule to prevent fatigue failure is

This is a valid concept, but not quite so simple in reality.

S

e

is determined experimentally.

Simple approximate S

e

formulas exist for steel, but must be

used carefully – better to have actual data.

where S

ut

= ultimate strength and S

e

’ = unmodified, laboratory

determined value

Fatigue Strength 6

e applied

S < =

max

o o

' 0.5 200 kpsi (1400 MPa)

' 100 kpsi >200 kpsi

' 700 MPa >1400 MPa

e ut ut

e ut

e ut

S S S

S S

S S

= s

=

=

Endurance Limit (6.7)

For real design we will modify S

e

’ to account for the surface

finish, stress concentration, temperature, etc.

These effects decrease the effective endurance limit.

Fatigue Strength 7

High-cycle fatigue life (N > 1000 cycles)

Typical S-N diagram for steel

Predicting Fatigue Life (6.8)

Fatigue Strength 8

c N a S

f

+ =

+ =

) (log log

: c) ax (y line a of Equation

c a c a S

l

+ = + = 3 ) 10 (log ' log

3

c a c a S

e

+ = + = 6 ) 10 (log ' log

6

'

) ' (

log

'

'

log

3

1

2

e

l

e

l

S

S

c

S

S

a

= ¬

÷ = ¬

(log S

f

)

(log N)

S

e

’

S

l

’

a

-c

f

a c

f

) (S N

N N S

1

6 3

10

or

cycles 10 10 for 10

=

s s =

Example

Find S

f

of 1020 hot-rolled steel if the required life is

250,000 cycles, bending loads.

Given: S

ut

= 57 ksi for 1020 steel

Note: For steel, S

l

’ = 0.9S

u

(bending), 0.75S

u

(axial), and 0.72S

u

(torsion).

What is the life if S

f

= 40 ksi?

Fatigue Strength 9

High Cycle Fatigue

(6.9-6.10)

MAE 316 – Strength of Mechanical Components

NC State University Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

High Cycle Fatigue 10

Modified Endurance Limit (6.9)

Modified endurance limit is defined as

k

a

= surface finish factor = aS

ut

b

High Cycle Fatigue 11

'

e a b c d e f e

S k k k k k k S =

a b

Surface finish MPa (kpsi)

Ground 1.58 (1.34) -0.085

Machine or cold drawn 4.51 (2.7) -0.265

Hot rolled 57.7 (14.4) -0.718

As-Forged 272.0 (39.9) -0.995

Table 6-2 Surface finish factors k

a

Modified Endurance Limit (6.9)

k

b

= size factor

Axial loading

k

b

= 1

Bending and torsion

k

b

= 0.879d

-.107

(0.11 in ≤ d ≤ 2 in)

k

b

= 0.91d

-.157

(2 < d < 10 in)

k

b

= 1.241d

-.107

(2.79 ≤ d ≤ 51 mm)

k

b

= 1.51d

-.157

(51 < d < 254 mm)

d is the diameter of the round bar or the equivalent diameter

(d

e

) of a non-rotating or non-circular bar (Table 6-3).

High Cycle Fatigue 12

Modified Endurance Limit (6.9)

k

c

= loading factor

1 (bending)

0.85 (axial)

0.59 (torsion)

k

d

= temperature factor

If endurance limit (Se’) is known, or use

equation

If Se’ is not known, use k

d

= 1 and temperature-corrected tensile

strength (S

ut

) (see Example 6-5 in textbook)

High Cycle Fatigue 13

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

3 5 2 8 3 12 4

0.975 0.432 10 0.115 10 0.104 10 0.595 10

d

k T T T T

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

= + ÷ + ÷

(Table 6-4)

T

d

RT

S

k

S

=

Modified Endurance Limit (6.9)

k

e

= reliability factor

High Cycle Fatigue 14

Table 6-5 Reliability factors k

e

Survival Rate (%) k

e

50 1.00

90 0.89

95 0.87

98 0.84

99 0.81

99.9 0.75

99.99 0.70

Modified Endurance Limit (6.9)

k

f

= miscellaneous-effects factor

Corrosion

Electrolytic plating

Metal Spraying

Cyclic frequency

Frettage corrosion

If none of the above conditions apply, k

f

= 1

High Cycle Fatigue 15

Fatigue Stress Concentration Factor (6.10)

K

f

= fatigue stress concentration factor

K

f

= 1 + q(K

t

– 1)

q = notch sensitivity

K

t

= stress concentration factor

K

f

can be used to reduce S

e

(multiply S

e

by 1/K

f

) or to modify the

nominal stress (σ

max

= K

f

σ

nom

).

High Cycle Fatigue 16

Fatigue Stress Concentration Factor (6.10)

High Cycle Fatigue 17

Figure 6-20 Notch sensitivity for bending and axial

Figure 6-21 Notch sensitivity for torsion

Example

For the plate shown below, find the maximum allowable load F

for the plate to have infinite life.

Given: 1018 cold-drawn steel, S

y

= 373 MPa, S

ut

= 442 MPa

High Cycle Fatigue 18

F F

w =

60 mm

d = 12 mm

t = 10 mm

F

t

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