Properties of Paper Basis Weight (GSM) Brightness, Whiteness and Colour Bulk Dimensional Stability Folding Endurance (Double

Folds) Formation Gloss Machine and Cross Direction Moisture !acity "orosity Si#ing $ Cobb Smoothness Sti%%ness Stretch (Elongation) &earing 'esistance &em!erature and (umidity) Conditioning o% "a!er &hickness Wa* "ick +o, (Sur%ace Strength) Wire side and Felt side

Basis Weight (GSM) &he -eight or substance !er unit area is ob.iously %undamental in !a!er and !a!er board !roducts, &he Basis -eight o% !a!er is the -eight !er unit area, &his can be e*!ressed as the -eight in grams !er s/uare metre (GSM or g$M0), !ounds !er 1222 s/, %t, or -eight in kgs or !ounds !er ream (322 sheets) o% a s!eci%ic si#e, 'E4M WE5G(& is a common term to signi%y the -eight o% a lot or batch o% !a!er, Control o% basis -eight is im!ortant as all other !ro!erties are a%%ected, 6ariations in moisture content in !a!er a%%ects the grammage,

Brightness, Whiteness and Colour Brightness is de%ined as the !ercentage re%lectance o% blue light only at a -a.elength o% 738 nm, Whiteness re%ers to the e*tent that !a!er di%%usely re%lects light o% all -a.e lengths throughout the .isible s!ectrum, Whiteness is an a!!earance term, Colour is an aesthetic .alue, Colour may a!!ear di%%erent -hen .ie-ed under a di%%erent light source, Brightness is an arbitrarily de%ined, but care%ully standardised, blue re%lectance that is used throughout the !ul! and !a!er industry %or the control o% mill !rocesses and in certain ty!es o% research and de.elo!ment !rograms, Brightness is not -hiteness, (, the brightness .alues o% the !ul!s and !igments going into the !a!er !ro.ide an e*cellent measure o% the ma*imum -hiteness that can be achie.ed -ith !ro!er tinting, &he colour o% !a!er, like o% other materials, de!ends in a com!licated -ay on the characteristics o% the and a number o% !hysical %actors such as the s!ectral energy distribution o% the illuminant, the geometry o% illuminating and .ie-ing, the nature and e*tent o% the surround and the o!tical characteristics o% the !a!er itsel%,

Bulk Bulk is a term used to indicate .olume or thickness in relation to -eight, 5t is the reci!rocal o% density (-eight !er unit .olume), 5t is calculated %rom cali!er and basis -eight, Sheet bulk relates to all other sheet !ro!erties, Decrease the bulk or in other -ords increase the density, and the sheet gets smoother, glossier, less o!a/ue, darker, lo-er in strength etc,

Dimensional Stability 4n im!ortant conse/uence o% the absor!tion and de9absor!tion o% moisture by !a!er is the change in dimension that usually accom!anies changes in moisture content, Such changes in dimension may seriously a%%ect register in !rinting !rocesses and inter%ere -ith the use o% such items as tabulating cards, :ne.en dimensional changes cause undesirable cockling and curling, Dimensional changes in !a!er originate in the s-elling and contraction o% the indi.idual %ibres, 5t has been obser.ed that cellulosic %ibres s-ell in diameter %rom 13 to 02; in !assing %rom the dry condition to the %ibre saturation !oint, 5t is im!ossible to be !recise about the degree o% this s-elling because !a!er9making

or !am!hlets.el o% the !a!er machine.ariation in the moisture content is an im!ortant consideration in the use o% !a!er. strength etc. &he le. opacity. Some o% the !ro!erties . Gloss and smoothness are di%%erent !ro!erties and are not de!endent on each other. bo* boards. &he absor!tion and re%lectance o% certain bands o% in%rared and micro-a. 4ll !a!ers e*!and -ith increased moisture content and contract -ith decreased moisture content. &he cross direction is the direction o% !a!er at right angles to the machine direction. and because the irregular cross9section o% %ibres creates di%%iculty in de%ining diameter. &he amount o% -ater !lays an im!ortant role in calendaring. Fold test is also im!ortant %or carton. machine and cross direction are to be ke!t in mind and the sheet cutting to be done to suit the end use re/uirements. olding !nduran"e (Double olds) Folding endurance is the !a!er<s ca!ability o% -ithstanding multi!le %olds be%ore it breaks. ammonia !rint !a!er. E*am!les) 1. ormation Formation is an indicator o% ho. "a!er that is !oorly %ormed -ill ha.ariations in moisture content.alues are re!orted in both the directions. Book !a!ers %old better and the book stays o!en better i% the sheets are out so that the machine direction runs u! and do-n the !ages. &he amount o% -ater !resent in a sheet o% !a!er is usually e*!ressed as a !ercent.the %ibres and %illers are distributed in the sheet. 5t is im!ortant %or !rinting grades -here the !a!er is sub=ected to multi!le %olds like in books. Formation !lays an im!ortant role as most o% the !a!er !ro!erties de!end on it.erting !rocess. o!acity.ary -ith the MD and CD and hence the . &his grain direction is kno-n as machine !a!er etc. &hese -ill a%%ect !ro!erties like cali!er. Gloss 5t is the s!ecularly and di%%usely re%lected light com!onent measurement against a kno-n standard. 5t is de%ined as the number o% double %olds that a stri! o% 13 mm -ide and 122 mm length can -ithstand under a s!eci%ied load be%ore it breaks. Ini akan mempengaruhi sifat seperti caliper. &he electrical resistance and the dielectric constant o% !a!er both . Formasi merupakan indikator bagaimana serat dan pengisi didistribusikan di lembaran. bercak tipis dan bercak tebal. ?. Pembentukan memainkan peran penting karena sebagian besar sifat kertas bergantung padanya. Moisture . "a!er %ormation also a%%ects the coating ca!abilities and !rinting characteristics o% the !a!er. Gloss is im!ortant %or !rinting such things as maga#ine ad. Ma!. Ma"hine and Cross Dire"tion "a!er has a de%inite grain direction due to greater orientation o% %ibres in the direction o% tra. but the rate and e*tent o% changes . and co. 4ll !rinting !a!ers are to be cut in long grain (&he biggest dimension in the grain direction). Kertas yang buruk terbentuk akan memiliki lemah. >ong grain and Short grain ) &he sheet is in long grain i% the larger dimension is !arallel to grain (MD) direction. &he sheet is said to be in short grain i% the larger dimension is !arallel to cross direction (CD).ary -ith moisture content.ery de!endent on the end use o% the !a!er. ma!s.ertisements. Folding endurance is a re/uirement in Bond. Moisture Most !hysical !ro!erties o% !a!er undergo change as a result o% .%ibres di%%er considerably in this !ro!erty. thin s!ots and thick s!ots.ary -ith di%%erent !a!ers. Currency. >edger.ertical to obtain greater %le*ibility about the can. !rinting and con.e radiation by !a!er are a%%ected by its moisture content. Wra! around labels %or metal cans and bottles are to be cut -ith the machine direction .el o% gloss desired is .e -eak. 0. Change that occurs in the dimensions o% !a!er -ith . Blue "rint and 'ecord "a!ers. Water has the e%%ect o% !lasticising the cellulose %ibre and o% rela*ing and -eakening the inter%ibre bonding. While sheeting the !a!er. kekuatan dll pembentukan Kertas juga mempengaruhi kemampuan lapisan dan karakteristik pencetakan kertas.

egetable materials -hich had the e%%ect o% sealing or %illing the sur%ace !ores. Bag "a!er. &hus. it %ollo-s that the structure has a . Si$ing % Cobb Because !a!er is com!osed o% a randomly %elted layer o% %ibre. Bond !a!ers also re/uire certain sti%%ness to be %lat in ty!e-riters etc. 4 lim!y and %limsy !a!er can cause %eeding and deli. Stretch can be related to the !a!er<s ability to con%orm and maintain con%ormance to a !articular contour. 4 !er%ectly o!a/ue !a!er is the one that is absolutely im!er. &he need to limit the s!reading o% ink resulted in @si#ing@ the !a!er -ith gelatinous . the ability o% %luids. the ability o% %luids. it<s structure has a . 5t is common to say that !a!er has a @smooth@ or a @rough@ te*ture. "orosity can also be a %actor in a . 4 sheet that is too sti%% -ill cause !roblems in co!ier machines -here it must tra. "a!er is a highly !orous material and contains as such as 82. >ater.ersely a%%ect many !a!er !ro!erties. "orosity is the measurement o% the total connecting air .er the !a!er sur%ace.ious to the !assage o% all . Book "a!ers. and around %eed rollers.g. Smoothness also gi.ertical and hori#ontal. li/uids !acking cartons base !a!ers etc. 5t is the ratio o% di%%used re%lectance and the re%lectance o% single sheet backed by a black eye a!!eal as a rough !a!er is unattracti. Filter "a! Finish is im!ortant in bag !a!er as it is related to the tendency o% the bag to slide -hen stacked. to !enetrate the structure o% !a!er becomes a !ro!erty that is both highly signi%icant to the use o% !a!er.arying degree o% !orosity. Stret"h (!longation) Stretch is the amount o% distortion -hich !a!er undergoes under tensile stress.control is also signi%icant to the economic as!ect o% !a!er making. the term @si#ing@ -as a!!lied to the treatment o% !a!er stock !rior to the %ormation o% the sheet. "orosity is a highly critical %actor in "rinting "a!ers >aminating "a!er. corrugating medium and to certain e*tent %or !rinting !a!ers also. -ith -ater9re!ellent materials such as rosin or -a*. multicolor o%%set !rinting !a!ers.el o% the !en o.ity or the ability o% the sheets to acce!t ink or -ater. "oor moisture control can ad. both . 4ntitarnish "a!er and >abel "a!er.isible light. and com!ressibility. Stretch is higher in cross direction than machine direction. 5t is the %latness o% the sur%ace under testing conditions -hich considers roughness. li. -here it a%%ects the ease o% tra. &hus. Cigarette "a!er. e.e.much light is ke!t a-ay %rom !assing through a sheet. air. the character o% the sur%ace is o% great im!ortance. 5t is an im!ortant !ro!erty in sack kra%t !a!ers -hich are used %or cement bags etc. . Stretchlelongation is usually e*!ressed. under.erse o. both li/uid and gaseous. &he terms @%inish@ and @!attern@ are %re/uently used in describing the contour or a!!earance o% !a!er sur%aces. Smoothness Smoothness is concerned -ith the sur%ace contour o% !a!er. Co!ier !a!er. that e*ists in a sheet. #pa"ity !acity is the measure o% ho. Stiffness Sti%%ness is the measure o% %orce re/uired to bend a !a!er through a s!eci%ied angle.eliness. Sti%%ness is an im!ortant !ro!erty %or bo* boards. etc.arying degree o% !orosity. both li/uid and gaseous. Smoothness o% the !a!er -ill o%ten determine -hether or not it can be success%ully !rinted. 5n most o% the uses o% !a!er. Porosity Because !a!er is com!osed o% a randomly %elted layer o% %ibre. "orosity o% sheet is an indication o% absor!ti.oids.ery !roblems in larger sheet !resses. Smoothness in im!ortant %or -riting.acuum %eeding o!eration on a !rinting !ress. !acity is im!ortant in "rinting "a!ers. 'esistance to-ards the !enetration o% a/ueous solution $ -ater is measured by Si#ing or Cobb . to !enetrate the structure o% !a!er becomes a !ro!erty that is both highly signi%icant to the use o% !a!er.alues. as !ercent stretch to ru!ture.

&he other side is to! side.iour o% !a!er in . %ibre length and inter%ibre bonding are both im!ortant %actors in tearing strength. &he tendency %or !a!er to de.erting o!erations. /'0. T''. saturating !a!ers etc.e. they are ca!able o% absorbing -ater %rom the surrounding atmos!here. Cellulosic %ibres are hygrosco!ic i. &his test is im!ortant %or all uncoated !rinting !a!ers. controlling the /uality o% ne-s!rint and characterising the toughness o% !ackaging !a!ers -here the ability to absorb shocks is essential. The drainage time of pulp or freeness or slo ness of pulp is modified to ha!e some desired properties in the paper. Wire side and elt side 4lso re%erred as -ire side and to! side. (ence. 3aktu drainase pulp atau freeness atau kelambatan pulp dimodifikasi untuk memiliki beberapa sifat yang diinginkan di koran. e. can o%ten a%%ect the test results. best results are obtained by !rinting on %elt side. &hickness is im!ortant in %illing cards. Wa* Pi"k +o. it is necessary to maintain standard conditions o% humidity and tem!erature %or conditioning. &hi"kness &hickness or Cali!er o% !a!er is measured -ith a micrometre as the !er!endicular distance bet-een t-o circular. Cali!er is a critical measurement o% uni%ormity. o!tical and roll /uality.aluating -eb runnability. 5n addition to the e%%ect o% moisture content on !hysical !ro!erties. The standard procedure of measuring pulp drainage is laid out in T+PPI T''$. as long fiber pulps ha!e more freeness compared to short fiber pulps. &he %act that longer %ibres im!ro.eral basic !ro!erties including a greater area. !lane. condenser !a!er. .&earing 'esistan"e &earing resistance indicates the beha. So. Certain !ro!erties di%%er bet-een -ire and %elt side and it is customary to measure these !ro!erties on both the more %ibres and more bonds. I-. changes in tem!erature and humidity. can a%%ect se. -here the smoothness is hel!%ul %or attaining an e. 6ariations in cali!er. di sini yang tidak dibahas. Here the drainage time of pulp is discussed in reference to market pulp and/or unrefined pulp. (Surfa"e Strength) &his indicates the sur%ace strength o% the !a!er. &emperature and (umidity) Conditioning of Paper Conditioning o% !a!er is also o% im!ortance in many !rinting and con.e tear strength is -ell recognised. &he e*!lanation is straight %or-ardA longer %ibres tend to distribute the stress o.elo! static becomes greater -ith increasing dryness. "rainage of unrefined pulp hich is measured as freeness can gi!e an indication on # $% Fiber &ength of pulp.$ CM 0. 5n case o% !a!er to be !rinted on one side only..en a!!lication. here that is not discussed.the stress to be concentrated in a smaller area.arious end use situationsA such as e. bleaching or drying as short fibers or fines produced during pulping operation. -hile short %ibres allo.1$ and I-. o.en slight changes. "ostage stam!s are !rinted on -ire side and then gummed on %elt side. /'0. reduces pulp freeness. !rinting !a!ers. &he amount o% absorbed -ater de!ends on the humidity and the tem!erature o% the air in contact -ith the !a!er. it also determines the build u! o% static o% the !a!er sheet sub=ected to !ressure and to %riction.1' 2erikut aktu drainase pulp dibahas dalam referensi untuk pulp pasar dan / atau pulp tidak dimurnikan. '% "amage to fiber during pulping. (% )efining energy re*uired to achie!e certain slo ness during stock preparation. !arallel sur%aces under a !ressure o% 1 kg. &he side -hich is in contact -ith the !a!er machine -ire during !a!er manu%acture is called the -ire side.

mengurangi freeness pulp. %f the pulp&s consistency is too thin or too thic$."rainase pulp tidak dimurnikan yang diukur sebagai freeness dapat memberikan indikasi pada# $% Panjang -erat pulp. porous plastics. ensometers are pulp and paper testers used for measuring porosity. /'0. COBB testers. . or measurement of a sample-s ability. integral software. Consistency is the amount !"# of dry solids or fibers in pulp or paper stoc$. +ith pulp and paper testers. instruments. Pulp and paper testers are used in consistency measurements and contamination analysis. shives. bleaching atau pengeringan sebagai serat pendek atau denda yang dihasilkan selama operasi pulping. or video display. digital readout. to transmit liquids. Prosedur standar drainase pulp ukur diletakkan di T+PPI T''$. '% Kerusakan pada serat selama pulping. Pulp and paper testers often differ in terms of display type and special features. te(tiles. %t determines how the pulp is formed and processed into paper. to transmit vapors or gases. (% energi )efining diperlukan untuk mencapai kelambatan tertentu selama persiapan saham. )ome densometry instruments also provide smoothness and softness indications by measuring permeation. slag. $nown volume of air through a sample. and test equipment for evaluating the material properties and processability characteristics of pulp and paper. The amount of shives. )ome pulp and paper testers are used to measure freeness. the paper web will not form properly. Contact or wetting angles measure wettability. Pulp and paper testers for fiber analysis and flammability measurement are also available. O(ygen transmission rate !OT. evices and systems may come equipped with an analog meter. ensometers determine the time required to drive a fi(ed. Contamination analysis determines the amount of stic$les. air'permeability or air resistance of sheet'li$e or bul$ materials such as paper. *reeness or drainage rate is the speed at which water can be removed from pulp. filtration media. seperti pulp serat panjang memiliki freeness lebih dibandingkan dengan pulp serat pendek.# and water vapor transmission rate !+/Tr# are important measurements.1$ dan I-. densometry. grinding debris. swarf. woven cloth. an important consideration when selecting pulp and paper testers. 0iquid permeability is the ability. fiber analysis. dirt. or measurement of a sample-s ability. /'0. nonwovens. The inverse is slowness. softness. I-. and membranes. freeness. water absorption. gas and vapor permeability. These properties and characteristics include consistency. smoothness. T''. porosity. wear or abrasion characteristics. and contact or wetting and vapor permeability is the ability. contaminant analysis. dirt and stic$le in pulp or paper can influence processability. the degree of freeness or slowness is controlled by the amount of beating or refining applied to the pulp. and wettability. and other contaminants in a material. inclusion. . computer interface.1' Pulp and paper testers include specialized sensors.

tera$. $otoran dan ragu'ragu dalam pulp atau $ertas dapat mempengaruhi processability. permeabilitas udara atau hambatan udara dari bahan lembaran'seperti atau massal seperti $ertas. . ensometers adalah industri pulp dan $ertas pengu1i diguna$an untu$ mengu$ur porositas. Perang$at dan sistem mung$in dileng$api dengan meter analog. $ehalusan. untu$ mengirim$an cairan. Pulp dan $ertas pengu1i diguna$an dalam pengu$uran $onsistensi dan analisis $ontaminasi. atau pengu$uran $emampuan sampel. untu$ mengirim$an uap atau gas. analisis serat. dera1at freeness atau $elambatan di$endali$an oleh 1umlah mengalah$an atau memperbai$i diterap$an pada pulp. densometry. dan $ontaminan lainnya dalam suatu material. media filtrasi. puing penggilingan. gas dan permeabilitas uap. pertimbangan penting $eti$a memilih pulp dan $ertas pengu1i. 1aringan $ertas tida$ a$an membentu$ dengan benar. Permeabilitas cair adalah $emampuan.# dan uap air ting$at transmisi !+/ dan permeabilitas uap adalah $emampuan. bu$an tenunan.Pulp dan $ertas pengu1i termasu$ sensor $husus. 4umlah shives. tetap di$enal udara melalui sampel. atau layar video. in$lusi. engan pengu1i pulp dan $ertas. dan sudut $onta$ atau pembasahan. dan alat u1i untu$ mengevaluasi sifat material dan $ara$teristi$ processability pulp dan $ertas. penyerapan air. 3al ini menentu$an bagaimana pulp dibentu$ dan diproses men1adi $ertas. Beberapa instrumen densometry 1uga memberi$an $elancaran dan indi$asi $elembutan dengan mengu$ur permeasi. Pulp dan $ertas pengu1i sering berbeda dalam 1enis tampilan dan fitur $husus. te$stil. plasti$ berpori. pengu1i COBB. pembacaan digital. perang$at luna$ terpisah$an. $elembutan. $otoran. shives. 2ebali$annya adalah $elambatan. O$sigen la1u transmisi !OT. porositas. freeness. analisis $ontaminan. dan membran. Properti ini dan $ara$teristi$ meliputi $onsistensi. Pulp dan $ertas pengu1i untu$ analisis dan pengu$uran serat mudah terba$ar 1uga tersedia. 3ubungi atau pembasahan $eterbasahan sudut u$uran. 5nalisis 2ontaminasi menentu$an 1umlah stic$les.# adalah pengu$uran penting. . antarmu$a $omputer. dan $eterbasahan. *reeness atau drainase rate adalah $ecepatan di mana air dapat dihilang$an dari pulp. 4i$a $onsistensi pulp yang terlalu tipis atau terlalu tebal. ensometers menentu$an wa$tu yang diperlu$an untu$ mendorong volume. atau pengu$uran $emampuan sampel. $ara$teristi$ aus atau abrasi. $ain tenunan. swarf. 2onsistensi adalah 1umlah !"# dari padatan $ering atau serat pulp atau $ertas saham. instrumen. Beberapa pengu1i pulp dan $ertas yang diguna$an untu$ mengu$ur freeness.