The Using of Cartoon Picture to Improve Students Motivation

As a language which is used by a half people in the world, English holds a key as an international language. Although in Indonesia, English is a second language, which is not using for daily life, but English is a tool for communication among people. Teaching English is much needed for students, so that the students can understand and use English to improve their ability in the real life. English is taught for every student’s grade nowadays. It is begun from elementary, junior high school, and senior high school level. Even though, they cannot use it well. It could be caused by lack of motivation, whether from the internal and external factor. The internal factor is less of motivation on the students, so they are also less of curiosity to learn much about English. Besides, the external factor is not understood about how important using english nowadays

USING PICTURES IN TEACHING ART AND OTHER STUFF R. Lloyd Ryan Assistant Superintendent Notre Dame Integrated School Board Winter 1993

Introduction Visuals of various kinds - photographs, paintings, diagrams, illustrations - are essential to a good art program. Their purpose is to enhance and hone the visual perception of children. Without the "critical looking" and "educated seeing" that children develop when visuals are used to support their Art program (e.g., in the art history, art appreciation, and aesthetic components of art programs) then childrens' creative art production capabilities will be significantly impaired and retarded. However, art programming is only one of the many aspects of children's education which can benefit enormously from the competent utilization of judiciously selected visuals. Learning with Pictures (Experience in Visual Education) Generally speaking, pictures, paintings, and other visuals constitute the most effective, most plentiful, and least expensive teaching medium. It is also the medium that is least utilized. There are good school-useful pictures in abundance,

They will likely be enthusiastic helpers. . The "secret" is to collect pictures. Sometimes. Yet. I saw a roll of "poster board" stuck in a trash can with some other 'garbage". we need to keep our eyes open to opportunity and be a bit audacious. however. walking along the corridor of an office building. pictures can not only illustrate a topic but also can provide the experience base children require in order to profit from reading and writing and from numerous other learning experiences. This may be the situation if a picture is looked for when one is needed to fit a particular concept or lesson. regardless of whether they fit an immediately perceived need. including those associated with art programming. The old saying that a picture is worth a thousand words may or may not be true. For Quality Prints: Art Stores and Mail Order Services. Sources of Pictures Sometimes. teachers say that they have difficulty finding appropriate pictures. is that one appropriate picture can be a catalyst giving rise to the production of thousands of words and a multitude of creative and analytical thoughts. the following probably being the most obvious: Calendars Magazines Post Cards Greeting Cards Advertising (Especially Tourist Brochures) Posters. I took a quick peek and discovered four absolutely wonderful reproductions of watercolours of scenes of Pads. the collection will grow. However. Sources of pictures are numerous. they let their grandparents and relatives in other towns know of their quest and. What is true. Eventually. we might enlist children in picture collecting. whenever and wherever they can be found. (One day. the trickle of pictures can become a veritable flood. Used appropriately and sequentially.almost anywhere you look. before long. I took them!) Also. we as teachers are underutilizing this eminently useful resource. Etc.

To some degree the category will be determined solely by the content of the picture.) Wagons and Teams Animals Unusual Patterns Shapes Designs Vegetables Dishes Costumes Clothing Everyday Items Seniors Children at Play Babies Rivers Ponds & Lakes . it is quite another thing entirely to have a collection of pictures that can be used. Stores. a code) on each visual (i. and accessibly stored in a file cabinet or picture file. If a teacher has to spend a lot of time sifting through a series of pictures.e. with predictable results. For example. it may be most useful to have pictures (i. Then the visuals should be categorized according to topic or theme.e. After some point in the collection building. then some of the visuals may need to be categorized to facilitate their utilization in that theme.e. A set of color codes along the top of each picture will facilitate maximum utilization of pictures. picture) so that when the teacher is finished with a picture. photographs) filed separately from painting reproductions. it may be useful to include identification criteria (i... if a language arts theme is "Relationships". it can be replaced in the appropriate file folder. A collection of pictures will quickly reach such a quantity that it will be of limited utility unless it is an ORGANIZED collection.. then it is likely that s/he will find that activity a frustrating exercise.. To make the borrowing process easier. A separate file section may be reserved for "illustrations and diagrams". in individual file folders. pictures may also be categorized according to intended use. Building Picture Files Teachers should pool their picture collections in some central location. The organization may be by topic or theme..An Organized Collection Teachers and principals will quickly learn that it is one thing to have a collection of pictures. Some Picture Categories: Fruit Trees Birds Pots and Pans People Waterfalls Mountains Barns Mills Bridges Boats & Wharves Seascapes Lighthouses Churches Street Scenes (Shops. However. Etc.

However. We may have to ask the school's "handyman" to make a poster file of the type found in Art reproduction stores. In other words. Some of the more controversial photographic exhibition. If a picture needs background information or experiences. to a history museum. or a movie. or some of the work of Toulouse-Lautrec (for example. or tape-slide show. The visuals selected should be those having elements which the particular group of children will be able to identify. based on their previous experiences. The "content" of the picture must be consistent with the age and maturity of the children. paintings) for use with children requires just as much care as selecting stories and other portions of text for reading. "At the Moulin Rouge . An inner city child who has never been as far as the suburbs will certainly have a different set of site-specific experiences than will a village child who has never visited a city or who has never seen a building higher than two stories. or to market. then we should ensure that these experiences are provided before attempting to utilize the picture. . we should get pictures and painting reproductions that are as big as possible.Antique Vehicles "Scenes" Space Etc. the experiences may be more-or-less vicarious . Some of the paintings by Degas for example. or a stage play . illustrations. say. How Big Should Pictures Be? It depends! A small picture can be used in a one-one situation or in a small group. a high degree of "fit" is required between the picture and the childgroup.classroom video presentation. Large pictures and posters will need their own storage. or previous photographs. or to a circus. or a TV show at home. Also. Particular attention should be given to site-specific or geographic specific pictures. or a book read in class. In other words. a much larger picture will be needed for larger groups. likewise. Selecting pictures (photographs.a visit. say.either as an actor or as an observer. The rule of thumb is "every student should be able to see the detail". These past experiences may be "real" experiences . may be left for students to consider for themselves when they are mature adults. or a newspaper or magazine. if the picture is to be used effectively.The Glass of Absinthe") are hardly appropriate for school-age children. Sports Airplanes Etc.

there has to be a match between the level of preparedness of the children and a particular visual. Just as it would be frustrating for a child to try to interpret text with much unfamiliar vocabulary. past reading/writing experiences. s/he has to have a sufficient "picture vocabulary" (i. Likewise.g. In other words.past "real" experiences of students. for example. the content of the picture has to have some consistency/commonality with the experience-base of the students. If the visual hooks their interest. the visual has to be such that the child is able to "bridge the gap" between the familiar and the unfamiliar elements of the visual. 2. It has to be appropriate. That is. In other words. travel). For example.g. so will it also be frustrating for a child to try to "read" a picture with many unfamiliar images. That is. the following criteria will need to be considered: .past vicarious experiences of students. For a primary child. . In order for a student to "read" a picture. just as children will be able to predict from context in reading print. That is. previous pictures) content. schooling experiences. as well as those of a more passive/static nature (e.g..Using Pictures In order to extract the optimum amount of "experience" from any one picture. the most effective picture will be one which has identifiable life-experience content. the background experiences of children will be a determining factor in that selecting process.geographic locale of usage.. Subsequent pictures can have reduced amounts of life-experience content and greater amounts of other. familiar images) to make sense of the picture. then they will likely do more looking and experience more seeing. It is necessary to consider the maturity of children and their interests.. we should adopt a concept of pictures that is quite like a concept of reading. .age of students.e. . so will they attempt to predict from context in "reading" pictures. . including those with pictures). past experiences with various visual media. the picture has to be "selected" and should meet several criteria: 1.. "Experiences" include those of a spatial/temporal nature (e. when the teacher is selecting a visual. It has to be appropriately sequential. experience-based (e.

if the picture contains unidentified elements (e. These statements obviously do not apply if the pictures are used for specific purposes in other subject areas and if other objectives are being addressed. For example. It has to be appropriately complex. of course. a palm tree) then telling students the picture is of a scene in Florida. Some Notes on Utilizing Pictures in Lessons There may be little virtue or utility in simply using a visual with a group of children if the visual-utilization has not received some thought beforehand. then children will likely simply dump their perceptions from the images into their already existing cognitive categories and no learning. a tool for assisting children to develop critical looking to complement their critical thinking. If children identify a farming scene. Let the child determine for her/himself. there has to be some challenge. Just as in reading print. It may be no different from a rosebush and fence anywhere in the world! There is no value in giving extraneous information. some learning. and so on. for the teacher to identify unfamiliar objects and. Do Not Provide Closure Do not tell the student what the picture is "about". the impact may be devastating. as far as visual education is concerned. We need to avoid simplicity. or visuals which patronize. Like virtually any other teaching resource. 1. may help students deduce the picture content. as being "Pop's garden" when it is really a picture of the Peace River District of Alberta. the visuals are being used as tools of learning. If the visual does not have some complexity. occurs. at the appropriate time. The visual has to be complete in and of itself. or their utilization can be of little or no value and. The impact of pictures can be almost magical. for example.3. pictures can be used to enhance student learning and to develop students self-esteem. then it would be essential to identify the . then there is no point in telling the geographic location. some hypothesizing and testing hypotheses.g. no seeing. It is appropriate. some detail finding. then the evidence in the picture has to justify itself. some identification processes. if the objective in Social Studies is "How Newfoundland Island and Rhode Island are alike and different'. if used carelessly. Utilizing pictures according to the following guidelines will enhance the magic and help prevent negative effects.. to identify the setting if the children have not succeeded in doing so. in fact. can. If the evidence in the picture does not identify itself as being geographic-specific. some critical thinking. However. Consider how ridiculous this extreme example is: 'This rosebush and fence is in the Falkland Islands". undermine students' self-confidence. After all. a tool for teaching children to see. when used appropriately. room for some judgment. When used otherwise.

The child has not yet developed firm. Adults. (REMEMBER THAT IT WAS A CHILD WHO "SAW" THAT THE KING HAD NO CLOTHES ON!!!). We have conveniently. retain flexible boundaries for their concepts and are delighted with the positive experiences of having these concept boundaries stretched. for example. when children are provided with coloring sheets with conceptual stereotypes. Likewise. generally speaking. The longer children's categories can be kept flexible. children's perception is impaired. Some of these stereotypes are crude .geographic locale of the pictures selected to typify each of the locations being compared. and rabbits and hares. mutually exclusive. Besides. We should not succumb to the natural teacher desire to be the "source of knowledge". What they know causes them to see only what they know. for example and sometimes simply condescending . We must let the child decide . Their concepts absorb their percepts. then the child will have great difficulty progressing beyond the teacher's perception of the picture!!! 2. comprehensive categories. the greater their ability to "see". always tentatively! The child is encouraged to seek new evidence and to change his/her mind it new evidence suggests it is appropriate to do so. Whatever trees children "see" will be interpreted as triangles on sticks. they see what they believe. as a source of student enjoyment.significant" adults provide perceptual and conceptual closure as. birds will be "flying W's". Children.tentatively .based on the evidence. childrens' ability to see and to look are both impaired. many adults. have lost the ability to perceive. closed. of showing women and girls doing . When THE TEACHER tells the child "what a picture is about". To provide closure is to effectively destroy the value of the picture as a future teaching tool. categorized experiences.the triangle on a stick representing "tree".. When this happens. at least to some degree. Accept the Child's Perception We must remember that as adults we are seeing the world (including pictures) through adult eyes.. however. and their concepts polluted. so much so that our categories cause us to be perceptually blind. of whatever those unreal bunnies. whenever human relationships and functioning are presented insensitively or stereo typically. including teachers. Consider the impact. they can't see the trees for the forest. will be "bunnies". but the child should NOT be induced to change her/his mind simply because the teacher SAYS SO! (Intellectual tyranny does not belong in the classroom). This happens when . long ago. and as a source of wonder and discovery. for example. sometimes cause children's concepts to become rigid or closed.

Teachers should be aware of their perceptual blindness and make sure the child perceives the experiences as a positive and rewarding one. at student eye level. 6. Don't be Afraid of Stimulating. and with a rich diversity of cultures and customs . In other words. Provide Positive Feedback We should make the child feel good because of his/her perception. and (b) in absolute terms. the damage done through the depiction of North American aboriginal peoples as savages. to their conceptualizations. the visual should be posted in the classroom. Children. the negative racial concepts which have been fostered by books such as the Little Black Sambo series. Even Difficult Questions Teachers should be prepared for some unexpected answers. Use Child Responses as A Catalyst for Questioning We might ask a child why s/he claims to see what s/he claims to see. 3.all of which we should cherish. Post the Picture After being used in a lesson.. and to their functioning. Consider. also. right. with complex. thus reinforcing the concepts of the lesson. If they find that they can be "right" for a change. rather than as people of integrity with different languages. 4. or the stories and pictures depicting Orientals and "Indians" in stereotypic ways. incontrovertible answer. If the teacher feels that the child is wrong. 5. S/he might be right! Judicious questioning may be used to bring the discussion around to those aspects which teachers feel to be pertinent. Ask Easy Questions to Reluctant Students This is one way to ensure success! Success will bring children out of their shells. also. will take the time to take a closer look. they will gradually take bigger and bigger risks. Consider. well-developed religions. some pictures deserve to be consigned to the trash can because of the obvious damage they can do to children's perceptions.only"women's work". he/she must remember that the child may be right (a) in light of his/her experiences. and not be too hasty in providing THE one. . It might be wrong! Absolutely! 7.. Challenging. or boys and men doing "masculine' things. if their interest has been aroused.

longing. What is the relationship between the figures and the setting? 11. Are there main figures? 9. How do you feel when you look at the picture? 3. 14. texture. What is the relationship between the main figure(s) and the minor figure(s)? 10. loneliness. What do you dislike about this picture? 5. line. Sentient Experiences: [emotional content?] fear. especially in a 'painting" or other "work of art'. Include both sensory and sentient experiences in discussion. What is this picture about? (Some pictures are really "sententious". What feelings are exhibited in the picture? Do they "fit" the picture? 12.) Some Teaching Suggestions The following are some general teaching suggestions: . What do you see in this picture? 2. Talk about shape. color. sight. happiness.Typical Questioning Routes to Take When Using Pictures in Classroom Teaching Obviously. smell. love. pleasure. What is the setting? Where? When? Date? Season? 7. hate.describe. other less so). sadness. Does this picture have some parts which are more interesting than other parts? What are they? Why are they more interesting? 6. What do you like about this picture? 4. variety. repetition. tone. sounds. the level and type of questioning used in the classroom will depend on the age. (Sensory Experiences: touch.. balance. Is there any action . etc. 8. etc. taste. light and shade. 13. Questions such as the following will be adapted to "match" the readiness of the students: 1. maturity and experiential background of the students.

(d) As teachers.70%. Isn't that what education is about? http://www.wordpress. in which with N =17. academic year 2008/2009.html Using Cartoon Pictures to Develop the Vocabulary of the pupils (Case Study to Pupils Fifth Years SDN 4 Mojong Sidrap). they have to be carefully selected and professionally utilized. and null hypothesis (H0) rejected. The objective of research are to find to find out whether using cartoon pictures in learning English vocabulary is interesting for the pupils or not and out the achievement of the pupils of SDN 4 Mojong sidrap who learn English vocabulary with cartoon pictures and without using degree of freedom (df) N-1=17-1=16 in the level of significance 0. we should provide the pictures or paintings. Pictures have enormous potential as teaching tools. About these ads http://mojong.html .746 the t-test value was higher than t-table was got 1. Considering the result of analysis concludes that using cartoon pictures in teaching english vocabulary can motivate the pupils to increase their vocabulary mastery. if the result computation of t-test value was compared to t-table value. The result of this research showed that the computation of the pupils score from the test indicates that there is all the pupils fifth years grade of SD Negeri 4 Mojong agree and interest learn English through carton pictures and that the pupils experimental class is percentage interest showed 90. When used appropriately children will learn to see and to think.21. The research finding on pre-test and post-test score were supported by the result of computation of t-test value.(a) We might let individual students find/select a picture (photograph or painting) and make a presentation in class or conduct a discussion to analyze the picture or painting. it was got 9. since children may have difficulty finding or selecting pictures until they have had related experiences. There is significantly diference between the pupils who learn english vocabulary with cartoon pictures and before or without using them. (b) We can have children f ind/select a picture and do a written analysis. initially. It me an that the alternative hypothesis (H1) is accepted. The problem statements of this skripsi are “How interested the pupils SD Negeri 4 Mojong to learning English vocabulary through cartoon pictures? and Are there any achievement of the pupils who learn English vocabulary with using cartoon pictures?” This study empoloys experimental method that aplied total sampling The population of this research was the fifth years grade of SD Negeri 4 consist of 17 pupils. (c) We might encourage (a) and (b) with groups. However. http://www.php?mod=browse&op=read&id=stainpress-11111virdalesty-291 http://www.html .