MAT 435 CHAPTER 1 : METHODS OF INTEGRATION 1.

1 : INTEGRATION BY PARTS

Formula for integration by parts: ∫ f ( x )g' ( x )dx = f ( x )g( x ) − ∫ g( x )f ' ( x )dx

If we let u = f ( x ) and v = g( x ) , then the differentials du = f ' ( x )dx and dv = g' ( x )dx . So by substitution rule:

∫ udv = uv − ∫ vdu

Example 1.1.1 a) Find ∫ x sin x dx b) Evaluate ∫ ln x dx ) Find ∫ t 2 e t dt d) Evaluate ∫ e x sin x dx e) !al ulate ∫ tan
0 1 −1

x dx

1.2 : INTEGRATION OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

". I#$E%&"$I#% '()E&S (F SI#E "#* !(SI#E Evaluating integrals of the form: ∫ sinm x cos n x dx where m and n are nonnegative integers.

Example 1.+.1

1

Show that

2 1 x − 1 sin 2x + c a) ∫ sin x dx = 2 4 2 b) ∫ cos x dx = 1 2 1 sin 2 x + c x+4

4 1 sin 2x + 1 sin 4 x + c x+4 ) ∫ cos x dx = 3 8 32 3 1 cos 3 x + c d) ∫ sin x dx = − cos x + 3 3 1 sin 3 x + c e) ∫ cos x dx = sin x − 3

+

!ase n odd m odd m even or n even

'ro edure Substitute u , sin x Substitute u , os x -se identities to redu e the powers of sine and osine

&elevant Identities
cos 2 x = 1 − sin 2 x sin 2 x = 1 − cos 2 x
1 (1 − cos 2 x ) sin 2 x = 2 ,

1 (1 + cos 2x ) cos 2 x = 2

Example 1.+.+ Evaluate a) ∫ sin 4 x cos 5 x dx b) ∫ sin 3 x cos 2 x dx ) ∫ sin 4 x cos 4 x dx

Integrals of the form:

∫ sin mx cos nx dx ∫ sin mx sin nx dx ∫ cos mx cos nx dx
an be found by using the produ t formulas:
1 [ sin( α − β) + sin( α + β)] sin α cos β = 2 1 [cos( α − β) − cos( α + β)] sin α sin β = 2 1 [ cos( α − β) + cos( α + β)] cos α cos β = 2

Example 1.+.. Evaluate ∫ sin 7 x cos 3 x dx

.

/. I#$E%&"$I#% '()E&S (F SE!"#$ "#* $"#%E#$ Evaluating integrals of the form: ∫ tan m x sec n x dx where m and n are nonnegative integers.

Example 1.+.0 Evaluate a) ∫ tan x dx b) ∫ sec x dx ) ∫ tan 5 x dx

If m and n are positive integers, then ∫ tan m x sec n x dx an be evaluated by these pro edures:

!ase n even m odd m even or n odd

'ro edure Substitute u , tan x Substitute u , se x &edu e to powers of se x alone

&elevant Identities
sec 2 x = tan 2 x + 1 tan 2 x = sec 2 x − 1 tan 2 x = sec 2 x − 1

Example 1.+.1 Evaluate a) ∫ tan 2 x sec 4 x dx b) ∫ tan 3 x sec 3 x dx ) ∫ sec 3 x dx d) ∫ sec 6 x dx

1.. : INTEGRATION OF TRIGONOMETRIC SUBSTITUTIONS

0

Evaluate integrals that ontain expression of the form:

a2 − x2 x2 + a2 x 2 −a2

, where a23

by ma4ing substitutions involving trigonometri fun tions.

$he basi idea for evaluating an integral that involves one of the radi als des ribe above is to ma4e a substitution that will eliminate the radi al.

≤θ≤ π For example, substituting x , a sin θ , − π 2 2 in
a2 − x2

a2 − x2

yields

, , , ,

a 2 − a 2 sin 2 θ
a 2 (1 −sin 2 θ )

a cos 2 θ
a cos θ

Sin e , thus osθ ≥ 3

, a cos θ

$able of $rigonometri Substitutions:

Example 1...1 Evaluate a) ∫
dx x
2

4 −x2
dx

b) ∫ ) ∫

9 −x2 x2

dx x
2

+ a2

1

2 d) ∫ x − 25 dx x

1.0 : INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FUNCTION

". I#$E%&"5S I#6(56I#% ax 2 + bx + c Integrals that involve a 7uadrati expression ax 2 + bx + c , where a 83 and b 83, an often be evaluated by first ompleting the s7uare, then ma4ing an appropriate substitution.

Example 1.0.1 Evaluate a) ∫ b) ∫
x x
2

− 4x + 8
dx

dx

5 − 4 x − 2x 2

/. '"&$I"5 F&"!$I(#S 9 5I#E"& F"!$(&S If all of the fa tors of :;x) are linear, then the partial fra tion, an be determined by:
(x) Q( x )

de omposition

5I#E"& F"!$(& &-5E: For ea h fa tor of the form (ax + b )m , the partial fra tion de omposition ontains the following sum of m partial fra tions:

!1 !2 !m + + """ + , where ! 1# ! 2 #"""! m are onstants to be determined. 2 ax + b (ax + b) (ax + b)m

<

Example 1.0.+ Evaluate a) ∫ b) ∫
dx x
2

+ x −2 dx

2x + 4 x
3

− 2x 2

!. '"&$I"5 F&"!$I(#S 9 :-"*&"$I! F"!$(&S If some of the fa tors of :;x) are irredu ible 7uadrati s, then the partial fra tion de omposition of
(x) an be determined from the following rule: Q( x )

:-"*&"$I! F"!$(& &-5E: For ea h fa tor of the form (ax 2 + bx + c )m the partial fra tion de omposition ontains the following sum of m partial fra tions:

! 1x + $1 ax 2 + bx + c

+

! 2 x + $2 (ax 2 + bx + c ) 2

+ """ +

! m x + $m (ax 2 + bx + c )m

where ! 1# ! 2 #"""! m # $1# $ 2 #"""$ m

are onstants to be determined.

Example 1.0.. Evaluate ∫
x2 + x − 2 3x 3 − x 2 + 3x −1 dx

*. I#$E%&"$I#% I='&('E& &"$I(#"5 F-#!$I(#S "lthough the method of partial fra tion only applies to proper rational fra tions, an improper rational fun tion an be integrated by performing a long division and expressing the fun tion as the 7uotient plus the remainder over the divisor. $he remainder over the divisor will be a proper rational fun tion, whi h an be de omposed into partial fra tions.

>

Example 1.0.0 Evaluate ∫
3x 4 + 3x 3 − 5x 2 + x − 1 x2 + x − 2 dx

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