1.1. Background of Research In learning a language, there are four skills, such as: listening, speaking, reading, and writing, but speaking skill is considered as the most essential skill to be mastered. Speaking is an essential tool for communicating, thinking, and learning. Our personality, our self-image, our knowledge of the world and our ability to reason and express our thoughts are all reflected in our spoken performance in a foreign language. Then, through speaking, students learn concepts, develop vocabulary, and perceive the structure of a language which is the essential components of learning. So that, many people, especially students think that if someone wants to be successful in learning a language, they have to be able to use the language by speaking. To master in speaking skills especially in English, is not easy. Considering the current status of English as a foreign language in Indonesia, not so many people use it in their day-today communication. It can be a challenge to master English well. Additionally, there is an issue which has been extensively discussed in the literature concerns the level of Indonesian learners‟ EFL speaking proficiency. A number of reports show that Indonesian learners commonly have not attained a good level of oral English proficiency. As a proof, we can see that many graduates from Junior High School in Indonesia cannot speak English, even to introduce themselves. There must be some aspects which cause this problem; one of the aspects is that the students face some difficulties in speaking English. This is a common thing because English is a foreign language in Indonesia, in which the students are not accustomed to speaking English with their community. This fact is in line with Pinter's statement (2006: 55) that one of the biggest challenges for all language learners is to speak fluently and correctly because to master speaking skill, the students must speak and think at the same time. Moreover, English has different language pattern with Indonesian, so it is possible for Indonesian students to be influenced by their native language while speaking English.

to clarify misconceptions. the researcher wants to do a research entitled “ Using Cartoon Picture to Improve Students‟ speaking Ability”. there are many kinds of strategies that teacher at school might use. Then. Therefore. when the teacher asked question about what the cartoon picture is. Cartoons are very appealing to young learners and capture their imagination. One way is to use pictures to improve their speaking ability. cartoons are an excellent theme to utilize when supporting your child‟s learning at home. They are too shy to express their idea. to introduce and motivate study of new topics. Because as experience of the researcher during teaching practice in that school. people believe that children like cartoon because cartoon has rich imagination. exaggerated picture of the plot and dynamic features. Impossible things taking place right in front of a child who has impossible ideas in his/her head. is very low. and photographs accompanying the lesson kindle the interest and imagination of the child. Illustrations. . Brown (2007) stated that picture can be used in many stages of the instructional process. cartoons. Generally. Because of that. Children like cartoons mostly because they can basically “see” their imagination come to life. it can interest their attention. So that. many of the students wanted to answer it. Based on explanation above. There are so many kinds of pictures that can teacher use to improve students‟ speaking ability.In order to make their students are more fluently in speaking. specifically cartoon. this research is conducted to know the possibilities using cartoon pictures in improving students‟ ability in speaking for 7th grade of junior high school number 9 in Jambi city. when the teacher showed a picture. the character of cartoon hopefully can be used to help teacher makes students interested to speak English at class. In that manner the cartoons somewhat speak to children. But. The class is passive. and motivate them to learn. to communicate basic information. Pictures as visual aids will attract students‟ attention. They are more enthusiastic and not shy to express their idea. and to evaluate student‟s progress and achievement. the researcher found that students‟ speaking ability especially in class 7H.

The Purpose of the Research The purposes of this research are:   To describe solution of student‟s problem To describe the use cartoon picture and the improvement of students‟ speaking ability. greeting expression. Another reason is because as researcher and teacher in the school‟s experience. and walk around the class. the research question is formulated as follows : “How does cartoon picture improve students‟ speaking ability in Junior High School 9 Jambi? ”. especially for SMPN 9 Jambi for class VII H. The reasons are because the students will learn about them in the first and also in the second semester. 1. VIIH is the largest class. asking & giving facts. by using cartoon pictures. The Limitation of the Research This research is about the using of cartoon picture to improve students‟ speaking ability in Junior High School. Then.2. Formulation of the Research Based on the background mentioned above. And the teacher can use pictures in teaching those topics. They are related with the syllabus for 7th grade of junior high school. So. the students are around 40 students. hopefully the students will easy to understand about the topic. the researcher has to teach in that class. descriptive.4. because of that.1. especially English. it is very crowded and the students like to make a noise. asking & giving opinion. And can make the students more interesting because it is quite funny. they are passive. such as : asking & giving things. saying like & dislike. shopping list. 1. a cartoon picture which is chosen by the researcher is gag cartoon. in learning process. Moreover. procedure. giving instructions. Gag cartoon is a kind of cartoon which is chosen because it is just for entertains people. The researcher wants to do research in this class because while doing teaching practice at that school.3. . However. The topics that is used in this research are different in each meeting.

.1.5. the teacher will get the idea to use cartoon picture in helping the teaching process. The Significant of the Research The significant of this research are divided into 3 parts : for the teacher : by this research. For the researcher and next researcher : the researcher get a new idea that a cartoon picture can be an useful media in learning process. For the students : the students will easy to understand and more enthusiastic to learn English because of the cartoon pictures.

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2. the teaching of speaking skill has become increasingly important in the English as a second or foreign language context. which hires people with no training to teach conversation. and making speech. Moreover. d. Teaching Speaking Skill According to Hornby (1995:826) speaking is making use of words in an ordinary voice. knowing and being able to use a language expressing one-self in words. offering words. b.Teaching is action to point learning toward desired to accomplishment by learners.Teaching is action to make knowledge create sense.Teaching is action to increase the odds that potential learners will learn.1.(2002:145) states that to increase students‟ speaking mastery the teacher must concern with the student –to –student –interaction. (2000:9) they state as follows: a. teaching speaking skill emphasizes on the activities to make the students active and creative. 2003:48). e. speaking in a language other than our own is anything but simple (Nunan. Teaching speaking is sometimes considered as a simple process of commercial language school around the world. Another idea comes from Haskew and Mc Lendon in Sutopo. The students learn what they are going to say with other in front of the class and try to develop their creativity orally. along with the position of as a language for international communication. Although speaking is totally natural. Nowadays. Afterwards. This maximizes the students‟ competence in speaking. The teaching of speaking skill is also important due to large number of students who want to study English in order to be able to use English for . West (1968) in Fauziati.Teaching is to present learners a live opportunity to learn. c. The great part of time in the process of learning speaking is dominated by students. it‟s dominated by the instructor.Teaching is action to enhance the persons who are learning.

Afterwards. It is possible also for a teacher to use some of teaching media to help the students interested with the topic. the teacher tells or gives stimuli to the students concerning with the topic. activate the teacher give an opportunity to the students to express their ideas and opinions. The teacher should be creative to make the students want to speak in English. Do not correct students' pronunciation mistakes very often while they are speaking.Indicate positive signs when commenting on a student's response.       Try to involve each student in every speaking activity. The teacher should reduce his chance to speak in class and try to invite his students to speak. Provide the vocabulary beforehand that students need in speaking activities. and shared knowledge. Therefore. The method of teaching speaking as suggested by Harmer (1998:95) is Engage Activate-Study. it is not easy to teach people to speak with language different with their own. As you see in the following:  Provide maximum opportunity to students to speak the target language by providing a rich environment that contains collaborative work. Reduce teacher speaking speaking time. practice differentways of student participation. . Engage means that the teacher gives swarming to the students. so that the teaching – learning English 2. Hayriye (2006:1) provides some Suggestions for English teachers in teaching speaking. teaching speaking is important to make people mastering a language. time in class while increasing student To conclude. 2. In addition to help English teacher. Then. Method in Teaching Speaking. the students can get the learning experience. Ask eliciting questions such as “What do you mean ? How did you reach that conclusion?” in order to prompt students to speak more. for this aim.Some of method that support in teaching speaking are : .‟ so. But. authentic mate r i a l s a n d tasks. For instance: the topic of the discussion is about „daily activity. study means that it concerns with the material of the discussion.communicative purposes.

audio and audiovisual media. Total Physical Response : in this method after the learner internalizes an extensive map how the target language works. there were three kinds of media. with no recourse to the students‟ native language (Diller 1978). but the teacher should be selective when choosing. For teachers media had function as helper. the skills and language competences.A. speaking will appear spontaneously. Communicative Language Teaching : became clear that communication required that students perform certain functions as well. : by applying this method. C. supporter. such as promising. They are many kinds of media which can be used by the teachers in the teaching learning process. The Silent Way : supposed that learning is a process which we initiate by ourselves by mobilizing our inner resources to meet the challenge at hand. The Role of Media in Teaching Speaking According to Devia. Community Language Learning D. E. Direct Method : receives its name from the fact that meaning is be conveyed directly in the target language through use of demonstration and visual aids. B. students‟ confident will appear and they will be communicative in saying something based on their idea because teachers very support them and consider their students as “whole persons”. inviting. 2. and declining invitations within a social context (Wilkins 1976). In this case using media in delivering the lesson can be a good solution. Kinds of instructional media for teaching English. they are: visual. Media is a tool for language teaching and learning which can give a contribution to the teaching learning process.3. and mediator in teaching . in her article. It can be used to increase and improve students‟ ability in learning English especially in speaking. Generally. English teaching media are very important to help students acquire new concepts of.

Gag cartoons Gag cartoon is a cartoon image which is intended to banter or make funny. teaching speaking by using media is important because the students can more easily catch the lesson and be more active in joining the class.S. Chilvers said: “cartoon is a full size drawing made for the purpose of transferring a design to a painting or tapestry or other work. teacher could achieve the effectiveness. person who draws cartoons. In using the media. T Iskandar in the same book defines cartoon as a depiction that tells the everyday things in fun way. cartone which means paper. 2. The facial expressions of cartoon figure may inspire students to interpret the thoughts behind the expressions and inspire students to interpret the thoughts behind the expressions and the story implicit in cartoons provides the students with something to describe or narrate. without intent for viewing a problem or actual events. The use of Cartoon Picture in Teaching Speaking 2.learning process.4. Types of Cartoon 1. As one of the forms of graphic communications. cartoons are an Interpretative drawing that uses symbols to convey a message quickly and succinctly or an attitude toward people. Manser (2000:59) stated that cartoon is „amusing drawing or series of drawing in a newspaper. without detail by using symbols and characters which are easily recognized and understood quickly 2. Cartoon derived from the Italian. Cartoon usually captures the essence of the message should be delivered. While. situations / events. pour it into the simple picture. Notion of Cartoon Pictures According Dobson (1974:72) said. film made by photographing a series of drawing. 4. Hornby in Mat Nor Husin (1988) cartoon is a depiction of events which is portrayed in an interesting way. According to A.2. many teachers like to use cartoons as devices to stimulate conversation. Besides. Commonly.4.1. communicative condition especially in teaching English. It also can motivate and arouse the students‟ interest in learning English. it is known as a .

Comics Comics are a combination of art and literary images. Caricature cartoon Cartoon caricature: a cartoon that has been painted by making changes in a person's face or form. Political cartoons are primary resources that offer intriguing and entertaining insights into the public mood. 5. For example:-Upin Upin. 4. the researcher chooses gag cartoon to improve students‟ speaking ability. This cartoon image containing an array of painted and taped then aired on television. These cartoons are most often intended to provoke laughter. . in this research. Political cartoons are often found on the editorial pages of newspapers and magazines. using images which will be familiar to all of the people in a society.pure cartoon. The goal of a political cartoon is to send a clear message. Doraemon. More featured cartoon character of a person through the forms. and they also sometimes appear in the comics section. 3. 2. the underlying cultural assumptions of age. Cartoons aims criticize witty and had implied intention behind the character. Political cartoon Political carton is also known as editorial cartoon. etc. So. It's extremely rewarding to dream up a good idea and even more satisfying to craft the idea into physical form. Cartoon animation: Cartoon animation is cartoon that can move or live visual and sound. It is an illustration or comic strip containing a political or social message that can relate to current events or personalities. It is formed from a whole series of images is a series of stories on each picture there is a balloon speech as narrative stories with an easily recognized figure. and attitude towards current events or key events.

Like a research with title. hopefully this research will be also successful to improve students‟ speaking ability by using cartoon pictures . the title is “ Improving Students‟ Speaking Mastery Using Information Gap to the Ssecond Grade of SMP N 3Kebakkramatkaranganyar in 2007/2008 “ by Vicka Mulia Sari.5. And the result is that the teaching speaking using information gap is successful to improve the students‟ motivation to speak. “Using Cartoon Pictures to Develop the Vocabulary of the pupils”. There is also another research which is still related with this research.2. Considering the result of analysis concludes that using cartoon pictures in teaching English vocabulary can motivate the pupils to increase their vocabulary mastery.70%. So. The result of this research showed that the computation of the pupils score from the test indicates that there is all the pupils fifth years grade of SD Negeri 4 Mojong agree and interest learn English through carton pictures and that the pupils experimental class is percentage interest showed 90. Saleh and Ambo Dalle. which was Supervised by Muh. The students are easily learn English speaking. The Related Research There are some researches which are related to this research.

Setting of Research The duration of doing this research is approximately 9 meetings. different strength. 3.CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH 3.2. because the researcher is the teacher itself in the class.3 The Subject of Research The subject of this research is students of class VII H at SMP N 9 Jambi in academic year 2012 /2013. action. and weakness and intelligence that can give significant effect in this classroom action research. Frankel and Wallen ( 2003 : 527 ) said. 3. It consists of 20 girls and 20 boys. The reason of choosing this class is because the students have low capability in English especially as researcher‟s observation and experience while doing teaching practice. . The researcher wants to do a research based on the problem that the researcher faced in the class. And the researcher can involve directly in this research. While. The students in this class have different background and knowledge. the students have low capability to speak because of lost motivation. so hopefully. while every cycle consists of 3 meetings. afraid. observation and reflection. This research is conducted in second semester of seven grades in SMPN 9 Jambi. As stated of Kusumah and Dwitagama ( 2000 : 9 ) stated that classroom action research is a research which consists of planning. 1. and every meeting has different topic. by doing this research. Which is included 20 girls and 20 boys. it can be helpful to solve the problem. and conducted by the teacher in her own class. Mostly. The class is VII H. The number of students is 40 students. Design of Research The design of this research. and do not interested with English. The number of students of this class is 40 students. lack vocabulary. “ Action research is conducted by one or more individuals or groups for purpose of solving a problem or obtaining information in order to inform local practice. “The Using of Cartoon Picture to improve students‟ speaking ability” is classroom action research. This research will have 3 cycle. Jambi city.

their problem. the researcher will use observation sheet. Teacher‟s note is used by the teacher or researcher to record what happened during teaching process. students‟ note and teachers‟ note. Then. 3..6. The researcher will get the qualitative data from observation sheet. Validity and Reliability 3. and students‟ note. Content validity is the extent to which the elements within a measurement procedure are relevant and representative of the construct that they will be used to measure (Haynes et al. Moskal & Leydens (2002) defined the validity as “the degree to which the evidence supports that the interpretations of the data are correct and the manner in which interpretations used are appropriate”. To record students‟ progress in speaking skill. where the students are too shy to express their idea and do not interest with the English lesson. the validity testing for the instrument can be done by comparing between the content of instrument and learning material that has been learnt. This research will concern on content validity. The problems that the researcher found in that school is facing passive students.1. So. in here. students‟ note. observation sheet. The examples of observation sheet and also teacher and students‟notes will be attached in the appendix.4. and students‟ note that will be taken during teaching – learning process. observation sheet.Observation sheet. 1995). and also their feeling when study by using cartoon pictures. The Source of Data The data of this research is qualitative data. they are.Researcher measures the improvements of the speaking students by analyzing observation sheet.5. to solve the problem. . it is used by the researcher to know the process of the teaching and learning in the class. the elements which will be measured are material content. Validity According to Sugiyono (2009 : 182 ). teacher‟s note and students‟ note. 3. teacher‟s note. teacher‟s note. So. students‟note is used by the students to describe what have been they learned in the class.6.3. Instrument of Data Collection The researcher uses some instruments to collect the data. teacher‟s note.

 Teachers‟ note For teacher‟s note. and evaluation sequences. By knowing the students problem it can easier for the teacher to find the way to solve the problem. so the responsibilities of the students is to find the best ways to solve the problem. The consistency of teaching means that the teaching process for every cycle is consistence. descriptive. Reliability As Nunan (1992 : 14 ) stated that reliability is the stability of test scores. asking & giving opinion. So. in reliability of this research. it is used by the researcher to know the process of the teaching and learning in the class. It is based on the topic from syllabus. In research. asking & giving facts.  Students note Students‟note can be used by the writer to know the students problem and their feeling in teaching English especially in learning speaking. giving instructions. Material content The material content here means the material that teacher/researcher uses when teaching the students.6. the teacher will take a note about all the activity of the students in speaking class. procedure) and cartoon pictures selection that will be used in teaching-learning process. active students. The teacher will use cartoon picture in teaching the topic which is appropriate .2. congratulation expression. and then the topic will be develop in lesson plan as a guide for the teacher to teaching students ( the topics that will be used are : asking & giving things.  Observation note For this element. the passive students. students who make a noisy. the research will focus with the consistency of teaching. the term reliability means "repeatability" or "consistency". A measure is considered reliable if it would give the same result over and over again. 3. the students feel bored. students‟ progress and also the other problems that will happen in learning process. reflection. saying like & dislike. shopping list.

the consistency is also needed in evaluating the result to solve the problem. Then also. Technique of Data Analysis The technique of data analysis will be divided into two (2) parts. main data analysis and secondary data analysis.  Main Data Analysis. b. whether using a cartoon picture is useful or not. The data obtained from observation sheet. and put the unit together into interpreted form. e. . analyzed and made plans for the next cycle and findings. Determine the important of the unit. The researcher wrote and made report for the next cycle. teacher‟s note and students‟ note as qualitative data will be analyzed by some steps in the following here: a. The researcher read the data which collected to get the sense of data c. The researcher should consistence to conclude the result of all activities in each meeting. The researcher put the action in the observation sheet and field note for observing during the teaching process.with the syllabus. The researcher analyzed and described what happen during teaching process and how teaching and learning by using cartoon pictures. The consistency in reflection is also needed. and also all of tasks which are given by the teacher in the class. All data were investigated. f. by checking observation sheet. 3.7. students‟ activities. field note. The researcher broke down the data into smaller unit. The researcher made general conclusions. d.

 Secondary Data Analysis Here are the rubrics of speaking skill to assess students‟ speaking while learning process take place Rubric of Speaking Assessment ASPECTS SCORE 5 4 3 Explanation □ Easy to understand and has a native accent □ Easy to understand although with a certain accent □ There are problems that make the pronunciation listeners have full concentration and sometimes there is a misunderstanding 2 Pronunciation □ It is difficult to understand because of pronunciation problems. conversation is limited because of limited vocabulary □ Using the wrong vocabulary and the vocabulary is limited so it is difficult to understand 2 . often asked to repeat 1 □ Serious pronunciation problems that can not be understood ASPECTS SCORE 5 4 EXPLANATION □ Little or no grammatical errors □ Sometimes makes grammatical errors but does not affect the meaning □ Often make grammatical errors that affect meaning □ Many grammatical errors that impede meaning and often rearranging sentences □ Grammatical errors so severe that it is difficult to understand 3 GRAMMAR 2 1 ASPECT SCORE 5 4 3 EXPLANATION □ Using vocabulary and phrases like native speakers □ Sometimes it is not appropriate to use the vocabulary □ Often use incorrect vocabulary.

15 = Enough < 11 = Poor . □ Understand most of what was said when talking somewhat slowed despite 3 Understanding 2 repetition □ It's hard to follow what is being said. 1 □ Cannot understand even simple conversation Note: if the total score are : > 20 = Very Good 16 – 20 = Good 11. even though there is repetition in certain parts.Vocabulary 1 □ Vocabulary is very limited so the conversation is not possible ASPECT SCORE 5 4 3 2 EXPLANATION □ Fluent as native speakers □ Smoothness looked a little troubled by the language □ Smoothness bit much troubled by language □ Often hesitated and stalled due to the limitations of language □ Talk to falter and stop making conversation impossiblei Fluent 1 ASPECT SCORE 5 4 Explanation □ Understand all without difficulty □ Understand almost everything.

A half of students number in the class are active speaking in the class. Procedure of the Research This research will be conducted in three (3) cycles. asking & giving facts.9.3. shopping list. each cycles have three (3) meetings.The teacher plans to teach : . The research will be conducted by following procedure :  Planning : 1. The students‟ speaking ability is measured by looked at the rubric of speaking assessment.  Action : 1. Cycle 3 : Congratulation expression. students‟ worksheet 2. such as syllabus. lesson plan. Prepare cartoon pictures and make teaching media if necessary 3. Teacher starts the lesson by giving illustration to students about the topic that will they learn . The indicator related to the achievement of speaking skill. descriptive. Indicator in Classroom Action Research (CAR) The success of classroom action research is determined by problem indicator. giving instructions. Prepare teaching sets. asking & giving opinion.Cycle 1 : asking & giving things. - Cycle 2 : saying like & dislike. 3. The teacher uses picture cartoon in teaching the topic. the result of this research will be successful if : The students can answer teacher‟s question orally with minimum of score is „enough‟ (11-15). Then. procedure.8. 4.

And also the teacher observes all students activity during the research process in the field note. After having reflection. Teacher explains the topic 5. Then. that the teacher will know whether using cartoon picture can improve students‟ speaking or not and also the teacher will know the students‟ weaknesses during the activities in the class. Teacher divides students into group consist of 4 students. 3. and also all of tasks which are given by the teacher in the class.  Reflection In this part. students‟ activities. 6. .2. The result will be successful if : The students can answer teacher‟s question orally with minimum of score is „enough‟ (11-15). write down in observation sheet. the researcher will evaluate whether using cartoon picture is useful or not to solve the problem in the class . Teacher shows the big cartoon picture to help teaching process. A half of students‟ numbers in the class are active speaking in the class. 4. Teacher asks questions about the picture. by checking observation sheet. field note. Teacher checks students‟ progress  Observation The researcher observes the students‟ activeness in speaking skill whether they are active / passive in speaking skill. the researcher concluded the result of all activities in each meeting. So. Teacher gives the worksheet of the students 7.

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6 The students answer the question in worksheet 7 The students make a dialog/list of things/ announcement. grammar.APPENDIX 1 A. and vocabulary . their usually Often sometimes Seldom never opinion based on the picture and task at the time 8 The students practice the dialogue/announcement/ list of things that they made with correct pronunciation. grammar. greeting card. vocabulary. Observation sheet NO Students Activities Frequency always 1 The students listen to the teacher‟s explanation 2 The students look at the picture that the teacher showed 3 4 The students interest with the pictures The students answer teacher‟s questions orally 5 The students can answer with the correct pronunciation.

How many students are active speaking in the learning process ? 2. Teacher’s Note It is description about what happened in the classroom while speaking skill is used in the learning process. Meting 3 : asking & giving opinion.9 10 The students ask question to the teacher The students conclude the lesson today B. Here are some questions that will be described : 1. Cycle 3 : Meeting 7 Meeting 8 Meeting 9 :Greeting expression. Here is the detail about the topic : Cycle 1 : Meeting 1 : asking & giving things. : procedure. . The topic that will be teach by the teacher during 3 cycle. which are in each cycle have 3 meeting. What are the students‟ progress in speaking ? 4. : descriptive. Meeting 2 : asking & giving facts. so the total meeting is 9 meetings. Meeting 5 : giving instructions. Cycle 2 : Meeting 4 : saying like & dislike. How many students are passive speaking in the learning process ? 3. Meeting 6 : shopping list.

APPENDIX 2 Examples of kinds of cartoons : 1. Gag cartoons 2. Political cartoon .

3. Caricature cartoon 4. Comics . Animation Cartoon 5.

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