English Vocabulary 2009

RELIABLE - [adjective] that may be relied on; that can be trusted to do sth well; that is likely to be .true / correct
.Ex 1: I'm sure it's true. This information comes from a reliable source Ex 2: I'm not confident in the reliability of these results. We should calculate it once .again

MUSTY - [adjective] smelling damp and unpleasant because of a lack of fresh air (like old (buildings, long-closed rooms); obsolete; outdated (musty laws
Ex 1.: Why this room smells so musty? It wasn't a good idea to close all the windows .for whole night Ex 2.: If you'd like to sell this house first try to cover up that smell. During price negotiations a smelly property is definitely a liability. It doesn't matter if it is musty, .cigarette smoke or pet odors

PERPLEXED - [adjective] to be confused or embarrassed by something difficult to understand or believe .They looked perplexed and kindly asked him to repeat everything he said He asked with a perplexed voice what it all meant, when he saw his girlfriend and his friend sitting .together in a cafe .INQUISITIVE - [adjective] trying to find out too much about things or people When he started to ask me whether we are already engaged, I told him not to be so inquisitive. It's !not his business after all Every time there was a new couple walking down the street, everyone could see her inquisitive face .at the window OBSTINATE - [adjective] unwilling to change your opinions or behavior, stubborn .He's such an obstinate child. He won't eat a soup, no matter what you tell him !Why are you so obstinate? You could finally agree with the others, just one last time TO MUTILATE - [verb] to damage something usually by removing a part of it .The children were punished, because they mutilated their notebooks with a pair of scissors .He called the police immediately after he had found a badly mutilated body near the river TO RECONCILE - [verb] to become friendly again after a quarrel; to bring back two nations in opposition after a war or a conflict After the divorce they didn't talk to each other, which was particularly painful to their children. Now, .as they reconciled, they spend each Sunday together After the U.S. - Mexican War in 1846 nobody believed that the two nations may ever reconcile. .Surprisingly, the mass influx of Mexicans to the U.S. has been noticed recently TO PRECLUDE - [verb] to make something impossible to happen; prevent .The frequent tsunami catastrophes preclude any prospect of a peaceful settlement in Indonesia .His war injuries preclude any possibility of playing football in the national team again OBTRUSIVE - [adjective] noticeable or visible in an unpleasant way; undesirably prominent .When she saw his cheap pinkish jacket, she thought what an obtrusive lack of good taste it was

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English Vocabulary 2009
Peter's car always draws stares. He's convinced that it's so stylish and original, whereas I consider it .simply too obtrusive CONTRACEPTION - [noun] the practice of preventing women from becoming pregnant as a result of an act of sex and the methods for doing this Which method of contraception does she use? She uses contraceptive pills claiming that it's the only .method she trusts .Using condoms is not regarded as a safe method of contraception any more COUNTERFEIT - [noun; verb] imitation; fake; to make a copy of something (money, branded goods, signature etc.) that looks as the real thing .It is against the law to counterfeit money and signatures Doing successful business in branded goods may be difficult because of the high number of .counterfeited goods which are sold in the street every day VENGEANCE - [noun] punishment that you give to someone that has hurt you or your family, friends .The bombing was an act of vengeance by terrorists for imprisoning their member .All he wants is vengeance on whoever has hurt his family HEYDAY - [noun] the period of greatest power or success .In her heyday, she was one of the best dancers in the world During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, England was in its heyday. The period is referred to as the .Golden Age of England

SURGE - [noun] a sudden movement; a sudden strong feeling Many people joined the southward surge to settle down in the South, because the unemployment in .the North has risen dramatically .She felt a surge of anger when she saw her best friend flirting with her boyfriend TO ROAM - [verb] to travel by foot with no clear purpose .They spent two days roaming in the streets as they had nothing better to do They were expelled from the university and spent 2 years roaming around the world hoping to find a .place to settle down for good BOOZY - [adjective] full of alcohol; marked by the consumption of alcohol .Many students say that studying at the university is all about boozy parties and falling in love He particularly enjoyed binge drinking with his boozy drinking companions, so she decided to .divorce him TO DISDAIN - [verb] not to do something because you think it is not worth your attention; to feel that something is unimportant and deserves no attention .She disdained to answer his ridiculous question ?Why do you disdain my offer to become friends? Am I not good enough HIGH-FLYER - [noun] an extremely ambitious man More and more young people decide not to have children and focus on their job only. They are .typical examples of high-flyers

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English Vocabulary 2009
.I would never marry a high-flyer. He would probably spend all his time on studying and working PARCHMENT - [noun] a writing material made from the skin of a goat or a sheep, used mainly in ancient times Many manuscripts from the Antiquity survived, because they were written down on parchment of a .good quality Parchment is called "parchment" after the ancient city of Pergamum, where it was invented ca. 200 .BC

LIMELIGHT - [noun] the centre of public attention .The rich and the famous have to get used to the lack of privacy and living in the limelight Polish history was in the limelight, when Adrzej Wajda's "Katyn" was nominated for Oscars as the .best foreign movie TO FEED OFF - [verb] to use something to your advantage .She feeds off her boyfriend's naivety to go out with other men Many branches feed off customers' pursuit of wealth to launch more and more new products into the .market TO GAWP - [verb] to look at somebody or something in a foolish and rude way !Stop gawping at the house as if it was something very unusual !He used to sit on a bench and gawp at people passing by. He looked so silly (SUSSED /

/- [adjective] well informed; (verb SUSS means to discover, figure out
.He's always sussed about everything that happens in the world

She likes being sussed about who's with whom and why. I think she just pokes her nose into other .people's business CLUBS /

/ - [noun] playing cards with one or more three-leafed figures printed in black

.Poker does not normally rank suits. The king of spades is as good as the king of clubs The ace of diamonds ranks higher than the ace of clubs, but lowers than the ace of hearts and the ace .of spades CEO (an acronym for chief executive officer) - [noun] the highest rank in a business company After he'd been appointed the CEO of his company, he could finally afford the beautiful mansion at .the seaside that his wife had always been dreaming about I knew that if he is made the CEO of our company, he'll be as proud as a peacock. It's unbearable to !be his subordinate (CRONY - [noun] a friend or companion (often used to express disapproval I think I'm going to give up my job soon. My boss always does favours for his cronies, which drives !me mad

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English Vocabulary 2009
He finally decided to go to the party, and he was hardly surprised of whom he met there: Tom and !his inseparable cronies MALNUTRITION - [noun] bad health which resulted from lack of food or lack of the right sort of food .Malnutrition makes your nails crack and your hair fall out .Most African children die of malnutrition BRAINCHILD - [noun] somebody's idea or invention, especially a successful one .The festival of 1960s music was her brainchild .The bulb was Thomas Edison's brainchild INCREDULOUS - [adjective] unable to believe something; showing that you do not believe something .When I told her what had happened, she sounded incredulous .The lecturer used to tell us many unbelievable stories of his life. Everyone had an incredulous look TO GRUMBLE - [verb] to complain quietly but in a bad-tempered way .Every time I see him, he keeps grumbling about his noisy neighbors !Stop grumbling about how poor you are. It's high time you found a job INFALLIBLE - [adjective] never making mistakes, never wrong; having the intended effect .It is working again! - Of course it is. He's an infallible man who can repair everything .The scientists have finally found an infallible cure for the disease that killed so many people PROCLIVITY - [noun] a tendency to do something; a natural tendency to be attracted to somebody; proneness to something .Individuals who have a proclivity towards the same sex are called homosexuals .Lonely people have a greater proclivity for pessimism than people who have families TO ESCHEW - [verb] to avoid, to keep away from something .Amish people eschew television, radio and computers to remain spotless from the outside world Fortunately, we live in the society that more often eschews prejudice against people who seem to be .different TO WOLF-WHISTLE /

/- [verb] to whistle approvingly at a female

The road worker who had wolf-whistled at Peter's girlfriend was beaten up yesterday. No wonder, .Peter's a boxer and he's extremely jealous of her .I find it offensive that men wolf-whistle and shout at women they find attractive INFANTRY - [noun] soldiers who fight on foot .The Harold's army was defeated, because his army consisted mainly of infantry. He lacked riders .William's infantry consisted of 10000 well-armed peasants with axes and lances PERIL - [noun] a danger of being killed or harmed; something that causes danger .Exhaust fumes are a serious peril for the environment .If you really want to take bungee jumping, do it at your peril

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English Vocabulary 2009
TO ANNIHILATE /

/- [verb] to destroy something or defeat somebody completely
.The town was virtually annihilated by the yesterday's tornado

The William's army moved towards the Harold's army to annihilate them, leaving William the .winner of one of the greatest battles in the history of England GULF - [noun] a large, deep part of a sea enclosed by land .The Gulf of Mexico is a part of the Atlantic Ocean .Gulfs are often mistaken with Mediterranean seas FLASHBACK - [noun] a part of a story that goes back in time to show what happened earlier .The Lord of the Rings" begins with a flashback to the ancient times at which the rings were made" .There is a flashback in this novel to her happy childhood that she recalls with a smile on her face TO ENCOUNTER - [verb] to meet something difficult or dangerous; to meet somebody unexpectedly .The great knight encountered a poisonous snake on his way home .He encountered his old friend from the university at the hotel TO DISSECT - [verb] to carry out detailed studies on something, to look very carefully at the details of something .I had to dissect my mobile and took all the pieces apart to check what was wrong with it .The first scientist to dissect human body was Leonardo da Vinci DAMSEL - [noun] a young, unmarried woman, especially from a nobel family .Every medieval knight used to choose the damsel of his heart and serve her .In the past, the father of the damsel was supposed to choose a good husband for her TO RECOUNT - [verb] to tell a story or describe something that happened; to count again .She recounted all her adventures during family dinner .We need to recount the money to exclude any possibility of mistake STRANGLED - [adjective] slowly to grow or develop; silenced or killed by pressing on one's throat .The strangled economy was the biggest problem of South America after the Civil War .The big snake she noticed at her feet caused her to give a strangled scream of fear TO DAMPEN - [verb] to make something damp; to make somebody less happy or excited .If the rain doesn't dampen the ground soon, there will be a disastrous drought .Nothing could dampen his sense of humor, even the danger that they had to face SINISTER - [adjective] frightening and evil-looking .I'll never forget that sinister look on his face .I couldn't sleep all night when I saw a sinister figure dressed in black in front of my house FORLORN - [adjective] left alone and unhappy Every day I walk through the park I see the same old man sitting on a bench. He looks sad and .forlorn

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English Vocabulary 2009
He ended up poor and forlorn in a prison. But I believe he deserved it for all the things he'd done and .all the shame he'd brought to his family MUTINOUS - [adjective] dissatisfied and refusing to obey orders The captain failed to reach the North Pole, because his hungry and exhausted crew became mutinous .and refused to move on .The mutinous members of many African tribes used to be brutally murdered by their leaders TO EXHORT - [verb] to advise or urge somebody strongly to do something .Mother exhorted her lazy son to take up some studies .The captain exhorted his army to fight bravely in the battle MENACE - [noun] something or someone that threatens you or brings danger .The motorway was a menace to many rare species of animals living there He put a gun against her head and ordered us not to move. I'll never forget the menace in his face and .in his voice COURTESY - [noun] polite behavior and respect for the others .I was really surprised of their courtesy. I always thought of them as being arrogant and impolite .Showing courtesy to the king was the necessary condition to live at his court TO SURMISE - [verb] to guess that something might be true He surmised that it was Jack who has stolen his bike, because he was the only person who knew .about its existence .The specialists are surmising that the climate is going to change a lot in this century HEEDLESS - [adjective] without taking any notice of somebody or something .I can't stand their heedless behavior! They are so reckless and always forget about important things .The Trojans suffered a great loss because of their heedless attitude towards the wooden horse HIDEOUS - [adjective] extremely ugly or shocking ?I can't believe it! How could such a beautiful woman marry such a hideous man .The hideous wound after getting stabbed in the stomach won't seem to heal soon ASSERTION - [noun] a forceful statement or claim, behaving in a determined way .She went on repeating her assertion that she was not guilty .Assertion is a typical bahaviour of those who know what they want

BENEVOLENT - [adjective] kind and helpful .She's a calm, religious and benevolent woman, who always helps .If it hadn't been for his benevolent behaviour, we would have died of hunger MANSLAUGHTER - [noun] the crime of killing a man without intention Jim was beaten up to death by John. John claims he didn't mean to kill him, so he was accused of .manslaughter and sentenced to 10 years in prison The insane woman who stabbed her husband to death was found guilty of manslaughter. The judge .claims it was not a premeditated murder, because she's mentally ill

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English Vocabulary 2009
TO COERCE - [verb] to force somebody to do something .The terrorist was coerced into confessing to a role in 9/11 .The government and the people coerced the president into signing the contract THRESHOLD - [noun] a piece of wood or stone fixed beneath the doorway which is the entrance to a house or other building; the lowest level at which something begins to happen .It is commonly said that shaking hands over the threshold may bring bad luck .People usually start to think about changes in their lives at the threshold of a new year TO ASSEMBLE - [verb] to gather together .The schoolchildren assembled in front of their school to listen to the headmaster .The horn was used to assemble the soldiers during the battle PARAMOUNT - [adjective] of greatest importance .Love and family is paramount in people's lives .Protection of civilians is paramount during a war AFTERMATH - [noun] the period after an unpleasant event, such as an accident or war .There was a lot of suffering in the aftermath of the war People got really confused in the aftermath of the car accident. Nobody knew what had actually .happened

TRAIT - [noun] a particular quality of somebody or something .Punctuality is his best trait .The most common traits of successful people are confidence and intelligence CARNIVORE - [noun] an animal that eats meat, one that eats animal flesh .Lions are carnivores, whereas rabbits are not .There are some plants that capture and digest insects. They are usually called carnivorous plants SUBLIME - [adjective] noble and wonderful, causing deep feelings .I like listening to sublime music when I've had a stressful and tiring day .The sublime happy end of the novel made me cry TO RIP OFF - [verb] to charge somebody too much money .I think that they really ripped you off at that restaurant .Such poor conditions and 100$ for a night? Sorry, we won't let you rip us off INTELLIGIBLE - [adjective] that can be understood .I decided to attend his lectures. His speeches are intelligible for me .This handwriting was so unintelligible that we had to call him to ask what he had written there TO CONDEMN - [verb] to express strong disapproval of somebody or something; to give a serious .punishment to a person that is guilty in a court of law .I condemn all sorts of violence in the world .He committed terrible crimes and was condemned to death

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English Vocabulary 2009
TO ACQUIT - [verb] to announce in a court of law that somebody is not guilty of a crime .He was acquitted of the murder and released There was no evidence that she was at the site of the murder that night, so she was acquitted. But .Tom was convinced of her guilt anyway TO FOIL - [verb] to prevent somebody from doing something .Fortunately, the burglary was foiled by the police in time .We need to foil him, or he will marry the wrong woman, making the biggest mistake of his life TO SHRIVE - [verb] to confess one's sins; to obtain the absolution for oneself after having confessed one's sins .He was not a religious man, but he decided to shrive before his death .She felt much relief after she shrived and got rid of the burden of her sins SECLUDED - [adjective] very private and quiet, isolated .I dream of living in a secluded country house, where nobody would interrupt me .He was considered freak and was quickly secluded from the society TO SUBMERGE - [verb] to go or make something go under the surface of water; to give all your time and attention to something .The submarine submerged and then rose to the surface again .She gave up college and submerged herself in acting TO NEGLECT - [verb] to give little attention or care to somebody or something My boss claims that I've been neglecting my work recently and he threatened to fire me if it doesn't .change .The son of our neighbors is so neglected: thin, dirty and dressed badly ENRAGED - [adjective] very angry .He was enraged by her stupid behaviour .He's a very nervous man. He gets enraged every time he's stuck in a traffic jam TO FALL FLAT - [verb] to fail, to be unsuccessful .If my new book falls flat again, I'll give up writing .Their plan of getting to the North Pole fell flat - they ran out of food HERBIVORE - [noun] an animal which eats only plants and grass .Rabbits are herbivores. They eat grass and leaves Large herbivores, such as giraffes and elephants, cause the trees that they eat from to grow slowly .and die young DESPONDENT - [adjective] feeling unhappy and without hope .She's despondent at having been dismissed after 10 years in the company .His family was despondent at the poor results of his exam, whereas he seemed not to care

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