Chapter 17: The stars Red Giants and White Dwarfs
The Solar Neighborhood: Stars

Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars

Lecture 22 –

17.1 The Solar Neighborhood

Chapter 17: The Stars

Naming the

Remember that stellar distances can be measured using parallax:

Luminosity and Apparent Brightness More on the Magnitude Scale Stellar Temperatures Stellar Sizes: Estimating Stellar Radii The Hertzsprung–Russell Diagram Extending the Cosmic Distance Scale Stellar Masses Mass and Other Stellar Properties

distance (in parsecs) =

1 parallax ( in arc seconds)

Lecture 22 –

Exercise 1:
A) Show that 1 pc is equivalent to:
=206,265 A.U =3.1x1013 km. =3.3 light year

Chapter 17: The Stars

Stellar motion:
Actual motion of the Alpha Centauri complex:

Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars

B) Nearest star to the Sun: Proxima Centauri, which is a member of a 3-star system: Alpha Centauri complex. If alpha-centauri is 0.77 arc second parallax. Show that it is located at: = 1.3 pc; = 270,000 A.U. ; =4.3 ly

Which components of star velocity we can measure? How?


All stars are in relative motion with respect to each other.



Use luminosity of Sun 4x1026 W.7”/yr. 3. C) Determine the true spatial motion of α centauri 5 Answers: 1) 10.87 d. 7 2) 2680 W/m 2. A) calculate its transverse velocity B) By means of doppler effect. How much the new distance between proton and electron so that the force F is reduced by 3. Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars 2. Then how many parsecs=…?) Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars Lecture 22 – Exercise 2: Chapter 17: The Stars Barnard’s Star has the largest proper motion of any – proper motion is the actual shift of the star in the sky. B) Calculate its transverse velocity (km/s) 2) Alpha centauri’s proper motion has been measured to be 3. after correcting for parallax.0067%.5 times. Calculate the intensity of sun’s radiation on Venus (0.723 A. If Proton is separated from an electron by distance d.U) or solar energy flux in W/m 2. 20 km/s. it is attracted by electric force F. At a distance of 1.5x1012 km) A) Calculate its proper motion in arc seconds/year.4”/yr. spectral lines of α centauri are shifted by 0. (its parallax is 0. Answers: 1) 1.35 pc. 31 km/s 6 Inverse square law: Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars Exercise 3: 1.55 arc second. Calculate its radial velocity. Determine how many times does the intensity decrease by the farthest one. 91 km/s 2). Two identical light bulb of 60W each are placed one at 5 m and the other at 10 m. (1ly = 9.55 arc seconds and was observed to move 228 arc seconds in 22 years.4/4/2013 Stellar motion: Next nearest neighbor: Barnard’s Star. 24 km/s. These pictures were taken 22 years apart: 1) Barnard star has a parallax of 0. 3) 4 times 8 2 .

it depends on the absolute brightness but also on the distance of the star: Therefore. brighter one: Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars Two stars – A & B. with luminosities 2 and 6 times the luminosity of the Sun. Apparent brightness. dimmer star and a farther. It is also inverted – larger magnitudes are dimmer. while blue ones are hotter. respectively are observed here on Earth to have same brightness. L. Which star is further and by how much? 9 10 If we know a star’s apparent brightness or magnitude and its distance from us. 11 The color of a star is indicative of its temperature: Red stars are relatively cool. 12 3 . Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars 17. we can calculate its absolute luminosity.4/4/2013 17. a change of 5 in magnitude corresponds to a change of a factor of 100 in apparent brightness. which is related to our perception. is a measure of the total power radiated by a star. l. is how bright a star appears when viewed from Earth. two stars that appear equally bright might be a closer. It is a logarithmic scale.3 Stellar Temperatures Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars Apparent luminosity is measured using a magnitude scale. or absolute brightness.2 Luminosity and Apparent Brightness Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars Luminosity.

Rigel & Mintaka A .3 Stellar Temperatures Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars Spectral classes Here are their spectra: Characteristics of the spectral classifications: 15 16 4 . Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars 17.stars are bluesh-white less hot with surface temperature The radiation from stars is blackbody radiation.000 degree and more.000 degree like Vega & Sirius F .stars are quite cooler with surface temperature range 14 3000 to 5000 K like Betelguese & Barnard star.4/4/2013 Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars O & B . as the blackbody curve is not symmetric.stars white-yellowesh and less hot with surface temperature around 7000 like Canopus G . they are luminous and they are hottest with surface temperature 20.stars are bluesh.stars are yellowesh with surface temperature around 6000 like our Sun & alpha-centauri K & M . observations at two wavelengths are enough to define the temperature: 13 around 10.

17 18 17. we can write L = R2 T4 19 (ratio formula in solar units) Solar units LÍ = 3. formula) If we measure luminosity.4 Stellar Sizes Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars More Precisely 17-2: Estimating Stellar Radii Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars Stellar radii vary widely: Combining the Stefan-Boltzmann law for the power per unit area emitted by a blackbody as a function of temperature with the formula for the area of a sphere gives the total luminosity: (S. corresponding to different temperatures. Supergiant stars have radii more than 100 times the Sun’s. those categories are: OBAFGKM Ooh! Be A Fine Girl Kiss Me For the vast majority of stars that cannot be imaged directly. and temperature in solar units.96×105 km . Dwarf stars have radii equal to. or less than. TÍ = 5800 K 20 5 . the Sun’s. size must be calculated knowing the luminosity and temperature: Giant stars have radii between 10 and 100 times the Sun’s.9×1026 W. There are seven general categories of stellar spectra.3 Stellar Temperatures Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars 17.I. radius.4/4/2013 17. RÍ = 6.4 Stellar Sizes Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars Stellar spectra are much more informative than the blackbody curves. From highest to lowest.

Sirius B has luminosity 9. and named by.4/4/2013 Exercise 4: Calculating Stellar Size 2 4 Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars 17.287x1029 W and effective temperature 4000 K. deneb (the tail)…etc) In 1604. Beta orion)= Bayer scheme In the early 18th century. However. Aldebaran has luminosity 1. What kind of star is it: ‘main sequence. the vast majority of stars 22 in our Galaxy are far more distant. Luminosity of the Sun= 4 × 1026 W 2. 17.15).01RÍ) What kind of star is it? 21 Model of distances: Sun is a marble. a) Calculate Stellar radius (38 RÍ) b) indicate the position of Aldebaran in the H-R diagram (Fig 17.14 & 17.000 km 1. aldebaran (the follower). different naming schemes were developed like Henry Drapper catalog – HD and smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory catalog SAO. Radius of Sun: 700. but it is much more luminous! Explain. and also HD39801 and SAO 113271. dwarf? c) surface temperature of Aldebaran is less than the Sun. there are confusion of naming and some overlap.1 The Solar Neighborhood Naming stars: Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars Lecture 22 – 17. Calculate its radius. Even so. Now. blue giant. rest of distance to nearest star is basically empty Using the parallax techniques astronomers can measure up to 30 pc (100 ly) on Earth and using Satellites up to 200 pc. new stars are simply labeled by their celestial coordinates 23 24 6 . stars were numbered from west to east in a constellation (61 Cygni)= Flamsteed catalog As more and more stars were discovered. stars within a constellation were ranked in order of brightness. and labeled with Greek letters (Alpha Centauri. Like Betelguese is known as 58 Ori (flamsteed).1 The Solar Neighborhood The 30 closest stars to the Sun: Lecture 22 – Chapter 17: The Stars L (in solar luminosities) = R ( in solar radius) × T ( in units of 5800K). alpha Orion (Bayer). red giant. Earth is a grain of sand orbiting 2 m away Nearest star is another marble around 500 km away (as far as Toronto) Solar system extends about 100 m from Sun.1 The Solar Neighborhood Chapter 17: The Stars Brightest stars were known to. Beleguese by arabs and many other names like Rigel (the foot). (0.75x1024 W and temperature 27260 K. the ancients (Procyon by greeks.