Overview of welding and joining of titanium

Dr. Richard Freeman – TWI Ltd, Cambridge, UK European Titanium Conference 23-24 June 2009

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Agenda
• • • • • Brief introduction to TWI Welding and joining of Ti Arc welding developments Friction welding developments Summary

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What is TWI ?
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• Membership based Research and Technology Organisation since 1946 • Professional society • Company limited by guarantee • 550 staff worldwide • £45m turnover in 2008 • Over 3500 Industrial members in 60 countries • Non profit distributing

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Welding & Joining of Ti
• • • • • • Arc welding Laser welding and direct metal deposition Electron beam welding and surface texturing Friction welding Diffusion bonding Brazing and soldering

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Arc Welding
HF DCEN TIG TOPTIG Keyhole Plasma Reduced Spatter MIG

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High frequency TIG welding

INTERPULSE WELD DEPOSIT
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INVERTER WELD DEPOSIT
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TOPTIG
• TOPTIG claims : ☺ High quality / No spatter ☺ Good welding speed (MIG) ☺ Reasonable Investment Costs
MIG Welding TOPTIG

Courtesy Air Liquide CTAS

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Keyhole Plasma Welding
• Higher productivity than TIG and MIG • Deep penetration in single pass - up to 18mm • Above 4mm, welding speed is typically 3 times that of conventional TIG • Reduced susceptibility to porosity

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Plasma keyhole weld joints
• Square edge closed butt in 10 mm Ti6246 • Single autogenous weld pass with 200mm/min welding speed

• Edge joint in 10mm thick Ti-6246

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MIG welding using different wires

G-coat® wire (WT2G)

Conventional wire

Welding Wire : Titanium (ErTi-2) ; 1.0mm Welding Condition : 100A-17V-60cm/min
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Bead-on-Plate
30mm

Novel wire(G-Coat) - Argon shield

30mm

Conventional wire (CP-Ti) - Argon shield
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Laser Direct Metal Deposition

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Laser DMD
• Laser beam is focussed onto a substrate to create a molten pool into which a powder is delivered by a carrier gas • Powder is melted onto substrate to form a solidified layer of material

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Deposition Nozzle
• • • • Tighter powder focus Better powder efficiency Reduced material waste Good localised shielding

Water circulation

Nozzle gas

Powder delivery Nozzle

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Ti Grading - Macros

Increasing Ti -6242
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Demonstrator

Material graded from Ti-6-4 to Ti 6242

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Titanium 6-4 ‘in air’ Demonstrator

500mm

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Friction Welding
Friction Stir Welding Linear Friction Welding

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Friction Stir Welding
• Novel non-fusion welding
process invented in 1991 by TWI Ltd.

• Industrialised within 5
years.

• Now licensed to 175
organisations world-wide.

• Applications in marine,
aerospace, automotive, rail, and construction.

• Developed for Al, Mg,
Cu, Zn, demonstrated in Steels, Ti, Ni.

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Development of FSW of Ti
Cold weld, poor root

• Success of initial work led
to formation of a TWI group sponsored project (GSP).

• GSP ran from 1996 to 2001 to
develop FSW for Ti alloys.

• Trials conducted on 6.35mm
(¼ inch) thickness Ti-6Al-4V.
Hot weld, poor surface

• A major challenge was found to
be the generation of sufficient heat without causing oversoftening of the weld material.

• Surface overheating resulted in
loss of weld containment.

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Stationary Shoulder Approach
New approach developed by TWI:
• The FSW probe rotates
through a stationary shoulder/slide component.

• The non-rotating shoulder
component adds no heat to the weld surface.

• The resulting heat input
profile is basically linear.

• This approach is of great
Copyright © 2006, TWI Ltd. Patent Pending

help in the welding of low conductivity materials.

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Stationary Shoulder Approach

Inert gas is pumped into the system, both around and behind the tool giving a very weld clean surface.

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SSFSW of Ti - Properties
Welds typically have an excellent surface finish and near parent mechanical properties:

2mm

6.35mm Ti-6Al-4V butt weld produced at 100mm/min
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FSW Additive Manufacture in Ti
ProPro-Stir™ Stir™ Demonstration in a Ti alloy:

Lap welding of 4 sheets to build up a flange structure in Ti-6Al-4V

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Linfric Machine

LFW machine fixtures/systems have been developed using TWI exploratory funding and some European project funding. Improved process understanding has also been developed via exploratory work, using TWI’s new high speed video system.

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LFW Weld Quality in Ti-6Al-4V
Fine grained hot forged weld microstructure
10mm

Recrystallised to fine grained equiaxed m/s at weld centre Near parent tensile and fatigue properties can be achieved
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100µm

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FFP Technology - LFW
Linear Friction Welding Applications - Blisks

LFW of Blisks for the Eurofighter Typhoon by MTU, Munich
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LFW of Preforms - Examples
Additive Manufacture of Ti Alloy Preforms by LFW:
Initial Welds Secondary Welds

Finish Machine

Boeing Concept for Structural Assemblies and Machining Preforms formed by LFW Pat. No. US2005127140 (The Boeing Company)

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LFW of preforms
LFW of Machining Preforms
Part Specification LFW Preform (part machined)

LFW of Preforms - demonstration work carried out in conjunction with Thompson Friction Welding.

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Summary
• TWI is involved in a multitude of welding and joining processes for its customer base in the aerospace, defence and oil and gas businesses • Work in the welding and joining of Ti has trebled in the last 6 years

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