CRP state-of-the-art casting work (1996 – 2009

)
with laser sintered polystyrene patterns
European Titanium Conference 2009 – 23rd June
PROFILE
• F1
• MOTOGP
• WRC (Word Rally Championship)
• AMERICAN LE MANS SERIES
• RALLY RAID (Paris - Dakar)
• NASCAR
• RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
• CUSTOMER CARE
• QUALITY AND EXCELLENCE
• RELIABILITY
• SHORT TIMING
MOTORSPORT TARGETS : MOTORSPORT TARGETS :
OUTSIDE MOTORSPORT TARGETS: OUTSIDE MOTORSPORT TARGETS:
THE ASSETS: THE ASSETS:
• AEROSPACE
• MILITARY
• NAVAL
• PACKAGING
• DESIGN-ARTS
ORIGINS
1970: Roberto Cevolini & C. snc was established.
Main activity: production of components for Formula 1, such as
manufacturing of frame parts, gearboxes, engine components and machined
wind tunnel parts.
1996: CRP Technology was founded in Modena as R&D Department of the company “Roberto
Cevolini & C.“ The company led by Franco Cevolini, son of the founder, with a degree in Materials
Engineering decided to develop the Rapid Prototyping process.
1996-2008: Franco Cevolini soon developed the material used in RP,
called WINDFORM, and furthermore he acquired specific know-how on
the investment casting process. He managed the development of this
technology using disposable patterns made by RP technology.
2003: CRP Technology srl and Roberto Cevolini srl merged keeping the
CRP Technology srl name.
2006: CRP Racing was founded in December 2006, as CRP Technology’s
Racing Department. CRP Racing’s goal is to become the main point of
reference in its market for quality, speed and service.
2008: CRP USA was established in California near Los Angeles.
Eng. Stewart Davis is the new Director of Operations for CRP USA.
In November 2008 the company decided to start working in the Stockcar Racing sector.
ACTVITIES
CRP Technology CRP Technology is a Centre of Excellence Centre of Excellence for:
• High speed and high quality CNC machining with 3, 4 and 5 axes
• EBM and SLM (steel alloys additive technologies for Selective Laser Melding)
• Rapid Casting (lost wax casting with RP patterns), in Titanium, Aluminium, Steel alloys or
Superalloys
• Service of Rapid Prototyping (RP) and Rapid Manufacturing (RM) with SLS technologies
(Selective Laser Syntering) and Windform
®
composite materials
• Selling of composite materials for Rapid Prototyping: Windform
®
range
• High Quality Standard: ISO 9001:2000; EN9100 in progress
• Research and Development
• Reverse Engineering and Co-Engineering
THE TECHNOLOGY
Titanium Rapid Casting
In 1998 CRP began to work alongside the Minardi F1 Team, supplying them the
engineering process, the manufacturing process optimization and finally the manufacturing
of front and rear uprights: they began from the study of the Titanium Rapid Casting
process.
F1 Upright – Titanium Rapid Casting
Rapid Casting procedure
“Rapid Casting” is based on the
combination of Rapid
Prototyping technology, to
manufacture the disposable
pattern, and Investment
Casting technology
(investment casting).
THE TECHNOLOGY
What is needed
In order to be able to use this process, the team’s
partner must have exhaustive knowledge of:
Plastic materials and metal alloys for making
disposable models and finished parts
Rapid Prototyping processes
Reverse Engineering for quality control of all stages
Engineering and FEM calculation
Casting processes
CNC processing
Non-destructive testing during process phases
CMM dimensional controls and much more, to
guarantee the total and complete traceability of every
part, from the certification of the metal alloy to the
certificate of final testing, before being mounted on
the vehicle.
THE TECHNOLOGY
The Procedure
• The RP disposable pattern is made using the Selective Laser
Technology (SLS) and a polystyrene based material (today
Windform PS)
• The pattern undergoes wax infiltrations to increase its
strength, the handability and the dewaxing
• It is then immerged in a ceramic bath
• Slurries and stuccoing and exsiccation
• The lost pattern is evacuated: dewaxing with flash
firing or autoclave and subsequent sintering of the
ceramic shell
• Alloy casting with inductor or voltaic arc
• Pouring, cooling, reduction of the shell, shot peening, gate
cutting, heat treatments
THE TECHNOLOGY
The Procedure benefits
The casting structure is formed of an
aggregate of grains or polyhedral
crystallites which produce isotropy
compensation.
FEM calculations are very close to the real
behaviour of the part thanks to the isotropy of
it.
Micrography in which it's possible to see the alpha-
beta structure in the grain center and the typical
annealed alpha structure at the grain border
It’s possible to create the product along its mechanical stress axes, and to obtain a perfect
reproduction of all details of the RP pattern, with tolerances and surface finishing of a very high
quality (such as fully machined parts)
Rapid Casting with laser sintered patterns allows complete shape conception freedom: thus
reducing undercut and tool path problems during CNC machining
DFF: Design For Functionality, thus allowing you to think about what you need and not how to
machine it (Design for Functionality instead of Design for Manufacturing).
THE TECHNOLOGY
The goals
F1 Titanium Gearbox in Titanium Rapid Casting
CRP’s goal:
• The use of Rapid Casting for high
performancing parts, characterised by very
complex shapes and geometries
• The use of the best alloys available for
the casting procedure: Ti-6Al4V
This allowed CRP Technology to become the FIRST to use Rapid Casting
for really hard to cast shapes (such as F1 uprights and gearboxes) and
alloys (such as Titanium alloys).
THE TECHNOLOGY
The Material for the pattern
Windform
®
PS the material used nowadays for Rapid Casting patterns, was developed by
CRP. Windform® PS is a new polystyrene based material, suited to produce complex
investment casting patterns. The sintered patterns are enough porous in order to allow the
convenient wax infiltration, and therefore becoming easy to handle and to finish.
In 1997 CRP started to study Laser Sintering
technology to manufacture disposable patterns,
using Polycarbonate and Trueform materials
BUT
These materials were absolutely not suitable
for Titanium alloys’ pouring, despite they
seemed to be perfect for steel and aluminium
alloys.
The ash, when in contact with the titanium,
produces chemical reactions that damages the
casting, and have therefore to be eliminated
before pouring the cast metal in the ceramic
shell. Those materials were indeed leaving to
much ash and were “pushing” too much on the
shell, risking to crack it while dewaxing.
Castform first, developed by CRP and DTM
Corp., and Windform PS now have solved
these problems.
A schematic drawing of an SLS process
THE TECHNOLOGY
Cast Titanium
Physical Properties Metric English Comments
Density 4.43 g/cc 0.16 lb/in³
Mechanical Properties
Hardness, Brinell 334 334 Estimated from Rockwell
C.
Hardness, Knoop 363 363 Estimated from Rockwell
C.
Hardness, Rockwell C 36 36
Hardness, Vickers 349 349 Estimated from Rockwell
C.
Tensile Strength,
Ultimate
1000 Mpa 145000 psi ASTM E8
Tensile Strength, Yield 895 MPa 130010 psi ASTM E8 - 0.2% Offset
Elongation @ break 9 % 9 % ASTM E8 - Average, 6-10
tests
Modulus of Elasticity 113.8 GPa 16500 ksi
Poisson's Ratio 0.342 0.342
The Ti-6Al4V is the most
widely used alloy in
motorsport and aerospace
sector, and it is the one used
by CRP
6% aluminium and 4% vanadium
It’s an excellent combination
of stress resistance and
toughness, with optimal wear
resistance
THE TECHNOLOGY
Positive aspects of Ti-6Al4V
F1 Upright – Titanium Rapid Casting
Advantages given by heat
treatment of the casting
• Stress reduction
• Ductility
• Workability
• Dimensional and
structural stability
Cast Titanium front and rear upright
• Lightness (density 4,43 g/cm3)
• High specific Ultimate Tensile Strength
(225,73 MPa/(g/cm3) per density unit
• Bio-compatibility
• Low thermal and electrical conductivity
• Corrosion and stress-corrosion resistance (SCC)
THE TECHNOLOGY
Post treatment
Titanium casting has a really high reactivity and
that’s the reason why it needs in addition:
• Chemical milling (to eliminate the alpha case)
• HIP: Hot Isostatic Processing
• TIG Weld repair (in argon atmosphere)
• Shot peening
F1 gearbox in Titanium Rapid Casting
The final product is then fully CNC machined
and undergoes a complete testing (material,
RX, FPI, HT, etc…) ISO 9001:2000 certified
THE TECHNOLOGY
Rapid Casting – The advantages
Titanium Rapid Casting was immediately highly appreciated by customers because it provides
significant advantages:
• The possibility to lightener
(adding pockets) and get stiffer
(adding ribs) the part during the
racing season
• Durability and reliability
of the detail (a casting is
naturally isotropic for
compensation)
• Possibility to have a best post-
stress control of the piece compared
to carbon laminated parts
• Fewer design limitation
Le Mans upright in Rapid Casting
THE TECHNOLOGY
Rapid Casting – Total quality
Quality Process and Material to meet the needs of the series and teams:
Rapid Casting and Titanium alloy
1. For the series.
A. Safety, Reliability, and Performance
B. Ask what is needed, listen, and respond through correct process
C. Tracebility for inspection. (Components can be Marked and numbers provided)
D. Tracebility for service life. (Know that what was delivered is being raced.)
E. Good communication, be a partner for success. (Series success is our success)
F. Flexible to the needs of the Series. (Ready for future requests... Larger, smaller
etc.)
G. Produce a high quality component that brings parity. (Small teams may have an
option.)
2. For the teams
a) Safety, Reliability, and Performance
b) Provide good value in components produced
c) Deliver when promised
d) Become a partner and resource to meet needs
THE TECHNOLOGY
The Experience: Minardi Uprights
The first Titanium parts made for Minardi were the Cast Titanium front and rear uprights.
Uprights are a key-safety- part for a
racing car, and for everything with 4
wheels.
The suspension brackets , the front
steering bracket, the rear convergence
tie-rod and the brake callipers are
connected to the uprights.
The required properties:
• Lightness (it is a unsprung weight, therefore
it needs no resonant bumps given by heavy
wheels )
• Stiffness (any deformation compromises the
kinetics of the suspension and braking);
• Reliability (it represents one of the safety
components)
THE TECHNOLOGY
The Experience: Minardi Uprights
The uprights were usually manufactured through a long and complicated process of
forming and cutting steel sheets, which included welding, heat treatment, CNC
machining and finally painting to protect against corrosion. Thi process is called
“fabricated”.
This process can’t optimize the mechanical
performance of the piece, making the
uprights heavier than they should have been.
+
Moreover, being a welded piece, it presents
a structural anisotropy that shortens its
lifespan, and therefore its reliability and life
expectancy.
TITANIUM RAPID CASTING
1999, Magnesium 2000
2001
After the titanium fabricated g/box (’97 Ferrari) and the carbon fibre case (’98 Arrows/’98
Stewart), the Titanium Rapid Casting Gearbox was the latest evolution in this field and is
currently one of the few providing such a high performance . The requirements are the same as
those of the uprights, however in this case the complexity of the piece design and dimensions
increase.
Compared directly with a Magnesium gearbox:
• Weight saving is about 20-25%
• Dimensions saving is about 20%
• Torsional stiffness is double
• less deformations to the gears' axis were occurred, due
to stiffer g/box and therefore gear wear is reduced
• possibility to run oil at higher
temperature keeping the same
viscosity and therefore needing less
radietor area (less need to cool down
the g/box temperature)
The Experience: Minardi Titanium Gearbox
THE TECHNOLOGY
THE TECHNOLOGY
The Experience: some other examples
The CRP Upright history and its manufacturing can count different important steps in several
motorports series
Team & Driver Year Particular Comments
1- Minardi F1
Team, Marc
Genè
1998 Cast Titanium Front
Upright
Study

1998 Cast Titanium Rear
Upright
Study
1999 Cast Titanium Front
Upright
Production

1999 Cast Titanium Rear
Upright
Production
Complex geometries achievable only with this process, weight saving and stiffness, cheaper costs than the
other solutions made in titanium alloy, reliability.
2- F1 Team and
Minardi Team
2000 Cast Titanium front
upright
Production

2000 Cast Titanium rear upright Production
2000-
2005
Cast Titanium Gearbox Production
3- F1 Team 2001 Cast Titanium front
upright
Production
2001 Cast Titanium rear upright Production
2001 Cast Titanium Gearbox R&D
4- Ferrari F1
Team
2001 Titanium CNC front
upright
Production
THE TECHNOLOGY
The Experience: some other examples
5- Jaguar
Racing F1 Team,
Eddie Irvine
2002 Cast Titanium front
upright
Study & Production

6- Peugeot WRC
official Team,
Marcus
Gronholm
2002 Cast Titanium front and
rear upright
Study & Production

Complex geometries achievable only with this process, weight saving and stiffness, lower costs than the other
solutions made in titanium alloy, reliability.
7- 3GR-Cadillac
official ALMS
Team
2002 Cast 17-4 PH front upright Study & Production

2002 Cast 17-4 PH rear upright Study & Production
Complex geometries achievable only with this process, weight saving and stiffness, use of 17-4 PH (steel alloy,
with high mechanical characteristics), reliability.
8- Jaguar
Racing F1 Team
2003 Cast Titanium front
upright
Production

2003 Cast Titanium rear upright Production
MOTORSPORT
Not Only F1…
CRP Technology is involved in international championships in different racing series:
• MOTOGP
• WRC (Word Rally Championship)
• AMERICAN LE MANS SERIES and Le Mans24h
• RALLY RAID (Paris - Dakar)
• NASCAR
THE TECHNOLOGY
Not Only F1…
• In 2002, CRP Technology began to have a CRP Technology began to have a strict collaboration with its extra-F1 customers
• The intention was, and is, to introduce into other motor series new hi-tech solutions, in order to
increase mechanical performance and reliability with further weight saving, which is a fundamental
property for the unsprung mass of a vehicle.
• CRP has cooperated in many
different series using Titanium
Rapid Casting first, and, being
Titanium banned in some series
in 2003, Steel special alloys
Rapid Casting later.
• CRP Technology strongly
cooperates from the first design
stage, in order to optimize the part
project together with the
constructors’ technical staff
Mitsubishi Dakar, Rally Raid car. The typical part holding the wheel hub bearing and
formed with various mountings and brackets for suspension attachment (wishbones and
damper)
MOTORSPORT
In 2002, Peugeot and MARCUS
GRONHOLM won the World Rally
Championship with Titanium uprights.
Peugeot Cast Titanium front and rear uprights were
studied and produced for the Peugeot WRC Official
Team.
WRC: World Rally Championship
MOTORSPORT
Le mans 24h and Le Mans series
The collaboration between Epsilon Euskadi and CRP Technology began at the end of 2007
with the aim of optimizing the front and rear uprights of the new Epsilon Euskadi ee1 for
the Le Mans Series and the 2008 Le Mans 24 Hours:
The key to the success of the project
was a close partnership between
CRP Technology and Epsilon
Euskadi that began from the CAD
drawings through the first prototype
and into the final construction phase.
The ee1 project began in 2004.
At the end of 2007, the technical
management of the project was taken
over by Sergio Rinland, who in his turn
had a past in F1, and he said:
“CRP is one f the most experienced companies when it comes to Titanium castings, I have
worked with the Cevolini family since a long time. They are professionally competent and they
understand the Motorsport business like not many suppliers do”
MOTORSPORT
Le mans 24h and Le Mans series
Sergio Rinland states: “We could have used
machined Aluminium, Steel fabricated or MMC, but
we chose Titanium as the best compromise Cost-
Rigidity-Weight-Strength-Durability. And for our
Titanium Uprights, we expect the whole season
and more, that is 15,000 to 20,000Km ”
As far as the strategic decision on the production
method is concerned, CRP Technology’s
experience in the field of Rapid Casting was
crucial.
Some statements
“Between one possibility entirely obtained from
solid and one that is cast, with the CRP Rapid
Casting method, the choice of producing
mechanical parts by Titanium Rapid Casting is,
first and foremost, due to greater flexibility during
the design stage and to the possibility that it
offers for obtaining greater effectiveness in
structural behaviour; and secondly because it is
also more economical” states Franco Cevolini,
Chairman of CRP Technology.
Sergio remembers: “The Upright project with CRP started in anger in October 2007. Their input was
massive, since they understood what it was needed and not only transformed the design into a ‘Casting
Design’ but also made contributions towards the Stress Analysis improving the component rigidity,
weight and strength as a consequence.”
MOTORSPORT
Le mans 24h and Le Mans series
FRONT UPRIGHT
Design optimization: some example
One of the first modification concerns the presence, in the upper section, of a stiffening ring that
was not present in the original version supplied to us by Epsilon’ engineers.
CRP
front
Upright
Epsilon
front
Upright
The decision by our staff to introduce this “ring” was made for two reasons:
- it contributes to stiffening the shouldering area;
- it guarantees a greater room of intervention during the turning process.
MOTORSPORT
Le mans 24h and Le Mans series
REAR UPRIGHT
Design optimization: some example
- an intervention was made to lower a thermal
centre of gravity, by seeking more uniform
thicknesses and increasing curvature
- addition of ribs that connect the two shoulders
in the file developed by CRP. The aim is to
stiffen the spool area.
CRP rear
Upright
Epsilon
rear
Upright
CRP rear
Upright
Epsilon
rear
Upright
MOTORSPORT
Le mans 24h and Le Mans series
The engineering and manufacturing process
With the endorsement of Epsilon’s engineers, we moved in parallel to have a better idea of the
behaviour of the piece stimulated by standard conditions of use.
Epsilon subjected the mathematic model to FEM analysis so as to identify the areas where room
for improvement remained.
Front Upright FEM analysis Rear Upright FEM analysis
MOTORSPORT
Le mans 24h and Le Mans series
The results
- an increase in stiffness of the upright
(between 5 to 8% depending on the area
tested)
- a mass reduction of 6%.
The team was able to analyze and
incorporate suggestions and receive a better
performing part and install it on the car
without issue.
While this blending of a very old technique,
investment casting, and rapid prototyping
may no longer hold the “wow” factor seen
with the advances in Direct Metal
manufacturing, it is producing parts and
components that race on tracks around the
world and will be instrumental in
manufacturing metal components for any
highly competitive arena.
CRP Technology thanks you for your attendance to the
European Titanium Conference
CRP Technology s.r.l.
Via Cesare della Chiesa, 21 - 41100 Modena - ITALY
www.crp.eu - info@crp.eu
www.windform.eu