CLIMATE CHANGE AND PUBLIC HEALTH ADAPTATION IN INDONESIA Budi Haryanto

Department of Environmental Health Faculty of Public Health

INTRODUCTION
Climatic changes have already affected numerous damaging impacts on human health. Spreading infectious disease, longer and hotter heat waves, and extreme weather claim thousands of additional lives nationwide each year. Warming climate is creating the ideal conditions for spread of infectious disease, putting millions of people at risk. Climate change has lead to increase the outbreaks and spread of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), malaria, cholera, encephalitis, hantavirus, and other diseases all over the world. Ironically, the countries which have less contributed to the global warming are highly susceptible and more outbreaks of diseases and deaths due to global warming impact

The Nautilus Institute Workshop on Mapping Causal Complexity in Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation, Melbourne, 21-22 November 2008

OUTLINE PRESENTATION
1. Introduction 2. Climate change and health impacts 3. Research in Indonesia 4. Public health adaptation 5. Strategic idea for public health adaptation in Indonesia

Moderating influences

Health Health effects Effects
Temperature-related Temperature-related illness and death Extreme weatherExtreme weather related (floods, storms) related health effects health effects

Environment Impacts:
Regional weather changes •Heat waves •Extreme weather •Temperature •Precipitation • •Sea-level rise Microbial changes: Contamination pathways Contamination paths Transmission Transmission dynamics dynamics

Air pollution-related pollution-related health effects Water Water and and food-borne food-borne diseases diseases Vector Vector -borne borne and and rodent- borne rodent borne diseases diseases Effects of food and water shortages Mental, nutritional, infectious-disease and other effects

Climate Change

Changes in agroecosystems, hydrology Socioeconomic and demographic disruption

EXTREME EVENTS HEALTH IMPACTS (DoH, WA)

1

1968-2007 250000 60 TEMP DHF 200000 40 IR dan CFR 20 0 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 50000 0 Tahun IR/100.2 25 24.4 25.000 CFR(%) 2 .2 26 150000 25.6 26.4 26.Potential health impacts of gradual climatic changes Potential health impacts of gradual climatic changes Potential health impacts of gradual climatic changes Potential health impacts of gradual climatic changes Trend of Temperature and DHF Cases in Indonesia 1968-Sept 2007 26.8 25.6 100000 25.8 19 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 2099 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 07 Incident and CFR Dengue Indonesia.

leptospirosis) associated with decreasing of water quality and water supply as well as floods and droughts. displacements and conflicts. Indonesia: reported dengue cases doubled in 2007 vs.00 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Malaria Endemic Areas ### ## ## # ## # # # # ## ### # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ## ## # ## # # # # ## # # ## # # ## # ## # ## ## # #### ### ## # # ## # ### # ## # ## ## ## # # # ## # ## ## ## # ## ## ### # ## ## ## # ## # # ## # ## # ## ## ### ### ## # # ## ## # # # # # # # ## # ## # # ## # # ## # # # # # # # # # ## ## # # # # # # ## # ## # ## # # # # # # # # # # # # # ## # ## # # # # ## ## # ## ## ### ## # # ### ### ## # # # # # ## # # # # # # # ## # # ## ## ## # ## # ## # ## # # # ## ## # # # ## # # ## # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ## ## ## # ### ### ## # # ## # # # ## # # ## # # # # # # # ## # ## ### # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ### # # # # # # # # # # ## ### # ## # # ## # # # # # # # ## ### # # ## # # # ## # # # # ## ## ## # # # # # # # ## # ## ## ## ## ## ### # # # ## # ## ## # ## # # # # # # # # # # # ## # ### # # # ### # # # # # # ## # ## # # # # ## # # # # # # # # ## # # # ## 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# # # ## ## ## # # # ## # ## # # ## ## ## ## #### # ## ## ## # # # # # ## # # ## # # # # # # # # # # # ## # # # # # # # # # # # ## # ## # # ## # ## # ##### # # # ## ## ## #### # ## # ### ## # # ## ### ## # ## ### # ### # # # # # ## # # # # # # ## ## # # # # # # # # # ## ## ## ## ## # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ## ## # # # # # # # # # # # ### ##### # # # ## ## # # # # # ## # ## # # # # ## ## ## # #### # ## ### ## ## # #### ### ## ## ## # # # ## # ## # # ## #### # # # # # ## # # ######### ## # # # # # # # # # # ### # ## # # # # ## # # ## # # ## # # ## # ## ## ## # # # # ## # ## # # # # ## ## ## # # ## # # ## # # # # # ## # # ## # # # # # ## ## ### # ## # # # # # # ## # ## ## # # ### ## # # # # ## # ## ### # ## # ## ## ## ## ## # ## # ## # # # ## # ## ## ## # # ## # # ## # ## # # # # ## # # ### # # # # ## # # # # # # # # # # ## ## ## ## # # ### # ## # ## # ## ## # ## # ## # ## # # # # # # ## # # # # # # # # # # ## # # # # ## ## # # ## # # ## # # ## # # # ## # ### ## ## ## # # ## # # # # # • Shorten breeding cycle of mosquito • Increase frequency of mosquito feeding • More efficient transmission of dengue virus from mosquito to human # # ## ##### # ## ## # # # # # # # # ## # # # ## # ## # # # ## # # # # # ## ### # ## # # # ## ## # # # # # ## # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ## # # # # # # # # # # # ## # # ### ## # # # # # # # # ### # # ## # # ## ## # #### # # ## # ### #### #### ## # # ## ## # # # # ## # ## # # ## # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ## # # # # # ## # # # # # # # # # # # # # ## ## # # # # # # # # ## # # # # # # # # # # # ## # #### #### ## ### # ## ## # # # ## ### # # # ## # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # >75 o/oo 25-75 o/oo 0-25 o/oo Non Endemis 1 dot = 100 kasus 1 dot = 500 kasus IMPACTS CLIMATE CHANGE ON HUMAN HEALTH IN INDONESIA Direct effects: • Increasing of injuries associated with extreme weather events Indirect effects… • Increasing of malnutrition cases is related to food production and land use shifts • Increasing of cardio cerebral vascular diseases. 0. life style.31 3. hypertension.67 2.42 1. Indirect effects: • Increasing of vector borne diseases (malaria. rainfall. and poverty. humidity.00 2.47 1.50 0.00 1.50 2.14 2. dengue.Dengue’s principal vector: Aedes aegypti Malaria Cases Trend of Confirmed Cases of Malaria 2000-2006 3. food handling. cholera.85 Principal vector is female Aedes aegypti mosquito. and vector density. pneumonia) are associated with increasing of air pollution outdoor as well as indoor • Increasing of food borne diseases is associated with contamination. filariasis) associated with increasing of temperature. 2005. • Increasing of water borne diseases (diarrhea.00 1.50 3. Infected mosquito remains infective for life. typhoid. • Increasing of influenza (ARI) and respiratory diseases (asthma.98 1. and mental disorders are associated with urban stress.50 0. 3 .

including changes in socioeconomic systems. UI ‘07. Mental health of adolescents associated with climate change by Ismail RI et al. • Approach and method of studies on health and infectious diseases-related to climate change by Haryanto B. Pulmonary tuberculosis and climate change in Indonesia by Burhan E et al. forest... – to evaluate the effects of reducing emissions. Lung disorders associated with climate change in Jakarta by Andarini S et al. Research … • Lung cancer associated with climate change in Jakarta by Syahruddin E et al. school. industry. UI ‘07. UI ‘07. PUBLIC HEALTH RESPONSE AND ADAPTATION IN INDONESIA • • • • • • Infectious disease surveillance Health action in emergencies Safe drinking water Integrated vector management Environmental health capacity building Healthy public policy (healthy housing. UI ‘07. UI ‘07. The influence of climate change to the spreading of dengue virus serotypes and the increasing of cases in Jakarta by Adriansjah et al. such as by comparing impact under scenarios with business-as-usual and stabilization of emissions. medical. Occupational dermatosis incident associated with climate change in Surabaya by Martiana T et al. Increasing morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution associated with climate change in City of Bandung 2002-2006 by Soemirat J & Dirgawati M. – to evaluate the effects of multiple stresses.. Unair ‘07... – to evaluate uncertainty and its implications for risk management. • Climate change and DHF in Tanah Laut District of South Kalimantan Province 2001-2006 by Basuki H et al.. UI ‘07. UI ‘07. the disease will spread from infected person to others and from the new infected people to broader population as snow ball phenomenon The spread of disease may not be controlled directly even by manipulating or modifying the environment Analysis of each of these steps allows a logical determination of vulnerability and subsequent development of adaptive measures that aim to decrease vulnerability It will need specific discipline of technology. • Climate change and voice of public health association in Indonesia by Indonesian Public Health Association 2007.MAIN CONCERN: SPREADING OF DISEASES Unique transmission pathways Specific for every single disease outcome Once the impact occurred. UI ‘07. Unair ‘07. – to evaluate possible threshold effects. and pharmacy to deal with the impacts. especially under different socioeconomic futures and in the context of sustainable development. Unair ‘07. • Early warning system for malaria outbreak by Subirosa BS et al. Aedes aegypti density in Jakarta associated with climate change by Sungkar S et al. The incidence of leptospirosis and its risk factors in Jakarta by Nainggolan L et al. ITB ‘07. CURRENT RESEARCH & REVIEWS • • • • • • • • • Rainfall and rain date in Jakarta associated with Incidence Rate and Case Fatality Rate of Dengue Infection in 2002-2006 by Nainggolan L et al.. and expert such as public health/environmental health. UI ‘07... Health impact assessment – to evaluate the impact of climate variability and change in a range of areas and populations. UI ‘07.. method. UI ‘07. • Global warming ad public health impact in Indonesia by Sutomo S. • Predicting the increasing of malaria cases in endemic area caused by climate change 2002-2003 by Yudhastuti R et al. and – to measure coping capacity. city) • • • • • • WHO Adaptation Focus Health security Strengthening health systems Health development Evidence and information Delivery Partnership 4 .. • The pattern of malaria distribution as impact of climate change in Pacitan regency 1998-2002 by Chatarina UW et al. Unair ‘07..

Shanghai. Wuhan • Strong teams. quality data New PAPA (Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia ) Studies in India • Goal: Understand air pollution health effects in less-studied areas • Representative time series studies of pollution and daily death • Diverse. culture.2 0 US(90 Cities)* Eur(21 Cities)* Asia (4 Cities) 0. access. quality) • Long Term (chronic) Effects • Guangzhou.46 0.8 0. Vulnerability.• Empowering ecological-diseases surveillance system and developing public health early warning system • Development response to disaster effects of climate change • Enhancing capacity building for government. wealth. highly populated regions • Public health impact could be significant • Significant data challenges (air quality.000 1. most polluted countries under-represented) 12 10 TSP 8 6 4 2 0 All-Caus e Mortality Respiratory Mortality Cardiovasc ular Mortality Res piratory Hospital Adm iss ions Cardiovas c ular Hos pital Admis sions PM10 PM2. private sector.550. Adaptations Characteristics of exposed group (location. resources.400. illness  ~0.000 18.5 SO2 NO2 CO O3 Outcome Diagnosis Percent Increase in Mortality per 10 micrograms PM10 0. and civil society on managing prevention and control climate change on human health • Increasing political awareness on climate change human health • Empowering public health services system for disease prevention and control • Generating research and method on epidemiology and medicine to find out the approach in breaking the disease transmission chains • Preventing and eradicating climate change vector-related diseases PUBLIC HEALTH ADAPTATION IDEAS IN INDONESIA Impacts.6 Percent 0.000 Delhi Ludhiāna 5 . China pilot study in elderly cohort • New! • Study teams now identified and Approved in India following extensive investigator competition City Chennai (formerly Madras) Region South North North Population 7.) Adaptations Vulnerability of group Exposure Mitigation : Reduced exposure Learning Health Impact BREAKING TRANSMISSION CHAINS Actions in response to impact Health Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries of Asia: A Literature Review  MetaMeta -Analysis of Asian Studies of Daily Mortality/Hospital Admissions  Num ber of Studies Systematic identification of 140 peer-reviewed Asian studies 1980-2003 Special focus on studies of daily changes in air pollution and health Conduct first ever Asian meta analysis” quantifying risks. imply a substantial public health impact Limitations  Small number of cities  Not geographically representative (poorest. health status.625. Hong Kong.62 0. etc.5% increase per 10 µg/m3 of PM10  High levels of air pollution in Asian cities (>100 µg/m3).frequency.4 Increase 0.49 New Research in Asian Cities • Eight new studies of air pollution and health now underway in Asian Cities • Acute Effects (initial cities): • Bangkok. finding initial similarities with West Identify knowledge gaps to guide future research Active communication to policy makers       28 recent daily time series studies examined in depth Studies find effects of air pollution on rate of death. morbidity. mortality .

and health – In Asia high levels of air pollution. but with . high urban population density.high pollution. significant poverty -Clear need to explore this issue in the Asian context CAI-Asia Goals Air Pollution. poverty. extensive poverty are prevalent – Some initial evidence (mostly from West) that the poor face worse effects from air pollution • Potential Public health implications could be significant Higher Risks Among the Less Educated • Evidence from HEI Reanalysis • Attained education inversely associated with PM relative risk in ACS and Six-Cities studies • An indicator of social class • Due to differences in true exposure? • Sensitivity to air pollution? • Why the Poor May Suffer More Health Effects From Air Pollution Likely higher exposures to air pollution – – – – Living close to traffic Roadside occupational exposures Small and medium scale enterprises / Cottage industries Use of solid fuels for cooking (indoor air) • – – – The poor may be more susceptible to air pollution Poor nutrition / immunosuppression Higher incidence of ‘diseases of poverty” (TB.PAPA: Looking Ahead • A Special Challenge: Understanding the interaction among air pollution. dense population. coping mechanism and economic burden • III Policy impact study (integrating above for policy making) • Strong commitment to capacity building throughout • Sharing knowledge and experiences on air quality management • Capacity building • Improving policy and regulatory frameworks at the regional level • Assisting cities in formulating and implementing integrated air quality management systems • Piloting projects to encourage innovation “Creating an Air Quality Management Community in Asia” 36 6 . ALRI) Lack of timely access to health care • Limited evidence from the West. Poverty and Health: Key elements of initiative • I Assessment of respiratory health of children (ALRI others) of different SES – Designing targeted case-control and panel studies to provide quality local data of poverty effects The Clean Air Initiative promotes and demonstrates innovative ways to improve the air quality of Asian Cities through sharing experiences and building partnerships • II Household survey to assess – exposure to multiple sources of air pollution – health prevalence (status) – Perceptions.

Bangladesh Guangzhou. Philippines Dhaka Transport Coordination Board. Bangladesh Environmental Management Bureau.Viet Nam Harbin. Hong Kong.000 15.Nepal Lahore .PRC Haiphong.Thailand Chiang Mai.3% Latin Am erica 3.Viet Nam Hyderabad.000. Shell Clean Diesel Tech.000 Bangladesh2&3 w heelers 35.PRC Hanoi.0 1400.5% Africa 0.0 400.1% Oceania 0.000 5.Bangladesh Chongqing. Philippines Mumbai.4% Europe 7. Ministry of Environment . India Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Energy Foundation 2004 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Asia Source: ADB 2002.000.000.Indonesia Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board. India Islamabad. India Singapore . ASSOCIATE PRIVATE SECTOR Member AVL DEKRA Cerulean MAHA Corning ESP IPIECA SGS ACFA Johnson Matthey 37 38 Drivers: Urbanization Drivers: Population growth 1600. Pakistan Ministry of Environment .000 Indonesia Thailand 2&3 wheelers India PRC C am bodia H ongkong. Viet Nam Part 2 54 NGOs and Academic Institutions in the Region Review of Status of AQM in Asia DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES Asian Development Bank Australian Department for Environment and Heritage German Agency for Technical Cooperation The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation United States-Asia Environmental Partnership Sida World Bank FULL PRIVATE SECTOR Member Ford Motor Co.Philippines Phnom Penh.9% Vehicle growth scenario China Source: Dongquan He. Pakistan Central Pollution Control Board.000.S.PRC Ho Chi Minh City. Ecology and Env’t.Pakistan Kathmandu.000 - M alaysia Pakistan2& 3 wheelers 6. Cambodia Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.0 200.4% 3.000 20. Indonesia Ministry of Public Works and Transport . India Pollution Control Department . Inc. Karnataka State. Thailand State Environmental Protection Administration (PRC focal point) Viet Nam Register. Viet Nam Hangzhou.0 1980 1990 2000 2002 Southeast Asia South Asia Source: United Nations.000 Vehicle Population (millions) 500 Sri Lanka2&3 w heelers V iet N am 400 300 4.000.0 0.000 10. Pakistan Makati.0 Population millions East Asia 1000. The 1999 Revision 39 • More than one billion extra from 1980 – 2002 • South Asia growing most rapidly 40 Drivers: Motorization Drivers: Increase in 2 & 3 wheelers in Asia 10.000.000.000.000. China 8. World Urbanization Prospects.000 40.0 600.Indonesia Tianjin. Philippines Department of Transportation and Communications.000 100 0 1995 2000 20052010 2015 2020 2025 2030 The Global Market for New Motorcycles and Mopeds Total: 29792139 North Am erica Middle East 0. (NEA) Surabaya. R epublic of 600 30.PRC Chittagong.Sri Lanka Dhaka.Philippines Metro Manila. Japan Environment Protection Department. Current Level 2. Mongolia Yogyakarta.Cambodia Pune .000. 2004 42 Source: Honda Facts & Figures 7 . India Australia Department of Environment and Heritage Balochistan EPA . SAR Environmental Protection Agency Karachi.4% Source: CAI-Asia.000. Bangladesh Department of Forests. Policy Guidelines to Reduce Vehicle Emissions 41 84. Cambodia Ministry of Environment .Thailand Chengdu.000 Japan Korea. Philippines Department of Energy.0 800.PRC Colombo.000 25.000.PRC Ulaanbaatar.CAI-Asia Membership GAs CITIES Bangkok. India Department of Environment .000 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 200 U.000. India Naga.0 1200.

about 5%decrease ? – data not available Source: CAI-Asia Research. • The quality for each data point varies corresponding to the number of cities w here data is present Source: CAI-Asia.000 40.1% Energy elasticity 1990-2001 = 0.China Tokyo Bangkok Beijing Busan Colombo Hong Kong Kolkata Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Singapore Taipei.0%/a 2001-2002 = 9.China Tokyo Bangkok Beijing Busan Colombo Hong Kong Kolkata Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Singapore Taipei.about 5% increase ≤ .China Tokyo Busan Hong Kong Kolkata Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Singapore Taipei.11 2002-2003 = 1.9% 2002-2003 = 13.China Tokyo Bangkok Beijing Busan Colombo Dhaka Hanoi Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Kolkata Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Singapore Surabaya Taipei. The range of data is show n by the vertical lines for each year. 2005 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2003 Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2004 Source: International Energy Annual 2002 by EIA-DOE 2003 World Energy Consumption by Source Source: Enerdata. • The quality for each data point varies corresponding to the number of cities w here data is present Source: CAI-Asia. 2004 Notes: • The graph show s the aggregated average of the annual averages of major criteria pollutants. but the demand for coal grows almost everywhere 43 • China has seen great improvements in energy intensity (energy/GDP output) in the past two decades • in the more recent years however. coal share in energy mix is increasing by 1 percent in lieu of oil • 57% of the increase from 2002 to 2003 energy use is attributed to China • 2/3 of the the world coal consumption increase is located in China.China Tokyo Busan Hong Kong Kolkata Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Singapore Taipei. energy consumption is growing faster than GDP again in China Primary energy consumption growth 1990-2001 = 3. 1979) PM10 Limit = 50 µg/m3 (USEPA. Ch in a 350 ≥ < < > > < ? < < < < < < 300 concentration in µg/m3 250 • Most of the cities have been able to reduce levels of SO2 to ‘safe’ levels with the exception of Beijing and Hanoi • NO2 levels gradually increasing levels and just above the WHO guidelines • Almost all cities have been able to reduce levels of SPM and PM10 compared to the ’90s level. 2004 Source: CAI-Asia.China Tokyo Notes: D C SPM Guidelines = 60-90 µg/m3 (WHO.30 2001-2002 = 1. 1997) SPM PM10 SO2 Guideline = 50 µg/m3 (WHO.000 0 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Total Asia Pacific China India Japan Source: Enerdata.9%/a 2001-2002 = 8.9% 2002-2003 = 9. The range of data is show n by the vertical lines for each year. the maximum and minimum values are marked by horizontal lines on the top and bottom most part of the line.China Tokyo Bangkok Beijing Busan Colombo Hong Kong Kolkata Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Singapore Taipei.2003) 2 State: Trend of Aggregated Annual Averages of SPM for selected Asian – 2003) Trends of Cities Aggregated (1993 Annual Averages of SPM for selected Asian Cities (1993 .000 20.2% GDP Growth 1990-2001 = 9. 2005 Paper Presented 25 February at the CTI Industry Joint Seminar on technology Diffusion of Energy Efficiency in Asian Countries Note: Wu is from the 3E Research Institute. 2005 • 1/3 of world energy consumption is attributed to Asia • Since 2000.Drivers: Energy consumption 3500 Milli on Tons Oil Equivalent Drivers: Energy consumption Energy Intensity.China Tokyo Bangkok Beijing Busan Colombo Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Kolkata Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Singapore Taipei. 1999) SO2 NO2 45 ≥ .5 billion toe) 120.China Tokyo 550 120 450 400 350 300 250 200 100 3 concentrations in µg/m 80 60 40 concentrations in µg/m 3 150 100 20 50 0 0 1993 1994 1995 3 1993 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 SO2 Guideline = 50 µg/m (WHO.China Tokyo Bangkok Beijing Busan Colombo Hanoi Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Kolkata Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Singapore Surabaya Taipei.China Tokyo Bangkok Beijing Busan Hong Kong Kolkata Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Singapore Taipei.2003) 600 Bangkok Beijing Colombo Dhaka Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Kolkata Seoul Shanghai Singapore Surabaya Taipei. the maximum and minimum values are marked by horizontal lines on the top and bottom most part of the line. 2004 State: Trend of Aggregated Annual Averages of SO 2 for selected Asian Cities (1993 – 2003) Trends of Aggregated Annual Averages of SO for selected Asian Cities (1993 .47 Source: Wu Zongxin.000 China India 100. 2004 47 48 8 . 1999) NO2 Guideline = 40 µg/m3 (WHO.000 80. 1999) 1994 1995 3 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 SPM Guidelines = 60-90 µg/m (WHO. however levels continue to remain above the guidelines except those of the more developed cities 46 200 150 100 50 0 Ko ng Ja ka rta Ka th m an du Ko lk at a M um ba i Bu sa n C olo m bo hi M in h Be ijin g To ky o ok Se ou l Ha no i D elh i ha ka an ila Ba ng k Ho ng M H o Ne w Taipei. 44 State: Average Annual Air Pollution Concentration in selected Asian Cities (2000-2003) 400 State: 2000–2003 compared with 1990– 1999 Air Quality Data SO2 NO2 > ? > < < > ? < < > < < ≤ SPM < ? ? ? < < < < < < < ? ? PM10 < < ≥ ≤ < < ? < < < ? > < Bangkok Beijing Busan Colombo Hong Kong Kolkata Manila Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Sh an gh ai Sin ga po re Su ra ba ya Ta ip ei.China Tokyo Bangkok Busan Hong Kong Kolkata Manila Mumbai 500 New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Bangkok Busan Hong Kong Kolkata Manila Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Bangkok Busan Hong Kong Kolkata Manila Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Bangkok Busan Hong Kong Kolkata Manila Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Bangkok Busan Hong Kong Kolkata Manila Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Bangkok Busan Hong Kong Kolkata Manila Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Bangkok Busan Hong Kong Kolkata Manila Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Bangkok Busan Hanoi Hong Kong Jakarta Kolkata Manila Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Bangkok Hanoi Hong Kong Jakarta Kolkata Manila Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Bangkok Hanoi Hong Kong Kolkata Manila Mumbai New Delhi Shanghai Bangkok Hong Kong Kolkata Manila Mumbai New Delhi Shanghai 140 Busan Hong Kong Kolkata Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Singapore Taipei. (BTU per 1995 USD Market Exchange Rates) 2003 World Energy Consumption Share (10. 1979) Notes: • The graph show s the aggregated average of the annual averages of major criteria pollutants.000 60. Tsinghua University.

the maximum and minimum values are marked by horizontal lines on the top and bottom most part of the line.China Tokyo Bangkok Beijing Busan Colombo Hanoi Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Jakarta Kolkata Manila Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Singapore Surabaya Taipei.China Tokyo Bangkok Beijing Busan Colombo Hanoi Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Jakarta Kolkata Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Singapore Surabaya Taipei.China Tokyo Bangkok Busan Colombo Dhaka Hanoi Hong Kong Jakarta Seoul Shanghai Singapore Surabaya Taipei. The range of data is show n by the vertical lines for each year.2003) for selected Asian – 2003) 2 80 300 Hong Kong Mumbai New Delhi Singapore Taipei.China Tokyo Bangkok Beijing Busan Colombo Hong Kong Kolkata Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Singapore Taipei. • The quality for each data point varies corresponding to the number of cities w here data is present 1993 1994 1995 3 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 1994 1995 3 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 NO2 Guideline = 40 µg/m (WHO.China Tokyo Bangkok Busan Hong Kong Seoul Shanghai Singapore Taipei.China Tokyo 250 Hong Kong Mumbai New Delhi Singapore Taipei.China Tokyo Busan Hong Kong Seoul Singapore 70 Taipei.China Tokyo Bangkok Busan Colombo Hong Kong Kolkata Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Singapore Taipei.China Tokyo Busan Hong Kong Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Singapore Taipei. 1997) Source: CAI-Asia.China Tokyo Busan Hong Kong Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Singapore Taipei.China Tokyo Bangkok Busan Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei.China Tokyo Bangkok Beijing Busan Colombo Hanoi Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Jakarta Kolkata Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Shanghai Singapore Taipei. 2004 Source: ESMAP. the maximum and minimum values are marked by horizontal lines on the top and bottom most part of the line.China Tokyo Bangkok Busan Colombo Hong Kong Seoul Shanghai Singapore Taipei. 2004 3 50 PM10 NO2 CO O3 1998 CO 2000 NO2 2002 O3 2004 Source: Hong Kong EPB.China Tokyo Bangkok Busan Colombo Hanoi Hong Kong Jakarta Seoul Shanghai Singapore Surabaya Taipei. 1999) PM10 Limit = 50 µg/m (USEPA.China Tokyo Bangkok Busan Colombo Hanoi Hong Kong Jakarta Seoul Shanghai Singapore Taipei.China Tokyo Bangkok Beijing Colombo Hanoi Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Jakarta Kolkata Manila Mumbai New Delhi Shanghai Singapore Surabaya Taipei.State: Trend of Aggregated Annual Averages of PM10 for selected Asian Cities (1993 – 2003) Trend of Aggregated Annual Averages of PM10 for selected Asian Cities (1993 .China Tokyo Bangkok Colombo Dhaka Hong Kong Jakarta Shanghai Singapore Surabaya Taipei.China Tokyo Bangkok Busan Hong Kong Kolkata Mumbai New Delhi Seoul Singapore Taipei. The range of data is show n by the vertical lines for each year. • The quality for each data point varies corresponding to the number of cities w here data is present 49 The high variability and wide range of values requires additional analysis 50 State: Ambient versus Roadside Bangkok Air Quality Trends (1993 – 2003) 600 Roadside SPM Ambient SPM Ambient PM10 State: Ambient versus Roadside Hong Kong Air Quality (PM10) Trends (1993 – 2003) 100 90 80 70 concentrations in µg/m3 500 3 concentrations in µg/m Roadside PM10 400 300 200 100 60 50 40 30 20 10 Ambient PM10 Roadside PM10 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Note: SPM ambient annual standards = 100 µg/m3 PM10 ambient annual standards = 50 µg/m3 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 51 Note: PM10 ambient annual standards = 55 µg/m3 52 State: Ambient versus Roadside Ho Chi Minh City Air Quality (PM10) Trends (2000 – 2003) 140 120 concentrations in µg/m3 Ambient Air Quality in Major Asian Cities 350 300 concentrati ons in µg/m Bangkok (1992 – 2003) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Hong Kong (1992 – 2003) 250 200 150 100 50 0 100 80 60 40 Roadside PM10 concentrations in µg/m 3 3 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 1990 1992 SPM 1994 PM10 1996 SO2 SPM Source: PCD.China Tokyo 60 concentrations in µg/m3 200 concentration in µg/m 50 3 40 150 30 100 20 50 10 0 0 1993 Notes: • The graph show s the aggregated average of the annual averages of major criteria pollutants.China Tokyo Busan Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei. 2004 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 SPM 1997 RSPM 1998 SO2 1999 2000 NOx 2001 2002 Shanghai (1992 – 2003) 3 00 2 50 New Delhi (1992 – 2003) 2 00 20 0 Ambient PM10 1 50 1 00 50 2000 Note: No standards for PM10 2001 2002 2003 0 1 990 19 92 1 994 19 96 199 8 200 0 200 2 2 004 S PM P M10 S O2 NO 2 53 Source: Shanghai EMC.China Tokyo Busan Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei.China Tokyo Bangkok Busan Colombo Hong Kong Seoul Shanghai Singapore Taipei.2003) State: Trend of Aggregated Annual Averages of NO 2 Trends ofCities Aggregated(1993 Annual Averages of NO for selected Asian Cities (1993 . 2004 Notes: • The graph show s the aggregated average of the annual averages of major criteria pollutants. 2004 Note: Levels of SPM are all above 350 µg/m3 54 9 .

Air quality measurement capacity 2.62 0.000 Asian Estimate 730.619.Impacts: Health Effects Impacts: Epidemiological studies and Health Costs Health Costs per year Health Effects Number of Premature Deaths Risks Unsafe Water Urban Outdoor Air Indoor Air Source: WHO. (2002) Integrated Risk Assessment on Human Health & Ambient Air Pollution – Shanghai 3 Worldbank (2002) Thailand Environment Monitor 2002 4 Mashelkar Committee (2002) India Auto Fuel Policy Report 5 Worldbank (2003) Indonesia Environment Monitor 56 Response: Benchmarking AQM Capacity 1.1 0 Percent Increase • Global Estimate 1.439) and excess deaths associated with PM10 (1. Data assessment and availability 4.261) associated with PM10 costs US$880M Bangkok (2000)3: Chronic bronchitis (1.al. Programs and Projects • Conclusions AQM Indicator Ratings Air quality measuremen t capacity Assesses the ambient air monitoring taking place in a city and the accuracy and precision and representativeness of the data collected Data assessment and availability Assesses how air data is processed to value and provide information in a decision-relevant format.4 0.go. 2002 Exposure Risks 0. It also assesses the extent to which there is access to air quality information and data through different media Emissions estimates Managemen t enabling capabilities Asseses the administrative and legislative framework through which emission control strategies are introduced to manage air quality 3. Management enabling capabilities Response: Benchmarking AQM Capacity AQM Profile 15-20 page document: • General information • Description of pollution sources • Air Quality Data • Impacts of air pollution • Policies.679 crore) to a high of US $ 191.5 0. Emissions estimates 25 scores each 1992 MARC/UNEP/WHO AQM Indices applied to 84 cities Cities covered in Benchmarking Bangkok Jakarta Shanghai Study Beijing Busan Colombo Dhaka Hanoi Hong Kong Ho Chi Minh Kathmandu Manila Mumbai New Delhi Kolkata Seoul Shanghai Surabaya Singapore Taipei Tokyo Review Both city profile and questionnaire have been reviewed by air quality experts in the city 57 Assesses emission inventories undertaken to determine the extent to which decisionrelevant information is available about source pollution in the city 58 Response: Overall AQM Capability 100 90 80 70 Overall index Response: AQ Monitoring Capacity in Asia City Bangkok Beijing Busan Colombo Delhi Dhaka Hanoi Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Jakarta Kathmandu 1 6 1 11 Status of AQ monitoring 7in Asia 9 14 5 1 Manual Continuous 21 24 14 City Kolkata Manila Mumbai Osaka Seoul Shanghai Singapore Surabaya Taipei Tokyo Yogyakarta 6 23 Manual 12 12 22 14 27 21 16 5 19 82 Continuous 5 5 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 ng ko Be k i jin Bu g Co san lo Ne mb w o De l Dh hi ak a Ho Ha C no h i Ho i M ng inh Ko n g J Ka aka th rta m an d M Ko u et lka ro t M a an M ila um ba S i S eou ha l n Si g h ng ai a Su p o r ra e Ta ba ip y a ei Ci t To y ky o Ba Source: Benchmarking Study Urban Air Quality Management and Practice in Major and Mega Cities of Asia – Stage 2 (draft) Measurement Data assessment & availability Emission estimates Management tools 59 60 10 .6 0.2 0.730.915) costs US$392M Shanghai (2000)2: Chronic bronchitis (15.188) and premature deaths (7.5 • US (90 Cities)* Eur (21 Studies)* Asia (6 Studies) 799. 2004 Source: 1 Worldbank (2002) Philippines Environment Monitor 2002 2 Chen et.46 0.025.550) associated with PM10 costs US$424M India (2002)4: estimated annual health damage of pre-Euro emissions for the 25 Indian cities were from a low of US $14 million (Rs.092) and excess deaths (4.000 Source: Greenbaum and O’Keefe.7 0.6 million Jakarta (1998)5: estimated health effects from PM10 only is US$ 100 million Exposed to diesel exhaust Exposed to clean air Source: NIES.000 487.nies. BAQ 2003 • • Manila (2001)1 : Chronic bronchitis (8.3 0.jp 55 Percent Change in Mean Number of Daily Deaths from all causes per 10 µg/m3 increase in 24-hr mean level of PM10 Source: HEI.000 • 0.000 1.000 1. www.

PM10. O3.cn/ http://www.cpcb.in/html/airquality.nea. Bangalore. SO2. CO. SO2 and CO almost same as USEPA limit.hzepb. 2005 * italicized – to be confirmed 64 Response: Institutionalizing Fuel Quality Standards Country Bangladesh Cambodia China Hong Kong SAR India Indonesia Japan Korea Malaysia Nepal Philippines Singapore Sri-Lanka Thailand Vietnam Euro 2 by 2005 Euro 1.in/ http://www2. SO2.e. SO2.cn/ http://www.cn/ http://ems.jl. new standards are pending approval Standards require cities to comply with Class I.delhi.gov.bihe. Khampur. PM limits less stringent than USEPA Comparable and to some extent more stringent than WHO guidelines with the exception of CO limits for an 8-hour exposure.nic. NDA yes yes yes yes. NO2.metro. PM10. C6H6 Response: Institutionalizing Vehicle Emissions Standards ( new light duty vehicles) • Most countries have more lenient standards than those prescribed by WHO and USEPA • Standards for PM10 have been largely based on USEPA limits • There is a need to review current PM standards. Hyderabad and Ahmedabad in 2005 c Beijing and Shanghai d Gasoline vehicles under consideration e for gasoline vehicles f for diesel vehicles g for all types of diesel vehicles Source: CAI-Asia. II. Pb Euro 1 Euro 1 based and comparable to WHO and USEPA (for PM10). No annual standard for SO2.hbj. NO2. Pb PM10. NO2. Pb. NO2.go. SO2.htm http://www. Hyderabad. NOx. PM10.tokyo.wbpcb. O3. Pb TSP.th/AirQuality/bangkok/ http://www.gzepb. NO2. still leaded Euro 3 . Pb TSP. no plans for gasoline No roadmap in place Euro 4 for 2009 with discussion ongoing on ULSD in some locations Euro 2 in 2007 and Euro 4 in 2010 under discussion and 65 tentatively scheduled for July 2005 Part 4 CAI-Asia Programs 66 11 .chengdu.China Thailand e Viet Nam Viet Namf a b Remarks 1997 standards established for a few pollutants depending on land use category. CO.jp/kansi/portal. Pune and Ahmedabad in 2003. SO2. NO2.np/mopepollution/ http://www.in/envtdata/envtair. CO. CO. China Indiaa Indiab Indonesia Malaysia Nepal Philippines PRCa PRCc e Singapore Singaporeg Sri Lanka Taipei. SO2. Singapore PSI reporting is very efficient TSP standards twice more lenient than USEPA. O3.gov. Kolkata. CO. Euro 2 in Bangalore. O3 TSP. CO.gov.ph/ http://www. O3.gov.gov.cqemc.gov.gov. NO2.kr/ http://mope. still partly leaded Euro 1.bjepb. Initial discussions on Euro 4 by 2010. a slightly lenient O3 and NO2 compared with USEPA and WHO.kankyo.Rest of the country Euro 4 in place Euro 3 for Metro’s and Euro 2 for the rest of the country Euro 2 (?) Euro 4 Equivalent (S 50ppm) Future Directions No dialogue or plans to move beyond Euro 1 No roadmap in place 11th Five Year Plan laying out road map for Euro 3 and Euro 4 for entire country ULSD and Euro 5 (diesel) under consideration for 2007 Euro 4 for Metros and Euro 3 for the rest of country under discussion Euro 3 gasoline by 2006 & Euro 3 diesel after 2010 Ultra-low sulfur gasoline and diesel 2007 Ultra-low sulfur gasoline and diesel by 2007? Euro 4 by 2009-2010 No structured discussion on how to move ahead Euro 2 mid 2005. CO. National and local (Jakarta) standards less stringent that WHO. PM10. Established only in 2003. residential and sensitive areas. respectively TSP twice more lenient than USEPA. TSP TSP. O3. Euro 3 to be introduced in Delhi.re. Pb TSP.sepb. considering Europe’s move to 50µg/m3 limit for 24-hour averages of PM10 • Standards for other air toxics e. stringent NO2 compared to WHO Hourly limits for NO2 and CO are more lenient than WHO.vn/ Response: AQ data analysis in Asia City Bangkok Beijing Busan Colombo Delhi Dhaka Hanoi Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Jakarta Kathmandu Kolkata Manila Mumbai Osaka Seoul Shanghai Singapore Surabaya Taipei Tokyo Yogyakarta Emissions Inventory domestic comm'l power indust'l mobile                                                                  Summary yes yes yes no limited 1998 only limited limited yes yes yes limited yes yes yes yes yes limited.gov. PM10. selecting the higher/max allowable limits Despite adopting only both WHO guidelines and USEPA limits.cn/user/outweb/index-en/index-en. and SO2 TSP.zjepb. Mumbai.hepa. the rest of the standards are almost same as WHO Euro 1 Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 1 Thailand Vietnam Entire country Delhi and other cities.g benzene should be legislated 63 Country European Union Bangladesh Hong Kong. Chennai. Class I standards more stringent than the WHO and USEPA limits Standards less stringent than WHO and USEPA limits Established based on different land-use categories i. industrial. NO2. PM10. NDA • Many cities have initiated development of Emission Inventories BUT • Level of detail/ disaggregation varies greatly • Reliability of activity data on which inventories are based and Emission factors used is questionable for many of the cities • Inventories in many of the cases were conducted by outside groups: academe or consulting firms                          CAUTION in formulating AQM policies based on current Emission Inventories 61 62 Response: Ambient Air Quality Standards Country Bangladesh China Hong Kong India Indonesia Japan Nepal Pollutants TSP. or III standards.php http://mpcb. Standards more lenient. CO. Euro 2 introduced in Mumbai. NO2. Pb CO.emb.cn/20031224/index. PM limits less stringent than USEPA No legislated ambient air quality standards 95 Euro 1 96 97 98 99 2000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 2 (under discussion) Euro 5 Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 1 E1 Euro 2 Euro 2 Euro 1 Euro Euro Euro Euro US Tier 1 1 1 2 2 Euro 4 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 2 E4 Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 1 US Tier 2 for dieseld Euro4 Euro 2 E3 Euro 2 E3 E3 Euro 1 Euro 3 Pakistan Philippines Singapore Sri-Lanka TSP.Response: Online Ambient Air Quality Data of Selected Asian Cities City Beijing Shanghai Chengdu Chongqing Guangzhou Jilin/Harbin Hangzhou Tianjin Kolkata Mumbai New Delhi Tokyo Busan Kathmandu Metro Manila Singapore Thailand Ho Chi Minh Website URL http://www. 24-hour limit for SO2. SO2. no PM10 standards.php http://www. 500 ppm sulfur diesel Euro 2 in place Euro 1 in place Euro 3 gasoline and Euro 2 for Diesel Euro 3 in 2009 announced and under discussion Current Status Euro 1 under discussion No formal standards. NO2. CO.Beijing and Shanghai Euro 2 .mah. O3 TSP.cn/ http://www. standards less stringent than WHO. SO2.cn/ http://hbj.jsp http://www. Kolkata and Chennai in 2001.nic.gov. PM10. Euro 4 diesel in 2006.gov.gov.gov. SO2. SO2. CO. SO2.sg/psi/ http://pcd. Pb.htm http://www. CO. Pb TSP.cn/ http://www. NO2. O3.

html  Dialogue among other Regional Initiatives/ Institutions with AQM Component: Annual dialogue to promote the development and adoption common agendas on air quality management in Asia.html  Better Air Quality 2003: 17-19 December 2003.html 72 12 .cleanairnet.org/caiasia/1412/article-48844. CAI-Asia.org/caiasia/1412/article-58109.org/caiasia/1412/article-58858.cleanairnet.org 68 Summary of Results – Phase 1 Summary of Results – Phase 1 Capacity Building  CATNet-Asia: Partnership of World Bank.org/caiasia/1412/article-58414.org/caiasia/1412/article-35730.cleanairnet.cleanairnet.worldbank. and the California Air Resources Board http://www.cleanairnet. the Partnership for Clean Air (Manila).cleanairnet. Manila.Phase 2 CAI-Asia: 2005 .html  Fuel Quality Strategies Training Workshop: ADB – IFQC program to strengthen capacity of Asian countries to develop fuel quality improvement strategies http://www. http://www.org/caiasia  Largest on-line information source on AQM in Asia  Over 1100 daily visitors  High client satisfaction according to CAI-Asia evaluation Listserv: “CAI-Asia has provided a platform and bulletin board where air quality management issues can be actively discussed” CAI-Asia Evaluation Report 2004 To join.html  Poverty and Air Pollution: Ho Chi Minh based case study to develop methodology to assess linkage of air pollution and poverty in Asia.html Workshops  The annual BAQ workshop has developed into an institution and is now the largest urban air quality event in Asia. http://www.cleanairnet.cleanairnet.html  Partnership for Sustainable Urban Transportation in Asia: Regional Partnership of ADB and EMBARQ to promote sustainable urban transport in Asia through policy dialogue and indicator development.http://www. and CAI-Asia http://www. Hosted by India’s Ministry of Environment and Forests and CAIAsia.org/baq2003/1496/channel. and jointly organized by the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers. send a blank email to: join-cai-asia@lists. Central Pollution Control Board.org/baq2004/1527/channel.2nd Stage: Assessment of air quality management capabilities among 20 Asian cities Initial Results .cleanairnet.cleanairnet.  Better Air Quality 2002: 16-19 December 2002. SAR– Hosted by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Environmental Protection Department and supported by the Air Pollution in the Mega-cities of Asia Project. Hong Kong. India.org/caiasia/1412/article-59072.html  Distance Learning Course: World Bank Institute Program to deliver Air Quality Management training http://www.html  CAI-Asia – Oil Industry Dialogue for Cleaner Fuels in Asia: Dialogue aimed to result in a joint roadmap for cleaner transportation fuels in Asia http://www.cleanairnet. and CAI-Asia http://www.html  Emission Reduction Potential of Low Sulfur Diesel Fuels in Asia: Studies in support of CAI-Asia’s activities on fuel quality improvement. http://www.org/caiasia/1412/article-58180.org/caiasia/1412/propertyvalue-19618.html 71  Better Air Quality 2004: 6-8 December 2003. USEPA and Pollution Control Department Thailand to strengthen capacity to deliver air quality management training http://www.org/caiasia/1412/article-48845.html  ‘South-South’ Exchange Program: Exchange of experiences among CAI-Asia member cities and organizations  Benchmarking Study on UAQM Capability of selected Asian cities . Agra.  Developing Integrated Emissions Strategies for Existing Land Transport (DIESEL): Bangkok based regional program to develop solutions to reduce emissions from in-use diesel vehicles http://www.html Regional Cooperation  Strategic Framework for Air Quality Management in Asia: Joint activity with APMA Project to develop a high level conceptual approach to air quality management by Asian Cities.html 70 69 Summary of Results – Phase 1 Summary of Results – Phase 1 Pilot Projects  Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): $2 million research and capacity building program to investigate impact of air pollution on public health in Asian cities http://www. Philippines – Hosted by the Air Pollution in the Mega-cities of Asia Project.2007 Summary of Results – Phase 1 Goals  Regional Coordination and Cooperation on Air Quality Management firmly established in Asia  Asian countries ability manage air quality is improved  Air quality is improved Results     Improved scientific understanding of air pollution in Asia Better policies for air quality management in Asia Strengthened air quality governance in Asia Improved implementation of air quality management policies and programs 67 Knowledge Management Website: http://cleanairnet.cleanairnet.org/caiasia/1412/article-58140.cleanairnet.org/caiasia/1412/article-58616.cleanairnet.org/caiasia/1412/propertyvalue-19618. http://www.

Indonesia September 2006 73 13 .BAQ 2006 BAQ 2006 Yogyakarta.