13 WAYS OF DEVELOPING PARAGRAPH The body of a paper must conform to the patterns established in the thesis sentence or introduction

. This means that the body follows an overall logic. However, within each paragraph, the logic and patterns may vary. A common way to discuss the logic paragraph is by method or technique or development. Remember that these are only a sampling of possible patterns and that many more are acceptable and likely. 1.6.1 Definition A statement of the general category to which a term belongs and the unique characteristics or properties that separate it from others in that category.

A class is a group of students, which meets with a particular teacher in a particular time for a pre-determined course of study. The teacher is an expert in the field, such as history, which
the students are studying. The room is the place designed by the university where the subject will be taught there. The university as the proper time also designates or decides the time for this subject. At the end of a set of period (a quarter, a semester) the teacher will give students final grades for their work, grades recorded in a university transcript. THE QUESTION: What general category is being described in the above paragraph? What unique characteristics/properties separate it? 1.6.2 Example Specific illustrations often introduced by phrases like “for example”, “for instance”, ”to illustrate”. The purpose is to describe some particular in order to make a general concept more concrete.

My chemistry class is typical of most of my classes at the university. There are thirty-five students in the class. We meet three times a week at
ten in the morning for fifty minutes. The teacher, Professor Jones, lectures to us for part of the time, and then the students work on chemistry problems for the rest of the time. We receive three hours of university credits if we complete this course with passing score. A midterm and a final exam are scheduled in the syllabus, but there are also occasional pop quizzes and unscheduled exams, mainly on the readings, but sometimes on the class lectures. What happens in this class seems to be pretty much a standard for all my classes. QUESTION: What specifics communicate the idea?

5.6.3 Division Into Categories Or Part An analytical method that involves breaking something into parts in order to understand it more clearly; usually characterized by reference to a number of items: for example two main parts, five sections, three categories.

My English study involves three key approaches. The first is to
attend classes and to benefit from contact with an experienced teacher and with classmates who are trying to learn the same things I am. The second is to listen carefully to pronunciation and listening tapes at home in order to improve those skills.

The third is to make myself have as much contact with the real language as possible.
This means listening to the radio and television, going to movies, talking to native speakers whenever possible (in cafeteria, at the laundry room, in the dorm, between classes), and even auditing some regular classes to accustom my ear to accents and teaching styles. QUESTION: what parts?

1.6.3 Comparison A focus on the similarities between two or more things: what they share or have in common. My English class in the United States is very similar to my English class in Japan. In both classes the goal is to learn English. The classes both meet in a small room with movable chairs. In both classes the teachers make the students study grammar and practice reading. Both have a final goal of being able to speak and understand English. There are quizzes and tests and lots of homework. In both, by the end of the hour, students are exhausted from trying to think in another language. ______________________is like _____________________ 1.6.4 Contrast A focus on the differences between two or more things: how they are unlike, unshared qualities. My English class in the US is very different from my English class in Japan. While my Japanese teacher is very formal and requires the students to sit in neat rows and raise their hands to answer, my American teacher is very informal, puts the chairs in a circle and encourages students to talk a lot. In my Japanese class we never spoke English conversationally; we only read and wrote it. In my American class we converse a lot, ask and answer questions a lot in English. And even give speeches in English. In Japan, when English class is over, so is the usage of English, but in the United States, when English class is over, students must

continue using English to survive such daily activities as eating, catching a bus, and watching television. _________________________is unlike ______________________________ 5.6.6 Metaphor or analogy A comparison of two unlike or dissimilar things: a metaphor calls attention to unexpected underlying similarities: it explains an unknown in terms of a known.

A class is like a prison in which people are kept to be punished or because they are dangerous. Many students feel that school is punishment or that
their parents and teachers want to lock them up. The students cannot leave when they want to: they are imprisoned for the fifty minutes that the class meets. Like prisoners, the students are given numbers. Also, like prisoners, the students may be allowed to leave early. If they behave well, but if they try to leave without permission, they will be punished and their stay extended. ___________________________is like ______________________________ Comparison, contrast and metaphor are similar, but comparison focuses on the similarities between two similar things, contrast focuses on the differences between two similar things, and metaphor focuses on the similarities between two different things. 5.6.7 Time Sequence Chronological order: the order in which events occur, one after the other as time progresses. The western tradition of “classes” began when the Greek philosopher Socrates gathered his students around him. Socrates would sit in a particular place, such as a corner of the market, and would ask students questions about how they knew what was true and what false. After Socrates came Plato, who

Next came Aristotle, who set up one of the first schools….Hundreds of year’s later, schools were run by churches…Now, national
described Socrates’ method. and local governments often set up schools. First______________:Next________________:Finally ______________________ 5.6.8 Process A time order description, step by step, of how to do something or how something works; the focus is on an explanation of events, activities, or actions in the order in which they occur:

A class begins when the teacher calls the roll. Then the teacher will begin to lecture or to discuss in some way the subjects the class is studying. The teacher will often ask questions, give examples, provide demonstrations, and explain problems. Then he will ask the class to work some problems or to write about a topic. The class ends when the bell rings or when the teacher says that class is dismissed. Beginning___________: middle _______________: end ______________ Notice that Time Sequence/Chronology and process is similar since both follow a sequence of events. Chronology, however, is concerned only with time relationship, while process deals, in particular, with how something works. Process is commonly used in science and engineering classes, instruction manuals, cookbooks and so forth. 5.6.9 Cause and effect A statement of what happens and/or has why it happens. Classes are created and organized either because students want to learn or because learning is required for their future employment or profession. Students who wish to know more about the world around them demand classes to teach them history, philosophy, archeology, architecture and so forth. Students who need to train themselves to be expert in their careers will need courses in mathematics, computer science, biology, and other subjects. As a result, national and local government have, for a long time, set up groups to meet in particular places at particular times with lectures who are experts in the field the students wish to study. In other words, education is a matter of supply and demand. Cause:_______________: Effect________________________ My English class performs a number of important functions, some predictable, some less predictable. Obviously, its major function is to provide and environment in which students can study and learn English. For this purpose it has a teacher and a textbook. However, I also functions to introduce students to the American classroom and the special approaches and techniques that characterize it. Furthermore, it helps ease culture shock by providing a period for adjustment before one has to move into academic classes. In addition, because of the small size and the closeness of the students, it is a place for forming friendships, making alliances, and taking the first steps toward social activities. QUESTION: what is its main purpose? What minor purposes does it serve?

5.6.10 Spatial A description of where things are located; placement in a locale. My crowded English class is located on the third floor of Jones Hall on the law school campus. A jumble of student desks fills most of the floor space, with barely room to move between them. In the front of the classroom the teacher’s desk is pushed against the blackboard. In the back of the classroom are some low bookshelves crammed against a screen for showing films. On the other three

walls are blackboards filled with the teacher’s scribbling. The ceiling is low.
Question: what space is described first? What’s next? 5.6.11 Facts

The common audience expects the use of factual evidence in academic writing. Any piece of information that can be easily verified can serve as
factual support. Included are numbers (percentages, number of miles, etc.) and statistics as well as facts that can be found in books, and magazines.

Milk: The Perfect Food Milk is one of the most important sources of nutrition for human beings and animals. It is the first food
provided for newborn babies because milk contains a large variety of nutritional constituents, and at the same time it is easily digestible. Milk is about 13%

solids, and the solids contain 3,3% protein, 5% carbohydrates, 4%fat, and many vitamins and minerals. Moreover, milk protein contains all of the essential amino acids like casein and lactobacillus. Lactose is the principal carbohydrate of milk, and milk is the only

source of lactose in nature. Milk also contains all of the known vitamins :A,B,C,D, E and K. for all these reasons, milk consumption is the keystone of human beings and animals. Samir Atrash (Libya)

5.6.12 Physical Description Still another way to support a topic sentence is by using physical description, that is, words and phrases that appeal to the five sentences: controlling ideas in the topic sentence.

sight, hearing, smell,

touch and taste. Physical description support is often used to explain or describe

Java Wedding On the wedding day in Java, flowers and plants play an important part in the traditional ceremony. At the entrance of the house, many plants set on the left and right of the doorway symbolizes the hopes of the people for the young couple who will soon be married there. A banana trunk laden with ripe “King” bananas represents God’s blessing on the bride and groom and is a symbol for a life as prosperous as that of king and queen. Sugar cane, because it tastes sweet, traditionally means that the couple will have a sweet life. The leaves of sedge-grass which are placed together, have a meaning of rejecting danger and driving out the evil spirit. Their many large leaves, which give much shade in my hot country, characterize huge fig trees; the fig tree, therefore, means that God will protect and bless the bride and groom so they will always have peace and a safe life. In Indonesia the people use the coconut tree for many purposes: by including the coconut fruit at the doorway, the people hope that the bride and the groom like a coconut tree and be just as useful to society. Finally, the young coconut leaves symbolize the hope that the couple will always look young and fresh, and remind them that they will always have special places in the hearts of people. Endah Frey (Indonesia) 5.6.13 Personal experience The final technique of support is personal experience. While personal experience is not often used in formal academic papers. It can serve as a valuable support tool in paragraphs, particularly when an ESL student can connect personal experience about an academic topic from her/his own country. Sometimes a paragraph will contain a series of small personal experiences. Other times a paragraph will have a single extended personal experience to support the controlling ideas in the topic sentence. EELS/welut :D I am afraid to eat food cooked with eel. In Thailand, eel is a kind of expensive and well-known fish. This fish is about 1,5-2 feet long, usually yellowish dark brown and snake-like. It lives in fresh water, but unlike most fish, it has no scales. Instead its skin is mucus-like, so in preparing to cook it, we have to rub its body with sand or with the leaves of the “khoy” tree (strebus aspen) to remove the mucus. Once when I was young, my aunt asked me to prepare fish. First I beat their heads with a stick and rubbed their skins with khoy leaves; then I cut their heads off and put them in a large bowl to wash. When I poured the water into the bowl, the headless, pinkish white eels began to twist and swing left and right. After that day I never ate eel again. Arthorn Boonsaner (Thailand). Taken from the awesome book entitled “Effective and Efficient Reading: a handbook of reading faster and better by Faizal Risdianto