Amsterdam University Press

Ingmar Bergman: A Reference Guide

Ingmar Bergman, the Director. From the filming of The Magic Flute, 1975 (Courtesy: SFI/Cinematograph)

Ingmar Bergman
A Reference Guide

Birgitta Steene

Amsterdam University Press

This book has been published with support from the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet). Research assistant: Per Olov Qvist

Cover design: Kok Korpershoek, Amsterdam Lay-out: japes, Amsterdam

isbn 90 5356 406 3 nur 670

© Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam 2005 All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the written permission of both the copyright owner and the author of the book.

Acknowledgements Preface Chapter I Life and Work
The Family Setting Debut and Formative Years Artistic Breakthrough at Home and Abroad Religious Crisis Discovery of Fårö The Critical Sixties: The Artist Syndrome Discovery of Television Exile Return to Sweden and Closure

9 11 23 23 33 37 38 39 41 43 44 45 49 49 58 63 64 66 131 132 133 137 141 155 155 353 369

Chapter II The Writer
Ingmar Bergman: Cinéma d’auteur The Young Playwright The Writer of Prose Fiction Post-filmmaking Prose

List of Bergman’s Written Work Chapter III The Filmmaker
Enter the Magician Swedish Filmmaking during Bergman’s Formative Years Ingmar Bergman: Filmmaking Credo Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production

Chapter IV Filmography Synopses, Credits, Commentaries and Reception Record Foreign Titles of Ingmar Bergman Films Ingmar Bergman as Film Producer


Chapter V Ingmar Bergman and the Media Radio Productions Television Works Chapter VI Ingmar Bergman in the Theatre Part I An Overview Part II Stage Productions by Ingmar Bergman
Mäster Olofsgården, 1938-40 Stockholm Student Theatre, 1940-43 North Latin School, 1941-1942 Civic Centre & Sago Theatre, 1941-42 Open Air Theatre (Folkparksteatern), 1943 The Dramatists Studio (Dramatikerstudion), 1943-44 The Boulevard Theatre, 1944 Hälsingborg City Theatre, 1944-46 Göteborg City Theatre, 1946-50 Intima Theatre, Stockholm, 1950-51 Royal Dramatic Theatre (Dramaten), 1951 Folksparkteatern, 1951 Norrköping-Linköping City Theatre, 1951 Malmö City Theatre, 1952-58 Dramaten, 1961-1976 Head of Dramaten, 1963-1966 Munich Residenztheater, 1977-1984 Return to Dramaten, 1984-2003

371 371 407 455 456 473 473 485 493 495 505 506 511 513 530 549 552 554 555 556 596 599 650 668 763 773

Opera/Ballet Chapter VII Theatre and Media Bibliography, 1940-2004 Chart over Bergman’s Theatre, Opera, TV, and Radio Productions Chapter VIII Interviews with Ingmar Bergman Chapter IX Works on Ingmar Bergman Chapter X Varia Media Documentaries on Ingmar Bergman Stage and Screen Performances by Ingmar Bergman Awards and Tributes
Awards for individual Films

816 827 879 1031 1031 1035 1038 1045


Archival Sources
Ingmar Ingmar Ingmar Ingmar Bergman’s Bergman’s Bergman’s Bergman’s Writings Films Radio Play Productions and TV Work Theatre Productions

1049 1049 1049 1052 1053

Indexes Subject Index Subject Index Supplement: Literature on Bergman Title Index Name Index 1055 1071 1077 1105


The following organizations and institutions, listed in alphabetical order, have helped support this Reference Guide, either financially or by offering research assistance: AFI (American Film Institute); SALB (Statens arkiv för ljud och bild, Stockholm); AMPA (Margaret Herrick Library in Los Angeles); BFI (British Film Institute); Cinecitta Film Library in Rome; Cinématèque Française; Danish Film Museum; Swedish Theatre Museum Library; Dramaten (Royal Dramatic Theatre) Library; Dutch Film Library in Amsterdam; Filmoteca nacional, Montevideo; Holger and Thyra Lauritzen Foundation, Stockholm; Göteborg City Museum (theatre section), HSFR (Humanistiska samhällsvetenskapliga forskningsrådet); Malmö Musikteater Museum; MOMA (Museum of Modern Art in New York); Museum of Television and Radio, New York; Museo de film, Rio de Janeiro/Sao Paolo; Nationaltheatret, Oslo; NEH (National Endowment for the Humanities); NFI (Norwegian Film Institute); New York Library for the Performing Arts; Stiftung Deutsche Kinematek in Berlin; SFI (Swedish Film Institute); Sveriges Radio-TV (SR-SVT) Library and Archives; Theatre Record, London; TIN (Dutch Theatre library); University of Washington Library; Vetenskapsrådet (Swedish Science Council). A very special thanks is due to film scholar Dr. Per Olov Qvist in Uppsala for his research assistance in the film and media sections of the guide and for his unfailing patience in checking and helping locate some of the material for this Reference Guide to Ingmar Bergman. With his knowledgeable background, trustworthy and meticulous scrutiny, and many good suggestions, Per Olov Qvist has been an invaluable resource. The following persons have facilitated my search for specific items in the Guide: Kerstin Alfredsson, SR/SVT; Tatjana Beznik, Humboldt University, Berlin; Magnus Blomqvist and Ursula Schlesser at the Swedish Theatre Library; Margaretha Brundin at the Royal Library in Stockholm; Brita Carlsson at Göteborg City Theatre Library; Else Barratt-Due at NRK (Norsk Rikskringkasting); Lone Erritzöe, Bergman researcher in Copenhagen; Barbro Everfjärd and Elisabeth Helge at the SFI Film Library; Dag Kronlund and Vera Govenius at Dramaten Library; Elzbieta Lejczak and Hans Lind at Malmö Music Theatre Archive; Jens K. Nielsen and Virpi Zuck at the University of Oregon; Henrik Sjögren who has generously exchanged information about Ingmar Bergman’s work in the theatre; Agneta Sjöborg at Statens Arkiv för ljud och bild (SALB); Egil Törnqvist, professor emeritus at the University of Amsterdam and himself a Bergman scholar; Gurli Woods, Carleton University, Canada. In the final stages of the manuscript, Associate Professor and Bergman scholar Maaret Koskinen


shared information about material from Bergman’s Fårö library, now deposited at the Swedish Film Institute. Maria Karlsson, Uppsala University, Tytti Soila, Stockholm University, Kerstin Petterson, Amsterdam, and Adolfas Vecerskis, Vilnius, have helped with some informational and organizational questions and Anna Karin Fredmer with technical assistance. Dag Nordmark’s meticulous reading of the final manuscript helped correct a few discrepancies. Rochelle Wright and Aleksander Kwiatkowski assisted with some translation and linguistic transcription problems. And of course a special thanks to Ingmar Bergman himself for his unique artistic contribution.


This Reference Guide to Ingmar Bergman offers a critical overview and annotated record of the artistic career of a very productive filmmaker, stage director, and author. Born in 1918 and still active in his mid-eighties, Bergman has made some 50 feature films, directed more than 120 theatre presentations, a number of radio and television productions, and has authored numerous scripts, plays, and prose works. Possessing a great visual and narrative talent, combined with musical sensitivity and psychological perspicacity, Bergman has projected a moral vision formed since childhood by the values of his Lutheran family background and by a Swedish bourgeois lifestyle. But his artistic production not only reflects the world he knew during his formative years; it also constitutes a serious examination of it. In addition to its personal roots, Bergman’s art has drawn creative stimulation from a still young and expanding film medium and from a dynamic and challenging period in the Swedish theatre, including opera, television, and radio drama. His deep sense of belonging to a native tradition in film and drama with such names as Victor Sjöström and August Strindberg as portal figures does not preclude an equally strong interest in the classical European theatre and international cinema. Bergman has today achieved a world reputation like few other Swedish artists before him. A sign of this is the vast critical response that his work has elicited both in his native country and abroad, manifesting itself in many hundreds of books, articles, and dissertations. Bergman’s achievement has also been recognized in numerous film and theatre awards and in tributes ranging from honorary doctorates to special symposia and Bergman festivals. There are even poems published that testify to his impact on viewers and audiences. To assemble the critical record pertaining to Ingmar Bergman’s œuvre is no small task and poses several questions. The first but not least is a general question: What is the purpose of a Reference Guide? The immediate answer is simple: to provide existing information to interested readers and scholars in a given field. That is, a reference guide is to serve as a cumulative checkpoint where it becomes possible to search and familiarize oneself with existing material on the subject. The second question follows almost automatically: What should be the selective process behind the presentation of the material? Metaphorically speaking, an editor of a Reference Guide might be assumed to spread out a map of the entire territory covered by the artist and his commentators, with roads that point in many different directions so that all corners of the referenced subject’s territory become visible and accessible. But in order for a map to be legible and useful, it must not only record but also describe and define the objects found within its chosen boundaries. And it must also set up


limits for the amount of information to be provided. This is especially necessary with a prolific artist like Ingmar Bergman whose work (and the critical response to it) spans more than half a century. A Reference Guide like this one is by definition a source book about things already done, and an editor’s task is to track those who have already entered the Bergman territory. But an editor, like a cartographer, must have a vision and must strive to avoid getting caught and ensnared in too much underbrush. A great deal of trivial material exists on Ingmar Bergman. Not all of it has been ignored here, for it too is part of the response that his work has elicited. But serious efforts to examine Bergman’s work have naturally taken precedence over ephemeral treatments. Furthermore, it has also been the editor’s intention to transmit an overview of Ingmar Bergman’s career. For that reason the annotated bibliographical information in the Guide is complemented by surveys of Bergman’s life and work and of his creative activity in different art forms. Much of the published response to Ingmar Bergman’s work, especially his filmmaking, has come from outside his native Sweden. In that material there is often more valuable criticism than Swedish examiners have recognized. But at the same time, foreign studies of Bergman often reveal unfamiliarity with the language and culture that have shaped his work. Both these factors are dealt with indirectly in the Guide. The aim has been to make the volume internationally representative, but there has also been an effort to select and annotate a great deal of Swedish material in order to make non-Swedish students of Bergman aware of the response of his native culture. Ingmar Bergman allegedly grew up with an equally strong interest in puppet theatre and magic lantern experiments, which laid the foundation for a career as a theatre and film director. In his late teens, before engaging in stagecraft in public, he drafted a great many dramatic and prose vignettes, some of which were later developed into film ideas. In the early 1940s he gained a certain reputation as an up-andcoming stage director in Stockholm and in 1944 he experienced a combined debut as a writer, theatre man, and would-be filmmaker: he landed his first contract as a stage director (and administrative head) at the Helsingborg City Theatre in southern Sweden; his film script to ‘Hets’ (Torment, Frenzy) catapulted him into notoriety as an angry young man and social iconoclast; and his first piece of writing was published in the Swedish avant-garde literary magazine 40-tal. Ingmar Bergman was to pursue the areas of theatre, film, and literature throughout his creative life. To these artistic activities he soon added work in radio and television. During specific periods in his life, one or another of these areas may have dominated, but on the whole they have remained interrelated or interdependent and, above all, must be viewed as equally important to Bergman’s artistic persona. However, Bergman’s multifaceted production poses a special organizational challenge to a bibliographer. The standard chronological set-up used in most registrations of an artistic output is maintained in this Guide within the individual chapters, but the chapter division in itself signals Bergman’s different creative fields and prevents an ongoing sequential overview of his total oeuvre. Each individual chapter must start anew with its own consecutive time line. To present Bergman’s entire artistic output as a single continuous production might have had the advantage of suggesting more clearly the interconnection between, for instance, his stage work and his filmmaking. But the approach would make it difficult for a Bergman scholar to follow and assess his


development within a specific medium, especially in view of the sheer volume and long time span behind each of Bergman’s artistic endeavors, be it in film, theatre, television, radio, or writing. To Bergman’s manifold creative activity one must also add the fact that a film, a stage production, or a media transmission by him may have a multi-genre or multimedia aspect to it, so that different versions of a given Bergman work may exist. Thus, several of Bergman’s TV films, for instance, Scener ur ett äktenskap/Scenes from a Marriage and Fanny and Alexander, have also been edited by him for circulation in the commercial cinema, while some of his stage productions have been adapted for television. Another multi-version example is that of Backanterna/The Bachae from the 1990s, which was first presented as an opera, then as a television performance, and finally as a stage production. Furthermore, the dialogue scripts in a film and television production involving Bergman’s name are seldom identical with the published scripts, which are sometimes referred to as novels rather than screenplays by Bergman himself. Thus, a chapter-by-chapter genre or media presentation of Bergman’s oeuvre still carries its own built-in problems, necessitating a system of cross-listings between film, theatre, media, and interview chapters. An item may thus be listed in several different chapters but is usually only annotated in one place. If, for instance, a given work has been produced as a TV film but has also been shown as a feature film in the cinema, it is listed in both the Filmography and Media chapters but with its accompanying reference and reception record selected accordingly. For instance, the media impact in Sweden of Scener ur ett äktenskap/Scenes from a Marriage is only recorded in the Media Chapter, while the reception for the international film version appears in the Filmography. Bergman himself does not seem to regard multi-versions of a given work as a problem (as long as he had control of the procedure). In an interview with Elisabeth Sörenson, he once said apropos of this matter: ‘Thus I have two different manuscripts – but the film version is incorporated into the TV version. It is the very steel pillar. [—] This is no more strange than when a composer makes an orchestra version and a string quartet (of the same composition)’. [Sålunda har jag två olika manuskript – men filmversionen finns inbakad i TV-versionen. Den är själva stålpelaren... Det är inte egendomligare än när en kompositör gör en orkesterversion och en (version för) stråkkvartett]. On another occasion he looks upon his mixing of artistic areas and choice of performance medium as a playful prerogative: ‘I think it is fun to make a real witches’ brew of TV, theatre, film and music’ (Björkman, Cahiers du cinéma, May 1978). Opting for separate chapter divisions for Bergman’s various areas of creative expression raises the issue of their internal placement in the Guide. Since the incentives for Bergman’s film, theatre, and writing activities are rooted in experiences connected with his childhood and youth and since they have more or less run their continuous course throughout his career, it becomes almost a moot point to try to decide which one of these creative outputs should be listed first in a chapter by chapter presentation. However, there is good reason to begin this Guide – after an initial survey of Bergman’s Life and Work – with an annotation of his penmanship, since it includes material to subsequent chapters: Ingmar Bergman as a filmmaker (Chapters III and IV), Ingmar Bergman as a media director (Chapter V), and Ingmar Bergman as a contributor to theatre art (Chapter VI). Bergman established himself early on as an internationally acknowledged auteur du cinéma whose screenplays formed the basis


for the majority of his films. After announcing his retirement from filmmaking with the making of Fanny and Alexander (1982), he was to write several TV plays, screenplays, novels, and memoirs. Both his own scriptwriting and his adaptations of theatre texts testify to a link between his literary penmanship and his visual directorial talent operating in different performative contexts. Since the Guide addresses itself to an international and not just a native Swedish audience, it has seemed logical to present the material dealing with Bergman’s contribution to the cinema before presenting his work as a theatre director. Internationally speaking, his filmmaking forms the basis of his standing abroad, whereas his stagecraft has been less known to foreign audiences and limited to a handful of productions presented during guest performances throughout the world or during his eight years of voluntary exile (1976-1984) when he worked as a director at Munich’s Residenztheater. In terms of his impact on Swedish culture, Bergman’s theatre work might be seen as the most crucial part of his career. After declaring his withdrawal from the world of commercial filmmaking in 1984 (but not from media work), he continued for almost twenty years as a prominent stage director, stating again and again his great love and need for the world of theatre. In fact, almost from the beginning of his career in the theatre, Bergman’s stage productions have elicited a critical enthusiasm at home quite comparable to the jubilant foreign reception of many of his films. The rationale for placing the media chapter (V) right after the Filmography (Chapter IV) is that its television section can be seen as an extension of Bergman’s work in the cinema. At the same time, the radio section in the media chapter may serve as a transition to the subsequent theatre chapter, for it includes many broadcast adaptations of Bergman’s own plays and of productions first directed by him on different theatre stages. The following outline identifies the chapter-by-chapter content of this Reference Guide to Ingmar Bergman: Chapter I: Life and Work. This chapter is designed as a comprehensive juxtaposition of biographical data and professional output. Here it is wise to keep in mind that over the years, the real person bearing the name of Ernst Ingmar Bergman has ‘fabricated’ a legend of his own, where family history and personal experiences have undergone fictional transformations. At the same time, however, in presenting an artist who possesses such a strong personal vision as Ingmar Bergman, it is difficult not to link closely his private and public worlds. Bergman has not always lived the life of a recluse on his island of Fårö but has, in fact, been a highly visible person in Swedish culture from the very beginning of his career. Furthermore, he has, by his own account, drawn his subject-matter both from his own background and from his circle of friends and colleagues, including his close relationships with women, many of whom have been active in his professional work. A Life and Letters account of Ingmar Bergman becomes therefore both a personal life story and the artistic metamorphosis of an individual existence. Chapter II: The Writer. The chapter begins with an overview of Bergman’s penmanship, followed by an annotated chronological listing of all his authored material, from his early unpublished prose works in the late 1930s to his late television plays, novels, and memoirs in the 1980s and on. Also included are scripts and articles that Bergman wrote


under the name of Buntel Eriksson (with Erland Josephson), Ernest Riffe, and other pseudonyms. The annotated material comprises scripts, plays, prose fiction, essays, program notes, and newspaper statements such as open letters (but not cited interview material). Also listed are some items from Bergman’s private Fårö library now deposited at the Swedish Film Institute (SFI), where drafts, notebooks, and the director’s copies of scripts and plays have been organized. All items are annotated under their Swedish title, but wherever applicable each entry also includes a list of published translations. Each item is given an entry number, beginning with number 1. The numbering of entries continues sequentially throughout the Reference Guide. When an entry number is referred to elsewhere in the Guide, it is preceded by the symbol Ø. Chapter III: The Filmmaker. An account of the personal motivations and historical circumstances behind Bergman’s filmmaking is followed by a comprehensive overview of his entire film production. As an organizing principle, Bergman’s films are presented in six major groups following a chronological and thematic outline: (1) early films focussing on the young couple; (2) early family and marriage films, often with women in central roles; (3) religious and existential quest films, often with a male protagonist; (4) films portraying the role of the artist; (5) films focusing on a haunting past, many of them depicting women in crisis; (6) the Bergman family saga. This grouping is to be seen as practical rather than absolute, providing a structural overview of Bergman’s film production but with the implied understanding that many films could in fact be placed in more than one category. Chapter IV: Filmography. Each individual item is presented with a plot synopsis, a detailed credit list, reviews, and commentaries on the film’s reception. The filmography lists all films that were authored and/or directed by Bergman, including some documentaries and a set of soap commercials, as well as works originally made for television but later released in the cinema. The total number of items in the Filmography comprises some 60 entries, or more than one film for every year that Ingmar Bergman was active in the field. At the end of the Filmography is a list of films by other directors which were produced by Ingmar Bergman and his company Cinematograph. Also appearing at the end of the Filmography is a list of foreign distribution titles of Ingmar Bergman’s films. Note that distribution titles are not always identical with titles appearing in foreign translations of his screenplays. Chapter V: The Media Director. Bergman began quite early to direct works for radio, and he became an enthusiastic supporter and contributor to the TV medium soon after its inception in Sweden in the 1950s. The media chapter discusses and annotates his many productions on radio and television, with credits, notes, commentaries, and review references. The chapter comprises: (1) productions of plays by other authors, either originally designed for radio or television or adapted by Bergman for the media; (2) media works authored or adapted by Bergman and originally conceived for radio or television, such as Staden (1950, The City) and Riten (1969, The Ritual); and (3) works authored by Bergman where separate film and TV versions were made, such as Scener ur ett äktenskap/ Scenes from a Marriage and Fanny and Alexander. Chapter VI: The Theatre Director. The theatre chapter consists of two sections. The first provides a chronological survey of Ingmar Bergman’s career as a theatre director; the second gives an annotated listing of his entire work on stage, with credits, commentaries, selective reviews, and guest performances for each item. In-


cluded at the end of the chapter are Bergman’s opera productions. As in the Filmography and media chapters, the commentary sections to the individual productions in the theatre chapter aim at giving background information while the Reception sections report on debates and other responses. Commentaries may vary in length. An early radio production by Ingmar Bergman from the 1940s may not have elicited much critical reaction, while his stage productions at the Royal Dramatic Theatre after his return from exile in 1984 almost invariably resulted in substantial press coverage. Items causing media debates tend to have longer commentaries (and reception segments). Such information may reflect both the aesthetic assessment by reviewers and the cultural impact of a Bergman production. Productions of Bergman’s own plays are included, whether directed by the author himself or by someone else. Note, however, that Bergman’s playwriting is discussed in the introductory part of Chapter II. Chapter VII: Theatre and Media Bibliography. This chapter includes an annotated list of bibliographical material pertaining to Bergman’s contribution to the theatre and to media arts. However, critical items referring to specific stage productions are listed under the individual production entries in Chapter VI, section 2. Note also that interviews that include references to theatre and media work appear in Chapter VIII (Interviews). At the end of Chapter VII is a chart showing Bergman’s stage and media productions in chronological order. Chapter VIII: Interviews. Over the years, Ingmar Bergman has given innumerable interviews and press conferences. A good many of these are referenced in the commentary section of the individual entries in Chapters IV (Filmography), V (Media), VI (Theatre), or theatre/media bibliography (VII). In this chapter the focus is on interviews that cover several creative areas or pertain to Bergman’s lifestyle or thoughts on his craftsmanship and artistic vision. Chapter IX: Writings on Ingmar Bergman. This chapter consists of an annotated bibliography listing in chronological order a major bulk of critical writings on Ingmar Bergman. This material includes books, dissertations, special journal issues, and articles. As in Chapter VII (Theatre and Media Bibliography), some of the bibliographical items are grouped together according to subject matter. Such group items might include frequently considered topics in the critical Bergman canon, such as his portrayal of women (Ø 975), religious approaches to his films (Ø 997), or literary references to his works (Ø 989). In addition, single events in Bergman’s life and career that have elicited extensive press coverage, such as the tax debacle in 1976 and his subsequent voluntary exile, are annotated as group items. All group items appear as the initial entry in the year when an event occurred or when a group subject was first discussed. An alphabetical list of the group items can be found at the beginning of the Title Index. The editorial approach in selecting material for Chapter IX has been to include critical material pertaining to all of Bergman’s various artistic activities but to be comprehensive rather than all-inclusive. In the selection of the critical material, the following general guidelines have been used: 1. Longer informative and analytical essays, book length studies, and dissertations have been given priority over shorter news items or general presentations of Bergman’s oeuvre.


2. A balance has been sought between well-known, oft-quoted articles or books and items that seem representative of a given critic or group of critics; of a particular national assessment of Bergman, or of a specific period in the reception of his works. 3. Special focus has been given to Swedish archival sources, simply because this is where most Bergman material is to be found. At the same time, however, an equally important goal has been to present the student with a fair international sampling of critical writings on Bergman and to indicate how Bergman’s work has been received in different (selective) parts of the world. 4. Critical material pertaining to single works by Ingmar Bergman has been listed in the review or commentary sections following the individual credit listings in Chapters II (The Writer), IV (Filmography), V (Media productions), and VI (Theatre Director). Thus, critical items addressing, for instance, his play Trämålning/Wood Painting, his screenplay Fanny and Alexander, his stage production of Hamlet, or his radio play Staden (The City) will be found under these entry names in the respective chapters. Exceptions are made for longer analytical studies of single works if they include important historical background, comparison with other artists, or discuss inter-arts or inter-media issues. In such cases the items are cross-listed in Chapter IX. Finally, a special effort has been made to include items in the Bibliography that deserve attention but may have appeared in publications with limited circulation and do not always show up in databases. In fact, in scanning such electronic library resources, it becomes clear that a discrepancy often exists between an item’s listing frequency and its actual relevance in the Bergman critical canon. Repeated visibility is not always tantamount to quality or importance; database bibliographical material is unfortunately often the result of authorial self-promotion. Chapter X Varia. This heading covers the following items: A. Media documentaries on Ingmar Bergman. B. Stage and screen performances by Ingmar Bergman (including film voice-overs), most of them from the early part of his career. C. A listing of awards, prizes, and other honors received by Bergman, including items pertaining to his entire contribution to film and theatre or to his overall status as an artist. This list is followed by a list of awards for individual Bergman films. Similar information, including awards to members of Bergman’s film or stage teams, can also be found at the end of film or stage entries in the Filmography (Chapter IV) or Theatre chapter (VI). D. Archival Sources. A list of addresses of archives and libraries holding Bergman material, such as prints of his films, stills, scripts, and clipping files as well as information about his theatre and media productions. All quotations of Swedish origin have been translated into English by the editor (unless a published translation title is noted). The translation is followed in brackets by the original Swedish text. All other quotations regardless of language origin appear only in English.


Preface Newspaper and Magazine Sources
The following Swedish newspapers were checked (abbreviations used in the text are listed in parenthesis and follow normal Swedish praxis): STOCKHOLM PRESS: Aftonbladet (AB), Aftontidningen (AT), Arbetaren,, Dagens Nyheter (DN), Expressen (Expr.), Morgontidningen Social-Demokraten (MT), Ny Tid, Stockholms-Tidningen (ST), Svenska Dagbladet (SvD). GÖTEBORG PRESS: Göteborgs-Posten (GP), Göteborgs-Tidningen (GT), Göteborgs Handels- och Sjöfartstidning (GHT), Göteborgs Morgonpost (GMP). MALMÖ (and vicinity) PRESS: Arbetet (Arb), Hälsingborgs Dagblad (Hbg), KvällsPosten (KvP), Sydsvenska Dagbladet Snällposten (SDS). OTHER (spot-checked): Bohusläningen, Hallandsposten, Hufvudstadsbladet (Helsinki), Lidingö Tidning, Nerikes Allehanda, Skånska Dagbladet, Upsala Nya Tidning (UNT), Wermlands-Tidningen, Östersunds-Posten, Östgöta-Correspondenten. The following Swedish magazines and trade journals were checked: Biografbladet, Bonniers litterära magasin (BLM), Chaplin, Dramat, Entré, Film in Sweden, Filmhäftet, Filmjournalen, Filmnyheter, Film och bio, Filmrutan, Films in Sweden, Idun, Månads-Journalen, Perspektiv, Röster i Radio/TV, Scen och salong, Skådebanan, Teatern, Teaterronden, Vecko-Journalen, Vi. The following non-Swedish newspapers and magazines were checked: AMERICAN and CANADIAN: America, Atlantic, Christian Century, Cinema (Kansas City), Cinema (Toronto), Cinema Journal, Commonweal, Comparative Drama, Drama Review, Film Comment, Film Criticism, Film Heritage, Film Quarterly, Films in Review, Filmfacts, Hollywood Quarterly, Hudson Review, Jump Cut, Literature/ Film Quarterly, Modern Drama, Movietone News (Seattle), Nation, New Leader, New York Magazine, New York Herald Tribune, New York Times (NYT), New Yorker, Newsweek, New Republic, Saturday Review, Take One, Time, Theater, Theatre Quarterly, Tulane Drama Review, Variety, Village Voice, Wide Angle. BELGIAN: Amis du film et de la télévision, Film en Televisie. BRITISH: Films and Filming, Monthly Film Bulletin, Motion, Movie, New Statesman, Sight and Sound, Spectator, Times (London). DANISH: Berlingske Tidende, Information Jyllands-Posten, Kosmorama, MacGuffin, Politiken. DUTCH: Skoop, Skrien. FRENCH: Arts, L’Avant-scène du cinéma, Cahiers du cinéma, Cinéma, Ecran, Etudes cinématographiques, Image et son, Le monde, Positif, Télé-Ciné. GERMAN: Die Deutsche Bühne, Filmkritik, Film, Frankfurter Allgemeine, Der Spiegel, Theater heute, Die Welt, Die Zeit. ITALIAN: Bianco e nero, Cineforum, Cinema nuovo, Dramma, Filmcritica. NORWEGIAN: Aftenposten, Fant, Morgenbladet, Verldens Gang, Z. SPANISH: Cinema novo, Film Ideal. OTHER (spot-checked): Chicago Times, Cine cubano, Cinéaste (Canada), La cinématographie française, Critisch film bulletin (Netherlands), Die Asta (Denmark), Ecran (France), Ekran (Poland), FIB (Folket i Bild, Sweden), Le Figaro, Film a doba (Czechoslovakia), Film Journal (Melbourne), Hollywood Reporter, Horizon (USA), Jeune cinéma, Listener, Los Angeles Herald-Examiner, Los Angeles Times,


Manchester Guardian, Le Monde, Motion Picture Herald (Los Angeles), Observer, Reporter (USA). Clippings and/or printed programs were used from the following archives: American Motion Picture Academy (AMPA), Los Angeles Amsterdam Theatre Museum British Film Institute (BFI) Cinecitta Library, Rome Cinemateca uruguaya (Montevideo) Cinemateco do museo de arte moderna (Rio de Janeiro) Cinemateco do museo de arte moderna (Sao Paolo) Cinématèque française Det danske filmmuseum (Danish Film Museum) Dramaten (Royal Dramatic Theatre, Stockholm) Film Museum Amsterdam Filmmuseum Berlin – Deutsche Kinemathek Museum of Modern Art (Film Section), New York New York Public Library for the Performing Arts Suomen elokuvaarkisto (Helsinki) Svenska Filminstitutet (SFI) Sveriges Teatermuseum (formerly: Drottningholms Teatermuseum) Press reviews or reportages from Bergman’s first decades in film, theatre, and media were occasionally unsigned or reviewers used a signature only. The following signatures have been identified: A. A-l A.Fbg/Fbg. AGE Allegro Armand Corinna Don José E.An. Elle E. T. E.v.Z. E.W.O/Eveo. Fale Bure Gvs. Hjorvard Håge Höken I.H. I. O-e Jerome J.L. Jolanta Alvar Asterdahl Allan Fagerberg Anders Elsberg Olle Halling Olle Olsson Greta Bolin Josef Oliv Elis Andersson Lisa Genell Harrie (?) Ella Taube Eva von Zweigbeck Erik Wilhelm Olsson Henning Olsson Herbert Grevenius Gustav Johansson Herbert Gylling Marianne Höök Ivar Harrie Ingvar Orre Göran Trauung John Landquist Margaretha Sjögren


Kei -ki/Koski Lucia M. S-g O. R-t Pavane Peo Perpetua P.E.W. PGP Pilo S. Btl S. G-d S. S-r. S. T-d Tell. Tom -yer Einar Nilsson Hartvig Kusoffsky Louise Gräslund Martin Strömberg Oscar Rydqvist Gerd Osten Sixten Ahrenberg Barbro Hähnel Per-Erik Wahlund P.G. Pettersson Ragnar Ehrling Sven Barthel Sten Guldbrand Sten Selander Stig Tornehed Thorleif Hellbom Åke Thomson Nils Beyer

Ingmar Bergman’s conception of what it means to be an artist is complex. First, he has always emphasized the creative act as a source of pleasure and joy, an emotional state of mind reminiscent of his childhood nursery games with a puppet theatre and a laterna magica. Second, his artistic approach conveys a strong sense of absolute commitment to his work, and a keen sensitivity to both performers and audiences. Third, he combines an intuitive ‘radar’ feel for what is right and essential in a production with a very conscious sense of craftsmanship, resulting in a firm esthetic control of his material. He has always maintained that his directorial persona can only function under self-discipline, careful preparation of a task and a sense of mutual loyalty between himself and his ensembles. In this way he has been able to ward off the personal chaos in his own psyche. Artistic creativity has then worked for him as a form of self-therapy. Over the years Bergman’s public image has undergone marked changes. In his youth he was seen as a gadfly and iconoclast; in the 1960s he was viewed as an obsolete artist and bourgeois traditionalist; in the 1980s he became an icon and master. Some have termed him ‘demonic’ and dominant; some have talked about him as a ruthless presence. But almost everyone who has worked closely with him has testified to his ability to create a sense of comfort and security. By the same token, Bergman’s artistic work has elicited a very divided response among his commentators. On one hand, there has been a recognition of his indisputable talent and an almost jubilant sense of experiencing a unique artist at work; on the other hand, one can notice a sense of irritation at his ‘excessive’ temperament or a resentful feeling of being ‘manipulated’ by his controlling persona. The critical material on Ingmar Bergman also shows a distinct difference between foreign commentators, who have tended to evaluate his work in terms of its metaphysical and psychological thought content, and Swedish reviewers who have often judged his contribution within a current ideological context but who have also been more sensitive both to his theatre aesthetics and to his filmmaking style.


Relatively few studies of Bergman’s work have focussed on matters of form and structure. There is an explanation for this: A major part of Bergman’s creative material emerges as an example of what Isiah Berlin once termed ‘hedgehog’ authorship; i.e., the work of an artist who is fixed on a relatively limited range of subject matters and who seldom deviates from that personal vision. After half a century of amazing ‘hedgehog’ productivity, Bergman has created a cohesive universe of his own making, a personal mythos where his commentators can ‘feel at home’ and can easily identify such central Bergman subjects as: (1) an existential probing manifesting itself in questioning a silent god figure who seems to have withdrawn from human life; (2) an often ruthless unmasking process that discloses the lies and dead conventions that control human beings and relationships and where language can easily be a deceptive tool; (3) a deterministic portrayal of people as helpless and despondent marionettes, yet so full of vitality that most of Bergman’s works leave some trace of hope behind; (4) a portrayal of Woman as archetype – as the embodiment of strength and survivability; and (5) an exposure of the modern (usually male) artist as a self-centered and destructive individual, often frustrated in his metier and haunted by demons. These themes continued to be explored by Bergman also after he left filmmaking, and they constitute an essential part of his writing legacy. Bergman’s visibility in the film and theatre world during the second half of the 20th century has been considerable from the start. However, what the material collected for this Reference Guide suggests is that Ingmar Bergman has been much more than a media celebrity. He has in fact accomplished a cultural feat that no other Swedish artist before him has realized to quite the same extent: bridging the gap between the forms and expressions of high bourgeois culture and popular art. In the theatre his productions have ranged from operettas like The Merry Widow to Shakespeare’s King Lear or Goethe’s Ur-Faust. In the cinema he has created comedies like Smiles of a Summer Night and The Devil’s Eye as well as somber existential quest dramas like The Seventh Seal and harrowing psychological studies like Persona and Cries and Whispers. And regardless of what Bergman’s own countrymen have thought of his international reputation in the first half of his career, he indisputably came to play an extraordinary role as directeur de conscience for many generations of filmgoers outside of Sweden. Ingmar Bergman has definitely written himself into the annals of film and theatre history. Today there is still a strong interest in his artistic contribution among students of film, theatre, and literature. And despite the large output of Bergman scholarship to date, the subject is rich and much remains to be done. It is hoped that this research guide will help facilitate such future studies about Ingmar Bergman. Stockholm, June 2005 Birgitta Steene


Childhood toys become artistic emblems: the puppet theatre and the laterna magica

In Bergman’s production of Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale at the Royal Dramatic Theatre (Dramaten) in 1994, the boy Mamillius (Anna Björk) carried on stage a miniature puppet theatre as if to reinforce Bergman’s vision of the play – as fantastic make-believe and playacting. (Photo: Bengt Wanselius. Courtesy: Dramaten)

In Bergman’s film Fanny and Alexancer from 1982, the magic lantern plays an important role for the Ekdahl children, especially young Alexander (Bertil Guve). (Photo: Arne Carlsson. Courtesy: Cinematograph/SFI)

fight with windmills. No astrological prediction could have been more appropriate in Bergman’s case. who showed signs of a nervous condition. [... Ernst Ingmar Bergman was born on Sunday. [. According to Swedish folklore. riva ner barriärer. two things became immediately clear: He was a remarkably intense and gifted young man drawn both to the stage and the screen.. whereas July 14 – Bastille Day – is one of those historical dates that have forever taken on symbolic meaning. however. The middle child in a bourgeois clerical family. he was a sickly boy whose arrival in the world was overshadowed by a crisis in his parents’ marriage. Above all.] I am glad I am not born with equal part reason and guts.’ 1954) [Det medför en stor risk [.. 1918.. play with dynamite and cut morsels of flesh out of yourself and others? (‘Det att göra film/What is Filmmaking. signifying rebellion and protest. leka med dynamit och skära bitar ur en själv och andra?] Such a self-confident outburst belies. tear down barriers.. limits I do not recognize and that are not mine. When he burst onto the Swedish theatre and film scene in the early 1940s.] to stare yourself blind at the limits set up by the public and the critics. the fact that Ingmar Bergman’s start in life was rather problematic..] att stirra sig blind på de gränser som sätts upp av publiken och kritikerna.Chapter I Life and Work The Family Setting Some dates of birth seem auspicious from the start.] Who says you can’t make noise. skakas av visioner. he was a rebel spirit who challenged established social and professional conventions.. In youthful defiance he once declared: It entails a great risk [. a child born on Sunday is gifted with second sight. which affected family life.. and he also had a vision aimed at penetrating beneath surface reality to reveal a world of metaphysical and depth-psychological dimensions. His mother Karin had fallen out of love with her husband. 23 . gränser jag inte erkänner och som inte är mina. July 14.] Vem säger att man inte kan föra oväsen. [. skicka raketer till månen...] Jag är glad att jag inte är född med lika delar förnuft och inälvor. slåss mot väderkvarnar. send rockets to the moon.. be shaken by visions. [. Lutheran pastor Erik Bergman.

the Bergmans had just moved from a small country parish in the province of Gästrikland to the prestigious Östermalm section of Stockholm. She wants Erik and me to get a divorce as soon as possible ‘before he has hit upon some new madness in his crazy hatred. Ma har tagit honom till Våroms. Om gossen dör. He was well liked by his parishioners. Erik är förbittrad över Ma’s ingrepp i vårt privatliv. they were also worried about the genetic consequences of the fact that Erik Bergman and Karin Åkerblom were distant cousins in families with a record of mental illness. Han heter Ernst Ingmar. his father. Her parents disapproved. He had a high fever and severe diarrhea at once. Ma [Karin’s mother] has taken him to Våroms [family summer place] where she has found a wet nurse. Jag tror inte jag har rätt att lämna Erik. 337).’ I do not believe I have the right to leave Erik. Ma is upset at Erik’s inability to solve our practical problems. [Vår son föddes söndag morgon den fjortonde juli. But despite the social gap between Erik Bergman and the Åkerblom family. In her diary quoted by Ingmar Bergman in his memoirs Laterna magica (1987). Ma är förbittrad över Eriks oförmåga att lösa våra praktiska problem. After a few days I had no milk because of my illness. p. and I should return to my job [nurse]. July 14. Ma says she will take care of Dag [eldest son]. 289-90). As such he was both a congregational shepherd and civil servant. Karin was determined to marry Erik. He is totally overworked and has had nervous problems all spring. Erik Bergman’s origin was far more humble. Should the boy die. the epidemic that claimed many lives during World War I.Chapter I Life and Work Erik was also ill with the Spanish flue. Sometimes when I am alone I cry. He looks like a little skeleton with a big fiery red nose. It added to the family status that Erik Bergman was sometimes called on to serve as chaplain at the Swedish Royal 24 . Ma säger att han gör sig till. though once founded on love. Ma says that he is play-acting. The Bergman marriage. Efter några dagar hade jag ingen mjölk på grund av sjukdomen. Han vägrar envist att öppna ögonen. an apothecary. Karin Bergman reveals the unhappy and desperate mood of her family at the time of Ingmar’s birth: Our son was born Sunday morning. He was quickly christened here in the hospital. Ibland då jag är ensam gråter jag. came from a comfortable bourgeois class of engineers and educators. Their reservations were not based solely on Erik’s modest background. He stubbornly refuses to open his eyes. I pray to God without hope. Han fick genast hög feber och svåra diarréer. Jag ligger här maktlös och eländig. Hon vill att Erik och jag skall skiljas så snart som möjligt ‘innan han med sitt tokiga hat funnit på någon ny galenskap’. where Erik held a position as junior pastor in the Lutheran state church. Han är alldeles överansträngd och har varit klen i nerverna hela våren. was somewhat of a social mismatch. Erik is upset at Ma’s interference in our private life. (The Magic Lantern. men det tror jag inte. and Karin Bergman fulfilled her duties as a vicar’s wife so well that she later received a medal for her voluntary work in the community. Han ser ut som ett litet benrangel med en stor eldröd näsa. née Åkerblom. Då blev han nöddöpt här på sjukhuset. p. Karin Bergman. I lie here powerless and miserable. but I don’t think so. Jag ber till Gud utan förtröstan. by tradition respected occupations in Swedish society. His name is Ernst Ingmar. säger Ma att hon tar hand om Dag och att jag ska ta upp mitt yrke. At the time of their son Ingmar’s birth. där hon funnit en amma. died relatively young and his mother had to make sacrifices and rely on moneyed relatives to give her son a university education.] (Laterna magica.

The middle child Ingmar never completed a university degree or any other formal education beyond the gymnasium. The congregation’s critique and commentary are constant. The emerging secularized folkhem (pre-welfare state) had more pressing issues to deal with than questions of faith and doubt. Huset måste alltid stå öppet. that mankind had 25 . p.] (Laterna magica. I början trodde de att det skulle lugna ner sig när jag väl började på universitetet. 9) [En prästfamilj lever som på en bricka. became pregnant out of wedlock and had an abortion. Both Father and Mother were perfectionists who sagged under this unreasonable pressure. Deras arbetsdag var obegränsad. The daughter Margareta. Three Scenes with Ingmar Bergman. also took a university degree and became a librarian. their self-discipline iron-hard. one perceives a sense of sad resignation at her younger son’s choice of an artistic career and a lifestyle that. (The Magic Lantern. At first they thought it would calm down. once I started at the university. his parents and his siblings were assigned certain preconceived roles by the community in which they lived: A pastor’s family lives as if on a tray. The parsonage must always be open. theirs was a relatively small world. Ingmar’s younger sister. Ø 1526. But it did not. Jag tror mina föräldrar upplevde detta med viss oro. though a defiant boy. in his famous preface to Fröken Julie (1887. Marianne Höök. Maintaining a proper and well-disciplined front became part of the lifestyle. Their two sons reflected characteristics they unremittingly punished in themselves. deras självdisciplin järnhård. complied. Such connections were not unimportant to Ingmar Bergman’s parents.The Family Setting Court and as spiritual adviser to the Queen. I think my parents experienced this with a certain amount of anxiety. it was a foregone conclusion that their children would pursue professional careers. In reading Karin Bergman’s diaries.) But Ingmar Bergman had his goal set by the time he finished high school: I have never as far back as I can remember hesitated on this point of becoming a theater and film director. their marriage difficult. 1975) [Jag har aldrig så långt tillbaka jag kan minnas tvekat på denna punkt att bli teater och filmregissör. once stated that Ingmar Bergman had grown up on a cultural reservation. from her point of view. Både far och mor var perfektionister som helt säkert sviktade under detta orimliga tryck. deras äktenskap svårmanövrerat. Miss Julie). p. which caused her parents both worry and chagrin.] The public duties of a clergyman’s household meant that the family was under much scrutiny. read Law at Uppsala and became a diplomat. for both were socially ambitious people. (Donner. Their working day was open-ended. De båda sönerna speglade karaktärsdrag som de oavlåtligt tuktade hos sig själva. oskyddad för insyn. seemed bohemian and disorderly. and already Strindberg had concluded. and what people said was not unimportant. In later years Ingmar Bergman would compare this situation to a stage performance where he. The eldest son Dag. Hence. With this she implied that he carried with him a world whose moral and religious concerns were no longer part of mainstream Swedish society. unprotected from other eyes. (See Linton-Malmfors. Församlingens kritik och kommentar är konstant. She too showed signs of a rebellious and high-strung spirit. 15) Bergman’s earliest biographer. Men det gjorde det inte.

teachers.] En stor del av min mycket starka protest emot kristendomen är att där finns ett starkt och inbränt förödmjukelsemotiv. Bergman’s religious background and its moral outlook placed him in an older grandparent generation. you understand..] (Sw. To all three of the Bergman children. it has been because Christianity is deeply branded by a very virulent humiliation motif. Det här med förödmjukelse skulle jag kunna tala om praktiskt talat hur länge som helst. When he grew up. I could go on talking about this humiliation business for ever. [. or they sinned against God’s purpose: Imagination. a homogeneous society rooted in a Lutheran culture. the use of a lively imagination was reserved by God for great artists. Detta straff lever vi under och handlar under rent atavistiskt. had some difficulty distinguishing between truthfulness and make-believe. and musicians. 81) [Att förödmjuka och att vara förödmjukad tycker jag är en vital beståndsdel i hela vår samhällskonstruktion. Marianne Höök’s assessment of Ingmar Bergman’s obsolete status in Swedish culture was colored however by her own times and failed to acknowledge the social and cultural climate in Sweden during Ingmar Bergman’s childhood. born in sin.. Alexander. [. jämväl i synd född. a mighty force. is something splendid. As Bishop Vergerus explains to his stepson Alexander Ekdahl in Bergman’s film Fanny and Alexander. but which were punished as lies. etc. p. I think. Sweden was still a fairly remote and provincial corner of Northern Europe... a gift from God. One of its main tenets is ‘I. som i alla mina livsdagar haver syndat’. (Bergman on Bergman. being an imaginative youngster. syndig människa.’ Our way of living and behaving under this punishment is completely atavistic. En av huvudpunkterna är ‘jag fattig.] If I’ve objected strongly to Christianity. 86) Central in such a culture was teaching a child never to lie. of his own upbringing: To humiliate and be humiliated. it seemed that life was regulated by a whole set of authoritative rules dictated by parents. But Ingmar Bergman. Do you believe that you can lie and shuffle without any consequences and without punishment? 26 . and by God himself. The social structure was hierarchic and class-divided. He would concoct stories at school about joining a circus. Det är en av de stora grundupplevelserna. It’s one of the big basic experiences. ed. writers. It was a world in which most children were still expected to be quiet. government officials. Its rigorous Protestant moralism with its emphasis on obedience before authority is echoed by Ingmar Bergman in his assessment.. They were taught self-castigation and learned to look upon themselves as guilt-ridden creatures. it is worth remembering that the last edition of a fundamentalist Swedish explication of Luther’s catechism by Henrik Schartau was printed as late as 1925 and was used as compulsory religious instruction of the young. and obedient. who have sinned all my days. Even though the Bergman brood may have received a greater dose of the Lutheran ethos than other Swedish children at the time.] I don’t know what you imagine.. Children on the other hand had to learn to tell the truth. stories which in a more modern. psychologically sensitive context would seem like compensatory daydreams. It is held in trust for us by the great artists. Höök suggested that to most of his contemporaries. silent.. a miserable sinner.Chapter I Life and Work eradicated conscience (guilt) together with the idea of a godhead. as an adult. [. is a crucial element in our whole social structure. p.

något som jag inte längre hade någon kontakt med. Bergman once told an early biographer. [. where he spent periods of time as a child visiting his maternal grandmother. 1962.. p. 15 (‘Bergman in Exile’): ‘When I was in my 30s I never thought I would ever have any contact [with my parents].. but he turned it into a metaphor for his own troubled adolescence.] It was just something dim and infinitely sad. p. It is a story set about ten years before his own birth in the university town of Uppsala. the Lutheran bishop. ‘the blinds never had to be drawn in the dark winter evenings.The Family Setting [Fantasin förstår du är något storslaget. en ofantlig kraft.] Jag vet inte vad du väntar dig. In an interview from the 1970s he describes his feelings of estrangement after visits to his parental home: When I used to return to my parents [. in Mother’s window there was a lamp with a pink lampshade. but nothing stimulating or challenging. We were absolutely strange to each other. [När jag kom hem till mina föräldrar [.] på Storgatan i Stockholm. With its rigid moralism the Vergerus world bears a certain resemblance to the Bergman home at Storgatan in Stockholm. Cf this to quote in NYT. då upplevde jag att det var en stelnad värld. som tjänstgjorde som en fyr när vi sprang hem på kvällen genom den blåsiga svarta parken]. (Höök. I experienced a petrified world that I no longer had any contact with.. In fact. i mors fönster fanns en en lampa med en skär lampskärm. 158). the histrionic and fun-loving Ekdahls and the stern Vergeruses. Tror du att du kan ljuga och vrida dig utan konsekvenser och utan straff?] The 11-year old Alexander’s defiance of his stepfather. där jag hade vuxit upp och allting var på samma sätt.. Alexander’s life oscillates between two families. p. Alexander. The family dwelt literally in the shadow of its high cupola. facing the imposing Hedvig Eleonora Church. It was as if they were from another planet. These are two contrasting milieus that represent much of the social contours and mindscape of Ingmar Bergman’s own background.] (Bergman om Bergman. allting stod på samma ställe. and saw how everything was the same. (Bergman on Bergman.. en gåva från Gud. everything stood in the same place. Den bevakas för oss av de stora konstnärerna.] on Storgatan in Stockholm where I had grown up.. The house stood next to the Sofia Hospital. mirrors Bergman’s confrontations with his parents’ values and methods of child rearing.’ Ingmar Bergman only lived at the Storgatan address in his teens. men inte något stimulerande eller eggande. In his teens Ingmar Bergman came to feel increasingly alienated from this milieu.. p. black park’. We made polite conversation. 22) With time Ingmar Bergman was to become more tolerant about his parents and acknowledge that life in the vicarage did also include moments of festivity and joy. 147). headed by his stepfather... a private dispensary situated in a park-like setting. beyond which was the open countryside: ‘Even on the ground floor’. The Storgatan apartment became a contrast to the yellow wooden vicarage in the Lilljans Forest where he had spent most of his early childhood. 27 .] Det var bara något skymmande och någonting oändligt vemodigt. 17 October 1976. [Även på bottenvåningen behövde gardinerna aldrig dras för under de mörka vinterkvällarna. [.. which served as a beacon when we ran home in the evenings through the windy. musikerna. [. the film Fanny och Alexander (1982) might be called Bergman’s resurrection of his childhood. diktarna.

And he still accepts her just like that.. Still. but actually encouraged their children to engage in dramatic activity. Watching a dramatization of Little Red Riding Hood and the Wolf on stage frightened him so much that he allegedly had to be carried home screaming. He once arranged a visit for his younger son to the Råsunda Studios.. Family gatherings at Christmas time included not only Bible readings but also magic lantern shows and storytelling.. som om Mormors Uppsala vore den enda hägnade värld han äger. Erik Bergman was somewhat of a pioneer in using visual aids in his religious instruction of the young.. 28 . old-fashioned strict and in her own way demanding but at the same time childishly playful and humorous. Grandma or moods from her world crop up. such as puppetry. in particular. Sweden’s imposing Jugend-style national stage. Allt som hörde samman med de tider då han fick vara hos Mormor i Uppsala har ett skimmer omkring sig. Another reason for his recollection of the event might be that the production was staged by Alf Sjöberg (1903-1980) who would direct Bergman’s first screenplay. Jag tror att det betyder oerhört mycket för Ingmar.] Ingmar was allowed to stay up to talk in quiet with Grandma. The memory of this event lived on in sharp detail. whose head he would one day become. [.. In retrospect Ingmar Bergman would. [. Torment/Frenzy) and would become his colleague at the Royal Dramatic. Hets (1944. I believe it is immensely important to Ingmar that Grandma treated him like an equal in many respects.. Anna Åkerblom: It seems to me at times as if Grandma’s Uppsala were the only protected world he possesses and one he withdrew to like an oasis. and in some of the things he has written. – And he. Elsa Beskow.] And pious in an old-fashioned way with morning prayers and evening prayers with Christian principles in all her actions. Ingmar Bergman made his debut on stage as a chanterelle mushroom in a children’s pageant based on a popular text by classical Swedish writer and artist of children’s books. popularly referred to as the Film City on the outskirts of Stockholm. Karin Bergman reminisces in her diary about the special rapport that existed between her son and her mother. and they had tea when they came back home. [. att Mormor behandlade honom som en jämnårig i många sammanhang. Everything connected with the times he could stay with Grandma in Uppsala has a shimmer to it. och som han drog sig tillbaka till som till en oas. They went to the movies together. She let him wander around on his own long before he was let loose in Stockholm. carried with her a cultivated interest in literature and theatre. [Det verkar ibland på mig. for many years. A few years later however he watched with fascination a production at the Royal Dramatic Theatre of Gustaf af Gejerstam’s dramatization of Hans Christian Andersen’s tale ‘Big Claus and Little Claus’. and even at an old age Bergman would point out the very seat where he experienced his first visit to the Royal Dramatic. Bergman’s first visit to the real theatre proved a minor disaster. he accepted her as she was. Karin Bergman.] Ingmar fick sitta uppe och språka i ro med Mormor. associate his happy recollections of the past not with his parental home but with his maternal grandmother’s huge apartment in Uppsala which he often visited as a child.Chapter I Life and Work The fact is that neither Erik nor Karin Bergman were fundamentalist in their views on the theatre and the cinema.

Armfeldt in Sommarnattens leende (1955. Isak Borg’s old mother in Smultronstället (1957. and when the sunlight travels across the picture. Like Alexander in the opening sequence of Fanny and Alexander. De har till och med ett egendomligt surrande ljud.] Och gammaldags from med morgonbön och aftonbön med Kristna principer i allt sitt handlande. See Linton-Malmfors.. they can be heard and yet remain silent. like extraterrestial machines. The sunlight is streaming through the high windows. Early Ends the Day). pointing most obviously to the granny in the two plays Staden (1950. 29 . Hers was an obsolete world. Och han accepterar henne ännu just sådan. Ingmar Bergman used to hide under his grandmother’s huge dining room table to eavesdrop on the adults or simply to follow the traveling sunlight on the walls: It is a wintry day in early spring. He has on an apron with a pocket in front. De är verkliga och ändå overkliga. 81). och de drucko té vid hemkomsten. and he is sitting under the dining room table at his grandmother’s. a place where people and objects had never been young and yet never aged.] (Karin Bergman. På väggen hänger en tavla av Venedig och när solljuset färdas över bilden börjar vattnet i kanalerna flyta. The City) and Mig till skräck (1948. han accepterade henne. On the wall there is a painting of Venice. They even have a strange buzzing sound. Ø 47. – Och han. och i somliga saker som han skrivit. Åström in Dagen slutar tidigt (1948. Han har ett förkläde på sig med en ficka där fram och han har just haft mässlingen. She was surrounded by the same furniture as when she moved into her patrician apartment as a young bride. and the people in the streets turn to each other and begin to carry on whispering conversations. Åldrandets tid. Hon lät honom göra vandringar på egen hand långt innan han släpptes lös i Stockholm. gammaldags sträng och på sitt sätt fordrande men samtidigt barnsligt lekfull och humoristisk. Ø 1526) Anna Åkerblom was a widow and matriarch who lived alone with her old housekeeper. Chapter II) To young Bergman his aging grandmother and her housekeeper took on mythic proportions. As such they were to lend their features to many clever and wise old crones in his works. and the beams are moving all the time. Unto My Fear). Solljuset strömmar genom de höga fönstren och strålarna rör sig hela tiden. p. But they also lent their features to such portraits as the witty old Mrs. (1958.. They are real and yet unreal. som hon var. de kan höras och förblir ändå tysta. Duvorna lyfter från torget och människorna på gatan vänder sig mot varandra och börjar föra viskande samtal. The pigeons lift from the square. [Det är en vinterdag tidigt om våren och han sitter under matsalsbordet hos mormor. Smiles of a Summer Night). as well as to the half allegorized figure of Mrs. and he has just had the measles. the water in the canals begins to flow. [. Wild Strawberries) who refuses to die.The Family Setting De gingo på bio tillsammans. and the herb-collecting granny in the Vogler entourage in Ansiktet. The Magician/The Face) whose rapport with the innocent young Sanna takes on a fairy tale quality.] (‘I mormors hus’. så dyker Mormor upp eller tongångar från hennes värld. but to Ingmar Bergman it seemed not faded so much as suspended in time. som utomjordiska maskiner. and finally as the wise and sensitive grandmother Helena Ekdahl and her grumpy old cook and housekeeper Siri in Fanny och Alexander.

] Then it struck me: Supposing I make a film of someone coming along. whispering voices. repressed memories and subconscious fantasies are unveiled with both painful and healing consequences. Wild Strawberries). using flashbacks as a structural tool. whose initials are the same as Ingmar Bergman’s. och allting pågår. In Fanny and Alexander. Att jag plötsligt bara kunde stiga in i min barndom. Illicit/Summer Interlude) and Smultronstället (1957. [. och då gick det en ilande känsla igenom mig – tänk om jag öppnar nu och gamla Lalla. och så öppnar man en annan dörr och kommer ut i verkligheten. Then I went up into the house and took hold of the door knob to the kitchen door. As he opened the gate in the early morning hour.. Jag gick in på den lilla gården som var kullerstensbelagd. så som hon hade gjort så många gånger när jag var liten. and everything still alive and going on as before? (Bergman on Bergman. and suddenly opening the door and walking into his childhood? And then opening another door and walking out into reality again? And then walking round the corner of the street and coming into some other period of his life. finds both peace of mind and self-recognition through visualized recollections of his youth and unhappy marriage. In an early script like Eva (1948) and in such films as Sommarlek (1951. och sen svänger man om ett gathörn och kommer in i någon annan period av sin tillvaro. The very genesis of the film is related by Bergman to an episode (later denied by Bergman) when he stopped at his grandmother’s house long after she was gone. s. and in Smultronstället. which still had its colored glass pattern. Glimpses of the past lives of four women – three sisters and a housekeeper – are revealed in flashbacks that are signaled by red fade-outs. Suppose I could suddenly walk into my childhood? [. a shade that Bergman associates with the color of the soul – and with the realm of childhood.Chapter I Life and Work Childhood memories seem to dictate Bergman’s narrative approach – a form of Proustian journey into the past. lever.] Så slog det mig – tänk om man skulle göra en film om det här att man bara kommer alldeles realistiskt och plötsligt öppnar en dörr.. och så går man in i sin barndom. What is projected is a luscious world of images and evocative sounds. she was) is standing inside there in her big apron. ticking clocks and faint. Cries and Whispers) and Fanny och Alexander (1982). breathing 30 . and a feeling ran quickly through me: suppose I open it? Suppose old Lalla (our old cook. the ballet dancer Mari in Sommarlek can finally come to terms with the loss of her lover many years earlier. I went into the little cobblestone yard.. the aging professor Isak Borg. Alexander’s wandering through his grandmother’s apartment – opening creaking doors. perfectly realistically. making porridge for breakfast as she did so many times when I was little. Like ghosts these projections have no clearly spoken language. alltså den gamla kokerskan. childhood memories flooded his mind: It was autumn and a faint sun had begun to fall on the cathedral as the clock was striking five. In Cries and Whispers their spell is broken when the characters awaken to a day of pain and are ushered into everyday reality. p. 139-41) But the sensuous recollections of the past are perhaps captured most fully in later Bergman films like Viskningar och rop (1972. som fortfarande hade det där kulörta glasmönstret. 132-33) [Det var på hösten och det började komma litet sol på domkyrkan och klockan slog just fem. står där inne i sitt stora köksförkläde och lagar frukostgröten. By reliving her youth. Så gick jag upp i huset och tog i dörrlåset till köksdörren.] (Bergman om Bergman.. These two films begin by letting the camera into rooms breathing with old objets d’art.

The most obvious analogy in Ingmar Bergman’s oeuvre is the film Gycklarnas afton (1953. His experience as an amateur puppeteer whose performers were manipulated marionettes may have served as a metaphor for an early deterministic view of life.The Family Setting on the frozen windowpane. In his plays for the theatre. jerk.. In varying transformations. suggests his mental collapse as the inevitable result of a lifelong series of human betrayals. harboring one of the central motifs in Ingmar Bergman’s works – the humiliation theme – is closely related to the clown motif. ryck. jerk!’ [Nu sitter jag här och drar i trådarna. Puppetry developed into a serious hobby lasting throughout his teens and became crucial not only in teaching him the first steps in stagecraft but in shaping his earliest notions of the human condition.. which is both distant and absolutely present. in contrast to the rather abstracted concept of the demonic director in Jack hos skådespelarna. [. pull. which had been explored earlier by one of Bergman’s admired authors.] The puppeteer/marionette concept. in which ‘the protocol’ of a murderer. and willing dead objects to life – becomes an invocation to enter the world of childhood. 40) 31 . Call it original sin or whatever you like – anyway an active evil on which man alone. Hjalmar Bergman (no kin. Here friends and family provide a psychologically motivated form of determinism. ryck. for instance Ansiktet (1958. Towards the very end of his film career the puppet/humiliation theme even provides the title of his German-produced screen work. Pull. Drag. The Magician/The Face) and Vargtimmen (1967.. Jack Trabac. Hour of the Wolf ). Childhood may have provided the adult artist Ingmar Bergman with major motifs and a fundamental mindscape. From the Life of the Marionettes). which Bergman unsuccessfully submitted as a radio play..] His evil was one of the springs in the clockwork. Ingmar was the director and prime mover. the diabolic puppeteer as well as the humiliated ‘clown’ figure keep returning in Bergman’s artistic vision as an essential force of evil. But it also offered him the first rudimentary instruments for his theatre work and filmmaking. thus supporting a statement he made in an interview in 1971: What I believed in [.. sharing with Hjalmar Bergman’s novel both the circus setting and a clown’s humiliation. Aus dem Leben des Marionetten (1980. somewhat stuttering and withdrawn child. Ø 992). p. In Jack hos skådespelarna (1946. but the theme survives in different forms in many later works. young Bergman found an outlet for his imagination in puppetry and film projection. drag.] was the existence of a virulent evil. the characters are in the hands of a satanic director who claims he has created a cosmos of his own for a few people who have to obey him: ‘Now I sit here and pull my strings. indestructable and – to us – incomprehensable and inexplicable evil I manufactured a personage possessing the diabolic features of a medieval morality figure. Dagen slutar tidigt is structured like a morality play in which all the dramatis personae are predestined to die shortly. Peter Egerman. whose novel Clownen Jack portrays a performer. using a sheet and a table as props. Bergman would often cast his characters as doomed creatures governed by forces beyond their control.. (Bergman on Bergman. Being a rather shy. has the monopoly. The Naked Night). as a humiliated buffoon until he revolts and turns the tables on the audience (see Forslund.] As a materialization of this virulent. The puppet theatre began as a simple play activity together with his sister and two friends. in no way dependent on environmental or hereditary factors. [. calling out the names of family members. Jack Among the Actors). however. unlike the animals. 1883-1931).

Vi kan kalla den arvsynden eller vad som helst – en aktiv ondska. the representation of an omnipotent puppeteer director finds its counterpart in the silent god figure who gains such a hold over many of Bergman’s characters. It is a similar power. imagined as a rapist god. The Magic Lantern) Bergman still remembers his excitement of turning on the projector and seeing images beginning to move on the nursery room wall: I turned the lever and the girl awakened. There were several small movie houses in the vicinity of his home. If I continued to turn the lever. with young Ingmar totally oblivious to the projectionist’s pedophile leanings. reste sig långsamt. In his memoir book. sat up. moved slowly. Around the age of ten he became the excited owner of a kerosene-lit projector. He went there together with his older brother Dag. satte sig upp.. p.Chapter I Life and Work [Vad jag har trott på [. 16) [Jag rörde veven och flickan vaknade. Though she had the embarrassing habit of rubbing her boots in screeching disapproval of any love scenes. Om jag fortsatte veva. she lay there again and went through exactly the same movements again. (Bergman om Bergman. It was a Christmas present from a rich aunt and actually meant for his older brother. The Seventh Seal) and turns him into a fanatic quester. which had matinee showings on weekends. låg hon där igen och gjorde sedan om precis samma rörelser. 32 . Winter Light/The Communicants) and leads him to fail his congregation.. Through a Glass Darkly) from her husband. It is the same demonic force that emerges as ‘the spider god’ in the mind of Pastor Tomas in Nattvardsgästerna (1962. The different ramifications of the puppeteer/marionette concept in Bergman’s works might be juxtaposed to the significance of the magic lantern. who separates Karin. sträckte ut armarna. The seeds of his future filmmaking were now planted. p. Soon all his pocket money went to the purchase of film strips that were on sale in local stores. the other important toy in his childhood. 43] Moved to a metaphysical level. compelling him to leave his wife to participate in a futile tenyear crusade. Ingmar Bergman began to frequent the cinema on a regular basis. [.] Som materialisation av denna virulenta.] var att det existerar en virulent ondska som inte på något sätt är beroende av miljö eller arvsfaktorer. fittingly titled Laterna magic (1987. But also his grandmother in Uppsala proved a faithful companion to the movies.. för oss ofattbara ondska tillverkade jag en person som hade den medeltida moralitetens djävulsdrag. ständigt existerande och obegripliga. som människan till skillnad från djuren är alldeles ensam om. the schizophrenic young woman in Såsom i en spegel (1961. Simultaneous with his earliest attempts at constructing film sequences. who seemed like a magician in a world next door to heaven. swung around and disappeared to the right. She moved. (The Magic Lantern. her visits to the cinema with her grandson were highlights in Bergman’s childhood. [. stretched out her arms.. Within the same magical aura dwelt the machinist in the projection booth. svängde runt och försvann till höger..] Hans ondska var en fjäder i urverket]. but Ingmar quickly obtained it in exchange for an army of tin soldiers.. It is an invisible and distant god who takes possession of the knight Antonius Block in Det sjunde inseglet (1956.

Sven Hansson. he 33 . Karin Bergman relates in a letter to her mother how she felt compelled to put her older son Dag in the closet because of his defiant disobedience. Prison). All the same. The Hour of the Wolf ). who in turn kept up a telephone communication with Bergman’s parents and received monetary compensation for son Ingmar’s room and board.] (Laterna magica. a Christian settlement house in Stockholm’s Old City. a space similar to the one where he is said to have been locked up as a form of punishment when he was a child and told that nasty goblins lived there. It came to represent a Bergman childhood trauma. Gunnar Lindblad. But a rebellion was brewing. Ansikte mot ansikte (1975. Ingmar Bergman was chosen. Soon thereafter – and after completing compulsory military service – Bergman assumed his first assignment as a stage director at the amateur theatre section of Mäster Olofsgården. It is no exaggeration to claim that. The magic machine could transform dark demons into dancing light beams. Soon Sven Hansson also had to solve conflicts that arose at the settlement center as Bergman shocked the board members with his foul language. and his rigorous and long training sessions. Vargtimmen (1967. He moved in with the newly married manager of the settlement’s youth activities. thanks to his film apparatus. For Ingmar Bergman as for his alter ego Alexander Ekdahl in Fanny and Alexander. who chewed off the toes of naughty children. his rehearsals on Sundays during morning service. as the most valuable volunteer in the settlement’s youth work. The puppet theatre had by then grown from child’s play to an adolescent passion. Frenzy). Though never completing an academic degree. But he was picked on by his English teacher. a notorious classroom terror nicknamed ‘Kusken’ (the Coachman). the frightened child Ingmar was rescued by the creative artist and directorial ‘magician’ Bergman. While at Mäster Olofsgården. Film projection became in fact an act of exorcism through which the frightening shadows of early childhood could be controlled. He attended a local school run by the Swedish Mission Society and seems to have been a fairly compliant student. Debut and Formative Years Ingmar Bergman’s school years were not very happy. a year later. p. The closet trauma appears as a central psychological reference in a number of Bergman films: Fängelse (1949. Torment. after having knocked down his father and insulted his mother. Face to Face). who became one of his early set designers. while the presence of the magic lantern in the same space constitutes a creative way of dealing with that trauma. the fearful darkness was dispelled by the hand that sets the projector in motion and by the mind that designs the images.Debut and Formative Years Hon rörde sig. Ingmar Bergman was also enrolled at Stockholm University as a student of literature. who was later depicted as the sadistic instructor Caligula in Bergman’s film script to Hets (1944. has described Bergman during his high school years as socially rather reticent and more absorbed in finding technical solutions to his puppet theatre than participating in extra-curricular school activities. at that time a poor section of town. An older classmate. 23) Ingmar Bergman kept his magic lantern in a nursery closet. The most explicit sign came in the late 1930s when Bergman left home under dramatic circumstances.

There is no trace of the contemporary political situation in Bergman’s own plays which were performed at the Student Theatre in 1942 and 1943. Even long after the marriage was dissolved. widow of author Hjalmar Bergman and head of the manuscript department at Svensk Filmindustri (SF). The relationship was of short duration. A year later. a prominent Strindberg scholar. offered him the opportunity to shoot his first film. Bergman’s family expressed a sense of cultural affinity with Germany. Chapter II). it is clear that it was the live theatre that attracted Ingmar Bergman more than any academic pursuits. Bergman felt like ‘a kitten in a ball of yarn’ [en kattunge i ett garnnystan] (Från A till Ö. for instance in Det sjunde 34 . but it turned the spotlight on Ingmar Bergman. despite his stay with a German family for a couple of summers in the mid-1930s. Karin Lannby was older than Bergman. Else had created and staged a successful children’s ballet and was considered very promising in her field. In neutral but hemmed-in Sweden the theatre stage played an important role during World War II as an emotional and intellectual outlet. ‘Kaspers död’ (Death of Punch) and ‘Tivolit’ are projections of his metaphysical and eschatological concerns. and wrote a seminar paper on Strindberg’s fairy play. Had the latter been the case. whose modern lifestyle and experiences were light years removed from his own protected bourgeois background. For Bergman the early 1940s became a crucial apprenticeship period when he set up plays on a number of different stages in Stockholm. the country of Martin Luther. (See ‘Puzzlet föreställer Eros’. Torment/ Frenzy). Some of his productions were political dramas by contemporary Scandinavian playwrights. Else Fisher would contribute to Bergman’s work. which at this time was a lively organization that included a number of future authors and actors. married to a sheik and active in the Spanish Civil War. She hired him as a reader and ‘manuscript washer’ but also encouraged him to work on scripts of his own.Chapter I Life and Work attended the lectures of Professor Martin Lamm. Feeling snubbed and ridiculed. Bergman decided after shooting Kris that he would learn all the technical aspects of filmmaking and master the film medium as a good craftsman. Ø 42. and the femme fatale was replaced by waiflike Else Fisher. Kris (1945). they would hardly have taken in a teenage Jewish refugee as their houseguest. Himmelrikets nycklar (1884. but his main motivation was artistic. Ø 154). a choreographer whom Bergman married in 1944. Karin Lannby. The Keys of Heaven). Hets (1944. Only one of these was filmed. While still engaged in the Student Theatre. 1973. ‘Kaspers död’ attracted the attention of Stina Bergman. Bergman alludes to her in his portrait of Rut in the script to ‘En kvinnas ansikte’ [A woman’s face]. which he had staged in his puppet theatre at home. had published a collection of poetry and was rumored to have lived a fast life. The paper reads like a prompt copy for a production. He would always refer to himself as a non-political person and cites his own youthful unawareness of rising Nazism in Germany as a sign of his political ignorance. At first he tried to cover up his novice status and sense of insecurity with an overconfident attitude that alienated many of the studio workers who had been in the profession for a long time. a young man who arrived in 1940 at age 17 and stayed with the Bergmans for seven years. the head of SF. Carl Anders Dymling. Soon he became involved with the Student Theatre. Ingmar Bergman had become involved in a stormy liaison with a would-be actress and poet. rather than loyalty to Nazi ideology. The two collaborated on several productions at the Sago Theatre in the newly built Citizens Hall (Medborgarhuset) in Stockholm.

whose prime mover. Mia and Skat) outside the tavern. where she composed the dance performed by the acting troupe (Jof. Bergman worked under someone who was more knowledgeable and strong-willed than he was.Debut and Formative Years inseglet (The Seventh Seal). He designed a repertory of considerable variety. recognized Bergman’s talents. the Dramatists Studio. the marriage was dissolved. Within a year after Bergman’s assumption of his new post. Its City Theatre had achieved a remarkable reputation during the war years as Sweden’s leading political theatre and introducer of modern American drama. an eccentric woman by the name of Brita von Horn. ingenting är’. he had turned the tide and had gained considerable local support for his undertaking. Soon thereafter he married choreographer Ellen Lundström. Jan and Eva as directors. Torsten Hammarén and Herbert Grevenius stand like two stern angels not to be bribed. at age 26. he would refer to the advice and work style of Torsten Hammarén as a model to follow. in fact. Torsten Hammarén. Bergman’s ties to Svensk Filmindustri were not severed. within a 2-year period. whom he had met in Hälsingborg. 2002). Hammarén was an incorruptible mentor: ‘When I was green and uninformed. where the stage became his home base and filmmaking a less regulated form of involvement. p. His oft-quoted statement that the cinema has been his mistress and the theatre his faithful wife reflects this situation. The theatre was administered firmly by an elderly director. 156) [Vid min begynnelse står Torsten Hammarén och Herbert Grevenius som omutligt stränga änglar. Bergman moved in the fall season of 1946 with his family to Göteborg. setting up.] (Laterna 35 . a mutually inspiring menage-à-trois. But despite his intense work schedule in Hälsingborg. He came to follow an established pattern within Swedish filmmaking by shooting films in the summer time when the theatres were closed. Together with scriptwriter and playwright Herbert Grevenius. among them a set of twins. he was offered the post as head of the City Theatre in Hälsingborg in southern Sweden. It included several productions at a newly founded professional stage. ranging from Shakespeare and Strindberg to New Year’s cabarets. Over the years. and actors and directors could be contracted by the film industry on an ad hoc basis. he was to remain loyal to both his ‘mistress’ and ‘his wife’. Bergman now faced a new situation with an already established ensemble that had worked together for many years. When Ingmar Bergman arrived in Hälsingborg. 1995. This marriage lasted for some five years. The symbiotic relationship between theatre and film may have dictated his tendency to concentrate the lighting on an actor on stage as a variation of a filmic close-up. and Koskinen. Then. ‘Allting föreställer. He assembled a young and energetic ensemble that lived on a shoe-string budget and were totally committed to their theatre work. Mats and Eva Bergman – were to pursue careers in the theatre. However. A study of his professional engagements in the theatre reveals a rich thematic and stylistic interchange between his stage productions and his work for the screen (see Törnqvist.’ (Magic Lantern. Else Fisher was now pregnant with daughter Lena but also ill with TB and staying in a sanatorium. Throughout the rest of his career in the theatre. or conversely to build his cinematic style on long acting scenes reminiscent of a stage performance. just prior to the arrival of the train of flagellants. Between Stage and Screen. Three of them – Jan. After two years with the Hälsingborg City Theatre. Bergman’s directorial activity continued at an intense pace. Mats as an actor. its theatre was in financial straits. Four children were born.

p. A few years later Bergman met a journalist by the name of Gun Hagberg (Grut). Bergman’s second marriage was already in trouble: ‘Our home was boiling over with baby cries. (See Sjögren interview with Bergman. and Till glädje (1950. gråtande kvinnor och rasande svartsjukescener. p. Moving back to Stockholm after his sojourn in Paris. To help support himself and his sizeable brood. Neither was a box office success. (See Sjöman. in April 1951. titled ‘Dialog med Ingmar Bergman’. Bergman’s last production in Göteborg took place in 1948. Their passionate relationship led to two painful divorces. Through his own staging of two of his morality plays. whining women and furious scenes of jealousy’.) Memories of their troubled situation and ensuing guilt feelings would live on in Bergman for a long time and resurface in his script to the film Trolösa (2000. the couple separated. pp. drying diapers. a deodorant soap manufactured by the Sunlight Corporation. who was married and had two small sons. 170. Mig till skräck (Unto My Fear) and Dagen slutar tidigt (Early Ends the Day) Bergman’s Göteborg experience also gave him publicity as a playwright. p. Some time after his move to Göteborg in 1946. To Joy). Clearly. [Hemmet kokade av barnskrik. she joined Bergman in Paris for three months in the spring of 1949. the first film he both scripted and directed. Neither drama text received much critical acclaim. It marked his first contact with teenager Bibi Andersson who 36 . and pragmatic. and Bergman himself soon became skeptical about his role as an instructor of his own plays. Bergman learned the simple. and Stina in Nära livet (1958. Ingmar.) Gun was to report to her magazine editor from the fashion shows. Secrets of Women/Waiting Women). intelligent. he made two films: Fängelse (1949. s. Soon after the birth of a son. Mitt personregister. where he had been sent by Svensk Filmindustri to serve as manuscript adviser for would-be filmmaker Vilgot Sjöman. Desirée Armfeldt in Sommarnattens leende (1955. reviewers preferred Bergman as a director of works authored by others. The Devil’s Wanton/Prison). pp. p. 154). She was killed in an automobile accident in Yugoslavia. He also wrote and produced a series of commercials for Bris. To make matters worse. Later Bergman would refer to Gun as strong. 182/Magic Lantern. Faithless). In Scener ur ett äktenskap (1973. 1998. 201. he would stop writing stage plays. 185). Gun’s divorce proceedings were ugly and drawn out in court because of the custody issue over her children. From Hammarén. This lockout crisis came at a time when Ingmar Bergman was still searching for his footing as a filmmaker. blöjor på tork. major film companies in Sweden shut down their studios in 1950-51 in protest over the high entertainment tax. Once he had established himself as a scriptwriter. Gun later took a doctorate degree and became a lecturer in Slavic Languages at Uppsala University.] (Laterna magica. however. stipulating that he would later make five films for the company at two-thirds of his usual pay. Urval 98.Chapter I Life and Work magica. English ed. 56-91. Scenes from a Marriage) Bergman was to transfer to the screen the awkward moment when he had to reveal his liaison to his wife Ellen (third scene in the film). Leaving her children with a Finnish nurse. Smiles of a Summer Night). (See Laterna magica. he had to borrow money from SF against a contract. Brink of Life/Close to Life). yet difficult basics of working with actors: that some are to be encouraged to stay. in Ingmar Bergman på teatern 1968. others are to be asked to leave. This ordeal undermined the relationship. 291-316). and used her as a model for the type of women whom actress Eva Dahlbeck would impersonate as Karin Lobelius in Kvinnors väntan (1952.

In Sweden he now gained a reputation as a maker of women’s films. He now lived with actress Harriet Andersson. En lektion i kärlek (1954.e. Many of the names to be associated with Bergman’s filmmaking in the mid-Fifties – Max von Sydow. for whom Bergman had made the film Fängelse in 1949. Harriet Andersson. Ibsen’s Peer Gynt and Pirandello’s Six Characters in Search of an Author. whom he had fallen in love with during the shooting of Sommaren med Monika (1952. Bergman was invited as a director and his come-back to the Swedish capital was much anticipated after his very successful time as a stage director in Hälsingborg and Göteborg. A Lesson in Love). Summer with Monica). Marmstedt was a glamorous figure in the city’s cultural life but also a hardnosed businessman. Smiles of a Summer Night). But his production of Brecht’s Three Penny Opera at the Intima Theatre. opened the Intima Theatre. Bergman’s Malmö period coincides with his major breakthrough as a filmmaker. Lars Levi Læstadius. Det lyser i kåken (Light in the Shack) at the Royal Dramatic Theatre. Kvinnodröm (1955. welded together by a director who far outpaced the head of the theatre that had hired him.Artistic Breakthruogh at home and Abroad was to become part of his acting stable both on film and in the theatre. It was also in Malmö that he solidified his group of actors. Åke Fridell – were actors at the Malmö City Theatre under his tutelage. and with whom he was to establish a Higgins-Eliza relationship. The rescue seemed to come in 1950 when producer Lorens Marmstedt. His marriage to Gun Grut was not dissolved until several years later. i. He became one of Sweden’s leading stage directors with productions of Goethe’s Faust. and were characterized by a Bergman sense of timing. Many of these films belong to Bergman’s ‘rose’ period. Though the Bris commercials were full of clever humor and wit. a Pygmalian liaison that the actress eventually would withdraw from. Artistic Breakthrough at Home and Abroad Bergman was to stay in Malmö for six years. Bergman hoped for a permanent engagement at Dramaten. Kronbruden/The Crown Bride and Eric XIV. Molière’s Don Juan and The Misanthrope. was no public success. his only Brecht production ever. Shakespeare is the only one missing from Bergman’s Malmö repertory among those playwrights who have been central to him as a stage director. Strindberg’s Spöksonaten/Ghost Sonata. Ingrid Thulin. Dreams) and Sommarnattens leende (1955.. it was a provincial stage that would offer him a contract. a private stage in Stockholm (not to be confused with Strindberg’s stage of the same name). Secrets of Women/Waiting Women). Bibi Andersson. The Rose Tatoo at the Norrköping-Linköping City Theatre and directed a relatively new play by Swedish author Björn-Erik Höijer. during which time the tide turned for him both in terms of his filmmaking and his stage work. this time to assume the artistic directorship at the Malmö City Theatre in southern Sweden. It was a genre that attracted viewers and 37 . besides Sommarlek and Sommaren med Monika he wrote and directed Kvinnors väntan (1952. they project a tone of sophisticated humor and erotic badinage in the tradition of such filmmakers as Mauritz Stiller (1883-1928) and Ernst Lubitsch (1892-1947). In vain. He also accepted a directorial assignment to stage Tennessee Williams’. Instead. but their separation was final. they also signified a very low point in his career. In 1952 he left Stockholm again.

60).] Again and again I am shaken with absolute certainty. Då ropar jag genom alla mina mörker och mitt rop är som en viskning: Till din ära.. in which Bergman would dramatize his attempts to free himself from his religious heritage. Berlin. though still recognizing the presence of spiritual realities. Bergman liberated himself from his Lutheran background. films like Smiles of a Summer Night (1955).. Then I cry out through my darkness. After the international recognition of Sommarnattens leende at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival. He had become the epitome of an auteur du cinema (see Chapter III) and his films were part of the international circuit. Den stora klockan tystnar. The Silence) could be called. p. The Seventh Seal (1956).. mot Gud.. Through the mists of spiritual listlessness God's nearness strikes me. Bergman film classics were shown all over the world. oh God! To your glory I live! To your glory!’ So I cry in the dark. in the words of Time magazine.. almost without a key but as if carried by innumerable voices. . like the strokes of a huge bell. While Strindberg emerged from his ordeal with a newborn religious faith. ‘Bergmania ruled the waves’ (14 March 1960. The huge bell is silent [. Religious Crisis Sjunde inseglet/The Seventh Seal also signaled an oncoming crisis. Till din ära! Så ropar jag i mörkret. Suddenly my emptiness is filled with music. [.. expresses the intellectual dichotomy in Bergman's vision.. Internationally.. nästan utan toner men liksom buren av tallösa röster. Bergman’s repeated request to realize Det sjunde inseglet (1956. The Seventh Seal) was finally granted. which was confirmed as late as in a TV interview 38 . Then the dreadful thing strikes all my nerves. By the late 1950s. Genom dimmor av andlig slöhet drabbar mig Guds närhet likt slag av en väldig klocka.] Gång på gång skakas jag av en fullständig visshet. receiving prizes at Cannes. o Gud! Till din ära lever jag. [. toward God. it was a period when. Då händer det genom alla mina nerver fasansfulla. an inverted ‘inferno crisis’.. My certainty dies as if someone had blown it out. Plötsligt är min tomhet fylld av musik. with a reference to Strindberg’s mental upheaval in the mid-1890s. With its success abroad. Bergman’s financial and creative freedom was secured. A speech by the latter that was cut from the subsequent screenplay clarifies the Knight's oscillation between faith and doubt: Each morning and evening I stretch my arms toward the Saints. One can follow the process by juxtaposing the film to his play Trämålning (Wood Painting) from 1954 on which The Seventh Seal is based.] The existential and metaphysical questioning reflected in Bergman’s major screen works from The Seventh Seal (1956) to Tystnaden (1962. Los Angeles and elsewhere (see Varia Chapter).Chapter I Life and Work pleased Bergman’s major producer. Vissheten slocknar som om någon blåste ut den. In the play the basic polarity of the two travelling companions. and my cry is like a whisper: ‘To your glory. The Squire's cynical humor in the face of death forms a counterpart to the Knight's desperate search for divine certainty. and The Magician (1958).] [Varje morgon och afton sträcker jag mina armar mot Helgonen. Svensk Filmindustri.. Wild Strawberries (1957). the Knight and his Squire.

Nevertheless. desperate. The three films tell their separate stories.] The setting of each film reflects this movement towards nihilism. TYSTNADEN –Guds tystnad – det negativa avtrycket. It was also a process that freed him from his earlier fear of death and God’s punishment. whose young and beautiful daughter is raped and murdered on her journey to church to offer candles to the Virgin Mary. NATTVARDSGÄSTERNA – genomskådad visshet. Travelling with his skeptical Squire. an inter- 39 . In a motto. THE SILENCE – God’s Silence – the negative imprint’. WINTER LIGHT – disclosed certainty. Swedish TV Channel 4. Bergman suggests that ‘These three films deal with a reduction. It was an old dream come true. (See Interviews. set in the Middle Ages. yet vows to build a church in His honor on the spot of his daughter’s murder. returns from the holy crusades to his native Sweden. Inspired in part by Strindberg’s historical drama Folkungasagan (1899. The production was later revived (in 1966-67) and presented abroad. In interviews Bergman talked about taking a year-long sabbatical leave to study Bach. God is a taunting and distant God. The Virgin Spring). For the next three years he was engaged in filmmaking. He also turned his attention to the opera and in 1961 presented a much-acclaimed production of Stravinsky’s The Rake’s Progress. Ø 950). His six-year contract at Malmö was up. In the subsequent so-called trilogy Såsom i en spegel (1961. however. Bergman returned alone to Stockholm. SÅSOM I EN SPEGEL – erövrad visshet. The Silence). and defiant figure re-emerges as the medieval farmer Töre in Jungfrukällan (1960. and Tystnaden (1963. Unlike The Seventh Seal. the Knight Antonius Block. telling God that he cannot understand His cruelty. The Seventh Seal is structured like a medieval morality play in which an Everyman figure. [Dessa tre filmer handlar om en reducering.Discovery of Fårö with Ingmar Bergman and Erland Josephson on 4 April 2000. THROUGH A GLASS DARKLY – conquered certainty. which seems to end in futile prayer as Antonius Block speaks for his entourage while facing the figure of Death who has come to claim them all. Nattvardsgästerna (1962. the Knight’s quest seems more modern than medieval. at the Montreal World’s Fair. Antonius Block’s strong. Discovery of Fårö In 1958 Bergman turned forty. they depict a spiritual development that he himself experienced during this time in his life. but what they have in common is the progression of the theme of God’s silence. Töre in The Virgin Spring expresses a quia absurdum est. Through a Glass Darkly). The Saga of the Folkungs). Today Bergman denies that the films form a trilogy. Death now became associated with the blank moments of unconciousness he had gone through while in a coma during surgery. as he moved towards a position of agnosticism. In both The Seventh Seal and The Virgin Spring. this godhead emerges as an usurping ‘spider god’ who spreads anguish among those who seek him and leaves behind a psychological and metaphysical void. but it was nurtured for a while by his new love Käbi Laretei. printed in the published screenplays. Winter Light/The Communicants). Leaving the city and his relationship with actress Harriet Andersson behind. and the composer himself came to Stockholm and gave his blessing. The idea never materialized. and the central idea is closer to postwar existentialist thinking than to a 14th-century religious crusade.

The mood. both the stark form and stern vision of Bergman’s film work in the Sixties. No more church spires are being built. The Hour of the Wolf ). Fårö is a sparsely populated outpost in a modern welfare state. ‘Det att göra film’ (What is Filmmaking?). writing the script for it on the island of Torö in the Stockholm archipelago. En passion (1969. Shame). all the artisans in the neighborhood came together to restore it to its former glory. He would only return to Stockholm for professional reasons. Fårödokument (Fårö Document). It was while looking for a location to shoot Through a Glass Darkly that he was advised by his cinematographer Sven Nykvist to take a look at Fårö (Sheep Island). under a cold and empty sky’. smutsiga jorden under en kall och tom himmel. also inspires. taking great pride in their craftsmanship. while becoming Bergman’s personal retreat and his ‘smultronställe’ in life. he built a compound. one can see how Bergman’s conception of the function of art changed over a ten-year period. Though he lived in the wealthy Stockholm suburb of Djursholm during his marriage with Käbi. In ‘Det att göra film’ he formulates an image of the artist as an anonymous worker sharing in the rebuilding of a great cathedral. Käbi’s marriage to a music conductor was dissolved and she and Bergman married in 1959. including a private screening room and some technical facilities.. In part a military reserve characterized by moorlands and strangely formed limestone rocks called raukar. The Passion of Anna) and Beröringen (1970. In 1969 Bergman tried to draw political attention to the island with a realistic TV film.. [i ett brödraskap som existerar [. he made Fårö his permanent home after their divorce in 1965. These ‘island’ films depict haunted characters trapped in various psychological crises. was born in 1963. Besides Through a Glass Darkly they comprise Persona (1966). Bergman was about to discover his Baltic landscape. Skammen (1968.. 40 . Vargtimmen (1967. Fårö quickly became both a real and a symbolic place to Ingmar Bergman. At the edge of the Baltic Sea on an isolated part of the island. ‘Ormskinnet’ (The Snakeskin). through its isolation. who is not a builder of a cathedral of communal worship but reveals himself to be a constructor of ‘a cultural mausoleum’ for people whom he despises.] The disillusionment represented by ‘The Snakeskin’ essay is epitomized in the cynical figure of the architect Vergerus in A Passion of Anna. no religious faith unites the artist and his collective of workers to a common goal. is reflected in Bergman’s essay from the mid-Sixties.. and the ants moving inside it have no other raison d’etre than sustaining their own existence. They did so motivated by a common desire to honor God and to work together. now represented by the busy bodyness of thousands of little ants moving about inside the skin of a dead snake. When the medieval dome at Chartres burned down. God’s silence means that the artist is placed not among the divinely inspired but ‘in a brotherhood which exists [. The Touch). He dedicated his 1961 film Såsom i en spegel/ Through a Glass Darkly to her. In ‘The Snakeskin’ essay Bergman also refers to a collective form of artistic activity. If one juxtaposes this essay to an earlier one from 1954. in which a son.Chapter I Life and Work nationally recognized pianist.] in a selfish fellowship on the warm and dirty earth. It is no longer the artist’s function to be a moral voice or uphold the spiritual comfort of the human soul. Thus one might suggest that Fårö. But Fårö functions also as the symbolic setting for a number of screen works that could be called Bergman’s ‘island films’. which is often despairing and nihilistic. life has become like a hollow snakeskin. Daniel Sebastian.] i självisk gemenskap på den varma.

the island of Fårö and the Norwegian actress Liv Ullmann loomed on the horizon. she would direct Bergman’s TV plays Enskilda samtal (1995. and has more in common with 41 . Faithless). some of whom were forced to retire. What he did not realize at the time. Ullmann too would continue her professional relationship with him. was that Sweden in 1963 was at the beginning of a cultural revolution that was to question various forms of elitist art. which is both martyrlike and aristocratic. He also faced a new radical cadre of actors and other co-workers. and by 1971 she and Bergman had separated. Ullmann became Bergman’s leading actress in such films as Persona. Ansikte mot ansikte (1976. among them the directorial icon Olof Molander and the star actor Lars Hanson. En passion. In the contemporary world. She disliked the isolation on Fårö. among them the role of the prestigious national stage. A daughter. as opposed to Bergman’s inner-directed and ‘vertical’ filmmaking. so the reasoning went among Swedish intellectuals. was nevertheless a life together with a person totally committed to a field – musical performance – where Bergman played second fiddle. After a few years. As in so many cases with Bergman’s former wives and liaisons. Liv Ullmann describes the relationship in her book Forændringen (Changing). It resulted in improved conditions for the staff but was marred by infighting. Viskningar och rop. Autumn Sonata). he advocated a social-conscious ‘horizontal’ cinema. His task was to engage himself in the service of his society and become committed to the political issues of the day. having turned from acting to filmmaking. Scener ur ett äktenskap. Skammen. which he later referred to as ‘the worst brine bath in my life’ [mitt livs värsta eklut]. Linn. filmdirector Bo Widerberg had questioned Bergman’s approach to art. Ormens ägg (1977. The Serpent’s Egg) and Höstsonat (1978. Bergman soon found himself embroiled with government officials who failed to meet his demands for increased subsidies. an artist whom he admired and respected greatly. and with whom he was to maintain a lifelong friendship and professional contact. But he became particularly disenchanted with the idealogical thrust of a new generation in the Swedish theatre. In a series of newspaper articles later pushlished as Visionen i svensk film (Vision in the Swedish cinema). Chapter VII). an artist could no longer play the exclusive visionary role he once held during the Romantic Age.The Critical Sixties: The Artist Syndrome The Critical Sixties: The Artist Syndrome Bergman’s life with Käbi Laretei. As a filmmaker he encountered the same atmosphere. the film about the haunted painter Johan Borg who withdraws to a desolate island. Vargtimmen. Käbi predicted rightly that his new task would spell the end of their marriage. one critic asked: ‘Will Ingmar Bergman ever let go of his view of the artist. Bergman’s tenure as head of the Royal Dramatic Theatre was brief – only three years. Private Conversations/Private Confessions) and Trolösa (2000. pp. 231-32). In the 1990s. as well as long-term traditionalists. the very stage that had been like a sacred place to him in his youth and Sweden’s national theatre forum. But his own acceptance of the post as head of Dramaten in 1963 was equally time-absorbing. Already in 1962. At the premiere of Bergman’s Vargtimmen (Hour of the Wolf ). It was of course a triumph for Bergman to be invited to administer Dramaten. The politicized cultural climate began to dominate the public media in Sweden and was to involve much more than Bergman’s position at Dramaten (see Laterna magica. to the point where he actually left the country to direct a play in Oslo (see Ø 537. was born to the couple in 1967. however. Face to Face).

p. His screen portrayal of the artist as a defeatist individual racked by inner demons suggests not only a private dilemma but reflects his dislike of the rigid intellectual climate in Sweden at the time.Chapter I Life and Work Werther or Lord Byron than with our Sixties’. He was a highly visible but isolated phenomenon.] (Schildt. Bergman was often viewed as an outdated artist who had lost touch with his public. vilken är både martyrlik och aristokratisk. who has withdrawn from the theatre and her family. [Ingmar Bergman har uppnått den unika positionen att han gör precis de filmer han vill och det återstår bara för publiken att ta emot dem som ett slags vykortshälsningar från hans privata studerkammare. as an impressive proof of artistic isolation. within twenty years Bergman’s profile as an artist had changed from that of an angry young man who challenged authority (Hets. The psychological tug-of-war between the two women is implied in the ‘Snakeskin’ essay from the same time. Rather typical of the critical reception of him is the following excerpt from a Swedish review of Nattvardsgästerna/Winter Light: Ingmar Bergman has reached the unique position that he can make exactly the films he wants to make. and the other is her naïve and flattered nurse Alma who by feeding Elisabet her own life story revitalizes and challenges the actress but also runs the risk of becoming an unsuspecting and humiliated prey for having revealed her innermost self. to say the least. While hospitalized at the Sophia dispensary. Bergman’s decision to retire as head of Dramaten began to take root in 1964-65 after he fell ill with pneumonia and suffered from an ear infection that affected his sense of balance. None of the new generation of filmmakers and theatre workers who emerged in Sweden in the 1960s followed in Bergman’s wake. but trends in the European cinema. 20 February 1968). For those for whom his personal set of problems is of current concern. and it only remains for the public to receive them as a kind of postcard greetings from his private study. Ny Dag.] (Öhrn. p. 1944) to a filmmaker whose vision was considered passé and irrelevant. One is the hospitalized actress Elisabet Vogler. had a far more decisive impact on a younger generation of Swedish filmmakers than Bergman’s contribution to the medium. His international standing was not threatened. yet wasn’t allowed to be really dead. Eng. som ett imponerande bevis på konstnärlig isolering. Bergman could look out over the same grounds where he once lived as a child. För dem som har hans personliga problematik aktuell är kanske Nattvardsgästerna ett ord på vägen. mildast sagt. because he kept on being woken up by telephone signals from the Royal Dramatic Theatre’. ed. represented foremost by French filmmaker Jean Luc Godard. sets a film narrative in motion about two women. He began to fantasize that he was a small boy ‘who’d died. och har mer gemensamt med Werther och Lord Byron än med sextiotalet. för oss andra framstår den väl. (See Bergman om Bergman. but for the rest of us it appears. 42 . In his native cinema. 199. 219. where Bergman likens his own role as an artist to that of an insect who captures food from his surroundings. after waking up in what seems to be a hospital morgue. [som var död och som inte riktigt fick vara död ändå därför att han hela tiden väcktes av telefonsignaler från Dramaten]. 13 February 1962) Thus.) Out of this fantasy grew Persona (1966) or what Bergman has called ‘a film poem’ about a boy who. AB. Winter Light is perhaps a word on the way. [Skall Ingmar Bergman någonsin släppa sin syn på konstnären.

1954)... behavior and happenings and serve as some sort of support to other people or some kind of enlightenment or self-examination or what have you’. p. Discovery of Television In the mid-Fifties while working at the Malmö City Theatre. 86. Before long. jag fruktar den och älskar den. I fear it and I love it. Varje gång jag läser en recension till exempel – oavsett om den är berömmande eller inte – lockas den där känslan fram. As soon as the new medium established itself in Sweden. Dealing with a trio of actors who are interrogated by a local judge on charges of indecency. p. [. we [the artists] shall exist to mirror human complications. Riten (The Ritual). Bergman has repeatedly addressed his combined need and fear of the audience: ‘I hate the public.. Television sets were on display in Malmö. hjärnor och kroppar närvarande. however. the legal questioning becomes a cruel sacrificial rite during which the judge collapses and dies. But what is also mirrored in the film is the mutual vulnerability of an artist and his ‘public’. Bergman began to adapt play productions for television. [. now a grimacing face.] (‘Det att göra film’. reviewers hailed him as a remarkable television director and predicted that with his visionary power he was predestined to become Sweden’s foremost contributor to TV drama. [Vi (konstnärer) ska alltså vara till för att spegla mänskliga komplikationer. Every time I read a review for example – no matter whether it be a favorable one or not – that feeling is brought out in me’. He could not hear the sound from the TV set but watched a pianist on the screen with great fascination. 43). One day Ingmar Bergman passed a store in Malmö where a televised concert program was on display. But what he discovered on that day in Malmö was the intimacy of the television medium and the closeness between viewer and screen figures. 12. 1968). brains and bodies are present. no. since it was possible for Swedes living across the Sound from Copenhagen to watch Danish TV programs. Bergman had used close-ups in his early films.] I allt jag gör. [Ett av de sår som jag haft svårast med i mitt vuxna liv. a dramatization of an emotional duel between artist and public. the first ones being sent live from a studio in Stockholm with actors from Bergman’s Malmö ensemble. Focus on the Seventh Seal. television had come to nearby Denmark but not yet to Sweden. in fact. now a couple of hands touching a keyboard. 81.] In everything I do. I bitter ömhet ger jag vad jag har. [Jag hatar publiken.] (Sundgren interview. ed. so much so.] (Bergman om Bergman. What appeared was a mutilated human being – now a head. The vulnerability of the artist is implied in Bergman’s reaction to the critical response of his work: ‘One of the wounds that has been toughest for me in my adult life has been the fear of being humiliated. In embittered tenderness I give what I have’. Eng. p. Röster i Radio/TV. företeelser och skeenden och vara andra människor till någon sorts stöd eller uppbyggelse eller självprövning eller vad du vill. these thousands of eyes. that one of his producers had bawled him out for presenting human beings like so many pieces of meat in a butcher shop (Steene.. är dessa tusende ögon. det är rädslan att bli förödmjukad.) But Bergman’s creativity is founded on an equally strong belief in the artist’s function as a therapeutic stand-in for his public: ‘Thus. The 43 . In 1969 Bergman presented his first authored television script.Discovery of Television a parasite who feeds on others for his own amusement.

Ingmar Bergman took Swedish spectators by surprise when he presented Scener ur ett äktenskap (1974. S. In 1971 Bergman’s liaison with Liv Ullmann was over. he was publicly criticized for using up too much of SVT’s public service budget. in 1969. She was his mother’s look-alike. Ø 247. For the next 24 years. The project threatened to become a financial liability for Bergman. It was this latter source that again created a public controversy. In the end it was Roger Corman’s newly founded independent production company New World Films that came to Bergman’s rescue. every major studio turned down offers to distribute Cries and Whispers – even though Bergman reportedly asked for only $75. and received both the National Society of Film Critics award and the New York Film Critics award as well as an Oscar for best photography. Cinematograph. His plan was to begin production of quality films directed by filmmakers other than himself. Funds. Magic Flute. while the actors invested their salaries in the film. When he directed an elaborate TV version of Mozart’s opera The Magic Flute in the following year (1975). In 1974. to come up with financial support for a film. But The Magic Flute became an international success and its production cost was regained. however.Chapter I Life and Work film did not win much public acclaim among Swedish television viewers.S. and a very competent administrator. one of whom was a daughter conceived by Bergman in 1959. Cries and Whispers became a great critical success in the U. In the U. since many commentators felt that Bergman had a big enough name to be able to find financing for his film elsewhere. a realistic soap opera. who left behind a comfortable bourgeois marriage and a number of children. as was the case in the early 1970s. and he was soon to marry an earlier love. In making Viskningar och rop (Cries and Whispers) in 1971. serialized in six Wednesday night episodes on prime time television. Ingrid would become the secure center in Bergman’s life. 326). His departure from Sweden in April 1976 put an end to this project. He had founded his own film production company.000 in down payment. In the following year Bergman wrote and directed Ansikte mot ansikte (Face to Face) for Swedish public television. but above all 44 . Visits to family counseling agencies by Swedish married couples are said to have doubled as the series wore on. (See Commentary. a home-maker. Ingrid von Rosen. Bergman could not rest on his laurels. and marriage handbooks based on Bergman’s television story were written both in Sweden and Germany. She arranged for a reunion between Ingmar Bergman and his many children. should have been disbursed among several artists and used to produce less exclusive or ‘elitist’ art. Despite the Swedish success of Scener från ett äktenskap. Exile It may seem strange that someone with Ingmar Bergman’s international reputation would have difficulty. though it is clear from a reception survey of his entire production that Swedish audiences have always favored his realistic relationship films and have only rarely been flocking to see his more symbolic and metaphysical films. Scenes from a Marriage). and the SFI provided support money of half a million Swedish kronor. But it was not until 197576 that Bergman secured a co-production contract between an American company and his own Cinematograph. it was felt by some. He himself was taken by surprise at the popular response. he tapped into his own personal funds.

during an interview on his eightieth birthday. Strindberg. once wrote in a letter during a period of inner turmoil that he felt like a somnambulist in broad daylight. Bergman left for Paris and then for Los Angeles. he testified to his lasting sense of loss (Donner. 14 July 1998. and he ended up in the psychiatric ward at Stockholm’s Karolinska Hospital. But the final outcome of the palaver was that a new head of the theatre was appointed. he spent his entire time outside the seminar room cooped 45 . During the next several years Munich would remain Bergman’s domicile. The administrative set-up at the Residenztheater was quite conservative. and Bergman was invited back. A prolonged and complex legal process began. In 1981 he was asked to leave. it was a grave blow to Ingmar Bergman. Bergman had to endure virtually libelous attacks by part of the Swedish press (especially from the Social-Democratic paper Aftonbladet) and felt haunted by visions from his authoritarian childhood. as if he were in Kafka’s world of unapproachable civil servants. to Southern Methodist University in Dallas in 1977. His world collapsed. and Bergman’s relations with the head of the theatre grew tense. his old mentor in the theatre. SVT. Bergman’s attempt to introduce more democratic procedures and involve the staff in discussions and decision-making backfired. The Dance of Death) at the Royal Dramatic Theatre and was charged with tax evasion. Ingrid was particularly important to Bergman in early 1976 when he was suddenly arraigned by the police during rehearsals of Strindberg’s Dödsdansen (1901. It could have been an episode in one of his own films. Ormens ägg/The Serpent’s Egg). When she died of cancer in 1995. She became his comfort at home and his shield to the world. entry Ø 1272. Infighting ensued. The final blow to his equilibrium came when his passport was confiscated. (See Chapter IX. and his production in progress was cancelled. After publishing an open farewell letter to a Stockholm daily (Ø 163). and The Magic Flute. three years later. Scenes from a Marriage. and it is said that during one of his rare visits abroad.Return to Sweden and Closure she handled his practical affairs and his correspondence with great skill and tact. despite the fact that the German critical corps who reviewed his stage productions continued to be rather harsh in their judgment. a sleepwalker dreaming and awake at the same time. Ingmar Bergman was eventually acquitted on the initial charges of tax evasion. he had decided to leave Sweden. into which money had been channeled from such film productions as Cries and Whispers. Bergman experienced a similar sense of surreal forces overtaking reality. Das Schlangenei (1978. The tax authorities were particularly interested in a Swiss holding company. He hated to travel. He stayed under contract for another two years. was going to be shot. Return to Sweden and Closure All his life Ingmar Bergman was to feel secure only in familiar surroundings. But he departed from both places in a hurry and eventually chose to settle in Munich where his next film. Personafilm. but by that time. Channel 1). Powerful bureaucrats were goaded by a legal system that tempted them to pursue a well-known cultural figure to the point where public exposure caused him the kind of humiliation he had often depicted in his own works.) Ingmar Bergman’s arrest was an event that looked like a symbol. where he worked as a director at the city’s Residenztheater.

In addition. The Best Intentions). and even that must be modified since he continued to work with his Swedish cinematographer Sven Nykvist and several other members of his Swedish staff. Larmar och gör sig till (1997. based on Euripides’ The Bacchae. and the actor Jarl Kulle. Faithless) as a piece that would not deal with his family. Apart from Shakespeare dramas like Hamlet and The Winter’s Tale he returned to such old favorites as Molière (The Misanthrope). He also directed a new opera (with music by Daniel Börtz). Ibsen (A Doll’s House and Ghosts). Uncle Carl Åkerblom. My Life in Film). 14. On opening night Bergman made one of his rare appearances on stage. It began with King Lear in 1984. When Bergman returned to the Swedish stage in 1984. an official governmental apology had been issued. including stage designer Gunilla Palmstierna-Weiss. as well as ‘script novels’ that were made into films or TV productions. on the other hand. He was met with standing ovations. In Efter repetitionen his alter ego. his exile cannot be considered absolute. A production of Ibsen’s John Gabriel Borkman was broadcast in 2001. (See report from press conference. Oversensitive to sharp sunlight. Images. providing opportunities for non-Swedish audiences to become familiar with Bergman’s stagecraft. In Larmar och gör sig till.Chapter I Life and Work up in his hotel. He was back at Dramaten. Bergman also wrote his memoirs Laterna magica (1987. most notably Efter repetitionen (1984.) Today. during the same period of time. In fact. rather it was an exile in professional terms only. Even 20 years later Bergman would remember this moment with gratitude (see Interview Chapter. Again. He declared that big studio and on location productions were simply too taxing and cumbersome at his age. one play per year. reenacts his passion for the cinema. directed by other directors: Den goda viljan (1992. his breakthrough on television. and Saraband (2003). ruminates on his relationship to the stage. Sunday’s Child). Much of his focus in these works was on his own parental background – so much so that he made a special point of announcing his script to Trolösa (2000. and The Ghost Sonata). 10 May 1998. greeted him with the words ‘Welcome Home’. Nyreröd. Bergman’s filmmaking days. and as late as 2004 he expressed a wish that he could set up an old opera project of his: The Tales of Hoffmann. Ø 948). SvD. A Dreamplay. who played Lear. there is a curious parallel to the career of Strindberg. watching television. he has preferred the misty climate of Fårö. Each of these can be seen as a dramatization and commentary on his life as a creative artist. an old theatre director. But he would continue to make several TV films. the only area in which he has worked lately is radio. who upon his return home in 1898 after many years abroad embarked on his most productive period in life. Private Conversations). The Magic Lantern) and Bilder (1990. p. lit. on an average. his persona. he arranged to return to Fårö in the summer time. and Strindberg (Miss Julie. After the Rehearsal). the action harks back to Scener ur ett äktenskap. But a planned broadcast 46 . in the ‘Father House’ and for the next 20 years would stage. Even during his exile. Söndagsbarn (1993. and Enskilda samtal (1994. seemed to be over with the making of Fanny and Alexander (1982). and in the following year he directed Strindberg’s Pelikanen and Toteninsel (The Isle of the Dead). which he had discussed doing for the Hamburg Opera before his exile. His re-entry marked the beginning of a truly remarkable period in his creative life. A number of his Dramaten productions from this time went on an international circuit tour. ‘Struts and Frets’ but translated as In the Presence of a Clown). Bergman’s career after his exile culminated at the Royal Dramatic Theatre with a cycle of Shakespeare productions. In Saraband.

i min fars barndom och uppväxt och jag såg ett återkommande mönster av patetisk ansträngning och förödmjukande motgång. constituting a final peace-making with the ghosts of his childhood and. I also saw care. 47 . Jag såg också omtanke. which was made into a film in 1993 by his son Daniel. in Trolösa (Faithless). About the same time Bergman sold his apartment in Stockholm and today rarely leaves his Fårö domicile. with a painful episode in his adult life. Bergman also arranged to have his private archive transferred to a foundation administered at the Swedish Film Institute (SFI). Much of Bergman’s creative work after his homecoming forms an artistic and psychological closure. Ingmar Bergman acknowledges a more forgiving view of his parentage: ‘I began to look into my parents’ early life. and deep confusion’.Return to Sweden and Closure of Ibsen’s Rosmersholm was cancelled. In the novel Söndagsbarn (1991). [Jag började forska i mina föräldrars tidiga liv. ömhet och djup förvirring. In keeping with such psychological house cleaning. but also speaks of his greater understanding of his parentage. concern.] The statement confirms Ingmar Bergman’s deep attachment to his roots and their central importance in his long creative life. my father’s childhood and upbringing and I saw a recurring pattern of pathetic efforts and humiliating adversity.

yet lived such a thing physical life that no one noticed it any longer and everyone.Above: Handwritten text by Ingmar Bergman to an early manuscript of a short story titled ‘One of Jack the Ripper ’s early childhood memories’. Everyone in the theatre thought it was very sad and collected money for a wreath and got ready to go to the funeral in top hat and rented tuxedo. thought that Jack was dead. . including the doctor. black shoes and white scarf and black stockings. But Jack lay at home in his bed. small child or a flower or something. For his soul had not gone away but lingered at the intractable man. covered with a white sheet and was sour and cold. But Jack heard and saw everything though not the way Kasper or the Whore or the Manager did but more like a small. The somewhat difficult handwriting reads in English translation: One day Jack the Ripper died.

His earliest pieces were jotted down in notebooks. For that reason. and open letters. The original drafts are deposited in a special Bergman archive at the Swedish Film Institute. The Cinema as 49 . says one of his commentators. radio talks. it signified a writer whose texts were autonomous enough to be read and experienced as such. But Ingmar Bergman’s authorship is usually not of this kind. and short pieces of fiction. written works that presuppose a theatrical or cinematic medium to become fully realized. essays. and a few pieces of short fiction appeared in literary journals – all of it in the 1940s and early 1950s. Maaret Koskinen has recorded and discussed some of this material in her book I begynnelsen var ordet. Copies of scripts (not to be confused with the deposited Fårö material) are kept in SFI’s library (see introduction to Filmography). A Bergman text is only a sketch for another and quite different creation.. i.Chapter II The Writer Bergman’s writing encompasses his entire creative life. Ingmar Bergman: Cinéma d’auteur During Ingmar Bergman’s lifetime. where the Ingmar Bergman Foundation. Ingmar Bergman och hans tidiga författarskap (2002). referring to a dramatic or filmic text as a musical score.. some of them to be developed later into plays. Traditionally. ‘Bergman’s scripts should not be judged by criteria appropriate to more explicitly literary works. the concept of authorship has become more tenuous. will administer. prefaces. preserve and convey knowledge about Bergman’s collected artistic work. as notes to be played on by a director and by an ‘orchestrated’ ensemble. for most of his writing falls within the categories of stage plays and film scripts. constituted in 2002.’ (Mosley.. Bergman’s own plays are registered here. film scripts. Some early stage plays by Bergman were published.e. Bergman himself has suggested as much. without requiring any other art form in order to appear complete. But the main part of his writing consists of published and unpublished screenplays. A special database is being developed. Chapter II lists not only Bergman’s fiction but also his program notes. Some scripts may require Bergman’s permission to use. while specific stage productions of these plays are recorded in the Theatre chapter (VI).

I liked it a lot. Acknowledging the subjective basis of his output. The original motif seems to contain its own rhythm which determines the sequential pattern of the film in the making (‘Varje film.. In the earlier essay from the 1950s.] comfort (tröst).] (‘Varje film... atmosphere. The only thing that can be provisionally materialized is the dialogue. That’s how it began. Bergman distinguishes this from a later intellectual and cognitive stage when the material is shaped into words. Detta är svårt för att inte säga omöjligt. I don't know why. [. if not impossible. [... however. and suddenly I had written twelve plays in the course of four months. difficult to control: to transfer rhythms.’. during a sickleave from mandatory military service in 1941 that he began to write. tensions. his memoir book about his filmmaking. atmosfärer. but even a dialogue is a sensitive matter that can offer resistance... moods. This early stage in the creative process is an emotional state expressing itself in visuals. but it was pure pleasure.. and it felt immensely encouraging and stimulating. 19). while the actual shaping of that material into words is a laborious process... he has described the process from initial impulse to manuscript writing as originating deep down in his own subconscious. In the 1959 essay ‘Each film is my last’ [‘Varje film är min sista film’] which is Bergman’s most complete statement on his own scriptwriting. The first phase is characterized by the pleasurable discovery of raw material for a film.] pitches and smells to words and sentences in a readable or at least decipherable manuscript.Chapter II The Writer Mistress 1981. [. It was a completely new feeling that I had not experienced before.’. spänningar.. [.’. It was.] Something opened up for me. Now begins a complicated work... Det enda som till nöds låter sig materialiseras är dialogen men även en dialog är en känslig tingest.. 50 . he defines it as ‘a matter of arriving at how you should organize the Epilogue’ [Det gäller att komma fram till hur man ska organisera Epilogen]. this business of just sitting down and writing in longhand and seeing the words emerge. 2-3) In interviews Bergman has dated the beginning of his authorship to 1941 though his first notebook goes back to 1937-38. The moment of inspiration is no more than a visual impression or a bar of notes.] tonarter och dofter till ord och meningar i ett läsbart eller åtminstone tydbart manuskript.] It was just an enormous [. Nevertheless... It is like a fleeting dream that may evaporate or come back to him ‘as fruitful associations and images’ [som fruktbara associationer och bilder]. My Life in Film. he outlines the writing process as more complex and difficult: So I have decided to make a certain film. having withdrawn to his grandmother’s summer house in Dalecarlia: As a pure diversion I began to write a play. Bergman’s written texts must be seen as a very vital part of an ongoing creative process. p. 2) [Jag har alltså beslutat mig för att göra en viss film och nu vidtar ett komplicerat och svårbemästrat arbete: att överföra rytmer.. In Bilder/Images..] Everything happened very suddenly and was unplanned. he describes the birth of a script in both biological and psychological terms: it begins as ‘vague and indefinite fetal movements’ [vaga och obestämda fosterrörelser] or as ‘a brightly colored thread sticking out of the dark sack of consciousness’ [en skarpt färgad tråd som sticker ut ur medvetandets mörka säck]. So I wrote one more play and still another. p. p.. som kan erbjuda motstånd.. 2). [. (‘Each Film is. pp. It is difficult. it may be a particular light illuminating a street scene or a face. stämningar.

Sweden’s leading publishing firm Bonniers accepted a collection of his plays (Moraliteter.12-13).. Bergman had ambitions to be recognized as a literary author. Later.] Bergman’s defensive attitude about his writing also resulted in his refusal for a long time to have his screenplays published in Sweden. biografier eller ens teaterpjäser. biographies...] angenämt förströdd. a script. [. essays.... In his essay ‘Det att göra film’ (1954). in a note to the published script of Beröringen (1970. Jag vet inte varför. inte under evighetens synvinkel. The Touch)... In his memoir book Bilder/Images. not an author’. [Själv har jag aldrig haft någon ambition att vara författare.] More than 15 years later. [det sved ordentligt i skinnet. Jag skriver för mitt nöjes skull. Interviews). Jag vill bara göra film. noveller. a pale and diffuse reflection’. A lifetime later he would repeat his sense of pleasure at formulating himself in words. His way of dealing with the disappointment was to deny that he had ever had any literary ambitions at all. 1948).] I am a filmmaker. At the same time.. essäer.. was to become a continuing form of psychological purgation. or a novel. 1992. detta att bara sätta mig ner och skriva för hand och se orden komma fram. short stories. I only want to make films. I do not want to write novels. [Orden kan ju aldrig uttrycka det den färdiga filmen vill förmedla [. its aspect of a diversion. not for eternity’. 228/216): ‘At the writing-desk I am [. he still found it necessary to downplay the importance of the verbal aspect of filmmaking.] Though many of his earliest writing efforts remained incomplete and/or unpublished. I write for my own pleasure. Jag vill inte skriva romaner. Det var så det började.] under alla förhållanden är manuskriptet alltid ett halvfabrikat. In the early 1940s.. for I felt like an outsider in literature and in my own generation’.] Allt skedde mycket plötsligt och oplanerat. his quoted remarks above suggest his joy in writing... almost like a playful game... Bergman would later recall how this rejection stunned him and put a stop to his attempts to make a name for himself as a literary author: ‘It really bruised me. men det var bara ett nöje. The transformation of a subjective world into artistic form. Jag tyckte mycket om det. och plötsligt hade jag inom loppet av fyra månader skrivit tolv pjäser.] (Assayas-Björkman.. other plays were published by Radiotjänst (Swedish Public Radio).Ingmar Bergman: Cinéma d’auteur [Som ren förströelse började jag skriva en teaterpjäs och det kändes oerhört uppmuntrande och stimulerande.] pleasantly entertained.] at any rate.. Ø 699. My Life in Film he writes (p.. without which he says he probably would have gone mad. [. the manuscript is always a halfbaked-product. claiming that there was no real 51 . a piece for television. en blek och osäker spegelbild. Bergman’s statement points to the therapeutic function that the creative act would come to have for him. Soon he stopped writing plays and began to call attention to himself as a filmmaker. he says: ‘The words can never express what the finished film wants to convey [. därför att jag kände mig stå utanför litteraturen och min egen generation] (see Hammer. inte en författare.. [Vid skrivbordet är jag [. he brought out a couple of short pieces of prose fiction in prestigious literary journals such as BLM and 40-tal. Tre dagar med Bergman. concurrent with his debut as a stage director and his work as a reader of screenplays at Svensk Filmindustri (SF). [.. or even plays for the theatre. giving as a reason the economic risk in publishing works in this genre.. be it as a play.] Det var bara en enorm [.. Så skrev jag en pjäs till och ännu en.] Jag är en filmskapare.] Någonting öppnades för mig [. But Bonniers turned down a second volume of plays. he writes somewhat defensively: ‘I myself have never had any ambition to be an author. [. Det var en helt ny känsla som jag inte hade upplevt tidigare. pp. [.] tröst.

. It was becoming ‘a form in which and by which an artist can express his thoughts [. These scripts immediately achieved a separate ‘print’ status. Interviews) and that the published film texts by his predecessor Hjalmar Bergman (1889-1930) did not read very well. Differing a great deal from the standard technical shooting scripts developed by the film industry. Eric Rohmer. by film critic Andrew Sarris. and Jean-Luc Godard. a dome of lead’.. in Peter Graham. the emergence of Ingmar Bergman as one of the world’s foremost cinéma d’auteurs is the story of a personal talent encountering the right cultural circumstances during his formative years. The Seventh Seal): ‘The knight [. that the key to recapturing the international scene was to locate a golden boy with a talent for good scriptwriting. like a mantra. part novel. which had lent prestige to the industry in the silent era when Victor Sjöström. In a concerted effort to find not only good stories to transpose to the screen but also to raise the status of the cinema by aligning it to a literary canon. Ø 736. 52 . ‘The Birth of a New Avant-garde: “le caméra stylo”.] Bergman began his career in the cinema at a time when literary authorship had a much higher cultural status in Sweden than filmmaking. In the early 1940s Swedish film producers voiced the view. The New Wave. 144. Himlen är grå och orörlig. dying fish.S. 1968. The cinema. Sarris was co-editor of an English edition of Cahiers and was to be instrumental in introducing Bergman’s films to American audiences. Alexandre Astruc launched a new concept for filmmaking based on literary features..] stirrar rakt in i morgonsolen som väller upp ur det disiga havet som en uppsvälld döende fisk. More significantly. an American edition of four of his screenplays from the 1950s was published in 1960. However.] stares directly into the morning sun which wallows up from the misty sea like some bloated. Mauritz Stiller.’ (See Alexandre Astruc. First published in Ecran français. The sky is gray and immobile. especially in the solid bourgeois circles where he grew up. An example is the opening lines to Det sjunde inseglet (1956. Ingmar Bergman began early on to evolve his own form of screenplays in which he dealt with the subjects and themes that were of personal importance to him.] or translate his obsessions exactly as he does in the contemporary essay or novel. they were presented not as prompt copies or shooting scripts but as texts to be read. which he called ‘le caméra stylo’. and constituted what the American film critic Pauline Kael once called ‘a hybrid genre’.. en dom av bly.Chapter II The Writer tradition in his country for bringing out film scripts in print (see Jungstedt.. such as references to color (in intended B/ W films) and smell. Astruc’s ideas form the basis of the concept of the ‘cinéma d’auteur’ as launched in Cahiers du Cinéma in the 1950s under the editorship of such critics and filmmakers as François Truffaut. Bergman’s screen authorship was an undertaking whose time had come. 17-23. 1948). they used metaphors and similes that give literary significance to the text but were hardly transposable to the screen unless transformed into a piece of visual surrealism. part drama. ed. was no longer a fairground attraction or an offshoot of the boulevard theatre. pp.. [Riddaren [. no. and Gustaf Molander had based their most important films on the novels and stories by Selma Lagerlöf. Also from an international perspective. In other words. Swedish film producers nurtured a nostalgic wish to resurrect the native cinema’s old literary penmanship.. In 1948. argued Astruc. they usually included ‘non-cinematic’ features. Soon ‘auteurism’ became a prominent feature in the British film magazine Movie and was also advocated in the U. JeanPhilippe Comolli. Hence. London: Secker & Warburg.

Yet. focused on the inner turmoil of characters close to his own psyche and life experience. radio. Bergman would for instance claim that ‘since long I have felt a certain disinclination to tell stories on film. Bergman needed. at least up to the writing of Persona (1966). What is clear however is that the writing stage for him is not the final stage. Bergman could now be seen as a filmmaker whose personality could be traced in the thematic consistency of his works for the screen.. (SR. Bergman’s screenplays bear little resemblance to dialogue scripts (FIAF-designated Script IV). Kosmorama. practical moment in the creative process. p. no. Channel 1.. p.Ingmar Bergman: Cinéma d’auteur ‘Auteurship’ was not.’ [jag har sedan länge haft en viss olust att berätta historier på film. 1978. 4) In the end and despite his ‘literary disclaimers’. Bergman’s comments in a 1987 radio program. [. tantamount to providing literary scripts to the film industry. television) and do not mean that the basic theme and personal vision differ when transposed from script to realized performance. [jag finner [inte] själva berättandet förkastligt. his auteurship would also result in a distinct Bergman film style with the close and sensitive registering of the human face as a particular trademark. these are usually related to the respective medium of expression (cinema.] (‘Varje film är min sista film’. which may affect details in a production but not his basic conception of the play. 53 . to set down his theme and vision not only in a minimal verbal way in order to clarify his cinematic intention. 39)..] jag anser att en av filmens förbannelser är bundenheten till epik och dramatik]. but on the other hand he makes use of the written word in his filmmaking in a skillful way that is rare among directors.. Bergman has always been an astute psychological observer and narrator. 137. In its last. The concept coexisted with the demands by cinema purists to stress the difference between word and image as artistic expressions and to refer to the one as a literary (non-cinematic) instrument and to the other as the essence of filmmaking. 24. however.’ (Tang. Eventually. By the mid-1950s Bergman had established himself as both the author and director of films possessing an unmistakable personal voice. but also in such a fashion that the printed text achieved its own autonomy of being. combining it with the role of an image maker. suggest a similar process in his theatre work from original directorial interpretation and early blocking of a play to his rehearsal encounter with the actors. Clearly. the Bergman script may undergo noticeable changes. ‘Vägen till Hamlet’ [The road to Hamlet]. at the same time he would dismiss the idea that storytelling – usually associated with literary practice – would be detrimental to the film medium: ‘I do not find storytelling itself objectionable’. performers and cinematographer on the other.] I consider an attachment to epic and drama one of the curses of the cinema. [. 17 April 1987). It is not surprising therefore to find certain discrepancies between Bergman’s screen dialogue and the printed (written) text. Or as the Danish critic Jesper Tang once noted apropos of Bergman’s screenplays: ‘Ingmar Bergman is – there is no doubt – first and foremost the master of images and visual rhythm. Few of his films after Gycklarnas afton (The Naked Night) in 1953 were to be authored by writers other than himself. for it is followed by the encounter between text and writer on the one hand and director. Ingmar Bergman came to reflect this dichotomous view on filmmaking as both a literary-based tradition and a field whose serious practitioners emphasized the visual hegemony of the medium. what would be unique about Bergman as a filmmaker was the extent to which he passed on a literary story-telling tradition to the screen. however.

som jag tror. Bergman named the original script to Persona ‘Kinematografi’.Chapter II The Writer Soon after his 1959 essay ‘Varje film är min sista film’. thus indicating that he viewed the manuscript as part of a filmic process and not as a selfcontained verbal/literary product.] Bergman’s ‘uncertainty’ about the outcome of the Persona project is built into the script and is still reflected in the final film version with its enigmatic. For I discovered that the subject I had chosen was very big and that what I wrote or included in the final film (what a terrible thought!) had to be very arbitrary. in at least one instance. where the images on the film strip are described as mutable nature images of trees. [Jag har inte åstadkommit ett filmmanuskript i vanlig bemärkelse. And yet. A comparison between Persona’s script and the finished screen product conveys in fact an ongoing process of a script being transformed into a motion picture. apparently took shape as the film was being shot. however. and mountains. while murmuring words ‘begin to surface like shadows of fish in steep and deep waters’ [börjar dyka fram likt skuggor av fiskar i ett bråddjupt vatten]. in a prefatory note to the script. The final scene in Tystnaden/The Silence (1962) can serve as emblematic in this context: The camera registers the face of a child (Johan) whose lips move to test some words in an unknown language. Vad jag har skrivit tycks mig närmast likna en melodistämma. But while the camera moves closer and closer to the boy’s face. clouds. Persona from the mid-Sixties is the logical extension of this attempt to tell a story visually rather than verbally. Bergman’s filmmaking began to proceed much more unequivocally from the visual. att jag med mina medarbetares hjälp ska instrumentera under inspelningens gång. of seemingly unrelated visual impressions that impact emotionally on the viewer but ‘make sense’ only when articulated intellectually. The ending of The Silence becomes a clear statement of image superceding word as a communicative tool. I am uncertain on several points and. att fritt förfoga över det material. These images. and the film Persona confirms. I know nothing at all. loaded with symbolic references to both film history and Bergman’s earlier screen works. På många punkter är jag osäker och på åtminstone ett ställe vet jag ingenting alls. som jag ställt till förfogande. What ‘Kinematografi’ clearly suggests. unresolved ending. At any rate. the words on paper remain inaudible when read by Johan. with an increasing emphasis on the human face. I invite the reader’s or viewer’s imagination to freely use the material that I have placed at their disposal. is Bergman’s abandonment of the traditional narrative of his earlier films in which he would always prepare the reader/viewer for any shift in time or place through the 54 . he addresses both readers and viewers (while talking about ‘Kinematografi’ as a musical score to be realized in collaboration with his cast and crew): I have not accomplished a film script in the ordinary sense. moon landscapes. The words have been handed to him on a piece of paper by his dying aunt who is a translator by profession. they are not specified in the script. att det ämne jag valt var mycket stort och att vad jag skrev eller vad jag tog med i den slutliga filmen (ruskiga tanke!) måste bli ytterligt godtyckligt. an interpreter of words. Därför inbjuder jag läsarens eller åskådarens fantasi. What I have written seems to me more like a melody [melodistämma] that I think I can instrumentalize with the help of my collaborators in the course of the shooting. Therefore. The opening ‘prologue’ to that film consists of a cavalcade of images. Jag upptäckte nämligen.

This process is analogous to his development of the chamber film concept. [För att den nödtvungne läsaren inte ska gå vilse i texten tror jag att jag mot min vana bör ge en kommentar till de sex scenerna. suggesting that the writer Bergman now worked in closer collusion with the image-maker Bergman who sees the finished film in his mind but also seeks closer collaboration with his performers. I believe – contrary to my habit – I should write a commentary on the six scenes. But the rest of the preface is a synopsis and. the published screenplay to Scenes is a complete dialogue script but also retains a feature that characterized the scripts to both Persona and Cries and Whispers: Bergman’s own voice and commentary. There is a cohesiveness and completeness to Bergman’s written scripts from the 1950s that will change by the time he constructs Persona. a stark island or closed-room setting.. Through a Glass Darkly).Ingmar Bergman: Cinéma d’auteur explicit use of dreams or clearly stated flashbacks. 5) This ‘intrusion’ of the author’s persona serves the function of providing the uninitiated reader with information similar to the ‘Dear friends’ letter in Cries and Whispers. and music rather than words as fleeting moments of communication between people. structured as a life journey on both conscious and subconscious levels. Autumn Sonata). However.. where the aging protagonist’s nightmares and reminiscences are announced through his own first person narrative. Scenes from a Marriage). Första scenen: Johan och Marianne är barn av fasta normer och den materiella trygghetens ideologi. a reversal of sorts takes place in the mid-1970s. using only a handful of characters. De har aldrig upplevt sin borgerliga livsföring som tryckande eller osann.. above all. Like the later scripts to Ormens ägg (1977. Bergman’s development as a screenwriter describes in fact a textual pruning process that culminates with the script for Cries and Whispers (1972). beginning with the script to Scener ur ett äktenskap (1973.. Descriptive passages become increasingly rare in the script. an explanatory message from the author to his readers: To prevent the constrained reader from getting lost in the text. Den som upplever ett sådant dirigerande som en förolämpning bör hoppa över följande rader. etc. These ‘chamber film scripts’ are verbally frugal. The opening passage in the preface to Scenes is formulated like a polite invitation. They have never found their middle-class way of life oppressive or false. the dialogue more cryptic or modernistic in its structure. De har inordnat sig i ett mönster som de är beredda att föra vidare. Those who are offended by such guidance should skip the following lines. In Viskningar och rop/Cries and Whispers the script is ‘no more’ than a ‘dear friends’ letter addressed to the film’s actresses. Here it is as much the presumed response of his cast as Bergman’s sparse presentation in the epistular text that constitutes the ‘script’. They have conformed to a pattern which they are prepared to pass on . an interpretation of the plot. beginning with Såsom i en spegel (1960. A prime example is Smultronstället/ Wild Strawberries.] (p. somewhat punctilious in its fear of seeming imposing. The published volume of Scenes from a Marriage contains a preface. The Serpent’s Egg) and Höstsonat (1978. First scene: Johan and Marianne are conventional and set in their ways and believe in material security. etc. as if the author 55 . There are also more marked differences between the script and the final film.

is it not fumbling. deformeras huvudaktörernas tankar. that is uninteresting. and so on ad infinitum.Chapter II The Writer Bergman distrusted his own screenplay as a self-contained story. wide-open look towards a dawn that never comes’ [rak och stilla med knäppta händer och en torr vidöppen blick mot en gryning som aldrig kommer]. In yet another radio interview (25 February 1950). deras ångestbenägenhet och så vidare i all oändlighet. Private Conversations). Utan detta enda: hur gestaltar sig sanningen eller – hur förskjuts och formeras. form and deform.]? How do I depict the poisoning that imperceptibly fills the home like a nerve gas and that eats away everybody’s mind during a long time. perhaps a long time after the collapse? Is an anticipated dispute of this kind particularly verbalized? Rather. Rather. The main characters’ mental landscape is exposed to a violent quake – like a natural catastrophe. this one thing: how is truth shaped or – how do the main actors’ thoughts. hesitant about how to proceed: It is most necessary that I break off at exactly this moment to think over the situation... His artistic output was always to be viewed as part of a communicative process where no creative effort of his would be considered complete until performed and presented to a responsive audience. [Det är i högsta grad nödvändigt att jag hejdar mig just i detta ögonblick och tänker över situationen. the fictional story of his mother’s marital crisis and love affair with a young theologian. minds and facial features that become visible little by little. the reader should at least have access to the guiding voice of the author. perhaps the whole life? How do I depict partisan positions that of necessity become blurred and vacillating since the other players never have the possibility of sharing a factual truth? No one knows – everyone sees. så att alla ska kunna förstå och begripa vad jag menar och kanske fundera på det och på det jag möjligen har att komma med]. As a young man he once said in a radio interview (2 January 1947) that he had no interest in ‘closet writing’ produced for a select few. he declared his artistic goal to be ‘to speak simply about simple matters so that everyone will be able to understand and grasp what I mean and perhaps think about it and about what I perhaps have to contribute’ [att få tala enkelt om enkla saker. their anxious disposition shift. I give you a deadly blow. känslor. An explicit example occurs in the published version of Enskilda samtal (1996. reasoning that without the screen. souls. And communication has always been at the heart of Bergman’s creativity. Var går källådrorna fram? Hur ser sanningen ut? – Inte hur det var i verkligheten. I must stop and become careful: You give me a deadly blow. a serialized television story. Where do the waters well forth? What does truth look like? – Not the way it was in reality. At a most critical moment when Anna Bergman sits ‘straight and still with folded hands and a dry. feelings. and most importantly: is it not the long-term consequences in bodies. Jag måste hejda mig och bli varsam: Du tillfogar mig ett dödligt hugg. Is that at all possible to depict. In that sense it is still a scriptwriter cum filmmaker at work. The preface might also have been dictated by the fact that Scenes from a Marriage was Bergman’s first venture into a new medium. It is probably this anxious desire to reach a reading or viewing audience that resulted in the use of what might be called Bergman’s intercepting voice: The narrator arresting his own narrative is an increasingly self-conscious feature in his writing. where he was still somewhat hesitant about his ability to communicate. desperate and confused [. 56 . det är ointressant. the narrator interrupts his own account.

after the making of Fanny and Alexander. Tygodnik Powszechny. 1 (1984): 27-33. Ingemansson.. In Trolösa (2000. kanske hela livet? Hur skildrar jag ställningstaganden och partiskheter som nödvändigtvis blir suddiga och osäkra eftersom de medspelande i andra planet aldrig har möjlighet att ta del av en faktiskt sanning? Ingen vet – alla ser. pp. no. passim. Private Conversations) the voyeuristic presence of an aging son recreating his parents’ story with far more realism than when he projected himself as Fanny and Alexander’s young title figure in a fantasy of his childhood.Ingmar Bergman: Cinéma d’auteur Jag tillfogar dig ett dödligt hugg.? Hur beskriver jag den förgiftning som omärkligt fyller hemmet som en nervgas och som fräter allas sinnen under lång tid. Erland Josephson. själar. has travelled since his early insistence to have his film scripts recognized as both narrative outlines and musical scores to be completed in the film studio. I begynnelsen var ordet. Zbigniew. Faithless). 57 . Given these convoluted authorial/narrative positions. Cries and Whispers. Maaret. Huvudpersonernas själsliga landskap utsätts för en våldsam skakning – som en naturkatastrof. What was a voice commentary or a direct address to performers and readers in Persona. based on the memories of a painful event in his own adult life. desperat och förvirrad. 61-62) Here ‘the intercepting voice’ is different from the author’s address to the reader/ viewer in ‘Kinematografi’ which was an invitation to participate in the creative process. pp. and Scenes from a Marriage becomes in Den goda viljan (1992. ‘Bergman as Writer’. It is a long and yet clearly staked road that Ingmar Bergman. 4. the author/narrator questions his (and everybody else’s) ability to formulate a mental and psychological crisis.] (printed text based on Script I. both inside and outside of his story. Benedyktowicz. but this too is part fiction since it is understood that this figure named Ingmar Bergman will be enacted by a professional actor. Hollis. Literature/Film Quarterly 12. Bergman is both author and narrator. the filmmaker/writer. on the other hand. In the instance just quoted. In fact. Koskinen. 1974. it comes as no surprise that Ingmar Bergman begins to look upon his scriptwriting as the work of a modern novelist – he refers for instance to Den goda viljan/Best Intentions as a novel. Relatively little has been written on Ingmar Bergman as a writer of scripts. See the following items annotated in Chapter IX (Writings on Ingmar Bergman): Alpert. Liv Ullmann – the task of filming his own scripts. so similar to modernistic meta-experimentations in contemporary fiction. 2002. Saturday Review. O scenariuszach Bergmana’. sinnen och anletsdrag som blir synliga så småningom. ‘The Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman: Personification and Olefactory Detail’. ‘Obraz i słowo. Birgitta. kanske långt efter själva sammanbrottet? Är en uppgörelse av den art som nu förestår så särskilt verbaliserad? Blir den inte snarare fumlig. abdicates his role as director in the cinema (but not on stage or in the media) and turns over to others – Bille August. Går detta överhuvudtaget att skildra. och viktigast: är det inte de långsiktiga konsekvenserna i kroppar. no. Best Intentions) and Enskilda samtal (1996. In the script he decamouflages his narrative self by calling him Ingmar Bergman. 22-23. It is an approach clearly associated with Bergman’s undertaking to depict his parents’ life. Bergman’s authorial presence in his scripts begins to take a different turn when he. 27 August 1960. Daniel Bergman. Stockholm: Wahlström & Widstrand..

& London. 137 (Spring 1978): 39. did not even have ‘the belief in Pär Lagerkvist’s blind and dead God who sits frozen in his heaven’ [tron på Pär Lagerkvists blinde och döde gud som sitter frusen i himlen].C. Film: The Medium and the Maker. in his The Screenplay as Literature. 2-3 (Spring 1999): 1336. Television and Radio. expressionistic cry for meaning in a world where God remains silent certainly reverberates in Bergman’s early play production. Winston. silent god but a kind judge who proclaims the existence of 58 . Viswanathan. The Young Playwright As a young artist in the making. most of his earliest artistic ventures were those of a would-be playwright. Ingmar Bergman wrote both fiction and. 167-68. Contemporary reviews. D. When performed there in 1943. 2003. James. pp. no. 1988. 73-88. ‘Kaspers död’ was advertised as a play that ‘breaks with all currently acceptable literature and theatre conventions’ [bryter med alla för tillfället vedertagna litteratur. an adaptation of a tale by H. Kosmorama 24. They have titles like ‘Reskamrater’ (Travel Companions. in a series of one-act dramas called Den svåra stunden (The Difficult Hour). and 211-14. but some of them exist in handwritten drafts or typed manuscript form in SFI’s Ingmar Bergman Archive. suggested however an affinity with expressionistic Schrei-dramen of the 1920s. ‘Bergman som scriptforfatter’ [Bergman as scriptwriter]. (See program note titled ‘Möte med Kasper’. ‘Ciné-romans: le livre du film’. 1975. above all. 1 (Fall) 1971: 52-57. pp. some critics found the play passé. says Bergman. Egil. A program note to one of his stagings from the Forties – a dramatization of contemporary Swedish novelist Olle Hedberg's work Bekänna färg (Show your cards) – suggests that Bergman was well aware of Lagerkvist's metaphysical stance. Bergman lets his title figure face not a stern. drama. ‘Fullmånen’ (The Full Moon). ‘Through a Glass Darkly: Figurative Language in Ingmar Bergman’s Script’. James.och teaterkonventioner]. ‘De ensamma’ (The Lonely Ones). Jacqueline. these early plays from Bergman’s Sturm und Drang period adhere to a mindscape in modern Swedish drama which began with Strindberg's post-Inferno production and was revived in 1918 by the playwright and novelist Pär Lagerkvist. Cinéma IX. Few of Bergman’s early dramatic efforts were ever published. New York: Holt. ‘Om en mördare’ (About a Murderer). Scott. 96-115 (on script to Smutronstället/Wild Strawberries). Peter. no. 11-13. though short. Törnqvist. titled ‘From Screenplay to Film: Bergman’s The Communicants’. ‘Stationen’ (The Station). Rinehart & Winston. ‘Symposium on Published Scripts: Bergman and Anderson for Sophomores’.Chapter II The Writer Ohlin. Tang. 1973. pp. Actually. ‘Kaspers död’ (Death of Punch). Andersen). in a volte face move at the end of ‘Kaspers död’. Chapter 3. Scandinavian Canadian Studies/Etudes Scandinaves au Canada 3. ‘Tivolit’ (The Fun Fair). no. London: The Tantivy Press. Bergman’s Muses. 46-64. for that reason. Æsthetic Versatility in Film. 179-83. N. Welsh. Lagerkvist’s desperate. Theatre. Hedberg. Ø 13). Of these ‘Tivolit’ and ‘Kaspers död’ were staged by Bergman in the early 1940s at the Stockholm Student Theatre. In fact. Cinema Journal 11. Jefferson. Jesper. pp.C. However. Bergman responded by subtitling his next work – ‘Tivolit’ – ‘ett teaterstycke från tjugotalet’ [a theatre piece of the Twenties]. ‘Dimman’ (The Fog).

and a childlike woman (Mia) who is shot and killed accidentally. the first stage work to be directed by Ingmar Bergman back in 1938 (see Ø 344). maintains a more explicit morality play pattern by using allegorized characters and binary moral opposites typical of the genre. A corporal in the army. a protective wife (Rakel). Bergman's collection of three plays. Dagen slutar tidigt (Early Ends the Day). and as such she becomes an early version of the figure of Death in Det sjunde inseglet. Mrs. This is especially true of the first play in the collection. In the mid-1940s Bergman submitted a play titled Jack bland skådespelarna (Jack Among the Actors) to the theatre section at the Swedish Broadcasting Corporation. What is depicted in ‘Kaspers död’ is a split image: ‘a god frozen in his heaven’ and a providential force. and Tystnaden (The Silence). Nattvardsgästerna (Winter Light). Bergman omitted Mia. In the end he appears before Jack and reveals his true ‘bergmanian’ nature: he is both god figure and devil. It was refused but later published by Bonniers (1946). Dagen slutar tidigt becomes a dramatic hybrid. still invisible. Rather. The play also bears a certain resemblance to Sutton Vane’s drama Outward Bound. The Seventh Seal). such as Everyman and The Castle of Perseverance. An old woman. Jack bland skådespelarna can be seen as a sequel to ‘Kaspers död’. a suicidal impotent husband. Secrets of Women). Jack joins a provincial theatre group. clairvoyance. is a young writer of metaphysical novels who gives in to his publisher’s wish that he change the religious ending of his book. a conventional melodrama about a tempting lover. With its oscillation between worldly decadence. Mig till skräck (Unto My Fear) raises a question that was possibly provoked by his increasing involvement in the filmmaking industry in the late Forties: To what a degree can an artist concede to popular demand or production pressure without losing his creative integrity? Paul. satanic god figure would become the dominant one in Bergman's metaphysical probing and emerge as the possessive ‘spider god’ and ‘the god of silence’ in such films as Såsom i en spegel (Through a Glass Darkly). In a later screen version of Rakel och biografvaktmästaren that appears as one of the episodes in Kvinnors väntan (1952. Soon betrayals and lies jeopardize the 59 . an absolute and invisible power determines human life. the main character in Mig till skräck. Åström.The Young Playwright human love. as suggested by the name of its central character. Bergman's ‘moralities’ do not have the abstracted juxtaposition of salvation and damnation as do their generic Christian prototypes. Again. part metaphysical fantasy. maintains the metaphysical probing of his earlier works for the stage. has heard a voice ordering her to tell five different people that they are going to die the following day. his Moraliteter are modern dramas where conflicts may be unraveled in terms of profane psychology. Jack Kasparsson. and metaphysical despair. published two years later (1948) under the common title Moraliteter (Morality Plays). decides to dissolve the troupe. This has fatal consequences for Paul’s sense of self-respect. (1956. part mental thriller. Rakel och biografvaktmästaren (Rachel and the Cinema Doorman). The second dramatic work in the same volume. But Mia (Maria) surfaces again as the juggler Jof 's wife in Det sjunde inseglet. led by a director he has never met. She is to accompany them on their journey. His implied definition of a morality play suggests a work that is a moral fable but not a religious allegory in the medieval sense of the term. The last of Bergman's three morality plays. Eventually the cold. The plot evolves like a Pirandellean game of identities until the Director.

who is a friend of Paul's grandmother. A complete manuscript dated 1949 and titled ‘Joakim Naken eller Självmordet. Men du valde det i fullt medvetande och i klar besittning av dina sinnen]. the same year Pär Lagerkvist received the Nobel Prize in literature. in Fanny and Alexander. an old Jew by the name of Isak. Two of the most colorful ones are Paul's grandmother and her housekeeper. Mig till skräck is still an apprentice work in which Bergman tries to telescope a lifetime into Paul's conflict with his publisher.Chapter II The Writer future of his marriage and his relationship with other people. Writing as therapy functioned as a valid principle for Bergman. The contours of the city take on the grotesque features of a painting by Hieronymous Bosch. However. by tradition a strong dramatic medium in Sweden. Melodrama in three acts] was submitted to Bonniers for publication but was refused. Others don't see it. his affiliation with the Intimate Theatre in Stockholm as a guest director was unhappy. Staden too is a psychological journey back to the city of childhood and youth. The figure of Joakim Naken. which can bring about miracles like self-illuminating mummies and inexplicable rescues of imprisoned children. which are structured as explorations of the past. when Staden was rebroadcast. old women who perform the roles of evil and good fairies (Mean’s name has no connection to the English word ‘mean’). he had left the Göteborg City Theatre. See (Ø 61). Mean. The main character in Staden is a failing artist with the symbolic name of Joakim (Jack) Naked. During his formative years as a writer and director. Joakim encounters a pastor who insists that life be regarded as a correctional institution. Wild Strawberries). In a radio interview in 1966. Ingmar Bergman was also active in the radio theatre. When compared to a later confessional life journey by Bergman. As in a number of Ingmar Bergman's early works for the stage and the screen. and his private life was in shambles after a second divorce. made some 40 years later. It is a measure of Bergman's growth as a dramatic artist that this rather simplistic moral exhortation in Mig till skräck would. Bergman’s play shares with Lagerkvist’s works the central concept of ‘utplånande’ or ‘being wiped out/annihilated’. He had been ‘kicked out’ from Svensk Filmindustri. he runs into a former mistress who has been through a painful divorce. he is confronted with his wife who 60 . Isak shows his young protégé the profound power of conviction. and he himself experiences no inner conflict but only a prolonged sense of self-pity. Andra ser det inte. Its protagonist. Paul’s situation in Mig till skräck seems static. Melodram i tre akter’ [Joakim Naked or the Suicide. develop into a complex encounter between the young imaginative child Alexander – a potential artist – and the visionary Isak (and his locked-up relative Ishmael). the play contains a storehouse of Bergman role figures that will appear in his later production. Bergman told his listeners that the play was written after a crisis in his life. From a dramaturgical point of view. But you chose it in full awareness and in clear possession of your senses’ [Du gick in i meningslösheten med öppna ögon. When he finally began to work his way out of his depression. whose name might be seen as an alternative to Jack Kasparsson (Jack Clownson) appears in a number of unpublished manuscript fragments from the late 1940s. he felt a need to transform his experiences into a play. explains why Paul's artistic compromise was unforgivable: ‘You went into futility with open eyes. Joakim Naken. In 1951 he submitted and published Staden (The City). undertaken by the aging Isak Borg in Smultronstället (1957. In a scene anticipating the film Fanny och Alexander. travels into the surreal landscape of the subconscious.

fanns det varken kropp eller ansikte eller händer. [Första gången jag kom i kontakt med Strindberg var jag tolv år.] och samma sak hände mig som en person jag såg i en film.. I tried to write like him. Och jag tror att jag skrev en hel del Strindbergsinspirerade pjäser. The two works are station dramas with the dramatic action composed as a series of crucial stops and encounters with people who serve as catalysts in a self-centered conflict. Bergman himself has readily admitted his young dependence on Strindberg’s work. Pelikanen (The Pelican) and 61 . dialogues. I was twelve. Joakim Naked is a self without integrity.] and the same thing happened to me as to a person I saw in a film. And I believe I wrote quite a few Strindberg-inspired plays. Där fanns ingenting.. When he undressed and took the bandages off his face and hands. there was neither body nor face nor hands. His vitality. who comes to realize the futility of his life. Joakim Naked admits: ‘Now I have stripped to the skin [. where the peeling of one layer after another only reveals the lack of a core. There is a certain structural similarity here between Staden and Strindberg’s Till Damaskus. hans vrede. A comparison with Ibsen's Peer Gynt comes to mind. Spiritually bankrupt. such as Oliver Mortis or ‘Döden i din ande’ [Death in your spirit]. his anger. The protagonists in both plays oscillate between self-accusation and reluctant penitence. Det var en enorm upplevelse. which he deliberately copied: The first time I came in contact with Strindberg. Ø 919.] The most obvious literary incentive for Staden is not Ibsen's play. only to be saved by a representative of womankind. allt. Jag försökte skriva som honom. Allegorical figures appear. It was an enormous experience.. och jag tror att mina första pjäser.] (Tre dagar med Bergman. Joakim learns however that a new city will be built on the ruins of the one to be destroyed. på dina egna möjligheter]. and I believe my first plays. på morgondagens starka förväntningar. His grandmother provides him with encouragement and hope: ‘You must believe in a sense of fellowship. Like Peer... jag kopierade Strindberg helt enkelt.. everything.. [Nu har jag klätt av mig in på bara skinnet [. in your own possibilities’ [Du måste tro på en sorts gemenskap.The Young Playwright is condemned to death for killing three of their children. in the keen expectations of tomorrow. which is also conceived as a circular confessional journey. p. however. and both are engaged in a spiritual quest that starts at a low point in their lives. But as in Mig till skräck. I quite simply copied Strindberg. dialoger. scenes. The second half of Bergman’s play takes place at the house of Joakim Naked's grandmother where he runs into all the people he has met earlier. Beyond all comparison Strindberg was my idol. In a speech reminiscent of Peer Gynt's famous onion metaphor. När han klädde av sig och tog bandaget från ansiktet och händerna. scener. den kände jag inom mig. 14) Bergman began his stage career with several remarkable productions of Strindbergian dramas: Lycko-Pers resa (Lucky Per's Journey) in 1939. Utan jämförelse var Strindberg min idol. There was nothing’. To Damascus). but Strindberg's drama Till Damaskus (1898. Staden ends on a note of optimism that is not really motivated by the dramatic context. I felt it inside me. A strange old man named ‘The Pump’ makes predictions of a natural calamity that will destroy the city. Hans vitalitet. though his first encounter with them took place in a nightmare. Joakim Naked's excessively emotional attitude towards women and his mood swings between strong hate and nostalgic love seem also quite Strindbergian in origin..

17) 62 .] (Tre dagar med Bergman. an example is the play Trämålning (1954. As with Strindberg in his medieval play Folkungasagan (1898. A few. Jag är inte särskilt förtjust i dem. Ett fåtal. Though sometimes performed in the late 1940s and early 1950s. p. From Strindberg the expressionist he absorbed both a modernist dramatic form and a revival of the medieval morality play with its abstracted characters and Christian ethos. Here Bergman telescopes history into a 14th-century setting that includes references to the Crusades. Men att sätta upp sina egna verk blir en sorts outhärdlig masturbation. which he presented at the Malmö City Theatre in 1952. many of whom felt that Bergman’s grotesque spectacle about a 19th century murderer and priest could not be redeemed by his virtuoso stagecraft. They are not very good. Wood Painting). so I am not all that happy about having others stage them either. Saga of the Folkungs). [Jag har inte särskilt ofta satt upp mina egna pjäser. Bergman’s early stage plays have not been part of the theatre repertory since then. två eller tre. From Strindberg's naturalistic dramas he learnt the rapid. two or three are not so bad. This becomes particularly apparent in his dark drama Mordet i Barjärna (Murder at Barjärna). This highly theatrical production provoked a very harsh response from reviewers. the bubonic plague and witch burning. Bergman allowed dramatic expediency to overrule historical fact. Dom är inte särskilt bra. tycker jag.Chapter II The Writer Svarta handsken (The Black Glove) in 1940. a rare phenomenon in the Swedish theatre world. From Strindberg the writer of history plays Bergman borrowed plot elements and took similar liberties with historical events. A key word in the critical assessment of Bergman’s early stage plays is ‘excess’. Fadren (The Father) and Spöksonaten (The Ghost Sonata) in 1941. But to stage your own works becomes a kind of unbearable masturbation. I am not particularly fond of them. så jag ser inte gärna att andra sätter upp dom heller. Members in the audience reportedly walked out on opening night. events which in reality took place over several centuries. Bergman himself has repeatedly announced his own lack of interest in reviving them: I haven't staged my own plays very often. är inte så dåliga. highstrung repartees in an emotional duel between man and woman.

Durham: Duke UP. Frank. 1968. SvD. Röster i Radio. includes Rakel hos biografvaktmästaren. pp. New York: Twayne. ingenting är. and Mig till skräck) Kamma noll (1948) Staden (1950) Mordet i Barjärna (1952) Trämålning (1954) Apart from reviews. ‘Tidiga pjäser låter oss kika in i Bergmans verkstad’ [Early plays let us look into B’s workshop]. 19-20. Stockholm: Nya Doxa. Wallqvist. 4. both published and unpublished. Titled ‘En kortare berättelse om ett av Jack Uppskärarens tidigaste barndomsminnen’ [A shorter tale about one of Jack the Ripper’s earliest childhood memories]. first emerged in narrative prose form. Many of these fragments and vignettes also suggest that some of his early authorial figures. I begynnelsen var ordet. while revealing its roots in a personal world and functioning as a kind of urtext that embodies familiar Bergman conflicts: eschatological fears and strident parent-child or man-woman relations. The Passion of Ingmar Bergman. Ingmar Bergman och hans tidiga författarskap 2002). (See Koskinen. like much of Bergman’s initial fiction. Himmelstrand. In fact. 6. Ulf. in Ingmar Bergman. Dagen slutar tidigt. many of his first film ‘scripts’ were subtitled ‘short stories for film’ and were conceived as prose narratives rather than screen dramas. 2000. Lars-Levi. Birgitta. 25-37. 6 September 1949. 2002. 1952. p. See the following items: Gado. 249-262. p. Lars. Maaret.The Writer of Prose Fiction Bergman’s early stage plays comprise the following titles (not including unpublished drafts. Ingmar Bergman: Allting föreställer. for these. 19-36. ‘Kamma noll’. This is especially the case prior to his international breakthrough as a filmmaker in 1956. 1986. July 7. SvD. check the bibliographical record of Bergman’s writing after this introduction): Kaspers död (1940) Tivolit (1941) Reskamraten (1942) Jack hos skådespelarna (1946) Moraliteter (1948. Steene. 13 February 1998. 157-172. 28 (10-16 July) 1949. 24-29. In that sense a story like ‘Jack Uppskäraren’ shares the tone of Berg- 63 . ‘Ingmar Bergman as a Playwright’. the piece is. Kasper and Jack. relatively little has been written on young Ingmar Bergman as a playwright. Ring. One work. p. The Writer of Prose Fiction Bergman’s earliest writing. pp. pp. the depicted world often nightmarish and expressionistic. pp. Örjan. Koskinen. p. Punch stories) includes a fragment that appeared in the modernistic magazine 40-tal. (On Dagen slutar tidigt). and I begynnelsen var ordet. no. written in a somewhat burlesque style. The rhetorical pitch in this early work is excessive and hysterical. ‘Puritanen och Kasperteatern’. 2-3. ‘Ingmar Bergman och döden’ [IB and death]. Læstadius. ‘Kaspernoveller’ (1942. is often composed as short stories or fictional vignettes. AT.

Den goda viljan depicts the early years in the marriage of a young pastor and his wife. approaching middle age and in love with a much younger theology student. Söndagsbarn/Sunday’s Child (1992/93). in a flashback fishing episode. sometimes presented symbolically as a rag doll or a fish.Chapter II The Writer man’s early plays for the stage: there is a strong resemblance between Jack’s adult memory of a nightmarish. In the milk-and-strawberry sequence in The Seventh Seal. finally. family tensions and ends about the time of the birth of a second son. sometimes involving the death of an actual small person. sexually ambivalent encounter as a 3-year-old with a miniature girl who turns out to be a boy he later murders. all 64 . no. to launch a recurrent motif and set of image clusters that in retrospect can be seen to form a receptacle of Bergman themes. tells the story of the mother. Together with the TV play Larmar och gör sig till/In the Presence of a Clown (1994). His last wish is to return to the womb of his mistress. Condemned to death for having killed his wife’s lover. But Jack Uppskäraren’s child murder motif also lives on as a recurrent scene in several of Bergman’s later film scripts. the painter Johan reenacts Jack’s childhood memory in the drowning of the boy who attacks him on the cliffs. His ‘novels’ like Den goda viljan/Best Intentions (1991). it signals upcoming marital problems. to an archetypal moment of conception. Thus. 4 (Winter) 1950-51 and 32. Perhaps this is a humorous reference to Bergman’s novella titled ‘Fisken. Bergman continued to produce prose works of very conscious literary form. in Smultronstället Isak Borg’s mother pulls a rag doll out of a box of childhood mementoes in a scene alluding to emotional atrophy. and focusses a great deal on the relationship between father and son. 1 (Spring) 1951. Post-filmmaking Prose After declaring his exit from filmmaking with Fanny and Alexander in 1982. In ‘Eva’ the narrator’s child memory concerns the accidental death of a little blind girl. no. Joachim escapes execution because of a malfunctioning guillotine. in ‘Fängelse’ the main character. originally published in Biografbladet 31. Ingmar. nicknamed Little Pu. Enskilda samtal. Jack the Ripper. Fars för film’. in Persona the ‘double take’ of Alma and Elisabeth is related to Alma’s abortion and Elisabeth’s rejection of her boy. in Vargtimmen. the Squire Jöns offers to sing a bawdy song about an amorous fish. such as his memoirs Laterna magica/The Magic Lantern (1987). Bergman uses one of the most famous murderers in history. Söndagsbarn centers on the childhood of this second son. structured like a Proustian series of personal recollections interspersed with more contemporary events. In this absurd story about Joachim who encounters a fairytale fish that gives him three wishes to be fulfilled. has a nightmare in which her baby is transformed into a fish whose neck is broken. Enskilda samtal/Private Conversations (1994/95) move freely between biographical fact and reconstruction of an emotionally charged human story that happens to be his (fictionalized) family’s. the plot revolves around a sexual conflict between Joachim and two women (wife and mistress). There seems to be a foreshadowing here of Frost’s concluding lines in Gycklarnas afton (The Naked Night) where he tells of a dream he has had in which he returned to the womb of his wife Alma. and the misogynist tensions (as well as grandmother setting) of Paul’s personal drama in the play Mig till skräck (1948). Birgitta Carolina. Ultimately the fish metaphor is connected to a creative process.

The later works are written by an old man whose main concerns are to seek understanding and possibly reconciliation with those who gave him life and material to create with. there are often important discrepancies between the script and the finished film. There is a clear difference between Bergman’s early plays and prose works from the late 1940s and his depiction of his family saga after the making of Fanny and Alexander. (2) making people confront each other in ‘close-ups’. In the critical canon examining Ingmar Bergman’s filmmaking. 192. Thus for instance. On the other hand. The Problems of Subtitling.’ 1998. Ø 1650). there is both a psychological closure and a creative completeness to Ingmar Bergman’s writing. not quite fiction. Ø 185. Sunday’s Child. which Bergman knew he was not going to film himself. not quite documentary. not intellectual understanding is the ultimate purpose. The urgent spirit at one time that shaped the adolescent outbursts by the writer Bergman has not only mellowed. 188. 191. so that reading the text is a little like watching a (Bergman) film. making them face each other in sharp and direct dialogue. Bergman’s fiction after Fanny and Alexander contains self-conscious notes that cannot be transferred to the screen. 23 pp. Names have been reshuffled and events telescoped for the sake of dramatic convenience.Post-filmmaking Prose these works form a compressed family history. For additional comments. (See Törnqvist. i. Thus. being drawn into the magic of a world projected on the screen in a dark cinema. Bergman’s late prose works suggest that the further behind he left the film studio.. Any student of Bergman’s late prose faces in fact a rich field of variations between the written and the filmed texts. a word written must be a word seen. this is not to say that he himself has regarded these late printed texts as words in search of a reader only. the refereed ‘text’ takes on an even more nebulous status. it is not uncommon to find quoted samples of a Bergman ‘text’ which move back and forth between his published script and the filmed dialogue. such as Sista skriket (The Last Scream). Best Intentions. the very same texts borrow the approach of a former filmmaker. Larmar och gör sig till (In the Presence of a 65 . and Private Confessions seem built on three ‘filmic’ principles: (1) visualization of a scene through concrete detail. (3) telling a story elliptically. the more he moved towards an acceptance of himself as a writer. All of Ingmar Bergman’s literary works after he left his large-scale filmmaking in 1982 have borne the signs of a writer who can look upon his past with a certain distance but who has also rediscovered the pleasure that lies in story-telling on paper. This becomes accentuated in the late prose works. However. The early works are permeated with the often desperate and definitely rebellious tone of an angry young man. see reception of Bergman’s post-filmmaking prose. ‘Ingmar Bergman Abroad. using a cutting technique that forces the reader to fill in the gaps and become a participant in the narrative. However. presented in an intense and loud expressionistic style.e. Emotional involvement. 199. it has returned to using language as a literary tool and recognizes that words employed imaginatively can shape and manifest a universe as much as images in films. If the original Swedish manuscript has been translated. The narrator Bergman supersedes the filmmaker but also closes the creative circle that began with his first literary sketches in his notebooks from his late teens. a crucial background incident in Den goda viljan – the Queen hearing Pastor Bergman preach – did not take place until 1924 when young Ingmar was six (Den goda viljan ends in 1918 just prior to his birth). Thus. In fact. 194. in several cases he has directed his own late writings for television. On the one hand.

by Roger W. recently deposited at the SFI. Stockholm: Wahlström & Widstrand. 8). James. as much an instrument for a performance as a reading experience: I wrote the texts in this book without giving a thought to their possible medium. ‘The Director as Writer: Some Observations on Ingmar Bergman’s “Den goda viljan”’. I wrote them in the way I have been accustomed to writing for more than fifty years – it looks like drama but could just as easily be film. I begynnelsen var ordet. Though annotated here. ‘The Imagined Past in Ingmar Bergman’s The Best Intentions. Steene. Jag har skrivit som jag varit van att skriva sedan mer än femtio år – det ser ut som teater men det kan lika gärna vara film. 2-3 (Spring 1988): 78-90. 1995. 1944. wind ensembles. ‘Ingmar Bergman tillbaka till det skrivna ordet’ [IB back to the written word]. 3. Birgitta. On Screen. using a method something like that of the harpsichord sonatas by Bach – though they are otherwise not comparable. For discussions of Ingmar Bergman’s prose works. An Artist’s Journey.] (p. 1988: 174-80. 112-115. The Fifth Act) which includes Sista skriket. pp. 40-tal. Wright. 281-93. students are advised to check 66 . blåsensemble. ‘Ingmar Bergmans Laterna magica’. Koskinen. In Ingmar Bergman. no. DN. see the following: Ekbom. Finsk Tidskrift. 3. he suggests that the written word is a flexible tool. ‘Strindbergman: The Problem of Filming Autobiography in Bergman’s Fanny and Alexander’. Haverty. ed. In Print. Some early unpublished items have been located by the editor. De kan spelas av stråkkvartett. Vinge. Ingmar Bergman och hans tidiga författarskap. Linda. but for the most part such material stems from Ingmar Bergman’s private papers at Fårö. by Roger W. organ or piano. ‘Ingmar Bergmans Bilder och den självbiografiska genren’. On Stage. New York: Arcade Publishing. no. Norwich: Norvik Press. Thorsten. Maaret. pp. Rochelle. Oliver. Literature/Film Quarterly 16. pp. television eller bara läsning. B1-B2. New York: Arcade Publishing. contrasting it to Bergman’s early short story ‘En kortare berättelse om en av Jack Uppskärarens tidigaste barndomsminnen’ [A short tale about one of Jack the Ripper’s earliest childhood memories]. [Bokens texter är skrivna utan tanke på eventuellt medium vid ett framförande ungefär som cembalosonater av Bach (utan jämförelse i övrigt). List of Bergman’s Written Work Listed below in chronological order are both published and unpublished works by Ingmar Bergman.Chapter II The Writer Clown) and Saraband. ‘Bergman as Novelist’.’ In Ingmar Bergman. 290-299 and passim. In the introductory piece ‘Monolog’ in the collection Femte akten (2000. Finsk Tidskrift. no. Louise. An Artist’s Journey. —. 25 January 1993. orgel eller piano. 2002. (review of Söndagsbarn. pp. Caryn. television or simply texts for reading. Oliver. 5 (Autumn 1991): 274-286. p. They can be played by string quartets. 1994. no. 1995 pp. 116-25. In A Century of Swedish Narrative: Essays in Honour of Karin Petherick’. ed. gitarr. guitar. 5-9).

titled ‘Några huvuddrag i Selma Lagerlöfs författarskap’ [Some main features in Selma Lagerlöf ’s authorship]. 98. spring 1937. its student material has been transferred to Stockholms Stadsarkiv. 1935. Wild Strawberries (Smultronstället). dated October 25. in Uppsala Film Studio’s library. 2002. Palmgrenska Samskolan [Student themes. The Palmgrenska school no longer exists. ‘Recension av någon bok. 67 . her interest in the supernatural. dated 19 November 1935. For instance. Translations of individual scripts appear in the Swedish script entry. I begynnelsen var ordet. Klass L III. volume F 1:21. the volume Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman. Not annotated among Ingmar Bergman’s Fårö papers is his graduation essay at the Palmgrenska school. which contains translations of the scripts to Smiles of a Summer Night (Sommarnattens leende). In addition. Bergman singles out the following aspects of Selma Lagerlöf ’s authorship: her love of people and of nature. See Koskinen.List of Bergman’s Written Work Maaret Koskinen’s inventory in her book I begynnelsen var ordet. 336). The Seventh Seal (Sjunde inseglet). Ingmar Bergman och hans tidiga författarskap. 101. major volumes of translations that contain more than one script are listed separately under the translated title and under the year of publication. dated 5 February 1936. Palmgrenska Lyceum]. unpublished scripts are also available in the Swedish Film Institute and. p. p. The manuscript designation for Bergman’s film scripts that is used here follows the international FIAF formula: Script I Script II Script III Script IV describes action but not in terms of takes describes and divides action into takes but does not list length of takes states length of each take gives dialogue list only Script titles are listed under their original title in Swedish. but there are also cross references to this volume of translations in the individual entries to the four original film titles (Ø 91. Bergman’s Fårö papers include some of his school essays on various assigned themes: ‘Hemmet och de olika familjemedlemmarnas uppgifter’ [The home and various family members’ tasks]. jag nyss läst. Studentuppsatser. and her imagination. G. In addition to copies of Bergman’s film scripts included in his recent gift of personal material. is listed as a separate entry (Ø 110) under its year of publication (1960). de P’s ‘Richard Wagner’]. at times. ‘Den moderna ungdomen’ [Modern youth]. 102). This item is catalogued there under Palmgrenska. 1935-37 1. Ø 1681. 321 ff. Guy de Pourtales “Richard Wagner”’ [Review of a book I have read recently. ‘Är det berättigat att tala om den gamla goda tiden?’ [Is it justifiable to talk about the good old days?]. dated 18 September 1935. and The Magician (Ansiktet).

8. 1938-1940 SFP was an abbreviation of ‘Storkyrkoflickorna och Storkyrkopojkarna’ (Great Church girls/ boys). for note on rehearsals of Strindberg’s play. p. 1938. 2002. p. 1. Short presentation by Bergman of theatre and film offerings in Stockholm. See also SFP. In another column in the same SFP issue. p. något oförstående kritik]. 3. p. I begynmelsen var ordet. no.Chapter II The Writer 1938 2. raggamuffins and others have our own experience of a hard-to-please audience and a strange. Group Item: SFP. titled ‘Till främmande hamn’ [lit. cf. he recalls the inappropriate laughter and insensitive response to his presentation of Outward Bound a year earlier: ‘We cherubs. Material is available at Mäster Olofsgården Archive. 68 . 8. appeared in SFP no. p. * ‘Lycko-Pers resa’ [Lucky Per’s journey]. Announcement signed ‘B-man’ of two performances. SFP. recommending Strindberg and several French films. 1939. 2 (1939). trashankar och andra har ju våra erfarenheter av en hårdflirtad publik och en egendomlig. * ‘Experimentteater!’ [Experimental theater]. no. Introduction and (Ø 344). an organized youth group at Mäster Olofsgården. Cf. 3. * ‘Evenemang’ [Events] SFP. Mäster Olofsgården newsletter. no. a settlement house in Stockholm’s Old City. 1939. Bergman’s Fårö papers contain a small notebook with references to Mäster Olofsgården. Ø 347. His first note. Bergman worries about the reception of his next production (see next item) since it might be too ‘exclusive’ a repertory. Bergman’s comments are motivated by a desire to ‘prove that there is much worthwhile to see on stage right now and that Stockholm’s theatre world has stepped out of its mud bath level’ [bevisa att det finns mycket värt att se på scenen just nu och att Stockholms teatervärld har tagit steget ut ur sin gyttjebadsnivå]. 338. * During his two years as director at MO-gården’s amateur theatre section. somewhat unappreciative corps of critics’ [Vi kyrkänglar. 2 (1939). Sutton Vane’s Outward Bound. Cf. Signed ‘Regissören’ (The Director) this is a brief presentation of an upcoming double bill: Edmond Rostand’s 18th-century play ‘Romantik’ (Romance) and Doris Rönnqvist’s play ‘Höstrapsodi’ [Autumn Rhapsody]. for selective quotes from SFP notices. no. Additional SFP items written by Bergman are listed below in chronological order: * ‘Teatraliskt i stan’ [Theatrics in town]. This column is juxtaposed to one expressing Bergman’s worries that the Mäster Olofsgården audience seems reluctant to accept an ‘exclusive repertory’ on its premises. SFP. photographer and PR-man. 3. to be presented at Nicolai Elementary School on Ash Wednesday: Danish author Axel Bentzonich’s dramatic short story ‘Guldkarossen’ [The Golden Chariot] and Runar Schildt’s play Galgmannen [The Hangman]. no. 5. See introduction. p. 1939. and concerns his thoughts about his first production at MO-gården. See also Henrik Sjögren’s Lek och raseri. Bergman wrote several notices about his own productions and about film and theatre offerings in Stockholm. theatre chapter (VI). Bergman proudly announces that Mäster Olofsgården’s theatre section is now self-supporting with its own volunteer composer. SFP. Commentary. 43-60. light and art designers. To a foreign port]. 24. Koskinen. Presentation of Strindberg’s play directed by Bergman at Mäster Olofsgården and focusing on the moral content of the play. 1. theatre chapter. pp.

SFP. now deposited at SFI. n. Some of this material seems to be early sketches for the film script to ‘Hets’. Brief commentary on Thornton Wilder’s Our Town. Short story about a young man’s encounter in a florist shop with a woman who turns out to be a prostitute widow supporting her only child. no. 23-60. 1 (1940). and suggesting both enthusiasm and frustration in his work. His subsequent analysis of Lagerkvist’s drama is a piece of moral exhortation to his presumed audience. since Bergman left Mäster Olofsgården for other theatre activities. 9 (1939). * ‘Ringaren i Notre Dame’ [The Hunchback of Notre Dame]. Brief review of The Hunchback of Notre Dame. produced at the Royal Dramatic Theatre. 8. SFP. see Commentary in (Ø 355). Hamburg: 2002. no. oscillating between self-defense and irony. Presentation of Macbeth. 5 (1940). asking them not to be turned away by the high seriousness of the piece. where the rehearsals had become ‘moments of spiritual recreation’ [stunder av andlig rekreation]. The undated notebook is probably from the summer of 1938. Bergman outlines the work schedule for the theatre group and next year’s program. Listing the past season’s repertory. 3 (1940). In addition to rehearsals of five productions (two of them double bills). Translated into German as ‘Aus einem Notizbuch vom Sommer 1938’ in Ingmar Bergman.List of Bergman’s Written Work * ‘Experimentteatern igen’ [Experimental theater once more]. p. plus a filmmaking project during the summer months. with planned productions of Strindberg’s Oväder (Storm). * ‘Familjeidyll’ [Family idyl]. This is the most telling of Bergman’s SFP notices. p. p.p. The article clearly shows his total commitment to his directorial task. Among Bergman’s Fårö papers. Work book containing handwritten short stories and other prose fragments. ‘Vaxdukshäftet’ [The wax cover notebook]. 3. None of this materialized. 6. 11 pp. no. 2002. * ‘Vår lilla stad’ [Our Town]. no. 3. SFP. She is later found murdered. no. Entry also includes a critical comment on Ingrid Bergman’s performance in Juninatten (Night of June). 14. 4 (1940). Among its content is the following material: * ‘En sällsam historia’ [A strange tale]. ‘Vaxdukshäftet’ is discussed by Maaret Koskinen in her book I begynnelsen var ordet. scheduled for production in early April 1940. Bergman is anxious to point out the ‘professional’ care behind the production both in terms of stagecraft and character analysis. SFP. * ‘Ett spelår tilländalupet’ [A year’s repertory has come to an end]. edited by Renate Bleibtreu. pp. Seven handwritten pp. Bergman arranged regular film showings and a course where the goal was to discuss the majority of Strindberg’s plays (!). and John Masefield’s Good Friday. SFP. Im Bleistift – Ton. Summing-up of 1939-40 season at Mäster Olofsgården amateur theatre section. 69 . pp. 4. * ‘En saga’ [A fairy tale]. A personal presentation of Bergman’s forthcoming production at Mäster Olofsgården of Pär Lagerkvist’s drama Mannen som fick leva om sitt liv (The Man Who Lived His Life Over/The Man Who Lived Twice).

Synopsis of a play in five acts. The boy. The boy hits the father with a chair. vandringsdrama’ [The Keys of Heaven: Fairy play. a rather ‘pre-bergmanian’ metaphor. Stockholm University. dreamplay. The plot revolves around the schoolboy Jan Erik Widgren and his conflicts at home and in school (with his teacher Caligula). 6 pp. 1940 5. Untitled short story in fourteen chapters suggesting the content of ‘Hets’. fall 1940. * Fragment is of interest in that it suggests two later Bergman themes: Love as sacrifice and lying as a form of self-deception. * ‘Fragment’. Story taking place in school. Participants: Members of MO theatre section]. Title suggests Bergman’s early interest in the film medium but also his literary anchoring. 70 . Photo: AB. * * ‘Judas’. Andliga övningar [Spiritual exercises]. A text on the front page reads: ‘Regi: Ingmar Bergman. divided into four short chapters. Foto: Axel Bergström. 1939 4.Chapter II The Writer About a high school student’s confrontation with his father who loses control and gets a revolver. Filmfantasi efter Hjalmar Gullbergs dikt med samma namn’ [The Tivoli. The manuscript was inserted in the notebook but could be of a later date. station drama]. Story also deals with Jan-Erik’s divided attraction to two different women: the somewhat vulgar Vanja and the family girl Britt. This handwritten film synopsis consists of 104 short ‘takes’ and lists 15 characters. 22 typed pp. ‘Himmelrikets nycklar: Sagospel. whereupon the father locks himself up in a room. Hjalmar Gullberg was one of Sweden’s leading poets at the time. The brief poem ‘Tivoli’ is included in his 1932 collection of poetry. Institute of Literary History. drömspel. Untitled story about a young boy’s decision to leave his girlfriend. Film fantasy after Hjalmar Gullberg’s poem with the same name]. ‘Tivolit. In Bilder (Images. drifts around in the city and is later reprimanded at school for his absenteeism. Gullberg’s ‘tivoli’ is a carousel referred to as an earthly dance of death. 12 pp. My Life in Film) Bergman talks about revising the script for ‘Hets’ in 1942. Names of the main characters – Jan-Erik Widgren and Caligula – are the same as in the film ‘Hets’. Medverkande: Medlemmar ur Mäster Olofsgårdens teatersektion’ [Direction: IB. after trying to calm his mother. Among Bergman’s Fårö papers. 114 pp. Unpublished undergraduate thesis (3betygsuppsats) for Professor Martin Lamm’s Strindberg seminar. Vanja may be an early draft for Berta in ‘Hets’. Bergman’s analysis of Strindberg’s play reads like a prompt copy for a stage production.

(engagement vacation). Theatre chapter VI. 1. Beppo. no.C. their son. housekeeper. 2002. 9. Lejonet. Among Ingmar Bergman Fårö papers deposited at SFI. Mr. Stage adaptation of H. the Jester. 50 pp. Bergman’s first wife. The setting of Act I is an open square filled with a variety of people: Businessmen. choreographed ‘Clownen Beppo’. Kreutz. The dramatis personae in ‘Circusen’ are: Regissören. Alice Alman. 1942 8. the Father. a pantomime play staged in 1941 at the Sago (Fairy Tale) Theatre (a children’s stage) in Stockholm’s Civic Hall. Camomilla. the Lion. Undated handwritten manuscript in three acts.. A family drama about a weak. Dummer-Jöns. Camomilla (The Director. Bror’s girlfriend. father and high school teacher. probably identical with ‘Clownen Beppo’. (förlovningsferie). Lisa Didricks. mother. pp. herr Bofvén. Ø 26. Voices. ‘Fullmånen’ [The Full Moon]. Andersson. ‘De ensamma’ [The Lonely Ones]. Stockholm. Handwritten play manuscript.List of Bergman’s Written Work 1941 6. Lisa. Ø 374). Alternate title: ‘Adjunkt Alman’ [High School Teacher Alman]. Act III is set at the tavern amidst a gloomy Jack the Ripper. Manuscript not located. yet authoritarian father’s confrontation with his son. Beppo. for brief discussion of ‘Cirkusen/Clownen Beppo’. [Written in Sigtuna 17 October 1942 – cont. a Girl and Jack the Ripper. and Bergman was responsible for the dialogue. 10. Bror Alman. Vagabonds. Theatre chapter. 15-39. Else Fisher. 12 August 1942.) 25 pp. A type-written undated ms covers only pp. Clod-Hans. Grandma. the Mayor. Untitled brief introduction by Bergman to his production of Kaj Munk’s play Niels Ebbesen (cf. Ø 379). Dramatikerstudions programblad. Mr. 25 pp. Dated Duvnäs. a blind Mother. typewritten. There is also a handwritten 8-page dialogue fragment of the same play including the following people: Bror. Dramatis personae: Erik Alman.] In SFI Special Ingmar Bergman Papers. See also Koskinen. Bror (same name as younger son Widgren in ‘Hets’). the Hero (‘sneezing and coughing’). Handwritten play manuscript in three acts with following date notation: Skrivet i Sigtuna 17 oktober 1942 – forts. theatre chapter (VI). Cf. Play (apparently unfinished) contains Bergman’s first reference to the character of Jack the Ripper (cf. the Devil (Hin). (Cf. the Girl. Alman commits suicide. Ø 367 & 385. Crook. Miss Alma Karlsson. Second Act takes place in the palace with the King. 157-160. 14 September 1943. 7. the Town Cryer and some Individuals. I begynnelsen var ordet. below). Andersen’s tale ‘Elddonet’ (The Tinder Box) for the Sago Theatre at Medborgarhuset [Civic Hall]. ‘Cirkusen’ [The Circus]. 71 . Servants and three Soldiers.

15. They are dated 1942-43 and consist of three texts: ‘Om varför gangstern skriver vers’ [About why the gangster writes poetry]. Im Bleistift – Ton. Punch and Judy (Kasper and Kasperina). dated Duvnäs. ‘Kaspers död’ [Death of Punch]. the Old Gentleman. 40-42. Im Bleistift – Ton. pp. and ‘Berättelsen om när Kasper och Lebemannen foro ut på landet’ [The tale of when Punch and Dandy travelled into the countryside]. 2002. ‘Om varför gangstern skriver vers’ was published in German as ‘Warum der Gangster Verse schreibt’ in Ingmar Bergman. ‘Interiör från familjen Kasper’ [A scene from the Punch family]. The play was submitted that year to the Swedish Radio but was refused. the Man of the World. the Girls. 49 pp. a Voice. I begynnelsen var ordet. see Koskinen. Karin. Both the Kasper and Jack figures – and their negative alter egos. ‘Möte med Kasper’ [Encounter with Punch]. Handwritten and unpublished opera libretto. näcken (water sprite). the Boys. the One. Child II. Program note is available at Royal Library in Stockholm and in Swedish Theatre Museum Library. Program note to production of ‘Kaspers död’ (Ø 12) at Student Theatre. Stockholm University. the Sinner. 72 . 24 September 1942. This may be the opera that Bergman makes references to in several interviews and alludes to indirectly in the film Såsom i en spegel/Through a Glass Darkly when the teenage boy Minus relates his creative literary output to his father David. For other Kasper fragments from same period. 13. bohemian. based on Hans Christian Andersen’s tale of same name. the Gangster. the One. Also in Ingmar Bergman Fårö papers deposited at SFI. Child I. but surfaced recently in Bergman’s Fårö storage and are now deposited at SFI. ‘Möte med Kasper’ appears in German translation. 25-39. Act II. 2002. though in fairly mild terms. see Koskinen. ed. by Renate Bleibtreu. Play was produced at the Student Theatre. pp. ‘Begegnung mit Kasper’. pp. ‘Kaspernoveller’ [Punch Stories] These unpublished stories were long thought to be lost. the Gangster. two Prostitutes (Subba I and II). (See Ø 363). the Man of the World. 321-22]. For more details. the Other. Dated August 1942. Punch. ‘Reskamraten’ [The Travel Companion]. ed. Among Ingmar Bergman Fårö papers deposited at SFI. Punch. 14. Gangstern (the Gangster) and Lebemannen (the Dandy) – are emblematic characters in many of Bergman’s early drafts. Available in Swedish Radio Archives. Dramatis personae: Sven. the Girl. and self-destructive character types. 9 August 1942. Unpublished typewritten stage play. the Fiddler. they represent a combination of rebellious. ‘Operan’ [The Opera]. 22 pp. pp. by Renate Bleibtreu. Play in three acts. the Other. 322-23. the huldra (troll woman). in Ingmar Bergman.Chapter II The Writer 11. Manuscript is structured as follows: Prologue. I begynnelsen var ordet (2002). moving in an expressionistic setting with themes revolving around such subjects as death and womanhood. September 1942. 2002. 12. Act I.

‘En bekännelse’ has numbered set descriptions to the left. a play mentioned by Bergman in an early interview done by Jolo (see Ø 688) and in early theatre programs listing titles of Bergman’s works. with the title in Bergman’s handwriting. 39 pp. 93 pp. There is also a typed. but never staged. In Ingmar Bergman Fårö papers deposited at SFI. untitled and incomplete manuscript to a play. 157-181. 71-79. and dated 22 October 1942. ‘Tivolit’ [The Tivoli]. most likely a draft to ‘Dimman’. a young woman by the name of Marianne. of which Fragment III is a prologue and Fragment IV is titled ‘Epilog’. 16. the son (Edgar) kills himself. dated at end Duvnäs. The Princess. The King of Toads. Also among the dramatis personae is Jon Andersson. The Host. I begynnelsen var ordet. arrives from Germany. See (Ø 366). pp. 11 pp. Two versions of same film script. In Ingmar Bergman Fårö papers. pp. a fun-loving mother (Brita). The son’s cousin.List of Bergman’s Written Work The cast includes the following characters: Dying Father. 73 . 4 July 1943. 2002. deposited at SFI. dated October 1942. dated August 1942. The One. The mother shoots the girl. Head of Council. I begynnelsen var ordet. It was at this time that Bergman set up Strindberg’s Pelikanen (The Pelican) at Stockholm Student Theatre (see Ø 361). The Old Man. Play in five tableaus by IB]. 18. The Travel Companion. ‘Dimman’ [The Fog]. The Uncle. There is also a typed manuscript in seven acts. Fragment also includes a Prologue. ‘Stationen’ [The Station]. unpublished play in three acts. Johannes. 9 August 1942. The Old Woman. dialogue to the right. 1943 19. 18. 62-64. ‘Rädd att leva’ [Afraid to live] and ‘En bekännelse’ [A confession]. The last scene in this draft takes place in a fog where the male protagonist commits suicide. A play about a problematic mother-son relationship. Handwritten. Manuscript is typed. Plot follows a group of tivoli performers during the off-season until the day the fun fair opens its gates again in late spring. 17. see Koskinen. Handwritten draft to a play. There is also an expanded fragment. In SFI Ingmar Bergman Papers from his private Fårö archive. Bergström’s assistant and successor. 2002. I begynnelsen var ordet (2002). The Other. and dated Gimo. 26. For discussion.. Pjäs i fem bilder av Ingmar Bergman’ [Some of them. The Gnome. The King. p. 340. Among Bergman papers deposited at SFI. titled ‘Några av dem. 40 pp. A play titled ‘Tivolit’ was staged by Bergman at the Stockholm Student Theatre in October 1943. and Koskinen. undated version of same. A play full of Strindbergian elements such as mother/vampire motif and the unmasking theme. The Troll. 323. For more detail. Consists of four separate fragments. see Koskinen. and their children Mary. Dramatic conflict revolves around a dysfunctional family consisting of a sick father (Station Master Anders Bergström). and Cecilia. There is also a typed manuscript divided into 20 chapters. Handwritten.

as well as several drafts and/or synopses of ‘Hets’ among them a prose version in fourteen chapters.’ [Den är tänkt som film och den blir varken roman. p.] Strong inclination towards the macabre. [.. Bergman’s synopsis to Hets in its original form. Jack Kasparsson takes over the part of lover. Serialized as a novella in Filmjournalen. 323 for more details. short story. Massor av stötande saker om fylla och sexualia. while the former lover now shoulders 74 . When a husband in the troupe dies. Film script. an autocratic and diabolic figure. Jack Kasparsson.] Expressionistically obscure in places. ‘Dröm i juli’ [Dream in July]. In SFI Ingmar Bergman Fårö Papers.Chapter II The Writer 20. and incomplete play in a tivoli setting.. In three parts.] Stark dragning åt det makabra. Script I. 25 pp. and others can step in and assume their roles.. [.. He declined with these words: ‘It [Hets] is conceived as a film and will not become a novel. Uneven characterization. In Pirandellean fashion they perform a triangle drama of soap opera quality and become the parts they enact. 101 pp.. The play was submitted to the Swedish Radio in 1946 but was refused. [. p. or TV play. Judging from the cast of characters. The title figure is a corporal. written as a narrative with a good deal of dialogue and dated 22 March 1943. Karaktärsteckningen ojämn. 35: 2. Handwritten.. A great deal of offensive material about drunkenness and sexuality. 22. the publishing house that published a version of the play in 1946. and in Bildjournalen. 4 August 1943.] Expressionistiskt dunkel här och var. A shooting script with minor notations is among Bergman’s Fårö papers. deposited at SFI. 8 (1945). geografi och historia]. dated Gränna. Olämplig för radio]. [. [teaching] dead as well as living languages. 51 (1944) through no. drama eller television. one of them marked ‘Bonniers förlag’.. London production was reviewed in NYT. (See Ø 3) above. Source: SR (Sveriges Radio) archives. Handwritten play manuscript.. 47 pp.] In 1948 Peter Ustinov adapted the film script to the stage. GP reported that Bergman had been asked to write a novel based on his film script. geography and history. no. undated. dialog list.). 158 pp. Script II. Front page has a dedication to ‘Caligula and all his likes.’ [Caligula och alla hans gelikar (som undervisar) döda såväl som levande språk. together with ‘Rakel och biografvaktmästaren’. pp. It was also performed in January 1948 in Oslo under direction of Per Gjersøe (see Ø 967). opened at St. (Stockholm: Bonniers. The radio reader’s verdict was harsh: ‘Drama about existential anguish. later published (1948). See also (Ø 24) and (Ø 27) below.. 21. Another manuscript in the same collection is a mixture of play and film script. Frenzy. 34-57. Expressionistic drama in two acts about a troupe of actors who are treated like marionettes by their director. 1946. ending with the text: ‘end of first act’. As such they are replaceable. Martin’s Theatre in London 21 April 1948. 22 April 1948. See Koskinen. Koskinen discusses the Hets material in same book. drama. [Drama om livsångest. ‘Hets’ [Frenzy]. On 7 November 1944. Three typewritten samples among Bergman Fårö papers. no. and lover. 12 through 15 (1959). who joins a theater troupe of three actors – husband. Script IV. Unsuitable for the radio’. wife. At SFI/USF [Swedish Film Institute/Uppsala Student Film Studio] libraries. religion. this fragment is a draft of Bergman’s 1946 unpublished play of same title (see Ø 38). Swedish only. The play. untitled. mystifierande repliker. ‘Jack hos skådespelarna’ [Jack among the actors]. mystifying lines. I begynnelsen var ordet (2002). religion.

though sadistic. like life. 40-tal. 1991: 7-11. no. Commentary to (Ø 202) in Filmography. 1944 24. Officer. and self-destructive Jack figure. (See Ø 11) above. Translated into French by A. Im Bleistift – Ton. 2002. 52 pp. can go on as before until the Director decides to dissolve the ensemble. 3 October 1944. ‘Hets’: Kniv på en varböld’ [Torment: Knife on a boil]. same paper. 1944. which formed the background for the film. 23. 11. by Renate Bleibtreu. ‘Samtal mellan en ekonomichef och en teaterchef’ [Conversation between a head of finances and a theatre head]. Krister. 26. in SFI Ingmar Bergman Fårö Papers. to elicit symphathy for Caligula because. Program issued in connection with opening of Hets in October 1944 to celebrate SF’s 25th anniversary as a production company. Bergman contributes with a statement outlining his three ambitions with Hets: to expose a sickness but free the spectator from pain. AB. Plot revolves around a mystical diabolical character by the name of Matheus Manders [possibly named after Ibsen’s Pastor Manders in Gengangere/Ghosts ]. no. Untitled handwritten manuscript in seven acts. Elna. The manuscript. Mutti.10. ‘En kortare berättelse om en av Jack Uppskärarens tidigaste barndomsminnen’ [A short tale about one of Jack the Ripper’s earliest childhood memories]. SF (Svensk Filmindustri) special program to ‘Hets’. n. 16. Cast of characters include Kerstin. p. Erik. Bergman promises more than Strindberg and Shakespeare on the repertory. 1-7. Civil Servant. 1. Short story in which Bergman introduces once more the vulnerable. dated Åkeslund 12. ed. with Author’s preface. pp. apparently lost Bergman work called ‘Om en mördare’ (About a murderer). Hälsingborg Theatre Program at end of fall season 1944. Gerd. 43-81. might be identical with an early.d. 27. Bergman’s Manders is described as a civil servant with ‘the face of a dancer of death’ [en döddansares ansikte] who has a devastating impact on a group of young people. Reply by Bergman. to render harmless the Caligulas in society. p. 5-9. he acts out of fear. pp. Also a typewritten version. 34 (March) 1959: 39-44. pp. Manfred. Response by his former headmaster Håkansson at Palmgrenska School appeared in same paper (AB) on 5 October 1944. ‘Matheus Manders fjärde berättelse’ [Mathew Manders’s fourth tale]. ‘Kaspernoveller’ [Punch stories]). no. 9 October 1944. 75 .43 (12 October 1943). Amlie (‘Un souvenir d’enfance de Jack L’Eventreur’) in Cinéma 59. rebellious. ‘Matheus Manders fjärde berättelse’ has been translated into German as ‘Matheus Manders vierte Erzählung’ and published in Ingmar Bergman. Cf. 10. The play. 25.List of Bergman’s Written Work the cloak of married cuckold. Also translated into Polish by Tadeusz Szczepański in Kino. In connection with the premiere of ‘Hets’ Bergman gave an account of his years in school. pp. ‘“Skoltiden” ett 12-årigt helvete’ [School a 12-year hell]. 287. 3.

Chapter II The Writer
28. ‘Hösttankar’ [Autumnal Thoughts]. In Hälsingborg City Theatre program, Fall 1944.
Tongue in cheek dialogue in which theatre director foresees the dissolution of traditional stages and a return to ambulatory performances on church steps. As director, Bergman wishes three things for the Hälsingborg City Theatre: That it be a platform of serious proclamations; That it be a bulwark against stupidity, indifference, crudeness and dullness; That it be a challenge and a playground for fun.


‘Vi måste ge Macbeth’ [We have to present Macbeth]. Helsingborgs Dagblad, 14 November 1944, p. 7.
Before the opening of his second Macbeth production, Bergman discussed the circumstances around his first presentation of the play in 1940 and his rationale for presenting it again. See Theatre chapter (Ø 401).

30. Group Item: Untitled program notes from Bergman’s tenure at the Helsingborg City Theatre, 1945-46 season. See also titled items (Ø 25, 28).
* Program note to production of Sune Bergström’s comedy ‘Reducera moralen’ [Reduce the morals], 12 April 1945.

Bergman proudly announces that the theatre has got its state subsidies back and promises that it will continue to be ‘the stormy center of our city’ [stadens oroliga hörn]. * Program note to production of Franz Werfel’s play Jacobovski och översten (Jacobowski and the Colonel), 9 September 1945.

At the opening of a new theatre season, Bergman set down a Six-point Declaration concerning the function of the Helsingborg City Theatre and its ensemble. See Theatre/ Media Bibliography (Ø 502, Chapter VII), for fuller listing. * Program note to production of Olle Hedberg’s ‘Rabies/Bekänna färg’ (Rabies/Show your cards), 1 November 1945.

Could be called IB’s modernist manifesto, a defense of Swedish fyrtiotalist literature (see Ø 952), which is said to be a truthful reflection of the disillusioned and desperate post-war generation. * ‘Avskedsintervju’ [Farewell interview], in playbill program to Björn Erik Höijer ’s play Rekviem, at the Helsingborg City Theatre, 6 March 1946.

Tongue-in-cheek interview between a fictional journalist and Ingmar Bergman. For fuller annotation (see Ø 507), Theatre/Media Bibliography, Chapter VII.


‘En slags tillägnan’ [A kind of dedication]. Program note to Bergman’s Malmö production of Strindberg’s Pelikanen (The Pelican), 25 November 1945.
Bergman pays homage to Olof Molander, prominent director of Strindberg’s dramas since the mid-1930s. See Commentary, Ø 392.


List of Bergman’s Written Work
32. ‘Möte’ [Encounter], in printed theatre program to production of Ingmar Bergman’s play Rakel och biografvaktmästaren [Rachel and the cinema doorman], produced at Malmö City Theatre, September 1946, pp. 8-9.
A tongue-in-cheek dialogue between a playwright and the director of his play (Author Bergman directed the production of ‘Rakel’). (Cf. Ø 43) below.


‘Blick in i framtiden’ [Look into the future]. Unpublished manuscript, Swedish Radio Archives, Stockholm, n.p. See Theatre/Media Bibliography (Ø 500). ‘Kris’ [Crisis]. Film Script.
Script II, titled ‘Mitt barn är mitt’ [My child is mine], dated May-June 1945, SFI/USF Archives, Stockholm, 161 pp. Copyright: SF. Script IV (Dialogue list in German, titled ‘Krise’, with a synopsis of content), 18 pp. Bergman’s script is an adaptation of Danish playwright Leck Fischer’s play Moderhjertet [The mother heart]. Original title is sometimes referred to as Moderdyret [The mother animal]. Bergman also uses title Moderskärlek [Mother love]. (See Ø 2) in Filmography. There are some divergencies between Script II and Script IV: in the latter, based on the released film, a voiceover opens and ends the story; in Script II the speaker is only heard in the beginning.



‘Marie’ Unpublished short story, available in SFI Library, and dated 1945. The story was later expanded in collaboration with Herbert Grevenius to form the script for Bergman’s film Sommarlek (1950, Summer Interlude).

36. ‘Antagligen ett geni’ [Probably a genius]. Röster i Radio, 1946:50, p. 14.
Portrait of playwright Björn Erik Höijer whose radio play Sommar had been awarded second prize in a radio contest. Bergman’s brief article is a defense of playwriting as an art form that addresses the broad public and a critique of the modern Swedish poets (fyrtitalisterna), who have at their best a readership of 300 people. (See Ø 952)


‘Det regnar på vår kärlek’ [It rains on our love]. Film Script. SFI/USF Archives. Copyright: Nordisk Tonefilm.
Script II. Unpublished and undated adaptation of Oscar Braathen’s play Bra Mennesker [Good people], 127 p., plus some additional notes. Collaboration with Herbert Grevenius. One SFI Script II copy is scriptgirl’s shooting script. Text indicates that Bergman changed the dialogue at the end by extending the conversation between the young couple and the Man with the Umbrella. Script IV (dialogue lists) in English (36 pp.) and German (39 pp.). Production lists are also available containing time and shooting schedules, plus some idiosyncratic notes complaining about noise from airplanes and the troublesome search for extras: 18 cats!


‘Dröm i juli. Filmmanuskript av I. Bergman.’ [Dream in July. Screenplay by I. Bergman]. Referred to as Version I, January 1946. Date at end of manuscript is 24


Chapter II The Writer
January 1946. Manuscript is among SFI Special Ingmar Bergman Papers. See Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet (2002), p. 324, for further details.
Violent drama in tivoli setting with drunkenness, fights, and involuntary manslaughter. The ‘dreamer’ of this nightmare is Gunnar, a 25-year-old musician. His wife Eva is expecting a child. An old circus artist Folke, married to Alfhilda, may be an early portrait of Frost and his wife Alma in Gycklarnas afton/The Naked Night (1953). Cast also includes the old owner of a variety show, Mr. Kasparsson, who has artistic ambitions. He has a son, Paul, about 40. These names resurface in Bergman’s stage plays from the 1940s.


‘Kannibalen’ [The Cannibal]. Typed, unpublished and undated manuscript. In SFI Special Ingmar Bergman Papers.
An absurdist parody of the holy communion. The dramatis personae are Chief of Police, Mr. Fall, his Wife and a Prisoner named Samuel. Mr. Fall, who has committed 33 cannibalistic murders in one day, asks the Chief of Police to arrest him and have him executed. Mr. Fall has also cut open his own stomach to find his soul, which he keeps attached to a string and plans to cook for dinner. God has walked into his room; Mr. Fall kills him with fire prongs, then drinks his blood and tastes a piece of his flesh. He gives his soul to the prisoner Samuel.


‘Komedien om Jenny’ [The comedy about Jenny]. In SFI’s Ingmar Bergman Fårö Papers.
Unpublished early screenplay never filmed. Despite the comedy designation, the listed set of characters suggests that this may be an early draft for Dagen slutar tidigt (Early Ends the Day), one of three plays in 1948 collection Moraliteter (Ø 56).


‘Om att filmatisera en pjäs’ [About filming a play]. Filmnyheter 1, no. 4, 1946, pp. 1 -4 .
About the genesis of ‘Kris’, the first film directed by Bergman, who reveals that he did not like the original play by Leck Fischer, on which the film is based, until he invented the character of Jack.


‘Puzzlet föreställer Eros. Novell för filmen av Ingmar Bergman’ [The Puzzle Represents Eros. A short story for the screen by IB]. Typed, unpublished manuscript dated Persborg, Monday 7 October 1946, on the front page and on the last page, 9 October 1946. 108 pp. SFI Library, Stockholm. This short story forms the basis of a 201-page ‘Script II’ adaptation by director Gustaf Molander, titled ‘Kvinnan utan ansikte eller puzzlet föreställer Eros’ [The woman without a face or the puzzle represents Eros], written between 9 December 1946 and 15 January 1947. According to notes in Molander’s copy, ‘Script II’ has a 5-page additional dialogue, which Bergman was asked to provide. ‘Script IV’ (dialogue list) in English, 34 pp.
In connection with Molander’s filmatization, Bergman published an interview with himself about the script to ‘Kvinna utan ansikte’. Titled ‘Rut’, the interview reveals that the main character, Rut Köhler, is based on Bergman’s personal experience. See Filmnyheter 2, no. 11, 1947, pp. 1-4. Note that in the original short story, Rut’s last name is König, not Köhler.


List of Bergman’s Written Work
43. ‘Rakel och biografvaktmästaren. Teaterpjäs i tre akter av Ingmar Bergman’ [R and the cinema doorman. Stage play in thee acts by IB]. Sveriges Radio Archive. One handwritten and one typed manuscript among Bergman’s archival Fårö papers.
This play was submitted to the Swedish Radio but was rejected in no uncertain terms: ‘He wallows in crude and hellish aspects of life’ [Han frossar i alltings råhet och djävlighet]. This is an early version of a published play with the same name, printed in Moraliteter, 1948 (Ø 56). There is an unpublished English translation by Michael Meyer in Bergman’s Fårö papers.


‘Svensk film och teater: Ett samgående eller motsatsförhållande’ [Swedish film and theatre: Collaboration or opposition].
Unpublished lecture given 3 February 1946 in Höganäs City Hall. Arranged by Höganäs Föreläsningsanstalt [H. lecture society]. Advertised in Helsingborgs Dagblad, 2 February 1946, p. 13 and announced in a note in same paper, 3 February 1946, p. 14, but no write-up on content.

45. ‘Det förtrollade marknadsnöjet’ [The magic country fair]. Biografbladet 28, no. 3 (Fall) 1947: 1.
This is a Bergman tribute to Méliès and the magic dimension of filmmaking. Published in French as ‘Le plaisir ensorcelé de la fête foraine’. Positif 421, March 1996: 68-71, and in German as ‘Das verzauberte Rummelplatzvergnügen’. Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002), pp. 82-83.


‘Ej för att roa blott’ [Not just to entertain]. Sveriges Radio (SR), 2 January 1947.
Bergman participating in a radio discussion with other young Swedish artists about the serious ambitions of contemporary literature, sculpture, music, and theatre. Bergman’s contribution takes the form of a dialogue with actor Anders Ek about the fyrtiotalism movement. (Cf. Ø 952), Chapter IX.


‘I mormors hus’ [In grandmother’s house]. Program note to Göteborg City Theatre production of Bergman’s play Mig till skräck [Unto my fear], October 16 1947. Available at Göteborg Theatre Museum and Swedish Theatre Museum, Stockholm. Translated into German as ‘In Grossmutters Haus’, Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, pp. 86-91.
Tobias, fictional author of a drama about the writer Paul, depicts Paul’s background, which is reminiscent of the apartment of Bergman’s maternal grandmother in the city of Uppsala.


Script II. Unpublished and undated adaptation of Martin Söderhjelm’s play of the same name. With production lists. Serialized as a film novella in the popular magazine Fickjournalen, beginning in no. 44 (1947). Script IV. Dialogue list in English, titled ‘Land of Desire’, 28 pp.

‘Skepp till India land’ [A ship to India]. A film script. SFI Library, 138 pp.


Chapter II The Writer
Among Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI, are two typed copies of the script with set and character descriptions to the left, dialogue to the right. One copy is unmarked, the other appears to be assistant director’s copy. See Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet (2002), p. 326.


‘Tre tusenfotingfötter’ [Three centipede feet]. Filmjournalen 29, no. 51-52 (December) 1947: 8-9, 53.
Bergman writes about filmmaking as teamwork and presents producer Allan Ekelund, set designer P.A. Lundgren, and cinematographer Göran Strindberg.

50. ‘Brev från Ingmar Bergman’ [Letter from IB]. Terrafilm 10 år. Stockholm: Terrafilm, 1948, p. 20.
Letter from Bergman in booklet celebrating the Swedish production company Terrafilm’s 10th anniversary. Letter is adressed to producer Lorens Marmstedt and likens Terrafilm to ‘a beautiful, capricious, lustful, and witty lady in the prime of her life’ [en vacker, nyckfull, vällustig och kvick dam i sina bästa år].


‘Ett dockhem’ [A doll’s house]. Unpublished screenplay adaptation of Ibsen’s famous play. SFI Library Archives, Stockholm, ca. 105 pp. Spring 1948.
This represents Bergman’s first contact with Hollywood. The script was commissioned in early spring 1948 by David O. Selznick but never filmed. Alf Sjöberg was also contacted for the film project. According to Selznick, plans were dropped later that spring because of difficulty in finding a suitable cast. See GT, 29 January 1948; GHT, 13 March 1948, p. 9; DN, 30 April 1948, p. 3, and SvD, 2 May 1948, p. 9. Ingmar Bergman received $ 6,000 for the job, with which he bought his first real 9.5 mm projector (see Bergman om Bergman [Ø 788], p. 137, Eng. ed. p. 147). Bergman introduces his adaptation of Ibsen’s play as ‘a tale about the little doll wife Nora and her way out of dreams and lies to clarity and liberation’ [en berättelse om den lilla dockhustrun Nora och hennes väg ut ur drömmar och lögner till klarhet och frihet]. The opening scene is reminiscent of the Christmas scene in Fanny and Alexander, with giggling children, a big, tightlipped and sulking old housemaid, and father Torvald Helmer opening the season’s celebration ‘with patriarchal self-satisfaction’ [med patriarkal självtillfredsställelse], then feigning a stomach ache, so that he can disappear and return as Santa Claus. The props include a music box – a familiar Bergman emblem. On a sofa sits ‘Uncle Eyolf Rank’, and at the piano is Aunt Kristin. The entire party dances a Swedish long dance through the apartment, then sits down to listen to the Christmas gospel. The script ends with Torvald crying and being consoled by the old housemaid. A train whistle is heard. Torvald rushes out in his night shirt to the station. Nora is on board the train. As it leaves, Torvald falls to his knees, crying out: ‘But she lives, she lives...’ [Med hon lever, hon lever ...].


‘Fängelset’ [The prison]. Unpublished Film Script. In SFI and USF Library Archives.
Script II for ‘Fängelse’ (The Devils’s Wanton/Prison), dated November 1948 and subtitled ‘En moralitet för filmen’ (A morality for the cinema), ca. 200 pp.


List of Bergman’s Written Work
Script IV (dialogue lists) in English, titled ‘Prison’ (ca. 23 pp), and in German, titled ‘Gefängnis’ (ca. 57 half-size pp.), plus synopsis and Swedish press clippings, 2 pp. Endings of ‘Fängelset’ in Script II and IV vary. Script IV ends with a conversation between Martin, the director and Paul, the teacher about God and the meaning of life. Script II ends with Martin and an actress, Greta, at work together in the film studio. Film title was changed from ‘Fängelset’ [The prison] to ‘Fängelse’ [Prison]. ‘Fängelse’ dialogue was excerpted in Filmrutan 1, no. 2 (March 1958), pp. 12-18. Among Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI, there is an early typewritten short story version of ‘Fängelse’, titled ‘Sann berättelse. Novell för film av Ingmar Bergman’ [True tale. A short story for the cinema] and dated Duvnäs, August 10, 1948. See also Ø 60 and Ø 62 below.


‘Hamnstad’ [Port of call]. Unpublished film script. SFI and USF Library Archives.
Script II at SFI is an adaptation of Olle Länsberg’s voluminous (400 pages) manuscript ‘Guldet och murarna’ [The gold and the walls]. Script II is dated 19 May 1948, 119 pp. Script IV (dialogue list) in German, titled ‘Hafenstadt’, 23 pp. Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI, contain a typed director’s copy with some handwritten notes and sketches by Bergman, as well as a map showing in some detail the interior and exterior scenes from shooting the film in Göteborg and Stockholm.


‘Kamma noll. Komedi i tre akter’ [Come up empty. Comedy in three acts]. Typewritten, unpublished play, produced at Malmö City Theatre, 8 December 1948; directed by Lars-Levi Laestadius. SFI Library, Stockholm, ca. 47 pp. Three typewritten copies, found among Bergman’s Fårö papers, are dated Hälsingborg, 17 April 1948. Play has the following motto on front page: ‘Ger man djävulen rent spel förlorar han. (kammar noll)’ [If you give the devil fair play he loses (comes up empty)].
The play is a three-act triangle comedy, set in the Stockholm archipelago, with a married couple, their daughter and her boyfriend (both 17) and a femme fatale from the city, whose arrival sets off a nasty intrigue. The comedy designation seems somewhat stretched and was probably dictated by the play’s happy end.


‘Kinematograf.’ [Cinematograph] Biografbladet 29, no. 4 (Winter), 1948: 240-41.
Bergman talks about his grandmother’s apartment, his aunt’s Christmas gift of a laterna magica, and his first ventures into filmmaking. This article was published in French, titled ‘Le cinématographe’. Positif 421 (March) 1996: 68-71.


Moraliteter [Morality plays]. Stockholm: Bonniers, 1948. 256 pp.
Three plays published under the common name of Moraliteter. Individual titles are: Dagen slutar tidigt (Early ends the day), Mig till skräck (Unto my fear), and Rakel och biografväktmästaren (Rachel and the cinema doorman). Only the first of these is designed as a morality play with a metaphysical vision. The second is a study of an author who sells his integrity for commercial recognition; the third one is a Strindbergian marriage drama that later became the Rachel episode in the film Kvinnors väntan (Secrets of Women/Waiting Women).

Åke Runnquist, ‘Den demoniska silverpennan’ [The demonic silver pen]. BLM, April 1948, pp. 292-94.


Chapter II The Writer
57. ‘Själva händelsen’ [The event itself]. Filmnyheter 3, no. 20, 1948, pp. 4-7.
Bergman writes about an automobile accident and the new sense of life that this brush with death created in him. Out of this episode came the idea for the script to the film Eva. Translated into German as ‘Das eigentliche Ereignis’ in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, pp. 86-91.


‘Trumpetspelaren och vår herre’ [The trumpet player and our Lord].
Unpublished film synopsis and partly completed scenario, sold in February 1948 to SF. Later completed by Gösta Stevens and Gustaf Molander as script for the film Eva, directed by Molander. Script II, available at SFI, is subtitled ‘Novell för filmen’ (Short story for the screen) and dated 10 May 1948, 153 pp. Two typed script copies titled ‘Eva. Novell för filmen av Ingmar Bergman’ [Eva. Short story for the screen by Ingmar Bergman] are among Bergman’s Fårö papers. With a note that film script is by Gustaf Molander. Cf. Next item.

59. ‘Den lille trumpetaren och Vår Herre. Utdrag ur en prosaberättelse’ [The little trumpeteer and Our Lord. Excerpt from a tale in prose]. Maneten. Litterär kalender, ed. by Claes Hoogland. Stockholm: Albert Bonniers Förlag, 1949, pp. 63-75.
Excerpt from a short story. Episode depicts scene in film Eva where young Bo meets the blind girl Marthe.


‘Filmen om Birgitta-Carolina’ [The film about Birgitta-Carolina]. ST, 18 March 1949, p. 4. Reprinted in part in Röster i Radio/TV, no. 23 (1962), pp. 27-28 before TV showing of film.
On the eve of the opening of ‘Fängelse’ (Prison/The Devil’s Wanton), Bergman published this brief essay in a Stockholm daily, in which he talks about the genesis of the film and his conception of the main character, the prostitute Birgitta Carolina.


‘Joakim Naken eller självmordet. Melodram i tre akter (Sista akten i tre tablåer) av Ingmar Bergman.’ [Joakim Naked or the Suicide. Melodrama in three acts (Last act in three tableaus) by IB].
Handwritten manuscript dated Paris 23 October 1949. With a note reading: ‘This is a tragicomedy about the murderer and self-murderer Joakim Naked who lived and worked in Lyon around the turn of the century’ [Detta är en tragikomedi om mördaren och självmördaren Joakim Naken som levde och verkade i Lyon runt sekelskiftet]. Also in type-written sample, 102 pp. In Fårö papers. See Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet, 2002, p. 325, for listing of other drafts about Joakim Naked. Cf also (Ø 83), ‘Historien om Eiffeltornet’.


‘På förekommen anledning’ [Upon request]. DN, 5 April 1949, p. 11. Reprinted in Filmnyheter 4, no. 8 (1949): 3.
Open letter formulated as an advertisement and response to a department store complaint about main character’s job affiliation. See Commentary to ‘Fängelse/Prison’, in Filmography, (Ø 210).


List of Bergman’s Written Work
63. ‘Till glädje’ [To joy].Unpublished Film Script. In SFI and USF Library Archive.
Script II, dated June 1949, ca. 125 pp. Script II was serialized as film novel in Filmjournalen 32, nos. 12 through 20 (1950). Among Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI, there is a director’s script dated June 1949 with some handwritten dialogue changes.


‘Törst’ [Thirst]. Fårö papers, deposited at SFI.
Typed copy of director’s script with the standard format at the time (set and character descriptions to the left, dialogue to the right). Contains some commentaries by Bergman and detailed notes made before the shooting. See Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet, 2002, p. 327.


‘Vi ser på filmen’ [We look at the movies]. Swedish Public Radio, 1 November 1949.
Contribution to radio discussion about current film fare.

66. ‘Blad ur en obefintlig dagbok’ [Pages from a non-existent diary]. SFI Library, 4 pp.
Unpublished impressionistic thoughts about filmmaking. Bergman talks about his mixed feelings of panic, pleasure, and professional joy in making a film, and his sense of obsession with the film medium. He likens directing to an organist playing on a huge organ with notes instead of a script. What a director needs above all is know-how and a good condition. As for inspiration, that is fine too, but nothing to rely on. ‘Diary’ ends with a pep talk at the end of a week of filmmaking.


‘“Fisken” Fars för film’ [The fish: A farce for film]. Biografbladet 31, no. 4 (Winter) 1950-51: 200-225; 32, no. 1 (Spring) 1951: 18-21, no. 2 (Summer) 1951: 85-88, no. 3 (Fall) 1951: 110-15. Reprinted in Aura IV, no. 4, 1998: 62-88. Translated into German as ‘Der Fisch. Farce für den Film’. In Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, pp. 92-134. Translated into Polish as ‘Ryba. Farsa filmowa’ by T. Szczepański in Kwartalnik Filmowy, no. 14, 1996.
An absurd story about an early Bergman prototype, Joachim (alias Jack, Johan), who encounters a fairytale fish that gives him three wishes to be fulfilled. The plot revolves around a sexual conflict between Joachim and two women (wife and mistress). See introduction to this chapter.


‘Frånskild’ [Divorced]. Film script by Bergman and Herbert Grevenius, dated 9 November 1950 for film directed in 1951 by Gustaf Molander. SFI and USF Library Archives.
Script I (114 pp.) and Script II (169 pp.).


‘Medan staden sover’ [While the city sleeps].
Script I (ca. 140 pp) and Script II (139 pp.). Scripts are dated 29 January 1950. Script II contains location map and director’s (Kjellgren) notes. SFI and USF Archives.


Chapter II The Writer
Adaptation by Ingmar Bergman and Lars-Eric Kjellgren of a short story by Per Anders Fogelström titled ‘Ligister’ (Hoodlums).


‘Sommarlek’ [Summer interlude]. Unpublished film script. Based on a short story by Bergman called ‘Marie’ (see Ø 35) and completed together with Herbert Grevenius. In SFI and USF Library Archives.
Script II, titled ‘Sommarleken’ [The summer interlude] and dated 1 March 1950; 146 pp., plus 14 pp. additional text (takes 558-59) which introduces a ballet master masked as Coppelius, who visits Marie in her dressing-room at the Opera. In the original version, David, Marie’s male friend, appears instead. Script IV (dialogue list) in English, titled ‘Summer interlude’, 29 pp. Among Bergman’s Fårö papers there is a typed copy of the script marked ‘Film 3/50, Annalisa Ericson Sommarleken’. Ericson plays a ballerina in the film. This copy, presumably Ericson’s, also contains some stills from the film and location photographs. See Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet, 2002, p. 327. ‘Sommarlek’ was translated into French (but with Swedish film title retained) in Oeuvres, 1962, pp. 23-101 (Ø 122).


‘Untitled program’ note to Bergman’s production of Bertolt Brecht’s play, The Threepenny Opera, which opened at Stockholm’s Intima Teatern, 17 October 1950.
Bergman points out his use of Brecht’s 1938 London edition of play, which he was introduced to through Lotte Lenya’s record. Reveals strong reservations about the work. Fascinated by the music, but text bothers him for its detachment and cynicism.


‘Untitled manuscript’ in prose about a Monsieur Bazin and his wife, Madame B.
Seems inspired by Bergman’s stay in Paris in 1949. Plot somewhat reminiscent of Trolösa (Faithless). See Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet (2002), p. 325.

73. ‘Bo Dahlins anteckningar angående föräldrars skilsmässa’ [Bo D’s notes re: his parents’ divorce]. (See Ø 97), 1956 (‘Sista paret ut’). ‘Bris’ Commercials.
Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI, contain stenciled manuscripts to three of the Bris commercials (see Filmography, Ø 215); they are titled ‘Operation’, ‘Uppfinnaren’ (The inventor) and ‘Trolleriet’ (Magic act), each 2 pp.



‘Mordet i Barjärna. Ett passionsspel av Ingmar Bergman’ [Murder at Barjärna. A passion play by IB]. Unpublished play produced at Malmö City Theatre in 1952. Directed by Ingmar Bergman. Copy at Malmö City Theatre Archives. Cf. Sjögren, Ingmar Bergman på teatern, 1968), pp. 113-18. Prologue is translated into German as ‘Ich stand auf dem Berg’ in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002), pp. 135-136.


List of Bergman’s Written Work
Historical play about a priest who gets involved in adultery and murder. An early draft, titled ‘Jonas och Mari’ [Jonas and Mari], has recently been located among Bergman’s Fårö papers, now deposited at the SFI. Same source also contains a handwritten copy of the play in a brown envelope marked ‘Obs! Farligt Obs! Detta kuvert får ej röras av någon’ [Note! Dangerous Note! This envelope may not be touched by anyone]. See Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet (2002), pp. 325-326. Cf. Commentary and Reception to Malmö production of play, (Ø 414), Theatre Chapter VI.


‘Leka med pärlor’ [Playing with pearls]. In SF program for ‘Sommarlek’ (Summer Interlude), issued at opening of film, pp. 5-7.
Bergman writes about the source of the script for ‘Sommarlek’, begun at age 18. Repeats that filmmaking is teamwork: ‘A film is indeed like a centipede, and all the feet must keep the same pace. I have figured out that 129 persons have been more or less involved in “Sommarlek”’. [En film är verkligen som en tusenfoting och alla fötterna måste hålla jämna steg. Jag har räknat ut att 129 personer har varit mer eller mindre involverade i Sommarlek.]


‘Ni vill till filmen?’ [So you want to be in the movies?]. Filmjournalen, no. 36 (9 September), 1951, pp. 14, 26. Reprinted in French as ‘Vous voulez être comédien’ Positif, no. 447, (May 1998): 62-64.
Faked ironic telephone conversation between Ingmar Bergman and would-be actor who wants to make it in the movies.


‘Staden’ [The city]. In Svenska radiopjäser [Swedish radio plays]. Stockholm: Sveriges Radios förlag, 1951, pp. 41-95.
Expressionistic drama and/or morality play in three acts about Joakim Naken, whose childhood faith and security collapse during a nightmarish Sturm-und-Drang period while tin soldiers drum a funeral march. The title refers to Joakim’s return to the city of his childhood, where he listens to the wisdom of his grandmother. At the time of the first broadcast of Staden on Sveriges Radio (SR), Bergman published an account of the genesis of the radio play: ‘Anteckningar kring Staden’ [Notes about the City]. Röster i Radio, no. 19, 1951, p. 7. Bergman gives a brief account of how he assumed a protective incognito called Joakim Naken, who was able to sense the present, the past, and the future at the same time. With Joakim as his alter ego, Bergman explores a world without grace, which became the play Staden. The 1951 production was aired again on 20 February 1966 in a radio drama series called ‘Radioteater i 40 år’ [Radio Theatre during 40 years]. At that time Bergman was interviewed about the play by Gunnar Ollén on Swedish Radio (15 minutes). (Cf. Ø 542)

79. ‘Kvinnors väntan’ [Waiting women].Unpublished and undated film script. In SFI and Uppsala Film Studio archives.
Script II, 185 pp. With prop list, credits, location list, and shooting plan, 18 pp. SFI Script II copy is that of head of film inventory (propman) Gustav Roger. His copy includes notes about exterior and studio shooting. Script has a total of 894 takes. Arne Sellermark adapted Script II for serializing in popular magazine Allers, beginning in no. 49 (6 December 1952), p. 45.


Chapter II The Writer
Script IV (dialogue list) in English, 31 pp.


‘Sommaren med Monika’ [Summer with Monica]. Unpublished film script by Ingmar Bergman and Per Anders Fogelström, upon whose novel with the same name the script is based.
Script II, titled ‘En sommar med Monika’ [One summer with Monica] and dated 9 July 1952 (124 pp.) at SFI Archives. Script IV (dialogue list) in English, 15 pp., and in German, 16 pp. SFI and USF Archives.


‘Spela pjäs. Tre lektioner av Ingmar Bergman’ [Performing a play. Three lessons by IB]. Several copies of an undated stencil marked Malmö stadsteater elevskola [Malmö Theatre acting school], 46 pp. Malmö theatre archives; also in Bergman’s Fårö papers.
Dramatic exercise for Malmö City Theatre acting students where a director and playwright (Martin) presents his play about two (twin) characters, Mr. A and Mr. One, who compete for his attention.

82. ‘Gycklarnas afton’ [Eve of the clowns]. Unpublished film script. SFI Library Archives.
Undated Script II but with final shooting date listed as 31 May 1953. Script II is subtitled ‘Ett skillingtryck på film av Ingmar Bergman’ [A penny print on film by IB], 115 pp. One of two SFI copies of script is the copy used by cinematographer Hilding Bladh; the other copy is probably the director’s copy, containing inserted sketches and additional handwritten dialogue. Script II has a different ending from the released film version: Albert, the circus owner, joins Jens, the coachman, at dawn and falls asleep in a scene reminiscent of the opening sequence of the film. In the film Albert joins Anne, and the two walk silently side by side as the circus wagons roll on. In Script II, the last ‘shot’ of Anne has her look out the window at a picture of the Virgin Mary, which appears on an emblematic sign listed as part of the circus inventory. Script II of ‘Gycklarnas afton’ was serialized as a film novella in Filmjournalen 35, no. 25-26 through no. 38 (1953). Script II was used for the translation into French by C.G. Bjurström and Maurice Pons, ‘La nuit des forains’, published in Oeuvres, 1962, pp. 102-60. Also translated into Polish by A. Asłanowicz as ‘Wieczór Kuglarzy’ and published in Ingmar Bergman Scenariusze, 1973, pp. 32-93. Script IV (dialogue list) – two copies in English, one titled ‘The Buffoon’s Evening’, 25 pp., with production notes; the other titled ‘Sawdust and Tinsel’, 25 pp.


‘Historien om Eiffeltornet’ [The tale of the Eiffel tower]. BLM 22, no. 7 (November) 1953: 498-500.
Excerpt from Bergman’s play ‘Joakim Naken’ (see Ø 61), set in Lyon where Joakim is director in an early film studio. Because of a troubled personal and professional life, Joakim has assumed a new personality and has moved into a boardinghouse where he meets the landlady’s young daughter Marthe. He describes a filmatization of the Eiffel Tower, where the tower is perso-


List of Bergman’s Written Work
nalized. An imaginary film producer demands a happy end. Joakim toys with the idea of having the Eiffel Tower cross the Atlantic and marry the Statue of Liberty.


‘Ingmar Bergman intervjuar sig själv inför premiären på Sommaren med Monika’ [IB interviews himself before the opening of ‘Summer with Monica’]. SF program to ‘Sommaren med Monica’. SF Archives, Stockholm. Reprinted in Filmnyheter 8, no. 2 (1953): 4-5.
Tongue-in-cheek interview. Bergman suggests that nude bathing should become obligatory in all Swedish films: ‘In a country where the climate seldom permits anything but tub baths, ice baths and sauna, we should be given the illusion – with the help of the cinema – that there exists some idyllic area where well-shaped girls splash around as God created them, without getting goose pimples all over their bodies’. [I ett land där klimatet sällan tillåter annat än karbad, isbad och bastu borde vi delges illusionen – med filmens hjälp – att det existerar någon idyllisk plats där välformade flickor plaskar runt så som Gud skapade dem utan att få hönshud på hela kroppen.] Bergman ends ‘interview’ with a nature vignette from the shooting of the film, a moment at sea that he calls ‘evighetens sommar’ [eternity’s summer].


‘En lektion i kärlek’ [A lesson in love]. Unpublished Film Script. SFI and USF Library Archives.
Script II, dated 22 July 1953, 161 pp. Script IV (dialogue list) in Swedish only, 33 pp. Dialogue excerpt in Filmrutan 1, no. 2 (March 1958): 12-18. See also Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet, 2002, p. 327, for reference to director’s copy in his Fårö papers, dated 22 July 1953, which contains descriptions of dramatis personae.


‘Vi är cirkus!’ [We are like a circus]. Filmjournalen, no. 4, pp. 7, 31. Translated into German as ‘Wir sind ein Zirkus!’ in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002), pp. 137-39.
Short essay comparing filmmaking to the circus. Both are popular art forms that present entertainment and illusion.

87. ‘Det att göra film’ [Making films]. Filmnyheter 9, no. 19-20 (December): 1-9. SF also brought out an English version. Available at SFI library.
Originally given as a presentation at University of Lund, 25 November 1954, this essay was also presented as a radio talk in a slightly altered form on 17 April 1955, and reprinted under the title ‘Filmskapandets dilemma’ [The dilemma of filmmaking] in Hörde ni?, no. 5 (May 1955), pp. 427-33. It was delivered as a lecture in Copenhagen, 14 November 1959. The essay outlines the practical and ethical aspects of being a serious filmmaker.

Danish: Dutch: ‘Ingmar Bergman om att göra film’ in Kosmorama, no. 44 (April 1959): 182- 183; ‘Bekentenis van een filmmaker’ in Critisch Film Bulletin 12, no. 11 (November 1959): 83-84;


Chapter II The Writer
English: ‘What it Means to Make a Film’ (Stockholm: SF, n.d), tr. by P.E. Burke and Britt Halvorson and reprinted in part in the introduction to Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman (Ø 110), pp. xiii-xxii, and in the September 1960 issue of Horizon. Same version also appeared under title ‘Why I Make Movies’ in The Emergence of Film Art, ed. by Lewis Jacobs (New York: Hopkinson & Blake, 1969), pp. 294-302. Essay appeared in two segments under titles ‘I am a Conjurer’, Films and Filming 2, no. 12 (September 1956): 14-15; and ‘Dreams and Shadows’, Films and Filming 3, no. 1 (October 1956): 15-16. Also reprinted in a translation by Royal S. Brown in Film Makers on Film Making, ed. Harry M. Geduld (Bloom?ington: Indiana University Press, 1967), pp. 177-90. Still another English translation by Alice Turner appeared in Interviews with Film Directors, ed. Andrew Sarris (New York: Avon Books, 1967), pp. 34-45. Also referred to as ‘What Is Filmmaking’; ‘Qu’est-ce que faire des films?’ Cahiers du Cinéma, no. 61, (July 1956): pp. 10-19; SF issued a German translation by Dorothea Tribukeit, titled ‘Film Machen’ (n. d), which also appeared in Filmklub-Cinéclub 5, no. 4 (November-December 1960): pp. 236-46; Published as ‘Fare dei film e per me una necessita di natura’ in Cineforum 5, no. 45 (19 May 1965), pp. 366-72; it was also excerpted as ‘Il nostro lavoro’ in Cinema Nuovo no. 83, (25 May 1956, p. 302). ‘Eso de hacer peliculas’, appeared in Film Ideal, no. 68 (1964), pp. 13-17, and as ‘El Cine segun Bergman’ in Filmoteca, no. 16 (1972/73).

French: German:



There are certain discrepancies between the translated versions of this essay and the original text.


‘Kvinnodröm’ [Women’s Dream]. Unpublished film script.
Script II, 137 pp. At SFI Library Archives. Several copies. One copy is the scriptgirl’s copy and contains ca. 100 pp. bound notes and ca. 10 loose pages, most of them technical and revealing the fast tempo and sequence of shooting the film, as well as notes about disruptions caused by bad weather and airplane noise. Script II was the basis of the serialized novella in the Swedish magazine Allers 85, no. 50 (1961) through 86, no. 1 (1962). Script IV (dialogue list) in English, 21 pp. SFI and Uppsala Film Studio archives. One handwritten and one typed copy titled ‘Kvinnodröm. Novell för filmen av Ingmar Bergman’ [Women’s dream. Short story for the film by IB] are among Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI. The format is not that of a film script.


‘Spöksonaten’ [The Ghost Sonata]. Program note in Malmö City Theatre program to Bergman production of Strindbergs’s drama, 5 March 1954. Available at Malmö Music Theatre library.
Bergman relates his earlier experiences with Strindberg’s play and reminisces about his reaction to Olof Molander’s Dramaten production in 1942.


‘Trämålning. Moralitet av Ingmar Bergman’ [Wood painting. Morality play by IB]. In Svenska radiopjäser. Stockholm: Sveriges Radios förlag and Bonniers Uggleböcker, 1954, pp. 9-61. With a brief prefatory note introducing the author as a director and writer.


List of Bergman’s Written Work
Trämålning is an one-act play originally written by Ingmar Bergman for his acting students at Malmö City Theatre and later expanded into a script for ‘Det sjunde inseglet’/The Seventh Seal. In the original play, the Knight’s role is relatively minor. Death does not appear in person; and the Squire Jöns dominates the action. A narrator is included. Early drafts of the play are among Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI. In one of these, a 41-page typewritten version, the narrator’s name is Martin. See Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet, 2002, p. 326.

Danish: English: ‘Kalkmaleri’, tr. By Aage Henriksen. In Drama. En grundbog, ed. by Sejer Andersen. Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1978; ‘Painting on Wood’, tr. by Randolph Goodman and Leif Sjöberg. Tulane Drama Review 6, no. 2 (November 1961): 140-52, reprinted in Focus on ‘The Seventh Seal’, 1972 (Ø 1220), pp. 150-73. Paul Britten Austin did an English translation for BBC broadcast on 12 February 1962 (not published); ‘Peinture sur bois’, In L’Avant-Scène du Théâtre, no. 199 (June 1959), pp. 36-41; ‘Holzmalerei. Stück in einem Akt von Ingmar Bergman’, tr. by Barbara Meyer & Sibylle Rahm; among Bergman’s Fårö papers and not published. ‘Tafelbild’, in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, (Ø 1678) pp. 140-166; ‘Malowidło na drzewie’, tr. by L. Kałuska. Życie Literackie, no. 39, 1960; An excerpt was published in Cuadernos de Cine Club del Uruguay (Montevideo), 1961, 16 pp. and titled ‘El retablo de madera’, tr. by Michael Bibin.

French: German:

Polish: Spanish:

91. ‘Sommarnattens leende’ [Smiles of a summer night]. Film Script. SFI and USF Library Archives.
Script II, subtitled ‘En romantisk komedi på film av Ingmar Bergman’ [A romantic comedy on film by IB] and dated Rättvik, 27 May 1955, 184 pp. With production notes. Script II was excerpted and published in Folket i Bild (FIB), no. 51 (1956), pp. 20-23. Script was also adapted as a serialized novella in Allers, nos. 14 through 18, 1960. Script II has never been published in its entirety in Swedish but has appeared in several translations, such as: English: ‘Smiles of a Summer Night’, in Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman (Ø 110), pp. 5-94. This text is the basis of Steven Sondheim’s musical ‘A Little Night Music’, 1973. See New York Times, 26 February and 4 March 1973, p. 26:1 and sec. 2, p. 1:4, respectively; ‘Sourires d’une nuit d’été’, Oeuvres, 1962, (Ø 122) pp. 161-246; reprinted in L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma 454, 1996, 102 pp; ‘Das Lächeln einer Sommernacht’. In Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, (Ø 1678) pp. 167-240; ‘Sorrisi di una notte d’estate’, in 4 film di Ingmar Bergman (Ø 110), pp. 56-90.

French: German: Italian:

Script IV (dialogue lists) in English (no title), 23 pp.; in German, titled ‘Das Lächeln einer Sommernacht’, 56 pp.; in French, titled ‘Sourires d’une nuit d’été’, 23 pp. See also Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet (2002), p. 327, for reference to Bergman’s typed script containing his commentaries and sketches, plus a subtitle/note stating: ‘put together by B. with great effort’ [med stor möda sammanskriven av Bergman].


Chapter II The Writer
92. ‘Filmskapandets dilemma’. (See Ø 87).

93. ‘Aforistiskt av Ingmar Bergman’ [Aphoristic by IB]. Bergman program note to ‘Det sjunde inseglet’ in Swedish and German. Did not appear in English and French programs to the film. Reprinted in Swedish in program to ‘Sista paret ut’ [Last couple out], 1956, and Vi på SF (Stockholm: SF, April 1957), n.p. Reprinted in German as ‘Aforistisches’ in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, pp. 241-243.
Aphoristic statement grouped under three headings: ‘The Forbidden, the Permissible, and the Necessary’ [Det förbjudna, det tillåtna och det nödvändiga]. It is forbidden ‘to mourn the gifts that the fairies did not give you. [...] To be tempted by your neighbor’s film and not steal it’ [att sörja över de gåvor som feerna inte gav dig. [...] Att frestas av din grannes film och inte stjäla den]. It is permissible ‘att begå vilket brott, vilket konstnärligt våld, vilka hissnande lögner som helst så länge de är i sanning förföriska’. [to commit any crime, any artistic violence, any dizzying lies you please, as long as they are truly seductive]. It is necessary ‘att vara så upptagen att man inte har tid att tänka på vad som är förbjudet’ [to be so busy that you don’t have time to think about what is forbidden].


‘Anders de Wahl och den sista rollen’ [A. de W. and his last role]. FIB no. 18, 1956, p.11.
Account by Bergman of last role by grand old actor (‘the old lion’) in Swedish theatre, whom Bergman directed in Björn-Erik Höijer’s drama ‘Det lyser i kåken’ [There is light in the shack]. Their work together was marked by arguments, ruthless exchanges, and strong commitment. Having suggested one day that de Wahl quit his (small) part, Bergman discovered an actor who ‘was great, fearful, and inexplicable, a magician practicing his magic’ [var stor, rädd och outgrundlig, en trollkarl som utövade sin trollkraft].


‘Kära Eva och Harriet. Ingmar Bergman skriver brev till två “filmflickor”’ [Dear Eva and Harriet. IB writes a letter to two ‘film girls’]. FIB no. 12, 1956, pp. 12, 39.
Open letter to actresses Eva Dahlbeck and Harriet Andersson, both holding central parts in Bergman’s films at the time (Dreams, Smiles of a Summer Night).


‘Sex frågor till Ingmar Bergman’ [Six questions to IB]. Bildjournalen, no. 38, 1956, pp. 8-9. Appeared in French as ‘Bergman par lui-même’, Cahiers du cinéma, no. 85 (July 1958), p. 15; in German (untitled) in Action 4, no. 7 (October 1968): 36; in Spanish in preface to ‘El septimo sello’, Cuadernos de Cine Club del Uruguay (Monteviseo), 1961, pp. i-ii.
Brief statement in which Bergman talks about himself as a bourgeois person and ‘an actor not born’ [en ofödd skådespelare].


‘Sista paret ut’ [Last couple out]. Unpublished film script. Cf. Ø 73.
Undated Script II, subtitled ‘En film av Ingmar Bergman’ [A film by IB], 138 pp.


List of Bergman’s Written Work
Script IV (dialogue list) in German, titled ‘Junge Herzen im Sturm’, 25 pp. and 37 pp. The longer version has synopsis and production notes. A copy of Script IV is subtitled ‘Ur Bo Dahlins anteckningar angående föräldrarnas skilsmässa, återberättade av Ingmar Bergman’ [From Bo Dahlin’s notes about his parents’ divorce as told by IB]. SFI Library Archives, Stockholm. USF Archives, Uppsala, has a copy with a handwritten addition by Ingmar Bergman. A typed copy of Uppsala version is also among Bergman’s Fårö papers and dated 24 October 1951, with a 7 page addition presumably of later date, probably 1956 in connection with Alf Sjöberg’s filmatization of script. Cf (Ø 224) in Filmography.


‘Sjunde inseglet’ [The Seventh Seal]. Film script. SFI and USF Library Archives.
Unpublished Script II, dated 5 June 1956 and dedicated to Bibi Andersson, 128 pp. There are several copies of Script II at SFI, one of which has 6 pages of loose notes from the shooting of the film, and another which is a director’s copy full of half-legible notes, all of them of a technical nature. Excerpts from Script II appeared in FIB, no. 51 (1956), pp. 20-23. Script II was adapted as a serialized novella in Allers 84, nos. 14 through 18 (1960), but has never been published in its entirety in Swedish. Script II has, however, appeared in numerous translations: Czech: English: ‘Selmá pecet’, in Filmové povídky, 1982, pp. 5-52; ‘The Seventh Seal’ in Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman, 1960, (Ø 110), pp. 95164, reissued as a separate paperback in 1968, 92 pp.; also as Lorrimer paperback, London, 1968, together with last part of Ingmar Bergman’s essay from introduction to Four Screenplays; new edition 1984, 82 pp. Script was excerpted in Focus on The Seventh Seal (Ø 1220), pp. 154-58; ‘Le septième sceau’ in Oeuvres, 1962, pp. 247-308; ‘Das Siebente Siegel’, Cinemathek 7 (Hamburg: M. von Schröder, 1962), 85 pp., tr. by Thabita von Bonin (includes IB’s program note to The Seventh Seal, originally issued by SF in 1956; and foreword by Jacques Siclier; ‘Il settimo sigillo’, in 4 film di Ingmar Bergman (Ø 110), pp. 91-154; ‘Siódma pieczęć’, in Ingmar Bergman Scenariusze, 1973, pp. 96-162; ‘El septimo sello’, Serie Cine, no. 10 (Barcelona: Colección Voz Imagen, 1965), 160 pp., tr. by Julio Acerete; excerpted in Cuadernos de Cine Club del Uruguay (Montevideo), 1961.

French: German:

Italian: Polish: Spanish:

Script IV (dialogue list) in Swedish, 27 pp. Excerpts from Script IV appeared in Filmrutan 1, no. 2 (March 1958), pp. 12-18.


Untitled program note to ‘The Seventh Seal’. Issued by SF (Svensk Filmindustri) in connection with the American opening of the film, n.d. Reprinted in Focus on The Seventh Seal, pp. 70-71. Also printed in French as ‘Ingmar Bergman explique Le septième sceau’, Arts, no. 667 (23-29) April 1958, p. 4, and in Jacques Siclier. Ingmar Bergman. (Paris: 1960), pp. 81-82. Appeared in German in ‘Das Siebente Siegel’, Cinemathek 7 (Hamburg: M. von Schröder, 1962).
Bergman reminisces about mural paintings in Swedish country churches that he visited with his parson father, and states briefly his intention with the film.


Chapter II The Writer

100. ‘Ingmars självporträtt’ [Ingmar’s self-portrait]. Se, no. 9 (3 March) 1957: 33-34. Translated into German as ‘Ingmars Selbstporträtt’ in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, pp. 243-246.
Asked by the tabloid Swedish journal Se to draw his own portrait, IB relates an alleged incident at the Cannes Film Festival in 1956, when a Russian portrait artist drew a picture of him: two faces, one showing an old man, the other a young boy. To these Bergman adds a third one, called figuren [in the sense of ‘a real character’]. The essay is composed as an argument between these three about Bergman’s real identity. As if in a Pirandellian game, the portraits change roles with each other and contradict what they have stated earlier.


‘Smultronstället’ [Wild Strawberries]. Film script. SFI and USF Library Archives.
Script II to ‘Smultronstället’ dated 31 May 1957, 159 pp, plus 8 handwritten pages. There are several copies of Script II, one of which has one page of production notes and a very detailed production chart, made by production manager Gustav Roger. One Script II copy is Bergman’s and contains some additions, most notably an expansion of Alman’s examination of Professor Borg in the second nightmare sequence, including the microscope episode and Borg’s diagnosis of the ‘dead’ woman. In Script II Isak’s wife is called in by Alman and appears as Marianne dressed in black. She accuses Isak of having killed her child. Script IV (dialogue lists) in English, titled ‘Wild Strawberries’, 24 pp.; in German titled ‘Am Ende des Tages’, 20 pp.; and in French ‘À la fin du jour’, 17 pp. ‘Smultronstället’ has never been published in Swedish as a screenplay. It appeared serialized as a novella in Allers, nos. 16 through 20 (1962). It has been published in numerous foreign-language editions: Czech: English: ‘Lesní jahody’, in Filmové povídky, 1982, pp. 53-100; ‘Wild Strawberries’ in Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman (Ø 110), pp. 165-239; reprinted as a separate volume in 1970, 120 pp., and also translated by David Kushner and Lars Malmström as Classic and Modern Filmscripts, no. 18 (London: Lorrimer, 1970), 120 pp. [Lorrimer edition includes part of the introduction to Four Screenplays and Bergman’s homage to Victor Sjöström (Ø 109), plus sample of cutting continuity, pp. 96-120]; ‘Les fraises sauvages’ in Oeuvres, 1962, pp. 310-78; ‘Wilde Erdbeeren’ in Spectaculum 1, 1961, pp. 7-55, tr. Ingrid von Schering; reprinted in 1964 in a separate volume (Frankfurt a.M: Suhrkamp), 100 pp.; and in a new translation by Anne Storm in Wilde Erdbeeren und andere Filmerzählungen, 1977, pp. 7-72. Also tr. by Conrad Maria Färber in Arbeitsgemainschaft der Jungendfilmarbeit und Medienerziehung, Regensburg 1962, and excerpted in ‘Filmmaterialen’ Filmreihen 4, Psychoanalyse und Film. Aachen: 1980, pp. 61-65; 4 Film di Ingmar Bergman (Ø 110), pp. 156-222. Also in Scene di vita conjugale: L’immagine allo specchio; il posto delle fragole (Ø 174) and excerpted in Cinema Nuovo, no. 144 (March-April 1960), pp. 169-78; Title page not transcribed (SFI), tr. Houshang Taheri (Teheran: Ibn Sina, 1969), n.p.; ‘Tam, gdzie rosną posiomki’ in Ingmar Bergman Scenariusze, 1973, pp. 164-234; See Gordonskaja, (Ø 1178), pp. 119-90;

French: German:


Persian: Polish: Russian:


List of Bergman’s Written Work
Spanish: Turkish: Fresas salvajas, tr. E. Ripoli-Freixes (Barcelona: Ayman, S.A Editora, 1968), 140 pp.; Yaban lilekleri, Ankara: Bilgi yayeinever, 1965, 95 pp.

102. ‘Ansiktet’ [The Face/The Magician]. Film script. SFI and USF Library Archives.
Script II, subtitled ‘Komedi av Ingmar Bergman’ [Comedy by IB] and dated 4 June 1958, 161 pp. Script IV (dialogue list) in English, titled ‘The Face: A Screenplay by Ingmar Bergman’, 28 pp., with one page of production notes. ‘Ansiktet’ has never been published in Swedish. It has appeared in several foreign-language editions: English: French: Italian: ‘The Magician’, in Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman, 1960 (Ø 110), pp. 243325; ‘Le visage’ in Oeuvres, 1962 (Ø 122), pp. 380-453; ‘Il volto’ in 4 Film di Ingmar Bergman, 1960 (Ø 110), pp. 203-300.

A typed copy of ‘Ansiktet’ is among Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI. It is annotated in Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet (2002), p. 328, with a quote from the front page: ‘Mitt hjärta ängslar sig i sin litenhet för det som borde vara dess största längtan: Tre mäktiga floder vars namn är GUD, KÄRLEK OCH DÖD..’. [My heart is anxious in its smallness for what ought to be its greatest longing: Three mighty rivers whose names are GOD, LOVE AND DEATH...].


‘Dialog.’ Filmnyheter 13, no. 11 (1 September) 1958: 1-3.
Conversation between Bergman and an imaginary writer, in part an early draft of the 1959 essay ‘Varje film är min sista film’ [ ‘Each Film Is My Last’] Main topic is filmmaker’s responsibility to his public. IB expresses his ambivalent feelings towards his audience. This ‘conversation’ has appeared in: Dutch: English: French: German: Spanish: ‘Bekentenis van een filmmaker’ in Critisch Film Bulletin 12, no. 11 (November 1959): 83-84; ‘Conversation Piece’ in Films and Filming 5, no. 8 (May 1959): 31; ‘Dialogue’ in Cahiers du cinéma, no. 93 (March 1959): 24-26; ‘Dialog’ in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, (Ø 1678), pp. 247-249; (untitled) in ‘El septimo sello’, Cuadernos de Cine Club del Uruguay (Montevideo), 1961, pp. xv-xvii.


‘Jag vill vara med i leken’ [I want to be part of the game]. Röster i Radio-TV, no. 7, 1958, pp. 22, 53.
In connection with his early TV work, Bergman writes a brief essay in which he states his ‘readiness to rush in on the arena and do somersaults’ [beredskap att rusa in på scenen och slå kullerbyttor] and hopes he will not be excluded from the TV medium in the future.


Chapter II The Writer

105. ‘Djävulens öga’ [The Devil’s Eye]. Film script. SFI Library Archives, Stockholm.
Script II, subtitled ‘Komedi av Ingmar Bergman’ [Comedy by IB] and dated Rättvik, 28 August 1959, 191 pp. SFI also has a longer copy of Script II with some photo-technical notes and a location list. Script copy also among Bergman’s Fårö papers with some handwritten changes, as well as assistant director Lenn Hjortzberg’s location and shooting list.


‘Kära Allers familjejournal’ [Dear Allers family journal]. Allers, no. 49 (6 December), 1959, p. 45.
Letter to Allers in connection with magazine’s serializing of ‘Kvinnors väntan’ [Waiting women], beginning in no. 49, 1959. Bergman maintains that film and literature are two different matters, but hopes that Arne Sellermark’s adaptation of his film script for Allers’ readers will prove entertaining.


Untitled editorial. Filmrutan 2, no. 1: 1.
Critical comment about high entertainment tax on film. Throughout the 1950s when Swedish film production companies, some of which also owned movie house chains, were in financial straits, a lively debate eventually led to a redistribution of tax revenues and the establishment of SFI (Swedish Film Institute).


‘Varje film är min sista film’ [Each film is my last]. Filmnyheter 14, no. 9-10 (19 May) 1959: 1-8. Also aired on SR, 1 January and 6 January 1960, and issued as a pamphlet by SF in Swedish, English, French, German, and Italian, n.d.
This was originally a speech given at the Student Society at Copenhagen University on 14 March 1959 and printed in Danish film magazine Kosmorama no. 44, 1959, pp. 182-85. It was also serialized under Danish title ‘Stadier på filmens vej’ [Stages on Film’s Way] in the Copenhagen newspaper Politiken, 4 and 8 May 1959 (kronik page). Best known among Bergman’s essays on filmmaking, ‘Varje film är min sista film’ [Each Film Is My Last Film] is divided into three sections that might be subtitled: (1) the script, (2) the studio, and (3) professional ethics. The first section discusses the creative process from impressionistic vignette to completed film script; the second section deals with instruction of actors; and the last section explains Bergman’s three commandments: Thou Shalt Be Entertaining at All Times; Thou Shalt Obey Thy Artistic Conscience at All Times; and Thou Shalt Make Each Film as though It Were Thy Last. The last of IB’s three commandments was reprinted in the English, French, German, and Italian SF programs to ‘Ansiktet’ (The Magician/The Face), 1959. For additional translations of this essay, see: English: ‘My Three Most Powerfully Effective Commandments’, tr. by P.E. Burke and Lennart Svahn. Films and Filming 5, no. 10 (July 1959):8, 28. Also in Film Comment 6, no. 2 (Summer 1970): 9-13; and in Film World (India) 1965/66, pp. 145-47; and excerpted under the title ‘Bergman Tells How He Directs His Actors’ in Making Films in New York 4, no. 5 (October 1970):16, 32-34; and under the heading ‘Film and Creativity’ in American Cinematographer 53, no. 4 (April) 1972: pp. 427-31, 434;


List of Bergman’s Written Work
French: ‘Chacun de mes films est le dernier’, tr. Louis Marcorelles. Cahiers du Cinéma, no. 100 (October 1959): 44-54; and in Cinématographie française no. 266 (1964), n.p., and in Cinéma 59, no. 41 (November- December 1959): 39-49. Reprinted as an introduction to French edition of Oeuvres (Ø 122); ‘Jeder Film ist mein letzter Film’, in Der Film, ed. Theodor Kotulla (Munich: R. Piper & Co., 1966), 2: 239-48; also published in German program to ‘Fängelse’ (Das Gefängnis). Die kleine Filmkunstreihe Hefte no. 22, 1961; ‘Ogni mio film e l’ultimo’ (Stockholm: Svenska Institutet, n.d.); ‘Każdi film jest moim filmem ostatnim’, in Ingmar Bergman. W opinii krytyki zagranicznej. Ed. by Donata Zielińska, Warsaw: Filmoteka Polska, 1987, pp. 130139.


Italian: Polish:

109. ‘Extract in Memory of Victor Sjöström.’ Sight and Sound 29, no. 2 (Spring) 1960: 98. Reprinted in Wild Strawberries (London: Lorrimer, 1970). Also published in Swedish in FIB no. 13 (25 March) 1960, p. 24.
Bergman’s homage to Victor Sjöström, filmmaker and actor.


Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman. Translated from the Swedish by David Kushner and Lars Malmström; New York: Simon & Schuster, 1960. 330 pp; New York: Garland, 1985. 384 pp; New York: Simon & Schuster, 1989. 380 pp.
First publication of Bergman scripts in any language. Volume contains text to ‘Smiles of a Summer Night’, ‘The Seventh Seal’, ‘Wild Strawberries’, and ‘The Magician’. This volume was published in an Italian edition as 4 film di Ingmar Bergman, translated by Bruno Fonzi and Giacomo Oreglia. Turin: Giulio Einaudo, 1961, 310 pp.

Film Quarterly 14, no. 3 (Spring 1961): 61-62; Films and Filming 7, no. 5 (February 1961): 42; Le Soir, 20 April 1962; Manchester Guardian, 1 December 1961, Arts Section; National Review, 22 April 1961, pp. 257-8; New York Times, 21 February 1965, sec. 7, p. 43. Parool, 29 April 1961; Times Literary Supplement (London), 20 January 1961, p. 8. The NYT review listed above is written by Pauline Kael and pertains to the paperback release of Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman. Kael is very appreciative of Bergman as a writer: ‘Just on the basis of the printed page, Bergman is revealed to be a modern dramatist of considerable stature, a man whose theatrical “effectiveness” is comparable to that of Tennessee Williams or Edward Albee.’ Cf however Kael’s critical view of Bergman as a filmmaker (see Ø 1011).


‘Förbön’ [Blessgiving]. Chaplin, no. 8 (November) 1960: 187. Reprinted as ‘Andlig sömngångare och falskspelare’ (Spiritual sleepwalker and counterfeiter). Chaplin 1988, no. 2-3, 76, 157. Translated into German as ‘Fürbitte’ in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, pp. 250-254.


Chapter II The Writer
‘Prayer’ by Ingmar Bergman before his ‘execution’ in special Bergman issue of Swedish film journal Chaplin. The ‘execution’ was part of a hoax carried out by Bergman himself under the pseudonym of Ernest Riffe. See also (Ø 128).


‘Kära skrämmande publik’ [Dear frightening public]. Undated program note issued by SF at premiere of Djävulens öga (The Devil’s Eye), 9 October 1960.
Bergman engages in a dialogue with an imaginery viewer. He is not sure the public will look upon Djävulens öga/The Devil’s Eye as a comedy.


‘A Page from My Diary.’ Program issued by SF in English and French (but not in Swedish) at the opening of Jungfrukällan/The Virgin Spring. SF, Stockholm, 2 pp. Translated together with ‘Why I Make Movies’ in The Emergence of Film Art, ed. by Lewis Jacobs (New York: Hopkinson & Blake, 1969), pp. 294-302. Also appeared in French as ‘Journal d’Ingmar Bergman’ in Cinéma 60, no. 51 (November-December 1960):
Brief account of an episode when Bergman and his crew stop their work to watch some cranes flying above. IB realizes that he belongs in Sweden and decides to turn down an American offer.

114. ‘Away with Improvization—This is Creation.’ Films and Filming 7, no. 12 (September 1961): 13.
Expressing skepticism about improvization in filmmaking, IB discusses the Russian film ‘Lady with the Dog’, based on a Chekhov story. This article was originally published in Swedish in Chaplin, no. 18 (March 1961), 61-63, and is based on an interview with Bergman by Bengt Forslund: ‘Ingmar Bergman ser på film’ [IB looks at film]. See Interviews (Ø 734).


Cuadernos de Cine Club del Uruguay. Montevideo: Cine Club, 116 pp.
Spanish excerpts from scripts to Det sjunde inseglet/The Seventh Seal, and Jungfrakällan/The Virgin Spring, plus play text to Trämålning/Wood Painting.


‘Lustgården’ [Garden of Eden; also listed in English as ‘Pleasure Garden’]. Film script. At SFI Library Archives, Stockholm, and Uppsala Film Studio Archive.
Script II (148 pp) of film comedy written together with Erland Josephson under the joint pseudonym Buntel Ericsson, dated 15 August 1961. A film based on Script II was produced by SF and directed by Alf Kjellin. Script IV (dialogue list) in Swedish only, 28 pp.


4 film di Ingmar Bergman. Tr. by Bruno Fonzi and Giacomo Oreglia. Torino: Giulio Einaudo, 1961, 310 pp. See (Ø 110). ‘Nattvardsgästerna’ [The Communicants]. Film script.
Two undated Script II, SFI and UFS Archives, 134/118 pp. Complete text with notes. Script IV, British version titled ‘The Communicants’. 22 pp. In English at SFI. SFI has costume sketches for the film by Mago.



List of Bergman’s Written Work
Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI, include a director’s copy marked L-136, dated 1961/ 62, with a biblical quote on the title page (Matthew 9:2); some handwritten notes and two maps of location and shooting schedule. ‘Nattvardsgästerna’ was published in Swedish in En filmtrilogi, 1963, pp. 69-118; reissued as PAN paperback in Filmberättelser 1, 1973. A serialized adaptation of ‘Nattvardsgästerna’ appeared in Allers 87, no. 6 through no. 10 (1963). Nattvardsgästerna (Winter Light) has been published in numerous foreign editions: Czech: English: French: German: ‘Hosté vecere páne’, in Filmové povídky, 1982, pp. 151-91; ‘Winter Light’ in A Film Trilogy, 1965, pp. 62-101; ‘Les communiants’ in Une trilogie, 1963, pp. 112-98; ‘Licht im Winter’ in Wilde Erbeeren und andere Filmerzählungen, 1979 pp. 12974; also as ‘Die Abendmahlsgäste’ in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, pp. 255-303; ‘Luci d’inverno’ in Sei film, 1979, pp. 3-58; Excerpt in Gordonskaja (Ø 1178), pp. 191-239.

Italian: Russian:


‘Såsom i en spegel’ [Through a glass darkly]. Film Script. SFI Library Archives.
Script II, 148 typewritten pages, undated and marked ‘L-131: En film av Ingmar Bergman’ [L-131: A film by IB]. There are three copies; one copy is studio manager’s copy (Gustaf Roger) and has sketches and outline of studio and exterior takes. In this copy the script is still titled ‘Tapeten’ (The Wallpaper). This copy includes some minor changes in dialogue (not in IB’s handwriting) and some indicated cuts. No Script IV available, but a synopsis in English is included in SFI archival material to film. Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI, include several manuscripts: a director’s copy with a quote from Corinthians 13:2 and a handwritten note by Bergman: ‘Tålamod. Jag måste ha tålamod. Jag måste stilla mig och ha tålamod. Tålamod. Förutsättningen är tålamod’ [Patience. I must have patience. I must calm down and have patience. Patience. Patience is the prerequisite]. Among the same papers is editor Ulla Ryghe’s copy with a map of locations and shootings. See Koskinen. I begynnelsen var ordet, (2002), p. 328. ‘Såsom i en spegel’ was printed in Swedish in En filmtrilogi, pp. 7-68. PAN paperback ed. in Filmberättelser 1. Excerpt in Chaplin, no. 23 (November 1961), pp. 199-209. The following are translated editions of Såsom i en spegel: Czech: English: French: German: ‘Jako v zicadle’ in Filmové povídky, 1982, pp. 101-149; ‘Through a Glass Darkly’ in A Film Trilogy, 1965, pp. 15-61; ‘Comme dans un miroir’ in Une trilogie, 1963, pp. 3-111; ‘Wie in einem Spiegel’, Cinemathek 1 (Hamburg: Marion von Schröder, 1962), 85 pp., tr. by Thabita von Bonin, with postscript by Reinhold E. Thiel; also published in Wilde Erdbeeren und andere Filmerzählungen 1977, (Ø 167), pp. 73-128; ‘Como en un espejo’ in Sei film, 1979, pp. 59-123; Also in Scene di vita conjugale: L’immagine allo specchio; il posto delle fragole, 1979; Title page not transcribed, tr. Houshang Taheri (Teheran: Ibn Sina, 1967), n.p. ‘Como en un espejo’, Serie cine 12 (Barcelona: Coleccion Voz Imagen, 1965), pp. 7-27, tr. Feliu Formosa, with foreword by Julio Acerete.

Italian: Persian: Spanish:


‘Såsom i en spegel’. Program note issued by SF at opening of the film on 16 October 1961. Bergman claims that the performing artist is a priest and his performance a cult act. The artist is simply an instrument serving his public.


Chapter II The Writer

121. ‘Min pianist’. [My pianist]. Vecko Revyn, no. 11 (pp. 16-18, 79).
Ingmar Bergman writes about his wife Käbi Laretei and the importance of music in his life.


Oeuvres. Translated by C.G. Bjurström and Maurice Pons. With a foreword by René Micha. Paris: Laffont, 1962. 453 pp.
French edition of ‘Sommarlek’, ‘Gycklarnas afton’ (La nuit des forains), ‘Sommarnattens leende’ (Sourires d’une nuit d’été), ‘Sjunde inseglet’ (Le septième sceau), ‘Smultronstället’ (Les fraises sauvages), and ‘Ansiktet’ (Le visage). This edition also includes Bergman’s 1959 essay ‘Varje film är min sista film’ (‘Chaque film est mon dernier’). (See Ø 108).


Script II, subtitled ‘Opus 26: En film av Ingmar Bergman’, dated 18 April 1962, 115 pp. Script IV (dialogue list) in English and French, 10 pp. Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI, contain several scripts on ‘Tystnaden’, among them a bound script in grey felt, dated Djursholm, 18 April 1962; a typed script, same date, with some cuts; a possible director’s copy in black binding, same date, with shooting plan, set and cast lists and sequence division; a script titled Opus 26, part handwritten, part typed and with some sketches. See Koskinen. I begynnelsen var ordet, (2002), p. 329. ‘Tystnaden’ was published in Swedish in En filmtrilogi, 1973, pp. 119-65; issued in PAN paperback Filmberättelser 1, 1973 (see Ø 153). It was also serialized in Swedish magazine Allers no. 4 through no. 8 (1967). ‘The Silence’ has been published in numerous translated editions. Samples: Czech: English: ‘Mlcení’, in Filmové povídky, 1982, pp. 193-230; ‘The Silence’ in A Film Trilogy, translated by Paul Britten Austin (London: Calder & Boyars, 1965, pp. 101-43. This edition contains the screenplays ‘Through a Glass Darkly’, ‘Winter Light’, and ‘The Silence’. Also issued in U. S. paperback, Orion Press, 1968; ‘Le silence’ in Une trilogie, translated by J. Robnard (Paris: Laffont, 1963), pp. 199-270; also in L’Avant-scène du cinéma, no. 37 (1964), pp. 1-50, and in a separate volume (Paris: Seghers, 1972); ‘Das Schweigen’, Cinemathek 12 (Hamburg: M. von Schröder, 1965), 61 pp; also in Wilde Erdbeeren und andere Filmerzählungen, 1977, pp. 175-220; ‘Il Silenzio’ in Ingmar Bergman by Tommaso Chiaretti (Rome: Lo Schermo, 1964), pp. 143-201; also in Sei film, 1979, pp. 127-76, and excerpted in Cineforum 4, no. 43 (February 1964): 133-65; Bergman Scenariusze, 1973 (Ø 151), pp. 235-87.

‘Tystnaden’ [The silence]. Film Script. SFI Library Archives, Stockholm.


German: Italian:


124. En filmtrilogi: Såsom i en spegel, Nattvardsgästerna, Tystnaden. Stockholm: Norstedt, 164 pp. Issued in PAN paperback as Filmberättelser 1 (1973). 168 pp.
First Swedish edition of any Bergman screenplays. Contains Swedish text to Through a Glass Darkly, Winter Light and The Silence.


Edström. Bo Strömstedt’s review with the headline ‘En diktare’ [A Poet] and Sverker Göransson’s discussion of ‘Ingmar Bergmans kammarspel’ [IB’s chamber plays] are examples of a new recognition of Ingmar Bergman. 3. Göransson. With Erland Josephson. A Film Trilogy. p. Four Screenplays. KvP. Janzon. nos. 1966). 1965. 1963). 1967). 125. by Paul Britten Austin (London Calder & Boyars. 4. 25 through 29. For more detail. ST. 16 October 1963. 1965) and (New York: Grove Press. 17 October 1963. 129. ‘Ingmar Bergman – skrivet och beskrivet’ [Ingmar Bergman – written and described]. Bo. p. There was an element of surprise at discovering the asceticism of Bergman’s written language as compared to his early plays with their excessive emotionalism and occasional verbal bombasm. SvD. ‘Tre liknelser’ [Three parables]. ‘För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor’ [Not to speak about all these women]. see Koskinen. (Ø 110). Une trilogie. 7. Jurgen. 21 October 1963.List of Bergman’s Written Work Press Reception This being the first collection of Bergman film scripts published in Sweden (cf. by C. Sun. ‘En diktare’ [A poet]. (Copenhagen: Det Schønbergske Forlag. ‘En bild av Ingmar Bergman’ [A picture of Ingmar Bergman]. ca 100 pp. p. Script II was adapted as a film novella in Allers 88. DN. Translated editions of this volume include: Danish: English: French: En filmtrilogi. not as a literary writer but a filmmaking poet. and what was the relationship of the scripts to the finished films? Though Bergman’s real ‘literary’ breakthrough in Sweden was not to come until 1987 with the publication of Laterna magica. GHT. 3. Schildt. a bound script with the name of the editor (Ulla Ryghe). This was an important observation in that it paved the way for a greater sympathetic understanding of the film trilogy than had been the case at its initial screen exposure. 2002. Expr. At the same time they also pointed out that Bergman’s written dialogue needed his image-making to carry artistic weight. Reviews (all of which also discuss Vilgot Sjöman’s book L 136. Mauritz. Script II. 143 pp. Bjurström (Paris: Laffont. p. almost all reviewers of En filmtrilogi found positive ‘literary’ qualities in the published trilogy.G. 1964. may have led reviewers to focus on two questions: Could the scripts revise the Swedish ambivalence towards Bergman’s filmmaking. p. 16 December 1963. 270 pp.. p. 99 . Sverker. 3. 22 November 1963. SFI and USF Library Archives. 4. I begynnelsen var ordet. 17 October 1963. Trans. Cornell. dated 21 March 1963. ‘Filmdiktaren Ingmar Bergman’ [The auteur Ingmar Bergman]. 3. Trans. 30 October 1963. p. ‘Ingmar Bergmans kammarspel’ [Ingmar Bergman’s chamber plays]. Jonas. dated 1963: a handwritten director’s copy with a preliminary shooting schedule. a diary from the shooting of Nattvardsgästerna) include: Axelson. Åke. Several copies of Script II are among Bergman’s Fårö papers. ‘Bullret kring Tystnaden’ [The noise around The Silence]. and a separate dialogue list. AB. p. Strömstedt. undated.

Stcokholm. irresponsible art – a snakeskin filled with ants]. ‘Jag tvivlar på Filmhögskolan’ [I doubt the Film School]. Response to critique by Olof Lagercrantz of Bergman’s 1964 production of Hedda Gabler at Dramaten. Pour ne pas parler. Ingmar Bergman denies that art can have 100 . responds to Ibsen Criticism]. 42 (December 1963): 304-5. Bergman begins the seminar by stating one basic premise: the professional actor is the alpha and omega of filmmaking.’ Cahiers du cinéma. Ø 111). Ernest [Ingmar Bergman]. 4 December 1964. 68.’ 1965 131.159 (October) 1964:12-13. p. This essay was originally written as a speech for the Erasmus Award ceremonies in Amsterdam in Spring 1965. (Cf. Chaplin. under title ‘Bergman parle des femmes’. Expr. ca. ‘Trois textes pour Venice. The essay plays the same central role for Bergman’s views on filmmaking in the 1960s as did ‘What is Filmmaking?’ and ‘Each Film Is My Last’ (Ø 87. Stockholm: Norstedt. which opened at Dramaten in early December 1964 (not directed by Bergman). ‘Den fria. 5 March 1964. 1 August 1965. Bergman’s text gives his reason for declining an invitation to Venice Film Festival: ‘All artists except actors should be invisible. [. ‘Bergman svarar på Ibsenkritik’ [B. ‘Recueilli’.. SvD. p. 18 September 1964. Article in the form of a self-interview. 128. (3) Nattvardsgästerna/Winter Light (Ingrid Thulin’s long letter monologue). 130. fyllt av myror’ [The free. no. 108) in the 1950s. (2) Såsom i en spegel/Through a Glass Darkly (Harriet Andersson and Lars Passgård in the attic). 6 pp. see the program to Ulla Isaksson’s play ‘Våra torsdagar’ [Our Thursdays]. 121 (January) 1971. oansvariga konsten – ett ormskinn.. Reception. L’Express. shameless. which Ingmar Bergman did not attend because of illness.. Gunnel Lindblom and Birger Malmsten in bedroom sequence). no. ‘Seminarium om personinstruktion’ [Seminar about casting]. 16. For Bergman’s full statement.] The artist should not appear at Christmas celebrations or festivals. See Theatre chapter VI (Ø 440). skamlösa. Unpublished notes from a seminar held by IB at Stockholm Film School.Chapter II The Writer 126. Riffe. no. p. 1964 127. 129. He bases his talk on three scenes from his own films: (1) Tystnaden/ The Silence (Ingrid Thulin. Plea by Bergman for a Swedish cinemateque and for a film school that would give novice filmmakers more than one chance to make a film. 1966. 4. SFI Archives. Also published as preface to Swedish edition of Persona. Reprinted in L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma. One of three texts written by filmmakers in connection with Venice Film Festival.

‘La piel de serpiente’ in Filmoteca. Excerpt appeared in Kurt Habernoll’s review article on ‘Persona’ in Abend. Sight and Sound. trees. Excerpt and summary in English. most notably a fairly long passage in which Elisabeth Vogler talks about her happy and hermetically close relationship to her husband. as a director. French: German: Italian: Spanish: 132. 11-15. Two copies of typewritten ‘Script II’ titled ‘Kinematografi’ at SFI and one copy at USF Archives. usually referred to as ‘Ormskinnet’ (The Snakeskin) has been published in: Dutch: English: ‘Credo van een Filmer’ in Supplement. 2002.List of Bergman’s Written Work any healing or therapeutic function. 94 pp. Autumn 1965. Algemeen Handelsblad. a weakness according to the reviewer that revealed Bergman’s inability to be 101 . followed by atmospheric sounds of words. no. pp. Nurse Alma’s face emerges. though there is a meta-filmic insert just before Alma and Elisabeth move to the doctor’s summer house (scene 13). 6-8. pp. moon landscape). 1972). Reprinted as Norstedt/Pan paperback in Filmberättelser 2. 4 (April 1972): 378-79. 89. ‘Kinematografi’ has a prefatory note by Bergman that is not included in published (1966) version of Persona. p. Baal + Frascati. no. 16-18. 7 October 1965. which instead includes ‘Ormskinnet’ (Ø 131). ‘La priogione della mia solitudine’ in Cineforum 7. 16-17. One critic (Ericsson) thought Persona (the book) covered up the fact that Bergman. ed. 179 (June 1966). no. by Renate Bleibtreu. 176. and as ‘Ingmar Bergman over kunst’. An excerpt titled ‘À propos de Persona’ appeared in Cahiers. 188 (March 1967). 61 (January 1967): 19-29. and no doubling of Alma’s and Elisabeth’s face. 89 pp. 2 (Summer 1970): 1415. Unlike the film version. ‘The Serpent’s Skin’ in Cahiers du cinéma in English 11 (September 1967): 24-29. The book version of Persona was published in Sweden in 1966 (Stockholm: Norstedt). The essay. Ingmar Bergman. In the script the famous prologue consists of only a short film strip with rapidly shifting images of nature (clouds. There are some notable differences between Script II and the final film. Focus was on Bergman’s view of art as disguise (förställning) and life as role-playing. always gave the impression of being greater than the sum of his actors. no. Reception (of Persona as book) Reviewers were as intrigued by Bergman’s preface (‘Ormskinnet/The Snakeskin’) as by the script (which some referred to as a novel). 16 (1972-73). ‘La peau du serpent’ in Cahiers du cinéma. p. Also appeared as ‘The Snakeskin’ in Film Comment 6. ‘Kinematografi’ Film Script for Persona. pp. titled ‘L’art est pour moi sans importance’. 375-380. 5-46. 29 December 1966. 1973. dated Ornö 17 June 1965. 10. there is no boy and no hospital morgue where he wakes up. He sees the artist as a self-absorbed but curious explorer of the world within his reach. Nor is there any reference later on in the script that the film breaks during Alma’s and Elisabeth’s confrontation. no. under the title ‘Je suis un boulinique’. followed by the main ‘story’. Im Bleistift – Ton. 27 (30 March 1966). no. no. and under the heading ‘Film and Creativity’ in American Cinematographer 53. Also translated in full as ‘Die freie schamlose verantwortungslose Kunst – eine Schlangenhaut voller Ameisen’. Script has some additional dialogue. in Arts. pp. One copy at SFI is copy left by Bergman to be typed up as final shooting script. pp. p. Item is also included as a preface to American edition of ‘Persona’ and ‘Shame’ (New York: Grossman. no. and in Cahiers du cinéma 453. 3 (April) 1986. pp.

dated Djursholm. 46-50. GP. pp. 79-87 in other copies of Script II and consists of the grotesque voice of ‘The Mother’ who abuses Johan. One Swedish Script II copy. 340-374. Allers. nos. 52 pp. such as: Danish: English: French: Persona. ed. used as shooting script. 22 pp. p. 11-15). ‘Den åldrande Ingmar Bergman’ [The aging IB]. (dialogue only). 1979. Iskusstvo kino. Folke. 89 pp. 1967). 1979. ‘Förkonstlingen och tystnaden’ [Artificiality and silence]. 64-132. 62 pp. Åke. It replaces pp. 20-101 (includes ‘Snakeskin’ essay. 18 October 1966. pp. The script has also appeared in numerous foreign-language editions. pp. August 1964 and April 1966. 1967. formed by his personal experience and feelings. Erik. ‘Vargtimmen’ [Hour of the wolf]. pp. p. ST. has additions referring to ‘the marsh sequence’ (last sequence. Kruskopt. pp. In an introductory note. Wejbro. 27 October 1966. tr. German: Italian: Polish: Russian: 1966 133. In Sei film (Ø 173). his actors merely confirmed his already shaped vision. Setting is in a film studio. 1971. Gefle Dagblad. as well as in English Script II copy. pp. 5. 7. Perlström. p. Script II. Film script. Script IV (dialogue lists) in English. 2. pp. 18 October 1966. surrounded by various bird figures. Also English copy. complete script to Persona in French printed in ‘Cris et chuchotements’ suivi de ‘Persona’ et ‘Le Lien’ (Ø 169). Plot revolves around a middle-aged couple – an actor and his wife (a dancer) – whose marriage is breaking up. Göran O. subtitled ‘L-165’. no. ‘Tystnaden ingen utväg’ [Silence no way out]. no. 6. ‘Persona’ in Ingmar Bergman. p. by Renate Bleibtreu. ‘Persona’ in Persona and Shame. ‘Falskspelet’ [The fraud]. 97-168. (includes ‘Snakeskin’ essay). Claes Lembourn (Copenhagen: Det schönbergske. 304-342. 1973. 1976. 2002. ‘Ingmar Bergmans “Persona” i bokform’. Erwin. Die Weltwoche. Bergman explains that the script was written after the 102 . ‘Persona’ in L’Avant scène du cinéma. 2002. A narrative film script edited for Allers by Arne Sellermark. Im Bleistift-Ton. 82 pp. Hufvudstadsbladet. 1973: 49-85. by Renate Bleibtreu. 19 October 1966. followed by final narrative vignette with Liv Ullmann). Reviews Ericsson. pp. 9 December 1966. 85 (October 1968). and in English in Four Stories of Ingmar Bergman. pp. 288-321. 267-310. Vargtimmen was published in Swedish in Filmberättelser 2. ‘Das Schweigen des Künstlers’. various pagination. Leiser. Im Bleistift-Ton. 1967 134. ed. SFI and USF Archives. ‘Persona’ in Bergman scenarieusze (Ø 151).Chapter II The Writer affected by his instruments. En film av Ingmar Bergman. It appeared as Wolfsstunde in Ingmar Bergman. 59-60. 8 (1991): 133-49. This addition is retained in published version of the script.

which was such an ordeal that Bergman tabled the thought of filming ‘Falskspelet’ (see Allers. SFI. p. SFI Archives. 3. A 90-page unpublished script with same title is among Bergman’s private Fårö papers. 139. ‘Skammen’s’ motto. apparently translated at different times. 1973: 87-140.) lists the name of Alan Tapsell. One copy has no translator listed. Stockholm. 105-91. no. Script II ‘Skammen’ was published in Filmberättelser 2. 4-5. and 114 pp. no. 1973: 7-55. The text was based on Script I. 119 pp. Contains translation of screenplays to Through a Glass Darkly. 21 May 1967. Script IV (dialogue list) in English.’ 1968 137. 1967. 1973. now deposited at SFI. 103 . 1971 pp. titled ‘Annandreas: Förslag till scener ur ett äktenskap’. Script I. London: Calder & Boyars. Stockholm. Winter Light. Script IV (dialogue list) in Swedish. Script II. 56 pp. 128 pp.S. Script II in Swedish. Account of genesis of Shame. 164 pp. paperback by Orion Publishers. 123 pp. 147 pp. 1968. Two copies in English. Stockholm. titled ‘En passion’. Translations include the following language publications: English: French: ‘The Passion of Anna’ in Four Stories by Ingmar Bergman. Tr. dated 10 May 1968.’ Film World. with same setting as in The Silence. Script II. 29). pp. titled ‘Skammens drömmar’ [Dreams of Shame]. ca. dated Grindstugan. ‘Die Schande’ in Wilde Erdbeeren und andere Filmerzählungen. Published in Swedish in Filmberättelser 3. 1976 pp. is a quote from the German poet Christoph Martin Wieland (1733-1813): ‘Things Vanish: Become but Dreams. Also issued in U. the other (114 pp. ‘Riten’ [The rite]. Film script. 109. dated 11 August 1968. 221-72. TV Film script. 1977. ‘Une passion’ in L’Àvant-scène du cinéma. 138. variance at length is due to typescript and differences in English usage. ‘Fantastic is the Word. Title of film refers to humiliation and degradation of human life in war.. 54 pp. pp. no. It has appeared in the following translations: English: German: ‘Shame’ in Persona and Shame. 31 pp. [Annandreas: Suggestions for scenes from a marriage].. 83 (March): 177-83.List of Bergman’s Written Work making of ‘Sommarnattens leende’ (1955). Script IV was published in Italian in Cineforum 9. 34 pp. A Film Trilogy. ‘En passion’ was published in Filmberättelser 2. Story was originally conceived as a civil war. listed in Script II and in some published editions. by Paul Britten Austin. 46. 1970. 141-80. 132-68. ‘Skammen’ [The Shame]. 135. 136. ‘En passion’ [A passion]. SR/TV Archives. and The Silence. pp. Film script. no.

3 (June) 1970: 12. and in German under the title ‘Engeln und Dämonen’ in Argus (Munich). ‘Das Reservat’ in Wilde Erdbeeren und andere Filmerzählungen. no. 66 pp. Script IV. ‘Skrämd och illamående bevittnar jag TV-jakten’ [Horrified and sick I witness the TV witch-hunt]. under the heading ‘Utför med Ingmar Bergman’ [IB downhill].. (Ø 173). It has appeared in the following translated volumes: Danish: German: ‘Reservatet’ in 4 Filmmanuskripter. subtitled ‘En banalitetens tragikomedi’ [A tragi-comedy of banality]. This is identical with text in film. 177-228. Im Bleistift-Ton. 61-105. pp. pp. 1975. Swedish TV version was directed by Jan Molander and televised on 28 October 1970 and retransmitted on 9 April 1971. ‘Schizofren intervju med nervös regissör’ [Schizophrenic interview with nervous director].. Under his old pseudonym. religious. SR/TV2 Archives. directed by Alan Bridges.Chapter II The Writer Translations Danish: German: Italian: ‘Ritus’ in 4 Filmmanuskripter. 3 (1969): 11. 140. by Renate Bleibtreu. British version. 40 pp. ed. stating his indignation at methods used by a team of news reporters to track down a local politician and expose him to TV cameras in a nervous and unprepared state. 19 pp. ‘Reservatet’ was planned as a Eurovision play. 84 (October) 1968: 274. ‘Fårö-dokument 69’. 3. 273316. 7 November 1968. ‘Il rito’ in Sei film. 25 September 1968. TV Film script. Open letter from Ingmar Bergman to SR/TV Corporation. (Ø 165). pp. It also appeared in Spanish in Nuova Film (Montevideo). Stockholm. Script IV. 5-62.p. Several copies at SFI. 12. 1973: 58-99. Expr. ‘Subtitles’ in English. 143. 4. was aired on BBC 1 on 29 October 1970. to be produced in a number of different national TV versions in Europe. n. 1-9 (with pictures from ‘Skammen’) and reprinted in English in Take One 2. Typed manuscript in English titled ‘The Lie’ and translated by Paul Britten Austen is available at SFI Archives. and in Making Films in New York 4. 1968. in English at SFI. 104 . (Ø 1678). 1975. ‘Reservatet’ [The Sanctuary]. 8 June 1969. Ernest Riffe. In the U. ‘Der Ritus’ in Ingmar Bergman. and moral values. 142. 1979. ‘Reservatet’ was published in Filmberättelser 3. 4 (Winter/Autumn) 1969: 35-36. no. p. Bergman prints a fictitious interview with himself in which he comments sarcastically on the tendency among critics to define his political. pp. Chaplin. Stockholm. ‘The Lie’ was produced on 24 April 1973 by CBS Playhouse and directed by Alex Segal. pp. no. 2002. 1969 141. pp. ‘Interview’ was printed in English and French in Film in Sweden no. p. First printed in Expr.S. 1979. Cf Media Chapter V (Ø 324). ca. 382-427. no. Unpublished typescript.

7-56. Most complete published French version of ‘Viskningar och rop’ can be found in L’Avant-scène du cinéma. p. pp.H. Husmodern. pp.. ‘Persona’ and ‘Shame’. 86 pp. 88-89. Han stinker. no. dated 3 June 1971. Script II. ‘Min mors dagböcker avslöjar vem hon var’ [My mother’s diaries reveal who she was]. 3-55. [. 11 October 1969. by Keith Bradfield. 142 (December 1973). dated September-October 1970. because he had collaborated on a script for one of the films to be judged. 31 pp. 1979. Script I. Same text appeared in French translation in Cinéma 72. This is the script closest to the film version and contains dialogue. as part of an article by L. 1971). Svenstedt). 1971 146. Swedish published manuscript includes a preface by Ingmar Bergman in which he cautions the reader that a script is a half-baked piece of writing. (London: Calder & Boyars. pp. 103-149. plus 20-page location list. New York: Grossman.List of Bergman’s Written Work 144. his literary script. supporting removal of a member in a film jury (film critic C. 65. 191 pp. Löthwall on ‘Cries and Whispers’. ‘Viskningar och rop’ [Whispers and Cries].. 1973)..] Take him away. 69 pp. ‘Le lien’ in ‘Cris et chuchotements’ suivi de ‘Persona’ et de ‘Le lien’. which contains Bergman’s notes to his actors. Excerpt of Script II was published in Chaplin. ‘Svenstedt och Korridoren’ [Svenstedt and The Corridor]. Expr. This script was the basis of the version printed in Filmberättelser 3 (Stockholm: PAN/Norstedt. [en clown och svansviftare. pp. 107-56. See also Linton (Ø 1526). Script I. He stinks’.. subtitled ‘En film av Ingmar Bergman’.. 1971. SFI Archives. 148.. [. Ingmar Bergman calls Svenstedt ‘a clown and a tail-wagger. Bergman talks about his discovery of his mother’s diaries after her death and how a more complex portrait of her began to take shape in his mind. ‘The Touch’ in Four Stories of Ingmar Bergman. 114 (1972). 105 . and the dialogue script. pp. 133203. 25-27. 18-19. no. no. and Commentary to ‘Viskningar och rop’ in Filmography (entry Ø 255). Film script. no. 147.-O. 39. ‘a pale and tentative mirror image’ [en blek och osäker spegelbild] of the finished film. Trans. 1973: 153-71. SFI has English and French translations of Script II. pp. pp. Swedish publication of script appears in Filmberättelser 3. has IB’s introductory remarks to his crew and a presentation of the characters.] Ta bort honom. ‘Beröringen’ [The Touch]. 4.] 1970 145. 67. Open letter from Ingmar Bergman. Stockholm. Film script. The text to ‘Beröringen’ [The Touch] has appeared in a number of translated editions: Danish: English: French: ‘Berøringen’ in 4 Filmmanuskripter. pp.. 1976. 171 (December 1972). 1975.

138 pp. 1973). 106 . tr. (Tallinn: Peridoodika. For a commentary. pp.G. Szenen einer Ehe. (Tblisi: Xeloveba. 1977. i. ‘Scener ur ett äktenskap’ [Scenes from a Marriage]. see introduction to this chapter. 21 October 1972. Alan Blair (New York: Pantheon Books. 202 pp. (Ø 164). (Berlin: Volk und Welt. 1975). 1992). dated Fårö. 1979. 1976. and in volume titled ‘Cris et chuchotements’ suivi de ‘Persona’ et de ‘Le lien’. 38. German: Italian: Polish: 1972 149. T. Also in Four Stories by Ingmar Bergman. D. Osvald. in which he addressed his prospective reader. tr. (Norwich: Norvik Press). 46. except that Ingmar Bergman added a preface to the printed script. Swedish television format. and 1983). 1975). 150. 231-332. ‘Sussuri e grida’ in Sei film. tr. ed. Claus Lembourn (Copenhagen: Det Schønbergske. pp. speaks in many different voices about the emotional control she has experienced with her father and her lover. ‘Cris et chuchotements’. tr. Saluläär. pp. 171 (December 1972): 25-27. tr. 229-65. and in Ecran 73. (Utrecht: Bruna. Tabitha von Bonin... by Gunilla M.. 363-400. Scènes de la vie conjugale. 172 pp. Scener fra et aegteskab.e.. ‘Szepty i krzyki’ in Bergman Scenarieusze. Z. tr. Also as ‘Une lettre de B à ses collaborateurs de Cris et chuchotements’. no. The play was later included in a volume of three pieces. plus a 4-page preface. 15 (May 1973): 11-12. ‘En själslig angelägenhet’ is a monologue (broadcast in 1990) by a woman on the verge of a breakdown who. 1992. 1976: 57-94. dated June 1972. having plunged a knife in her doctor’s throat. titled Föreställningar (Ø 199). 378 pp. 1982). 33-64 and in French as Une affaire d’âme (see (Ø 199). Hortlová. pp. SFI Archives. Stockholm. no. (Ø 167). J. Translated editions include the following: Czech: Danish: Dutch: English: Estonian: French: Georgian: German: ‘Scény z manzelského zivota’. 3-63 (Ø 169). 196 pp. Published editions of ‘Scener ur ett äktenskap’ follow original Script II format. 204 pp. Copyright 1990. Scvenebi cvolkumrul cvxovrebidpn. Cora Polet. ‘Schrei und Flüstern’ in Wilde Erdbeeren und andere Filmerzählungen. Cinéma 72. pp. 1979.. 1977. 1974). 1974). 1978).Chapter II The Writer The following translated editions of ‘Viskningar och rop’ are all based on Script II: Danish: English: French: 4 filmmanuskripter. 142 (December 1973): 55 pp. 11 August 1972. Scenes from a Marriage. Published in English translation by Eivor Martinus in New Swedish Plays. Cerník. Swedish script was published as Scener ur ett äktenskap (Stockholm: Norstedt. 1974). Scenes uit een huwelijk. pp. 159-95. Script II subtitled ‘Sex dialoger för televisionen av Ingmar Bergman’ [Six dialogues for television by IB]. pp. and 1992. no. 2000.. L’Àvant-Scène du Cinéma. Albertini (Paris: Gallimard. (Prague: Odéon. Bjurström and L. New Yorker. 199 pp. 144 pp. 378 pp. 216 pp. Stseenid hest abielust. Anderman. ‘En själslig angelägenhet’ [A Matter of the Soul]. TV script. C. 230 pp. tr. Fílmove povídky. 323-55. (Hamburg: M. 1975. pp. von Schröder.

Vol 2.. Cenas da vida conjugal. tr. K. (Warszawa: Wydawnictwa artystyczne i filmowe.P. En passion. 1973. geziearosna poziomli’ [Wild Strawberries]. Nattvardsgästerna. Scripts to ‘Wieczir kuylarzy’ [Gycklarnas afton]. (Barcelona: Fernando Torres. tr. Scenariusze. possibly in an effort to present them as autonomous texts and allow the reader to visualize the text for himself. 246 pp. 13 May 1973. (Moscow: Progress. Maria Olszańska and Karol Sawicki. 1973). 1977. What surprised the reviewers in particular was how readerfriendly Bergman’s published scripts were with a simple syntax and word choice. and as Cenas de um casamento sueco (Lisboa: Sécula. L’immagine allo specchio. 1975). ‘Det var bara roligt’ [It was nothing but fun]. the implication being that his films based on these scripts had been viewed as difficult and complex. Vega. 152. 288 pp.. Prytz. ‘Tam. 42. (Poznań: Wydawictwo Poznańiskie. Japanese: Norwegian: Polish: Portuguese: Russian: Spanish: 1973 151. Vol 3.. Viskningar och rop. ‘Milczenie’ [Tystnaden].. Stockholm: PAN/Norstedt. (Oslo: Gyldendahl. (Tokyo: Herarudo-entëapuraizu.F. 1-3. tr. Beröringen. Article appeared in Danish (‘Et par måneders arbejd men et livs erfaring’). 1987. 1974). P. il posto delle fragole (Ø 174). Politiken. (Torino: Einaudi.List of Bergman’s Written Work Hungarian: Italian: Jelenetek egy hça zassfagbil. Scene di vita coniguale. Vols. no. (Rio de Janeiro: Nirdica. 167 pp. Also in Scene di vita conjugale. 187 pp. Reservatet. no. Monaci. Bernardes. Reception Critics remarked on Bergman’s development from a tentative literary writer in the 1940s to greater artistic self-assurance. and 1996). 1979. ‘Persona’. pp 4-6. p. reprinted in part in Röster i Radio-TV. 190 pp. Filmberättelser [Film stories]. J. 153. 35 (1974). Skammen. 1974). Escenas de un matrimonio. 15 (1973). 16. 202 pp. These texts. This in turn confirmed that the Swedish response to Bergman’s filmmaking was not very different from the gloom-and-doom image of him among many foreign viewers. 1975). 155 pp. ‘Scener ur ett äktenskap’. Vargtimmen. (Budapest: Europa könyvhiadi. Bergman writes about the pleasure of making his first TV series. 161 pp. are virtually unillustrated. 1981). Kazuo. Paperback editions of the following Bergman scripts in Swedish: Vol 1. J. tr. the texts contain no production information about the films. Sceny iz supruzjeskoj zjizni. 191 pp. Sceny z życia małżénskiego. 195 pp. Såsom i en spegel. 107 . 1975).. tr. ‘Siodma pieczęć’ [Sjunde inseglet]. Persona. tr. C. Scener fra et ekteskap. 1979).. Röster i Radio-TV. 180 pp. Riten. p. 191 pp. Aru kekkon no feukei. In line with this. Bergman. Tystnaden. which contain not only the descriptions and dialogue of the films but also Bergman’s comments.. 1974).

1973). The so-called interview consists of a long analysis of Scenes from a Marriage. p. p. 21 pp. 155. Inc. no. ‘Bergman i bokform’ [B in book form]. 23 November 1973. 108 . 156. One can assume that this interview is a hoax in the same spirit as his earlier Ernest Riffe essays (Ø 111.’ Cinéma Québec 3. p. Script I.. 23 April 1974. n. Arb. SFI Archive material for ‘Trollflöjten’ also includes a typed sheet outlining the production schedule. 128. (Stockholm: Norstedt. Script II. 1 (September) 1973: pp. ‘Trollflöjten’ [The Magic Flute]. Mandrup-Nielsen. 157. Adapted by Ingmar Bergman. Bergman’s adaptation of Strindberg’s play for his 1970 Dramaten production. where the original ‘Magic Flute’ was performed.. SFI. ‘Läsa filmmanus torr upplevelse’ [Reading film manuscripts a dry experience]. 58 pp. 140). 1973. ‘Jag skulle vilja slå ihjäl er’ [I’d like to kill you]. is a music score to ‘Trollflöjten’ (The Magic Flute) referred to as ‘the Ingmar Bergman version’. p. Bergman offered brief comments on nine of his films. dated 1974. ‘Berättelser som förklarar’ [Stories that explain]. ‘Un film pour vous divertir. 8 December 1973. In connection with a retrospective showing of his films (3 September to 1 October 1973) at SFI Cinematheque in Stockholm. 4.]. Lars-Olof. 111 pp. dated November 1973. no. 158. Strindberg. Joel. Lars. 6. For anyone interested in his filmatization of Mozart’s opera. Röster i Radio/TV. A Dream Play. Reprint of Bergman’s statements during press conference at Cannes Film Festival in 1973 when ‘Cries and Whispers’ was shown out of competition. these commentaries are very valuable source material. Stockholm.Chapter II The Writer Reviews Franzén. Helsingborgs Dagblad. p. Kommentar till serie ö. Tunbäck-Hanson. translated by Michael Meyer. Mads Mandrup-Nielsen is introduced as a 28-year-old film scholar who has just started a new company named Dansk Sandheds AS [Danish Truth. Ohlsson. 13-15. Monika. which is a consortium of progressive. 154. GP. politically conscious younger critics. 3 December 1973. 175 pp. from Kris to The Devil’s Eye. Svensson. of Bergman’s commentaries that range from a presentation of Schikaneder’s old Vienna theatre. [Commentary to Ö series]. to an analysis of the characters and an explanation of the changes made by Bergman. Bergman’s response consists of three no’s and an expressed desire to kill the critic. They appeared in a press folder presentation of the film in French as ‘Comment j’ai découvert La Flute enchantée’. Mads. 2. 15 (7-13 April 1973]. 2. SFI Archive. DN. TV Film script.d. 21. ‘Bergmans filmer i bokform’. With additional 28 pp.

Twarza w twarz. 1976). (Sofia: Narodna kultura. and (London: Marion Boyars. Script II. Bedürfnisse. 1976). N. 8 (April 1976). 28 August 1976. the other 182 pp. (Copenhagen: Det Schönberske 1975).: Dezernat Kultur und Freizeit). pp. 1976).. 147 pp.A. Reprinted under the title ‘Der wahre Künstler spricht mit seinem 109 . tr. Ansikt mot ansikt. Von Angesicht zu Angesicht.List of Bergman’s Written Work 1974 159. Film script. Stockholm. tr.. Two copies are available: one 148 pp. Face à face. 1977). West Germany. tr. Boyars. 1978). tr. (Frankfurt a. 172 pp. Angel Comas Puente and Enrico Ripoll-Freixes (Barcelona: Ayma S. 116 pp. Hour of the Wolf. 89 pp. by C. A.. 110 pp. 1976). Shorter script is the one used as basis for printed editions of Script II.. 131 pp.. 2 pp. Ansikte mot ansikte was published in Swedish in 1975 (Stockholm: PAN/Norstedt). ‘Ansikte mot ansikte’ [Face to face]. Maalboe. French: German: Norwegian: Polish: Spanish: 1975 160. R. Van aangezicht tot aangezicht. Albertini. tr. V. Valiente. Ganyeva. The Touch. Four Stories of Ingmar Bergman. 4 filmmanuskripter Trans. Wünsche. dated 7 December 1974. tr. Maaløe.’ Goethepreis 1976: Ingmar Bergman. (London: M. The Passion of Anna.. SFI Archives.M. Bergman’s speech (ca. ‘Jeder Mensch hat Träume. (including all speeches at the ceremony). Ansigt til ansigt. Cara a cara. Danish editions of The Ritual. by Z. (Copenhagen: Schønberg. Nyqvist.G. 1976). 1977.Y. The Lie (Reservatet). 1976). 1976 161. (Oslo: Aschehough.. 1976). 189-99. 220 pp. 130 pp. Törnqvist-Verschuur. Hans-Joachim Maass. Cries and Whispers. Reissued as Anchor paperback. (Utrecht: Bruna. Translations include the following Bulgarian: Danish: Dutch: English: Lice sieíy’l lice. (New York: Pantheon Books. Longer script reverses the opening sequences in the film but is otherwise identical with film version. tr. Trans. tr. no. 98 pp. Editora. 162. 1978).. 195 pp. 106 pp. and Cries and Whispers. von Schröder. C. Łanofski (Warszawa: no publisher listed).. 168 pp. Garden City.. 30 pp. C. also excerpted in Mademoiselle. Bjurström and L.: Doubleday). (München: Heyne. which is also printed in numerous foreign editions of the screenplay. (Hamburg: M. 80 pp. 119 pp. (Paris: Gallimard. Alan Blair.) delivered at Goethe Award ceremonies in Frankfurt an Main. G. Scripts to The Touch. by Alan Blair. Face to Face. 1984). tr. Both versions include Bergman’s address to his fellow workers.

3 (March) 1988: pp. by Z. (German script excerpt was also published in Fern und Fernsehen VIII. 1977). Currently at SFI Bergman archive but also circulating in U. 315 pp. 1978. L’Oeuf du serpent. Im Bleistift-Ton. 111 pp. sell his property. dissolve his film company. A résumé in English of this letter appeared in Screen International. (Warsaw: Wydawnitctwa Artystyczne i Filmowe). no. Bantam Books. Bjurström and L. Ingmar Bergman Scenariusze [Ingmar Bergman screenplays]. Trans. He ends his letter with a quote from Strindberg: ‘Look out. (Stockholm: PAN/Norstedt. Persona. Also appears under entry title in Ingmar Bergman. 1977)... produced by Warners. Film script. ‘Den förstenade prinsen’ was planned as Bergman’s contribution to a projected Fellini and Bergman film on the theme of love. Tystnaden. (Warsaw: Dialog. Alan Blair (New York: Pantheon Books. tr. 4. Ingmar Bergman announces his immediate intention of leaving Sweden in the aftermath of his arrest by tax authorities earlier in the year (see Ø 1272). 1980). In an open letter to the Stockholm tabloid Expr. no. Published in Swedish in paperback..S. (Czytelnik. Långström (Barcelona: Aymae. 1977 164. tr. El huevo de la serpiente.. pp. 1978). The Serpent’s Egg. Het slangeei. L’uvo del serpente. Italian: Polish: Portugese: Spanish: 166. This text is the basis of following translations: Czech: Dutch: English: French: German: ‘Hadí vejce’. Jajo weza. 137 pp. ‘Nu lämnar jag Sverige’ [Now I leave Sweden]. Expr. Polish edition of Gycklarnas afton. tr. 23. (Torino: Einaudi). Unpublished script. ‘Den förstenade prinsen’ [The Petrified Prince]. Undated. 1977). L.Chapter II The Writer Herzen’ in Filmkunst 74 (1976): 1-3. in Fílmove povídky. pp. (Utrecht: Bruna. Bergman discusses briefly the humanistic. 22 April. Johns (Rio de Janeiro. 1980). Paperback ed. Ø 151). 110 . Script IV in English available at SFI. 1982. ed by Renate Bleibtreu. P. See (Ø 1174). 1978. Das Schlangenei. 4-5. tr. in typescript in an English translation by Alan Blair. 1978. 172 pp. tr. and professional bases of artistic activity. 152 pp. C. Smultronstället. and Viskningar och rop (cf. 44-49). 1973. tr. 163. 333-99. 150 pp. 138 pp. 355 pp. Sjunde inseglet. ‘Ormens ägg’ [The Serpent’s Egg]. and 1997). 1980). R. p. 129 pp. Pavese. you devil. and maybe write a farce about the whole affair.. psychological. 8 May 1976. Heiner Gimmler (Hamburg: Hoffman und Campe Verlag. Łanofski. Albertini (Paris: Gallimard. Asłanowicz. 1977). pp. (2002).G. so I don’t put you in my next play!’ [Se upp din djävel så du inte hamnar i min nästa pjäs!]. O ovo da serpente. and states that he will leave his Swedish assets behind. He feels compelled to depart because his sense of security at work has been shattered. tr. 464-468. by A. 165.

by J.. tr. (Copenhagen: Schönbergske. 1978. This text is the basis of following translations: Bulgarian: Esenna sonata. 73 pp. 101 pp.. Cries and Whispers. Asta Hoff-Jörgensen. Also in Kino Izkustvo XXXIV. no. See Koskinen. Robnard and C. dated Fårö. 1980). The Touch. 1978 168. (Utrecht: Bruna. This was the basis of published Swedish edition from 1982 (Stockholm: Norstedt). Sonate d’autonne. by Anne Storm. Trans. tr. 170. a grotesque variation of ‘The Magic Flute’. and in Film a Doba XXIV. 73 pp. tr. Film script. H. Film script Script IV in Swedish at SFI library. ‘Höstsonat’ [Autumn Sonata]. 400 pp. who is enslaved by his queen mother. The script was published in Swedish as Höstsonaten by Norstedt. 1980. by Jan Ogærts. There are several manuscripts in Bergman’s Fårö papers. 1979). 95 pp. 98 pp. Alan Blair. (Moscow: Iskusstvo. 231 pp. 444 pp.. Høstsonaten. 95 pp. 1979). and as PAN paperback edition. It tells the story of a mute and paralyzed prince named Samson. Persona.’ Tr. 127 pp. Samson makes an unsuccessful attempt to murder his mother but is threatened by a newly arrived father figure who tries to castrate him. p. Kinopovesti. an aggressive whore who repeatedly rapes her son. A. (Warsaw. (Hamburg: Hoffman und Campe). suivi de ‘Persona’ et de ‘Le Lien. tr. (Munich: Heine. no date). Wilde Erdbeeren und andere Filmerzählungen. Winter Light. and The Touch. Samson runs away with a young mother/whore to establish his own neurotic family. 1980). (Sofia: Narodna kultura. tr. by Z. 8 July 1979. Łanowski. and (Munich: Heyne. 253 pp. Script I. 1978. 1978). Herbstsonate. 111 . tr. (Oslo: Cappelen. Osennjaja sonata. Gimmler. 203 pp and 1994. Shame.. ‘Cris et chuchotements’. 1980). ‘Fanny och Alexander’ [Fanny and Alexander]. 5 (May) 1979: 83-112..List of Bergman’s Written Work ‘The Petrified Prince’ is a ‘pornographic’ fantasy. Sonata do Outtono. (Paris: Gallimard. Sonata jesienna. (Paris: Gallimard. I begynnelsen var ordet. Danish: Dutch: English: French: German: Norwegian: Polish: Portuguese: Russian: 1979 169. de Seynes. 1980). 86 pp... Ganyeva. and The Lie. tr. (New York: Pantheon Books. 1979). 84 pp. Bernardes. 12 (December) 1978: 668-679. 332. 1978). tr. (Munich: Hanser. tr. Autumn Sonata.. Bjurström and L. 167. 1981). Albertini. Høstsonaten. 224 pp. The Silence. Through a Glass Darkly. 111 pp. Amlie. and 1997). German edition of Wild Strawberries. (Rio de Janeiro: Nordica. French editions of Cries and Whispers.G. C. 1977. V. no. Herftsonate. 1988).

tr. 174. tr. 1979). Fanny ja Alexander. (Tallinn: Periodiodika. 32 pp.. Dialogue list. 1984). West Germans had difficulty understanding his need for privacy. 1987). Fanny et Alexandre. which was used for an international distribution copy of the dialogue. Tr. 216 pp. 1983). p. (Budapest: Çarçadia. reviewed the book version of Fanny and Alexander. asking him to return home after what was termed a highly critical reception of his theatre productions in Munich by West German press.. Sei film. 235 pp. 1989. by P. and Cries and Whispers. The Silence. (Paris: Gallimard. 1985). Fanny og Alexander. 29 pp. p. Alan Blair. 1984). Letter ends with an homage to Fassbinder. (New York: Pantheon. Letter from Ingmar Bergman to Stockholm evening paper Expr. Törnqvist-Verschuur. Fanny en Alexander. plus 5 pp. Hans-Joachim Maass. Italian translations of Scenes from a Marriage. tr. 171. 39. 142 pp. (Munich: Carl Hanser Verlag. (Oslo: Aschehoug. tr. Tr. 3 February 1979...Chapter II The Writer Among translations of this script are the following: Czech: Dutch: English: Estonian: French: German: Fanny a Alexander.. 226 pp. 1985). 1979). Monaci.. Albertini. (Rio de Janeiro: Nordica. tr. 294 pp.. (Praha: Mladça fronta. Ingmar Bergman..) and one in Spanish: Lista de dialogos. Fanny i Aleksander. 216 pp. J. July 7. 199 pp. Fanny és Alexander. 1983). and (Berlin: Volk und Welt. tr. not as a filmmaker but as ‘the clown of German bourgeois life’ [det tyska borgerliga livets clown]. Cerncik. Expr. 145 pp. 172. and 47 pp. ‘Jag trivs nästan varje dag’ [I like it almost every day]. Pavese. 166 pp. tr. 31 March 1979. Bjurström and L. and Wild Strawberries. Aaloe. R. Through a Glass Darkly. Documento de Fårö 1979. by Giacomo Oreglia.. SFI also has a cut version of the script.K. 4. 269 pp. 1987). concluding that the printed version was ‘Bergman minus the magic’. 112 . 173. R. tr. L’immagine allo specchio. Fanny e Alexandre. 216 pp. G. tr. tr. Muscarello. Fanny e Alexander. Script IV. TV film script. Scene di vita conjugale. 237 pp. Hungarian: Italian: Norwegian: Polish: Portugese: Hanif Kureishi in New Statesman & Society. and (Harmondsworth: Penguin. 1991)... 4. 320 pp. of additional text that is also inserted in the far left column of the script page. 388 pp. 203 pp. Winter Light. The paper had published an article on Ingmar Bergman by Björn Nilsson. Persona. Fanny und Alexander: Roman im sieben Bildern.G. (Amsterdam: Manteau. SFI Archive has several Script IV copies in English (38. (Warszawa: Czytelnik. Fanny and Alexander. (Turin: Guilio Einaudi. (Milano: Club degli editori. ‘Fårö-dokument 79’. Lazli. Z. 1982). il posto delle fragole. Malmström. Through a Glass Darkly.. 1982). See also group entry (Ø 1272) in Chapter IX. Italian edition of The Ritual. A. Bernardes. C. Bergman’s letter depicts the theatre life in Munich and refers to himself as a somewhat suspect person in a foreign context. (Milano: Ubulibri. P. 1988). 1982). C.

dated 1979. 1994). 1980). New ed. Schreeuw zonder antwoord. 1981). 1997. The Serpent’s Egg. Filmové povídky. 1980). Scenes from a Marriage. TV-play. 113 . by Z. Slangeei (Het). 1980). Amlie. ‘Nach der Probe’. Tr. A Passion. Manuscripts in Bergman’s Fårö papers with notes. tr. the latter publication was richly illustrated. Hortlová. ‘Après la répétition’ in Théatre en Europe (Paris). Dutch edition of The Serpent’s Egg. Cerník. Winter Light. ‘Po próbie’. Media chapter V. Femte akten was also published in French as Le cinquième acte in 1997 and in English as The Fifth Act in 2001. 1980). Ur marionetternas liv [From the Life of the Marionettes]. no. From the Life of the Marionettes. 1-80. 79 pp. 9. Hour of the Wolf. tr. Łanowski in Dialog. 127 pp. 1761.G. Jan Bogaerts (Utrecht: Bruna. in 1983. Czech edition of The Seventh Seal. pp 642-677. 171 pp. channel 1. With an afterword by J. Other translations of ‘Efter repetitionen’ include: Bulgarian: French: Kino (Sofia). Translations Dutch: English: French: German: Norwegian: Dans van de marionetten. tr. 1982 178. 112 pp. in Ingmar Bergman. A German version of Script IV is in SFI library. De la vie des marionettes.. 2002. copyright in summer 1980. pp. tr. 1986. dated 1981. (see Ø 195). Bjurström and L. 56 pp. Manuscript dated ‘Fårö. 139 pp. ‘Efter repetitionen’ (After the Rehearsal). 98 pp. (Utrecht: Bruna.. 177. 107 pp. Fra marionettenes liv. Through a Glass Darkly. 3 (July) 1993. The Silence. no. 1982. Im Bleistift – Ton. and in L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma. 394 (July 1990). C. ed. (Hamburg: Hoffman Campe. Alan Blair (New York: Pantheon Books. with a preface by Ingmar Bergman (Paris: Gallimard. (see Ø 332). no. German: Polish: ‘Efter repetitionen’ was televised on SVT. by Z. tr. A. 176. Albertini. Script IV in German titled ‘Nach der Probe’ available at SFI. Osvald. J. The Touch. 5 August 1980’. Aus dem Leben der Marionetten. pp. Cieslar. (Stockholm: Norstedt.. Published in Swedish in Femte akten. Beroering. 1980). Een passie. Het uur van de wolf.List of Bergman’s Written Work 1980 175. 315 pp. Wild Strawberries. 5 (January 1985). (Stockholm: Norstedt. D. Cries and Whispers. by Renate Bleibtreu. (Oslo: Cappelen. 1980). Prague: Odéon.

See Koskinen. Cinéma. 5-6. 335. taken shortly before her death in 1967.Chapter II The Writer 1983 179. Manuscript in SFI Bergman (Fårö) archive includes director’s copy with shooting plan and group photograph. no. (Stockholm: Norstedt). Sweden. Video Recording dated 2 December 1983. Stockholm: Ordfront. ‘Propos. 2 December 1983. Video recording from a seminar with Bergman in the Department of Cinema Arts at Stockholm University in December 1983. Subjects deal with ‘Fanny and Alexander’. 184. and impact of Strindberg. 327 (30 October 1885): 3. theatre work. 181. Dramaten’s program to Bergman’s production of King Lear. Unpublished text is basis of a film about Ingmar Bergman’s mother. New edition 1988. 1984 180. Hallqvist’s new translation of Shakespeare’s play. 183. and women. filmmaking versus filming for television. Manuscript to TV play adapted from Ulla Isaksson’s novel with the same name. Visual text consists of photographs of Karin Bergman. the cinema. Cf. in English-speaking world usually referred to as his autobiography. Dept of Cinema Arts. with alternating chapters on childhood. dated 1985. A collage of statements made by Bergman at a press conference in Venice on 9 September 1983. Ingmar Bergman Seminar. ‘Förord till en översättning’ [Preface to a translation]. the 114 . 337 pp. pp. Book has a non-chronological structure. Stockholm University. Brief commentary by Bergman to Britt G. Also in published play text. (Ø 1681). p. 1987 185. the last one being a passport picture. 1985 182. Bergman’s memoirs.’ Positif 289 (March 1985): 17-19. ‘Karins ansikte’ [Karin’s face]. There are several different versions of manuscript among Bergman’s Fårö papers with alternate titles such as ‘Peeling onions’ (Skala lök) – a reference to Peer Gynt – and ‘Tim Konfusenfej’. 1984. ‘De två saliga’ [The Blessed Ones]. 180. Compilation of published quotes by Bergman on himself. Laterna Magica.

no.. ‘Livet som skådespel’ [Life as a play]. XIV. namely the book’s place in the Swedish literary canon with roots in Strindberg’s autobiography Tjänstekvinnans son (The Son of a Servant). Zern. Expr. Horowitz. p. Jenny. 20 September 1987. Arb. Friedrich. SDS. Anton. his keen observations. most commentators abroad expected the book to focus on an account of Bergman’s experiences in the film trade. Positif. ‘Kärleken. ‘Kroppen mobiliserar själen’ [The body mobilizes the soul]. UNT. Regine. which several critics related to Bergman’s directing method – one that never rested on theoretical reasoning but on very concrete physical details. What fascinated many Swedish reviewers. was of little interest to critics abroad. Holmqvist. Michel. AB. Ciment. ‘Books’. 21 September 1987. October 1988. Reviews (Swedish) Brohult. Specialarbete. Jörn. p. Leif. Bergman’s stylistic talent seems to have come as a surprise to many. 29 March 1988. 4. 38. no. (2) its often ruthless self-revelation. the difficulty of aging]. no. Jurgen. Corliss. Josephson. marriage crises. Wortzelius. 10 October 1987. the book contains relatively little information on Bergman’s filmmaking. p. p. p. painting its author in a rather negative light. 4. Donner. ‘Ingmar Bergman mellan änglar och avgrund’ [Ingmar Bergman between angels and abyss]. a mea culpa moral voice that made reviewers question the book’s purpose and sometimes its authenticity. encounters with artists like Laurence Olivier. and his ability to set the scene for an event in short. 21 September 1987. Hugo. 21 September 1987. 21 September 1987. Foreign reception was by and large more ambivalent than the Swedish. (3) its emphasis on bodily functions. 115 . ‘Scenes from a Life’. 1. 4. Note: Thomas Svensson at the Library School in Borås did a special study of the Swedish reception of Laterna magica: ‘Mottagandet av Ingmar Bergmans självbiografi Laterna Magica. det svåra åldrandet’ [Love. p. 324 (February 1988): 28-30. Schildt. konsten. DN. 14. no. Frankfurter Rundschau. 14 September 1987. 4. ‘De autobiografie van Oedipus zelf ’. ‘Bergman kastar masken’ [Bergman discards the mask]. American Film. 4-5. 26 pp. 1-4.List of Bergman’s Written Work tax affair in 1976. precise descriptions. ‘Hals über Kopf durch den Abgrund des Lebens’. Mark. who mentioned his drastic humor. Magnus. Bengt. p. Film Comment XXIV. Palmqvist.’ Bibliotekshögskolan. art. Despite the title. SvD. Reception Swedish reception was enthusiastic. ‘Bergman juge d’Ingmar’. p.. ‘Prosten Bergmans son har talat’ [Parson Bergman’s son has spoken]. Jean Paul. 6 (Nov/Dec 1988): 77-79. and Herbert von Karajan. ‘Ur kaos och mörker’ [Out of chaos and darkness]. Bertil. Expr. Haakman. Vrij Nederland. Elsevier. whose interest in Bergman stemmed mostly from his filmmaking. 7 November 1987. ‘Bergmans brutala uppriktighet’ [Bergman’s brutal honesty]. pp. ‘Auf der Suche nach Beschädigungen’. Richard. moving back and forth between past and present. 20 September 1987. Borås: 1992. a form that most commentators referred to as cinematic but that actor Erland Josephson termed ‘theatrical’. Greta Garbo. Erland. ‘Vrees doet het gevreesde werkelijkheid worden’. 21 September 1987. 20 September 1987. 4. Urs. Three aspects of the book dominated in the reviews: (1) Its narrative structure. 55-58. Despite the English subtitle ‘An Autobiography’. Der Spiegel. teenage summers in Nazi Germany. Reviews (Foreign) Bresser.

Translations Bulgarian: Chinese: Czech: Danish: Laterna magica. 29. Hammar. ‘The Demonic Charm of a Complex Mind’. 310 pp. 1. KvP.G. Originally published in Danish Magazine Kritik. 25 October 1987. Cinema Nuovo XXXVII. (See Ø 1454). Steene. Behrendt. 283 pp. Mosley. (Amsterdam: Meulenhoff. See also Jan Myrdal response to Bergman’s account of his political ignorance in Laterna magica (see group entry Ø 1439). 15 May 1988. SvD. expressed concern that the subjective dimension of Laterna magica as a memoir book would be viewed as truthful facts. S. Woody. tr. 15 January 1988. Laterna magica. Arb. ‘Apropå årets bästsäljare’ [Apropos of the year’s bestseller].E. (Sofia: Chemus. Z. 1995).. Kosubek. 2 January 1988. The Sunday Times. Lane. 10. I. no. 254 pp. 1988: 21-26. 1989). V. p. Secrets of Women. tr. Laterna magica. G. Joan Tate. tr. Dreams. 7. Olle Svenning used the autobiography to bring up the 1976 tax case again: ‘Ingmar Bergman väcker minnen’ [IB evokes memories]. issued a video release of nine of Bergman’s early films: Torment. 1988). and (London: Penguin. 1988: 78-90. Film Criticism XVII. To Joy. ‘Through a Life Darkly’. Baigeman zichuan. Poul. 1988). NYT. 18 September 1988. See also reply by Harry Schein in same paper. 12 February 1988. p. 1987. ‘Ingmar Bergmans Laterna magica’. NRC Handelsblad. 8. Ganyeva. (Copenhagen: Lindhardt og Ringhof. De monoloog van een orakel’. 308 pp. ‘Bergman sucht Bergman. L. Albertini. 30-44. The Independent. Dutch: English: Estonian: French: 116 . (Taipei: Yuanliu chuban gongsi. 308 pp. Birgitta. tr. Sunday section. and Smiles of a Summer Night. A Lesson in Love. 2/3. no. no.. 17 Jan 1988. Rudi.Chapter II The Writer Kousbroek. 1987). (See Ø 1456). ‘La magia misteriosa della lanterna bergmania’. Karst Woudstra. Articles Allen. 1989). and 252 pp. 253 pp. 270 pp. (Tallinn: Eesti Ramat. Michael. 1 (Fall 1992): 5457. Laterna magica. Note: In connection with American edition of The Magic Lantern. Laterna magica. Fara. 287 pp. 268. 30-34. 312 pp. Li Senayo. The Magic Lantern’. ‘The Guts of Greatness’. The Magic Lantern. C. 1988: 3435 and no. published in Series ‘Grote Cineasten’. 1987). Nelson Entertainment Inc. ‘Tvånget att göra upp’ [The need to settle accounts].. sec 7. 313 (MayJune 1988): 10-12. (Praha: Odeon. and (New York: Viking. ‘Ingmar Bergman en het theater. tr. (Presentation of Laterna magica with excerpts from book). Bergman’s brother-in-law. 1 (January 1989). Sawdust and Tinsel. 1991). Second edition: (Valby: Borgen. pp. Philip. ‘Ingmar Bergman. (Paris: Gallimard. Cernciu. Strunz. 23 December 1987.. 1994). also excerpts in Bulgarian Film journal Kinoizkustvo XLIV. Film und Fernsehen no. Port of Call. Paul Britten Austen.. Summer Interlude. tr. Bjurström. Dieter. tr. 19 May 1988. Freunde und Feinde’. Meyer. Berliner Morgenpost. (London: Hamish Hamilton. 1990) (2 vol). and 1997). Anthony. ‘Ingmar Bergman ist der Philosoph unter den Leinwand Meistern’. Laterna magica. Finsk tidskrift. no.

303 pp. 1989 187. which he read some 40 years later and which opened a way for him into Shakespeare’s texts. tr. Spanish: Linterna magica. (2) Georg Brandes’ book about Shakespeare. (Tel Aviv: Am oved. (Riga: Liesma. tr. 1991). 316 pp.... G. 1989). Kagevska. Pastor. Polish: Laterna magica. (Barcelona and Buenos Aires: Tusquets.. tr. 286 pp. 11 January 1990. F. Turkish: B y l fenar. Later he read and staged other works by Munk. Serbo-Croatian: Moj livot: laterna magica. Shafran. tr. which ‘seemed to be administered by heaven’ [verkade administreras av himlen].. Bergman was a teenager and much moved by the play. Łanowski. E. 18 November 1989. Bergman also talks about his visits (during his Malmö period in the 1950s) to the Danish Film Museum in Copenhagen. The Marriage Scenarios: Scenes from a Marriage. (Bucuresti: Editura Meridiane. 222 pp. 292 pp. (Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara. and (3) Kaj Munk’s play Ordet. 350 pp. 1992). 1990). 1988).. 285 pp. Tauskein. 335 pp. (Tokyo: Shinchëo-sha. Blair. S. (Zagreb: Grafyki zavod Hrvatske. tr. tr. (Vilnius: Alma Littera. Z. hans farliga. C. Greek: Hëe magikëe kamera: mia autobiografia. Florea. (Lisboa: Caravela.. romantiska kärlek till starka individer]. 232 pp. and (New York: Pantheon. Norwegian: Laterna magica. hans intellektuella förvirring. tr... K. 1993). Ø 1477).. 347 pp. 269 pp. 1988). Lanterna magica: una autobiografia. whom he felt close to for ‘his emotional strength. Uriz. 319 pp. 1988). 14 February 1988. 1989). (Milano: Garzanti. tr. 1992). Italian: Lanterna magica. T.. Hebrew: Laterna magikah. Ness. Lithuanian: Laterna magica. (Warszawa: Czytelnik. 319 pp. Also in Universitetsavisen. tr. 1988). tr. Autumn Sonata. tr. Torres. 1990). 1987). Z.. 350 pp. His three Danish angels (= literary/critical influences) were (1) Søren Kierkegaard’s Sickness unto Death.. Portuguese: Lanterna magica.’ [My Danish angels]. 117 . A. excerpts in El Pais. 350 pp. (Oslo: Aschehoug. 284 pp. 1989). A. Hungarian: Laterna magica. Pastor. (Bratislava: Slovenskij spiso valelij. 1994). Morgenavisen (Danish). Icelandic: Töfralampin: sjalsvisaga. German: 1988 186. Latvian: Laterna magica. 349 pp. Slovakian: Laterna magica. Face to Face. (Berlin: Volk und Welt. (Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt.. 1988). 274 pp. F. 1989). Ferrari. 1987). Buich. tr. Rumac. Speech (tr. and his dangerous romantic love of strong individuals’ [hans känslostyrka. which Bergman’s father took him to see in a small private theatre in Stockholm. 1991). M. D. (Istanbul: AFA. Japanese: Bergman jiden. 1994). 1991). tr. Hans-Joachim Maass.List of Bergman’s Written Work Mein Leben. and 1990). his intellectual confusion. tr. 232 pp. (Budapest: Europa. (Frankfurt am Main: Gutenberg. 1987. 259 pp. (London: Aurum). a book that fascinated him at age 16 for its dark streak and humor. Lazli. tr. 1988). A.. 407 pp. tr. (Hamburg: Hoffman und Campe. Kallifatides. K. (Athen: Kaktos. by Henrik Egede) by Bergman at his reception of Danish Sonning Price for 1990 (see Chapter IX. (Moskva: ‘Iskusstvo’. Russian: Laterna magika. 285 pp. ‘Mine danske engle. Maleikaitele.. Baneiu. M. Roumanian: Lanterna magicela. (Reykvavik: Gjölvi. 312 pp. 524 pp. I.

1992). ‘Bilder med hygglig skärpa’ [Images with adequate focus]. 442 pp. tr. Nasta. Ruuth. Barometern. Revue du Cinéma. 1991). Självutlämnande och äkta’ [IB’s images. p. Magny. 4. 16. UNT. Zern) The book was termed self-exposing. 81 (Spring 1996): 62. Zern. Images: My life in film. p. p. 110. 1994). Using his work books and filmmaking diaries. ‘Bergman naket uppriktig’ (B nakedly outspoken). no. ‘Bergman à la lettre’.. See article by Harry Schein. (Taipei: Yuanliu chuban gongsi. and (London: Bloomsbury. and honest. p. Billeder. gave an unusual vitality to a book that offered both remembered vignettes of the films’ genesis and an account of a lifelong artistic process. arguing that Bilder [Images] exposes the gap between critical interpretors and the filmmaker. it was argued. ‘Ingmar Bergmans filmer’. 24 Images. 18 November 1990. Leif. Bilder. 442 pp. 1994). (Copenhagen: Lindhardt og Ringhof. Koskinen. (See Wortzelius. no. (Amsterdam: Meulenhoff. Arbetet. It was in part prompted by Bergman’s dissatisfaction with the earlier interview book Bergman om Bergman (1971) in which he felt he had been manipulated by the interviewers. 435 pp. The consensus was that the two works complemented each other (sometimes to the point of repeating the same statements verbatim) and gave the impression of a filmmaker for whom his films were still alive.Chapter II The Writer 1990 188. Reception Bergman’s negative reference to Bergman om Bergman (Ø 787) prompted many reviewers to juxtapose it to Bilder... 453. unusually engaging. 1994). Wickbom. Lasse Bergström. p. 33-35 (1993): 194. p. grouped into thematic units. 1992: 84-88 (review article). 33-35 (1993): 194. ‘Med dämonerna som medarbetare’ [With the demons as collaborators]. Kaj. 435 pp. Hugo. ‘Vägen till mellangärdet’ [The road to the diaphragm]. Dagbladet (Norwegian). tr. 433 pp. ‘Det blev en djävla promenad’ [It turned into a hell of a walk]. 22 October 1990. Cahiers du Cinéma. Dominique. A2. 22 October 1990. Sven E. SDS. ‘Images’. AB. ‘Bergmans “jævla spasertur”’. 25 March 1991.. Expr. 5. p. Dagens Nyheter. K. 7 January 1991. 22 October 1990. 435 pp. Arrhenius. Self-exposing and genuine]. 22 October 1990. tr. Stegelmann. 118 . no. Roy. 22 October 1990. ‘Images’. (New York: Arcade Publishers. Reviews Aghed. Nasta. 4-5. Translations Chinese: Danish: Dutch: English: Baigeman lun dianyin. The book project started as a series of conversations with Bergman’s editor. Olsson. Kell (Keith Keller). M. almost like works in progress. Variety. Jan. no. p. ‘Ingmar Bergmans bilder. (See Aghed. J. also in (Copenhagen: Bogklubben 12 bøger. ‘Bilder’. Thor. 22 October 1990. 17. to celebrate publication of Images – My Life in Film. Revue Belge du Cinéma. Ingmar Bergman analyzes a number of his own films. This. Beelden: een leven in films. Ellingsen.) National Film Theatre (NTF) published a program (February 1994): 22-23. 350 pp. Joel. Wortzelius. 1990). Dominique. Sara. ‘Images’. [B’s hell of a walk].. (Stockholm: Norstedt. 1990). André. 4. Woudstra.

Eskelinen. Spanish: Imagenes. 17 (January-July 1993). Stockholm. tr. tr. Seminar at Svenska Filmklipparförbundet [Swedish Film Editors Association]. 1991). typed version 1990 (2 February). tr. Sverker Andréason’s (GP) imaginative description of Ingmar Bergman’s narrative position in his novel Den goda viljan sums up the focus among reviewers: the author was both an astute observer and an empathetic participant in the drama about his parents up to the time of his own birth. Scherzer. R. Ingmar Bergman. Zern) The book was seen as Bergman’s attempt to understand and become reconciled with his parentage. tr. Reception (of the book) ‘The yet unborn child Ingmar Bergman is swishing about in the narrative’s fetal water. and Kartiny. (Helsinki: Otava. K. Bergman calls Den goda viljan a novel. Italian: Immagini. (Paris: Gallimard.List of Bergman’s Written Work Pildid. 390 pp. Pavese. (Milano: Garzanti. Their story takes place during ten years prior to Ingmar Bergman’s birth in 1918. 1991). 1996). last. 1992). 1992). 338 pp. (Barcelona: Tusquets. Den goda viljan. 1992). tr. (Budapest: Europa.. and physical presence or as a form of visualizing fiction. (Tallinn: Alexandra. 378 pp. T. Many critics read the book as Bergman’s search to understand himself through his parents in a portrait of them that was part fact. (Köln: Kiepenheuer & Witsch. (Sao Paolo: Martin Fontes. Text is available as special program. (Oslo: Aschehoug. 1995). Rajic. Royal Opera. It was made into a film. 16 December 1990. Lcaszli. Norwegian: Bilder. Hungarian: Képek.Uriz Torres. 1992). L. a process that had started with Laterna magica. F. Uriz.. French: Images. with subtitle ‘Fyra Akter av Ingmar Bergman’ [Four Acts by Ingmar Bergman]. Russian: Bilder was excerpted under title ‘Kartiny’ in seven issues of Iskusstvo Kino. they pointed to the predominance of dialogue and referred to descriptive passages as stage directions filled with color. Bergman discusses his editing experiences. Polish: Obrazy. (Tallinn: Eesti Raamat. J. H. Estonian: 189. Pastor. Westling. (Stockholm: Norstedt. (Novi Sad: Promety. A. ‘Backanterna’. 1992). 441 pp. 406 pp. Szczepański. 1996). Finnish: Kuvasta kuuvan. Among Fårö papers. J. tr. ‘Ingmar Bergman’s prose is seeing’.. Serbo-Croatian: Slike. 1997). 1991).. no. 367 pp. but reviewers preferred to see it as a script or a play of epic and dramatic dimensions. 1991 190. Amlie. directed by Bille August. part fable. Portugese: Imagens. A. smell. First handwritten version of ‘Den goda viljan’ is dated 1988.. tr.. tr. L. New edition: MånPocket.. C. Den goda viljan (Best Intentions) is a narrative of Bergman’s parents as young adults. 399 pp. 371 pp. 439 pp. 437 pp. wrote Leif Zern. 191. Bjurström. Albertini. Typewritten manuscript available at SFI. som såg han alltsammans inifrån livmodern]. Text adaptation by Ingmar Bergman for his staging of Euripides’s play as an opera. tr. 1993). as if he saw the whole thing from within the womb’ [Det ännu ofödda barnet Ingmar Bergman ligger och skvalpar i berättelsens fostervatten. ‘It comes quite 119 . tr. (See Kollberg. 394 pp. 407 pp.. (Warszawa: Wydawnictwa artystyczne i filmove. German: Bilder.G.

tr. 228 pp. Groene Amsterdammer. Feilberg. Woudstra. The Best intentions. Den kommer helt nära personerna och beskriver – inte själva känslan men dess bakgrund. 12. Franzén. Albertini.] Leif Zern. Leif. As an innovative love novel it will become incorporated in Swedish literary history’ [Den goda viljan är en ny konstnärlig landvinning för IB. 2 December 1991. M. tr. SvD). 1993). Reviews. 1991). also in (Copenhagen: Bogklubben 12 bøger. [Ingmar Bergmans prosa är seende. 4. Brohult. Jan. Bo-Ingvar.Chapter II The Writer close to the characters. 1992). tr. Magnus. ‘Bergman berättarglad men ofarlig’ [B a happy narrator but harmless]. Reviews. ‘Den goda viljans genuine arvtagare’ [The real inheritor of good intentions]. SvD.. Andreasson. 120 . SDS) concluded that ‘as a literary creation.. 2 December 1991. 1994). 1992). Foreign ‘Goede bedoelingen’. (Copenhagen: Lindhardt og Ringhof. Den goda viljan confirmed the critical reception of Laterna magica. Expr. p.G. p. depicting – not the emotion itself but its background. (Paris: Gallimard. 2 December 1991. Les meilleures intentions. p. ‘Ljuset som förvandlar’ [The light that transforms]. 4-5. tr. 288 pp. Lars-Olof. take.. (Helsinki: Otava. ‘Släktkrönika om starka viljor och självutgivande kärlek’ [Family chronicle about strong wills and self-exposing love]. 1992). Barbro. p. tr. and London: Harvill. December 1991. Another reviewer (Aghed. Events were described for the readers by an involved observer who retained a unique objectivity ‘as if we were face to face with facts that openly reveal their secret’ [som om vi var ansikte mot ansikte med fakta som öppet avslöjar sin hemlighet].. Kollberg. p. 1992). DN. 377 pp. 2. Translations Czech: Danish: Dutch: English: Finnish: French: Dobrca veáule. 4. A. 415 pp. who referred to Den goda viljan as ‘one of the most moving love stories in Swedish literature’ [en av de mest rörande kärleksberättelserna i svensk litteratur]. AB. C. Lars Olof Franzén – somewhat more lukewarm to the work but intrigued by its narrative method – suggested that Bergman forced the reader to participate as an ‘actor’ by using a technique characteristic of Bergman’s manipulative filmmaking. GP. ‘Drömmen om att äntligen bli sedd’ [The dream of being seen at last]. Hyvö tato. L. love novel]. A 4. (Amsterdam: Meulenhoff. 2 December 1991. 482 pp. tagning kärleksroman’ [Silence. Som en nydanande kärleksroman kommer den att införlivas med den svenska litteraturhistorien] (Magnus Brohult.. Zern. (Praha: Argo-Panda. Den gode vilje. ‘Förnämligt verk om de stora livsfrågorna’ [Superb work about the big questions in life]. Bjurström. Joan Tate. resultatet är både mycket tydligt och oförklarligt. UNT. 2. ‘Tystnad. Ingmar Bergman was recognized as a major writer in Swedish literature: ‘Best Intentions is a new artistic conquest for Ingmar Bergman. SDS. Kyrö. 6 January 1993. K. the book ‘Den goda viljan’ stands securely and extremely convincingly on its own’ [Som litterär skapelse står boken ‘Den goda viljan’ stabilt och ytterst övertygande på egna ben]. 24 December 1991. the result is both very clear and inexplicable’. sec. p. Westling. B1. p. 4 December 1991.. Goede bedoelingen: roman. described Bergman’s approach as that of a director instructing his actors. 295 pp. Swedish Aghed. (New York: Arcade Publ. Sverker.

. with an author who interrupts the narrative to comment on it. The first Script II above is the text used for publication of Söndagsbarn (Stockholm: Norstedt. H. 413 pp. Script II.. Gimler. (1992). his cheeks childishly full and his mouth half open.. Hoi kalyteres protheseis. tr.] reflected in an unmistakable desire to tell stories’ [Här föds ett språk som alltmer bär författarskapets äkta kännetecen. tr. 331 pp. Konidarëe. as when comparing the pastor who built the Bergman family’s rented summer house to Noah and his Ark.. M.. A legjobb szçandekok.. Script II at SFI. ‘that one could again be fascinated by the rounds in the Bergman family?’ [Vem kunde tro att man åter skulle kunna fängslas av turerna i den bergmanska familjen?] Once more. [. (Budapest: Europa.G. 1993). the closest to anything I have ever dared to come’ [ett exakt återberättat minne. Script includes one comment by director (Daniel Bergman) that he plans to include shots of mural paintings from Det sjunde inseglet/The Seventh Seal (church sequence) in young boy Pu’s visit to an old church where his father is to preach. 1993). O.. N. (Tokyo: Sekaibunka-sha. 123 pp. Serbetas. probably adenoids’ [Uppsynen är något sömnig. 1992). det närmaste jag vågat komma någonting någon gång].] 121 . 1993). somewhat alcoholic tugboat skipper on the Euphrates’ [Noa var inte heller någon byggare utan strängt taget en godmodig. 1993)... 216 pp. Three acts for the cinema]. Blagie namerenija. Söndagsbarn is both a novella and a piece of autobiography. 1996. klart och genomlyst. Fårö. wrote one reviewer (Ström). 1992 192. A. Pu is described in ways that bring to mind the boy in Persona: ‘His look is somewhat sleepy. 373 pp. (Köln: Kiepenheuer & Witsch. This longer version is a breakdown of original script (above) into 679 takes. Con le migliori intenzioni. tr. 436 pp. clear and lucid and [.. Las mejores intenciones. 1993). Copyright: Cinematograph AB.. In a note Bergman called Söndagsbarn ‘an exactly retold memory. 435 pp. G.. (Milano: Garzanti. 1993).. 332 pp. Ingmar Bergman’s text is a novelistic narrative rather than shooting script. (Moskva: Chudozjestvennaja literatura. (Oslo: Aschehoug. Pu’s story is interwoven with flashforwards to an adult Ingmar Bergman visiting his aging and dying father. A. 394 pp.. 326 pp. 300 pp. Dobre chęci. sometimes kept in a humorous ‘literary’ style. Thylwe.. 317 pp.List of Bergman’s Written Work German: Greek: Hungarian: Italian: Japanese: Korean: Norwegian: Polish: Russian: Slovakian: Spanish: Die besten Absichten. tr. and (Barcelona: Circulo de lectores. tr. Afinogenova. 326 pp. Shinji.. Bergman’s stylistic and narrative skills amazed Swedish critics: ‘Here a language is born that more and more bears the genuine signs of authorship. Cima. kinderna barnsligt fylliga och munnen halvöppen. 1995). (Warszawa: Czytelnik. 1995). new ed. with titles. Reception (of book) ‘Who would have thought’. 1993).. Dobrca vueëla (Bratislava: Vydavat eelstvo. 361 pp. något alkoholiserad pråmskeppare på Eufrat]. ‘Söndagsbarn.. 1991). Malmström. C.. 430 pp. Den gode viljen. ‘Noah was not a builder either but strictly speaking a good-natured. at SFI. H. 1996). tr. tr. 123 pp. (Barcelona: Tusquets.. Söndagsbarn (Sunday’s Child) is a portrait of the boy Pu (Ingmar Bergman’s nickname) at age eight. Ai no feukei. (Athens: Synchronaëe epochëe. 1994). 3 akter för bio’ [Sunday’s Child. Film script. troligen polyper]. Choeseon-eui-e kido (Soeul: Hang gyeror. tr. Torres.

‘Flodens sång: Dalälven från Selma Lagerlöf till Ingmar Bergman’ [The song of the river: The Dala River from Selma Lagerlöf to IB]. What was emphasized in particular was Bergman’s ability to juxtapose very concrete and evocative vignettes. 39-41. 25 January 1993. Some even felt that Söndagsbarn was superior to Den goda viljan. (Köln: Kiepenheuer & Witsch. son of Ingmar Bergman and Käbi Laretei) premiered prior to the publication of the book. p. Søndagsbarn. pp. Bjurström. Feilberg. (Amsterdam: Meulenhoff. 25 January 1993. Kollberg. 1993). UNT. GT/KvP. 25 January 1993. Sverker. 122 . V. Critics who compared the two usually preferred the elder Bergman’s literary work (see Hansell.. 1994).Chapter II The Writer speglad i en omisskännlig lust att fabulera]. his story feels like it was brought to the reader orally. Torsten. 4. pp. P hapäevalapsed. Magnus. ‘Söndagsbarn’. 1994). 153 pp. BLM. p. 8 February 1993. AB. Zondagskinderen. Ström. Ekbom. no. ‘Berättelse från ett oändligt avstånd’ [Story from an immense distance]. Ingrid. tr. Sonntagskinder. SDS. tr. Woudstra.. 157 pp. 1997). 99-100. 78 pp. Bo. tr. Palmqvist. Sven. 1995). More than a literary text. Hansell. Tidningen Boken. K. 160 pp. Gunder. Arb). Joan Tate. 4. tr. Vår lösen. 5.. ‘En färd som försonar’ [A journey that reconciles]. Bertil. and Palmqvist. Reichel. 4. 2. and (London: Harvill. (Helsinki: Otava. Mer än som en litterär text känns hans berättelse som muntligt framförd till läsaren. ‘Ingmar Bergman tillbaka till det skrivna ordet’ [IB back to the written word]. no. which is both unusual and refreshing today’ [Bs styrka som författare är den självklara trygghet han har i förvissningen att han skall kunna trollbinda och förföra ett auditorium med sina ord. Asta. p. 1993). 10. Reviews (of book) Andersson. p. DN. 25 January 1993. Enfants du dimanche. Cernçik. Brohult. 1993. 22. p. See also review article by Magnus Bergh. SvD. ‘Skimrande barndomsskildring’ [Shimmering childhood tale]. p. M. 25 January 1993. Arb.. A. A4. B1-B2. 107 pp. 25 January 1993.. Bolin. tr. Elam.. 1994).. 25 January 1993. Expr. also (Den Haag: Stichting Kitgeverij. ‘Långt farväl till pappa’ [Long farewell to daddy]. (New York: Arcade Publ. 1995). p. 140 pp. Andréason. Translations Czech: Danish: Dutch: English: Estonian: Finnish: French: German: Nedelnaatka. Eva. knowing that he will be able to spellbind and seduce an audience with his words. national ed. 101 pp. Axelsson. tr.. tr. no. Kyrö. (Praha: Volvox Globator. 25 January 1993. The film version of Söndagsbarn (directed by Daniel Bergman. pp. p.. (Copenhagen: Lindhardt og Ringhof. Expr. 2. Z. (Tallinn: Perioodika. (Paris: Gallimard. både ovanligt och uppfriskande i dag]. filled with color and smell. ‘Dödens oupphörliga närvaro’ [Death’s constant presence]. Bo Ingvar. Sunday’s Children. wrote Asta Bolin in Vår lösen. 155 pp. more stringent and less wordy. She was seconded by Eva Ström in SDS: ‘Bergman’s strength as an author lies in his self-evident confidence. 1993... 7-8. and to write dramatic dialogues signalling the dark forces at work underneath an idyllic summer landscape. 1996). C. 1993. p. ‘Metmask och högmässa’ [Fishing worm and Sunday sermon]. Sunnuntailapsi. 138 pp. 4. ‘Självbilden hos ett söndagsbarn’ [The self-portrait of a Sunday child]. ‘Uppfriskande Bergman’ [Refreshing Bergman]. ‘Den faderlöse fadern’ [The fatherless father]. GP. 1996). 4. G.

and her unhappy life was felt to be so close to self-identification that one reviewer suggested a para- 123 . Søndagsbarn. Dated at the beginning of script ‘Fårö 1 juni 1994’ and at end ‘8 juni 1994. 1994 and 1996).19-26.. New Månpocket edition in 1997. The play premiered at the Swedish Film Institute’s Cinema Victor in connection with the showing of the SFI restoration of two silent films by Klercker. At one point the narrator intercepts the conversations with hesitant questions to himself.. 1994). 1996). Bergman på Lilla scenen avsedd för säsongen 1996/97’ [Dramaten production plan. Cima. ‘Sista skriket’ is also included in 1994 volume titled Femte akten (Ø 195). 47-48. no. ‘Karin Bergman & kärleken’ [Karin Bergman and love]. It was also performed a few times in Göteborg. (See Ø 340). tr. tr. A Slightly Tinted Morality Play]. 100 pp.List of Bergman’s Written Work Hungarian: Italian: Norwegian: Polish: Portugese: Slovakian: Spanish: Vascarnapi gyerekek (Budapest: Europa könyvkichi. see Christina Rosenqvist. pp. Undated manuscript of one-act play. vol. directed by Liv Ullmann. 3. Script I. 1994). and Dramaten. Play by I. The occasion is a marital crisis in her life: she has fallen in love with a young theologian. tr.. 1993. 41 pp. and film producer Charles Magnuson. SFI Archives. Media chapter. Ø 474). dated 5 May 1997. Play depicts the encounter between Swedish filmmaker from the silent era. This is basically a dialogue manuscript and marked as the final TV script. (Barcelona: Tusquets. (Bratislava: H & H. Torres.. Vi. His empathy with his subject. 1995). 134 pp. (Lisboa: Difel. Sunday 24 January 1993. pp.’ [Private Confessions/Conversations] Reception (of book) Like all of Ingmar Bergman’s films and books rooted in his childhood. 114 pp. 142 pp. ‘Sista skriket. 1994 194. Niedzielne dziecko. H. (See Theatre Chapter. Malmö. 1993). here called Anna Bergman. The book’s title refers to the Lutheran alternative to Catholic confession: Anna Bergman has five private conversations with her pastor Jacob. Anna Bergman. (Warszawa: Prószyński i Ska. I. Georg af Klercker. xxxv. Script II at SFI. 131 pp.. 1993. M. Bergman on the Small Stage intended for the 1996/97 season]. Enskilda samtal was seen by the critics as circling around two essential questions: Bergman’s relationship with his parents and his questions of faith and doubt. 1995).’ Script I is the text used for published version of Enskilda samtal (Stockholm: Norstedt. 173 pp.. 166 pp. A. (Oslo: Aschehoug. Ø 338) and published in special Bergman insert in Chaplin. En lätt tintad moralitet’ [The Last Scream/The Last Gasp. 59-62. marked ‘Konfidentiellt’ in SFI Archive. It was also televised (see Media Chapter. G. Includes pasted stills from the silent cinema and a note referring to ‘Dramatens produktionsplan. Nedeliatko. 144 pp. Pjäs av I. (Milano: Garzanti). See introduction to this chapter. whom she has known since her first communion. Nati di domenica. tr. Thylwe. ‘Enskilda samtal. The script was made into a television film. Niños del domingo. Enskilda samtal (Private Conversations/Private Confessions) is a novel about Ingmar Bergman’s mother. 1993 193. no. Ribero. tr. Amlie. 1996. Filhos de domingo. söndagen den 24 januari 1993. 165 pp. For genesis of novel. plus 1 p.

DN. 2001). Karst Woudstra. 26. 1996 and New York: Arcade Publ. Monika. Expr. 159 pp. Madame Bovary: ‘Anna. Joan Tate (London: Harvill. (Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Warszawskie. B2. Book Reviews Elensky. 37. tr. Stefan. Torbjörn. Maria. 122. 1997. 48. Schottenius. 1996). 1996). 5. Bergman emerged as ‘one of our country’s really great authors’ [en av vårt lands verkligt stora författare]. tr. Haryson.) called Enskilda samtal ‘autobiographical grains of sand that take on a pearly glow in new mussel shells’ [självbiografiska sandkorn som får en pärleglans i nya musselskal]. (Copenhagen: Lindhardt og Ringhof. p.. Palmqvist. p. forever returning to his childhood past (Jonsson). Alain Gnaedig. Bergman revealed his filmmaking basis in his literary works: ‘All that is. 188 pp. Christer. p. 175 pp. Reichel. (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. In fact a number of reviewers had a hard time separating Bergman’s literary text from their own memories of his films.. Arbetet Nyheterna. ‘Mamma än en gång’ [Mom once more]. reviewers repeated that in his focus on images. cues and stage directions.. Vertrouwelijke Gesprekken. Rozmowy poufne. K. 1996).O. Tunbäck-Hansson. no. Fortrolige samtaler. Svenska kyrkans tidning. 11 November 1996. Entretiens privés. 1994. ‘Regissören vinner över författaren’ [The director wins over the author]. ‘Enskilda samtal’. 161 pp. 1996). (Elensky) With a language that one critic (Enander) called ‘brilliantly suggestive’ [briljant suggestivt]. Enander. ‘Bergmans hemlighet’ [Bergman’s secret]. Femte akten. Translations Danish: Dutch: English: Finnish: French: German: Hungarian: Norwegian: Polish: Personlige samtaler. Contains the following works: ‘Monolog’ [Monologue]. 124 . 1996). Private confessions. Like a mantra. There was also a sense that Bergman had become his own prisoner. 12. 11 November 1996. A. 147 pp. AB. (Oslo: Aschehoug. H. 167 pp. c’est moi’. Berliner Morgenpost. Expr. 152 pp. Öt vallompas. 11 November 1996.. p. ‘Fånge i sitt eget hem’ [Prisoner in his own home]. no. 4. tr. Agneta. (Budapest: Europa.Chapter II The Writer phrase of Flaubert’s famous phrase about his creation. 4. p. national ed. 11 November 1997. Yksitysiä keskusteljuja. Tidningen Boken. 135 pp. 195. Bertil. p... p. (Paris: Gallimard. V. Volke. ‘Efter repetitionen’ [After the Rehearsal]. Einzelgespräche. 162 pp. ‘Lögn och bikt’ [Lies and confession]. tr. tr. Barbro. 25 April 1997. Kajsa. ‘Den sanna kärleken överlever inte sanningen’ [True love does not survive truth]... Allt som sägs är talat] (Schottenius). tr. p. 1-3. (München: Hanser. 11 November 1996. Lasszlo. All that is said is spoken’ [Allt som är är synligt. 1996. is visible. SvD. ‘Enskilda samtal’. ‘Ein Seitensprung macht die Ehe zur Hölle’. (Amsterdam: Meulenhoff. Lutz.. Feilberg. Jonsson. GP. Thylwe (Helsinki: Otava. Jensen. Rudvall. 1997). K. Femina månadsmagasin. 151 pp. no. 1997). ‘Återigen nya masker för nya taskspelare’ [Once more new masks for new entertainers]. p. ‘Sista skriket’ [The Last Gasp/The Last Scream]. Westling. tr. 3. 3. The reviewer in SvD (Elensky) likened him to a snake in a new skin that had not completely shed its old.. 1997). ‘Larmar och gör sig till’ [In the Presence of a Clown]. Stockholm: Norstedt. tr. 1996). new ed. 1996. 11 November 1996. Another reviewer (Schottenius.

’ All of the works included in Bergman’s Femte akten have in common that they deal with emotional and professional finales: an aging director summing up his views of his profession. (Stockholm: Norstedt. 2002. see (Ø 332). ‘Sista skriket’ a theatre and TV play see (Ø 474) and (Ø 338). (New York: The New Press. Arbetet Nyheterna. p. DN. Also published in L’Avant Scène du Cinéma. 35-36. 24. tr. 2001). 24 October 1994. 31 October 1994. The book title is a reference to Ibsen’s Peer Gynt where death (‘The Passenger’) in the last act jokes with Peer: ‘One does not die in the middle of the fifth act. p. tr. a has-been filmmaker dismissed by his producer. Reception Almost all reviews consisted of plot and theme summaries of the works in the volume and had few comments about Bergman as an author. (Paris: Gallimard. GP. Im Bleistift – Ton. ‘Filosofi. 4. Westling. Bertil. Birgit. Piekąty akt. Swedish paperback volume of Best Intentions. Katarina. Söndagsbarn.. p. ‘En demon har blivit ödmjuk’ [A demon has humbled]. The remaining three works are written in dialogue form. Bjurström. 1998). Palmqvist. ‘Fredsfördrag med levandet’ [Peace treaty with life]. p. pp. Expr. 152 pp. tr. (See Ø 77). Translations include English: French: The Fifth Act. ‘Efter Repetitionen’ became a TV film. Sunday’s Child. (Budapest: Europa. (Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Warszawskie. 171 pp. 40. 5. 125 . SvD. and Private Conversations. Enskilda samtal. K Lasszlo. p. national ed. Munkhammar. 3 för en. Az ötödik felvongas. 1995). C. except for references to his skills as a writer of dialogue. Lars. fear of death and vulgarities]. 1951. 447 (May 1998): 62-64. dödsrädsla och tarvligheter’ [Philosophy. and ‘Larmar och gör sig till’ a TV film (see Ø 340). 1997).G.. Le cinquième acte. 26 November 1995. 4. Book Reviews Andréason. Ring. Niewiarowska. Sverker. ‘Fem akter är fler än fyra dramer’ [Five acts are more than four dramas]. ‘Larmar och gör sig till’ is translated as ‘In Gegenwart eines Clowns’ in Ingmar Bergman. 10 February 1995. ‘Konsten trotsar döden’ [Art defies death].List of Bergman’s Written Work ‘Monolog’ is a personal preface in which Bergman talks about his approach to the written word. no. by Linda Rugg and Joan Tate. 31 October 1994. ‘Vous voulez être comédien?’ Positif. ‘Det luktar och knarrar teater’ [It smells and creaks of theatre]. 754-830. 197. 76. Montage. ed. Larsson. p. Davidsson. by Renate Bleibtreu. Lisbeth. 1997). a would-be cinematographic inventor whose grand performance ends in a short circuit explosion. 31 October 1994. E. ‘Femte akten’. no. AB. 394 (July 1990): 3-75 (with an analysis by Alain Bergala and a filmography). German: Hungarian: Polish: 1998 196. p. 1995. Media Chapter V. Den goda viljan. tr.. B2. no.. Barbro.

Reception Reviews were more critical but also more perceptive than in the reception of Bergman’s previous collection of prose works. från Victor Sjöström till Lukas Moodysson. Spectators buy time in a slot machine to watch them. three ‘scores’ for films. a police chief. gives such a cruel and deep echo in the subconscious as a divorce. 199. Back in the projection room. Femte akten. neither illness nor ruin nor professional adversity. and on his dramaturgical structure. The story tells of film director Marco Hoffmann who has disappeared. ‘Trolösa’ (pp. Peter works in Ludwigswerke. Ka. gets involved in business machinations. En själslig angelägenhet. the closed bourgeois room. 159-296) was written in Munich and dated 4 March 1978. The ‘film’ goes up in smoke. 2000). ‘Kärlek utan älskare’ (pp. The second one (En själslig angelägenhet/A Matter of the Soul) became a radio play. Föreställningar. 20 December 1999. also produced by Göteborg Film Festival. excerpts from Shakespeare’s The Tempest are performed. Bauer’s 12-year-old son. and the third one (Kärlek utan älskare/Love without Lovers) was never produced at all. Bergman selects and comments on 35 Swedish films made in the 1900s.Chapter II The Writer 2000 198. English edition titled Twentieth Century of Bergman (!). The three pieces in the volume were seen as a progression: From ‘faithless’ role-playing to the madhouse and the world of creative chaos. and from a conventionally constructed realistic relationship drama in Trolösa to a surreal inner-directed conflict in En själslig angelägenhet and a grotesque political caricature in Kärlek utan älskare. Printed text is dated Stockholm. (Ø 259). (Göteborg: Göteborg Film Fesival). At a party he shoots Bauer. The editor Anna Bergman tries to make a cohesive feature out of the material (the manuscript is gone). The first one (Trolösa/Faithless) was made into a film directed by Liv Ullmann (see Filmography. Peter Egerman visits one of them. Marco returns and puts a match to the reels. 126 . This volume contains three ‘performances’ [föreställningar] by Bergman. Bergmans 1900-tal. Almost all reviewers regretted that Kärlek utan älskare had been rejected by film producers (though Bergman used part of the story in From the Life of the Marionettes) and suggested that this work in particular might have led him to pursue a new track in his filmmaking rather than the classical route of bourgeois drama. Trolösa. dedicated to ‘Lena och Liv’ [actress Lena Endre and director Liv Ullmann]. a quote from playwright Bobo Strauss: ‘No form of common failure. With a preface by Gunnar Bergdahl. Kärlek utan älskare (Stockholm: Norstedt. no pag. dated Fårö 11 August 1972. and is himself shot by Wolfgang. (Also listed in Ø 149) The third text. is a monologue (broadcast in 1990) by a woman on the verge of a breakdown. Philemon and Baucis. 5-126). 127-58). leaving behind some fragments for a film. With a single stroke a divorce penetrates as deeply as life itself will reach.’ ‘En själslig angelägenhet’ (pp. A projection room displays sixteen undressing girls. 296 pp. An interim vignette presents a variation of a classical love myth. En hyllning till svensk film. is dated Fårö 10 September 1997 and is preceded by a motto. The next scene shows a court theatre. an old married couple who don’t want to be separated in death and are turned into a tree. According to Bergman’s prefatory note it was refused by several film production companies. The focus was on Bergman’s fictional world. buys out a newspaper editor. It touches directly at the roots of all anguish and revives it.

‘Föreställningar’ [Performances]. pp. 11 September 2000. SDS. p. pp. Arb. Ström. p. DN 11 September 2000. Kaj.. theatre chapter VI. no. ed. East Anglia: Norvik Press. (Norwich. Palmqvist.List of Bergman’s Written Work Several reviewers pointed out that a reader’s reaction to such works as Femte akten and Föreställningar was inevitably influenced by the faces of Bergman’s actors in his earlier film and theatre productions. 4. ‘Kunde ha inlett en ny epok’ [Could have inaugurated a new epoch]. 7. Ett familjedrama av Henrik Ibsen. 2003. 11 September 2000. See Commentary to 2002 production of Gengångare (Ghosts). Filmrutan. and Enskilda samtal. tr. Gengångare. B1. directed by Ingmar Bergman. Dated Fårö in May 2001. 33-64. 107 pp. Im Bleistift-Ton. p. 127 . Includes. 11 September 2000. 42-43. 16 September 2000. 5. 4. ‘Kött och blod bland boksidorna’ [Flesh and blood on the book pages]. media chapter (V). 320 pp. 2002. ‘Hur bryter man sig ur det Bergmanska mörkret?’ [How does one break out of Bergmanian darkness?]. Adaptation and Translation by Ingmar Bergman. Working title was also ‘Anna’. French: German: 2001 200. Translation of ‘En själslig angelägenhet’ by Eivor Martinus titled ‘A Matter of the Soul’. Book Reviews Lindblom. ‘Försoning? Aldrig i livet’ [Reconciliation? Never in your life]. using the same actors – Erland Josephson and Liv Ullmann – as in the 1973 TV version (see Ø 343). a translation of Trolösa (Infidèles) and Kärlek utan älskare (Amour sans amants). Saraband was published by Norstedt (Stockholm: 2003). Televised on 1 December. Ulf. In a press interview on 28 January 2002. by Vincent Fournier. Tjäder. 36. besides title text. 11 September 2000. Söndagsbarn. 754-830. p. ‘I det sammanpressade rummet’ [In the compressed room]. Expr. tr. Une affaire d’âme. Bergman presented the story as a free-standing continuation of Scener ur ett äktenskap (Scenes from a Marriage). Barbro. ed. appeared in New Swedish Plays. (Ø 487). p. (Paris: Cahiers du Cinéma. This implies a critical change from the response to such earlier Bergman publications as Den goda viljan. Translations Danish: English: Forestillinger. 2000). 1992). Olsson. ‘Saraband’. Stockholm: Dramaten. 2002. by Gunilla Anderman. by Renate Bleibtreu. ‘Bordellens bilder’ [Images of the brothel].. Sisela. 2003 201. Printed in Dramaten Program 10 for 2001-2002. Wickbom. AB. (Copenhagen: Lindhardt og Ringhof. With an afterword by Ingmar Bergman. Bertil. Translation of Trolösa was published under title ‘Treulose’ in Ingmar Bergman. p. GP. 2002). Per Arne. 224 pp. pp. Original title – ‘Saraband’ – refers to Bach’s fugue. Script for TV feature film. A4. Eva. 2000. where reviewers often stressed the autonomy of the literary text. by Ib Lindberg & Lise Skafte Jensen. Westling.

Chapter II The Writer Translations French: Sarabande. tr. 2004-2005. 201b. by Vincent Fournier. With Marie von Rosen. 128 . Paris: Edition des Cahiers du Cinéma. Three diaries kept separately by Bergman. Bergman talks about his musical taste and the importance of music in his life and work. his wife Ingrid. 2004. Radio talk. Stockholm: Norstedt. The diaries were edited by Bergman and Maria. and their daughter Maria during Ingrid’s terminal illness in 1995. Available for purchase on CD from SR. 2004 201a. 18 July 2004. 112 p. Tre dagböcker [Three diaries]. ‘Sommarprataren’ [Summer speaker]. SR. With a preface by Jacques Aumont.


as Bergman is seen talking with the figure of Death (Bengt Ekerot).Bergman’s real international breakthrough as a filmmaker came with The Seventh Seal (1956) and established him as a screen director whose personal vision focused on metaphysical and religious issues. The still photo is taken during the shooting of the film. Photo: Gunnar Fischer. Courtesy: Svensk Filmindustri (SF) .

In his essay from 1954 ‘Det att göra film’. Det kan komma över mig i ateljén eller i klipprummets skymning. depending upon the kind and degree of mythmaking that particular cultural contexts help formulate. To the filmmaker Ingmar Bergman. Something can occur to me in the film studio. he writes about the lifelong spell of his ‘little rickety projector’and about his sensuous recollection of his first encounter with it: It was my first magic box. Och vad det är som fortfarande fängslar mig på exakt samma sätt.. One expressive aspect of his self-created persona lies in the way Bergman has used. [Det blev min första trollerilåda. which may undergo different metamorphoses over the years. [. the object himself has helped solidify his image through his own ability to shape his life into a legend.Chapter III The Filmmaker To follow a highly visible and prolific artist’s production is to partake in the making of a creative persona. his own childhood games as an entryway into an imaginary landscape.] Jag har ofta undrat över vad som fängslade mig så restlöst. so do the esthetic and cultural interpretations of such personalities. eller under mixningens fantastiska födelseprocess.. The public image of a young Ingmar Bergman in the emerging Swedish folkhem of the 1940s differs from the critical view of him in the politicized 1960s or the portrait of him as an aging artistic giant in the early 21st century. in the case of Ingmar Bergman.] I have often wondered what fascinated me and still fascinates me in the same way.. or in the darkness of the editing room. a toy projector in the nursery closet harbored features that would become important to him as a screen artist. First and foremost his ‘rickety’ toy suggested the magic of movement.] To Bergman his childhood projector came to signify a number of important aspects of the film medium. Yet. For just as personalities change and develop over the years. when I have the small frame in front of me and the film strip running through my fingers. or during the fantastic birth process of mixing and the finished film slowly unveils its face. motion became associated with the life process itself.. again and again. då den färdiga filmen långsamt avtäcker sitt ansikte. As in classical philosophy. [. There was something miraculous just in his being able to initiate movement with 131 . då jag har den lilla bilden framför mig och filmbandet löpande mellan mina fingrar.

men det är fel och förnedrande att den förnekar detta sitt ursprung. ett gyckel och taskspeleri. Bergman’s exposure to the magic ‘box’ was analogous to his role as a young puppeteer: it gave him the satisfaction of exerting the rudimentary control of a director. ‘the first imaginative artist in the cinema’ [den första fantasifulla konstnären inom filmen].] (‘Det förtrollade marknadsnöjet’. 1947. which are so stimulating to our imagination. [Det är inte fel och förnedrande för filmen att den ursprungligen varit ett marknadsnöje. no. Finally. Third.. ‘Det att göra film’ [What is Filmmaking?].. Méliès was a practicing magician turned filmmaker. fake and reality. In a 1946 talk in a film club at Uppsala University. Kanske skulle vi till och med finna en springa att tränga oss ut i öververklighetens skymningsland. avslöja ännu hänsynslösare. imprint and representation. Whether viewed as an escapist medium or valued for its potential as a 132 . he attacked the new realism in the American cinema and advocated a return to ‘magic’ and ‘illusionism’. p. [Det är en tanke jag inte kan värja mig för att jag sysslar med ett medium som är så raffinerat att vi skulle kunna belysa människosjälen oändligt mycket skarpare.] Filmmaking: Enter the Magician In keeping with his assessment of the magic potential of the film medium. Biografbladet 28. his apparatus embodied the essence of filmmaking as a popular rather than sophisticated art. Bergman’s somewhat defensive tone might be juxtaposed to the role of the cinema at the time. inmuta helt nya domäner i verkligheten åt vår kännedom. Second. In the essay from 1954. It is an approach defended by Bergman: There is nothing shameful or degrading about the cinema having been at one time a form of peep show entertainment. Maybe we should even be able to find a crack through which to penetrate the twilight land of suprareality. of shaping his own world. 3. Att den håller på att förlora sin magi och sina fantasieggande gycklaregenskaper. who.Chapter III the Filmmaker mechanical means and thus simulate life. He formulated his views as an homage to Georges Méliès. 149). he speculates about the special power of the film medium: I cannot help thinking that the medium at my disposal is so fine and complicated that it should be able to illuminate the human soul more strongly.. Ingmar Bergman’s earliest attempts at defining his position as a filmmaker centered on the role of fantasy in the cinema. had challenged the use of the camera as a documentary recorder of reality. a clown and conjuring act. cover new realms of reality of which we are still ignorant. when Bergman was at the very beginning of his film career. Bergman came to realize quite early that to him the essence of filmmaking lay in its potential to go beyond the spatial and temporal limits of physical reality and depict an inner mindscape. the overriding importance of the magic lantern lay in its potential to help him portray and at the same time transcend his own subjective world. the projected image was both copy and mimesis. to reveal more ruthlessly. Though technically primitive compared to modern film projection facilities. But it is wrong and denigrating to deny its origin and make it lose its sense of magic and its clowning qualities. in a bold and naïve way..

[. p.. believe in fairy stories.Swedish Filmmaking during Bergman’s Formative Years serious social and psychological medium. Prison).’..500 meters long that sucks the life and spirit out of me’ (quoted in Time.’ Seemingly well aware of the commercial backbone of Swedish filmmaking at the time. Unlike the various subsidized city theatres where he was contracted to work as a stage director. [. 14 March 1962. In the Presence of a Clown). tro på sagor. in the alleged words of Olof Andersson. depth. p. feel shocked. lekfullhet eller fantasifull vision. liked to point out from the start that the laterna magica. 5) The seductive power of the camera would later be made into a motif in a number of Bergman films. in which he referred to the industry as a ‘brutal’ enterprise system and likened his own role in the cinema to that of an acrobat 133 . playfulness or imaginative vision. celluloiden och projektorn. one-time head of Svensk Filmindustri.] Practically all movies we see are filmed naturalistic theatre. the celluloid and the projector. or poetry. 62). It could also be a painful undertaking. filmmaking was not only a playful and magical game. on the other hand. But Bergman’s description of the filmmaking situation also refers to the structure of the film industry in Sweden when he entered the field. smile. [Det finns ingen romantisk glöd kring kameran. the cinema was deemed to be an inferior form of cultural expression that could not compete with the theatre in terms of elegance. Filmen kan inte tävla med teatern som dröm. viewers had been drawn like curious and excited children to the laterna’s magic world. As one of the leading film and theatre critics in Sweden at the time (and one of Bergman’s early supporters). 1954. possessed the capacity to spellbind the viewer and provide a spectacle of enchantment. charmed.. He viewed himself as a magician whose success was based on an ability to use his apparatus to put the viewers in an emotionally intense state of mind and ‘make them laugh. [få den att skratta. and Larmar och gör sig till (1993.. The Swedish film industry was in the hands of private companies that relied on profit for their survival. Swedish Filmmaking during Bergman’s Formative Years To Ingmar Bergman. skrika av skräck. Bergman presented a talk at Lund University in the early 1950s (later to be developed into the essay ‘Det att göra film’)... To Bergman an ideal audience was one that preserved such a childlike willingness to let themselves be ‘duped’. chockeras. the leading film company in Sweden at the time: ‘A good film is a film that sells. become indignant. indigneras.] (‘Det att göra film’. The Magician/The Face).] (En bok om film. which has almost always been a form of personal statement. le. bedåras. Fanny och Alexander (1982). a form of ‘self-combustion and self-effusion. 1947). scream with fright. [. Nils Beyer once wrote: There is no romantic glow about the camera. a tapeworm 2. Ansiktet (1959. Their final goal was clearly expressed.. Bergman..] Praktiskt taget alla filmer vi ser är filmad naturalistisk teater. In the past. This observation refers both to the taxing filmmaking process itself and to his own involvement in the script. It serves as an important signifier in Fängelse (1949. the cinema dwelt in a more commercial sphere that seemed to follow the same box office guidelines as Hollywood.] The cinema cannot compete with the theatre as dream.. as a precursor to the film camera.

. an embezzler who will have plenty of time to contemplate the usefulness of his so-called artistic ambitions.. ett träsk av ekonomiska bekymmer. stupidity. Suddenly. critics. The filmmaker carried with him his personal skill and vision. [. though at the same time I know that this would be the end and totally meaningless. he said. [. Therefore. but he also had to appease a whole complex of investors. Without bringing profits to the film industry coffers. The magician is robbed of his apparatus.] Men filmproducenterna har bara förtroende för ingenjörer och inbillar sig med stupid vördnad att industrins räddning går genom tekniska uppfinningar. dumhet. p. [. would provide laboratories for the creative artist.. I am glad that I am not born with equal part reason and guts.. a balancing act prompted by popular demand and by production company expectations. I find myself a suspect figure. a filmmaker’s magic touch might be dispelled overnight: If I make [... p..] I sometimes get a tired desire to accommodate myself and make myself into what they want me to be.. that the salvation of the industry comes about through technical inventions.... 8) Some 40 years later Bergman would depict the somewhat cynical commercial attitude of the film industry in his one-act stage play.. a marshland of economic troubles. [Om jag således gör [. He did not hesitate to rile the production companies for curtailing artistic freedom to safeguard a lucrative success: It would be desirable if film producers. 4) Bergman later acknowledged that during his early years in filmmaking he ‘went on sawing away very furiously at the very branch I was sitting on’ [sågade väldigt häftigt i den gren jag satt på] (Bergman om Bergman.] två eller tre filmer som innebär ekonomisk förlust. [. [.Chapter III the Filmmaker performing a rope dance. p.. 57). in their stupid reverence.] two or three films that are economic flops.] Why shouldn’t we scare the film producers? It’s part of their profession to be scared. konventionalism. anser producenten med rätta att han inte längre vågar satsa sitt guld på mina talanger. as well as other captains of industry.] (‘Det att göra film’. Trollkarlen är berövad sin apparatur. and entertainment seekers.. 63. the producer rightly claims that he no longer dares invest his money in my talent.. they get paid for their ulcers! [Det vore önskvärt att filmproducenterna såväl som andra fabriksledare ställde laboratorier till de skapande krafternas förfogande. rädsla. a Swedish filmmaker on the 134 .] Jag får en trött lust att anpassa mig och göra mig sådan man vill ha mig.. He certainly did not mince his words about the film production industry which. Bergman imagines a meeting between Georg af Klercker. osäkerhet och virrighet]. Eng. De har betalt för sina magsår!] (‘Det att göra film’ p. Sista skriket (‘The Last Gasp/Sream’). Därför är jag ändå glad att jag inte är född med lika delar förnuft och inälvor.] But film producers have only faith in engineers and imagine. fear. Jag finner mig då helt plötsligt vara en misstänkt figur. samtidigt som jag vet att detta vore slutet och den fullständiga likgiltigheten. conventional attitudes. och får god tid att tänka på vad mina så kallade konstnärliga ambitioner egentligen hade för nytta med sig. [.] Varför skall man inte skrämma filmproducenter? Det hör till deras yrke att vara rädda. en penningförskingrare. left a filmmaker ‘trampling in a marshland with his nose above the water. Ed. insecurity and confusion’ [står och trampar i ett träsk med näsan ovanför vattnet.

Stockholm: Tiden. 1975. also supported Bergman. ville alltid Gud] (Lillie Björnstrand. Magnusson. offered a different perspective for Swedish film production companies. Malmö and Göteborg. By the early 1950s Bergman had created a name for himself in the film studio as a determined young film artist whose will was not easily ignored. all of whom had been active in the U. Kris (1946). 1992. Inte bara applåder. Therefore. since the influx of foreign movies diminished.Swedish Filmmaking during Bergman’s Formative Years skid.S. This suited the rather rigid work morale of Ingmar Bergman. and whose capacities and extraordinary skills he had 135 . I really understand how af Klercker must have felt’ [Eftersom jag själv vid ett flertal tillfällen nästan hade blivit utsparkad och avskedad. Jaenzon’s fate is indicative of the decline that took place in the 1930s. Chaplin. himself dismissed from his post in the late Twenties. a highly professional and disciplined training. and the mogul Charles Magnusson. Bergman’s artistic career was also helped by the close connection between stage and screen in the Swedish cinema. and Rune Waldekranz at Sandrews all recognized Bergman’s potential. Dymling always wanted. Torment/Frenzy). Bergman’s assessment of his own situation in the 1940s and 1950s is incorporated into Sista skriket. The Swedish cinema also witnessed the emergence of a new generation of producers who were on the lookout for young talents. ‘Hets’ (1944. a company that reconstituted itself in 1919 as Svensk Filmindustri (SF). especially during the shooting of the first film he directed. there was a saying among those who dwelt within the radius of Bergman’s studio work that ‘what Ingmar wanted. Victor Sjöström. who was to direct Bergman’s first script. förstår jag verkligen hur af Klercker måste ha känt det] (see Åhlund. The stage-cum-screen tradition provided the filmmaker with an important asset – working with stage actors who had. dating back to the silent era. As a matter of fact. Gone were the golden years of Swedish filmmaking when the silent Swedish cinema had established an international reputation with directorial names like Victor Sjöström and Mauritz Stiller and cinematographer Julius Jaenzon (Mr. Magnusson can afford to ignore him. but he is an entrepreneur who views a filmmaker’s contribution as an investment. When Ingmar Bergman entered the scene. while the box office demand for new features increased. Julius). Filmmakers who had been ostracized in the 1930s were now invited back. The war years. 144). Jaenzon had become an embittered alcoholic whose talent had gone to waste as the talkies took over and Swedish filmmaking turned to a formula production of mostly popular so-called ‘pilsner farces’ and elegant ‘champagne’ comedies and melodramas. Magnusson is not insensitive to the artistic potential of the medium. ville alltid bolagsherrarna. ville alltid Dymling. One of them was Alf Sjöberg. Interviews). p. Ø 926. They did not constitute a film repertory company but were nevertheless a team he knew well from his years as a theater director in Hälsingborg. however. Over the years he came to surround himself with a ‘stable’ of actors. God always wanted it’ [Vad Ingmar ville. Lorens Marmstedt at Terrafilm. for the most part. was long gone when Ingmar Bergman was hired in 1941 in the manuscript department at Svensk Filmindustri. In the play. the producers always wanted it. Carl Anders Dymling at SF. the grand old man of the Swedish silent cinema who had returned from Hollywood and become one of the artistic advisers at SF. a fact that he confirmed in a program interview: ‘Since I myself had several times been almost kicked out and dismissed. the founder of Svenska Bio (1909). Af Klercker is really not much to stake his money on at this point.

one reviewer opened and closed his column with the following oft-quoted line: ‘I refuse to dissect any further Ingmar Bergman’s latest throw-up’ [Jag vägrar att ockulärbesiktiga Ingmar Bergmans senaste spya]. by the end of the 1940s. cinematographers and actors while absorbing a variety of film styles. The sector narrowed. for panning above cutting. Bergman had come to fear that his filmmaking days were numbered. he would have found a cinema in growing economic difficulties. 87) 136 . among them Hasse Ekman and Lars-Erik Kjellgren. so common in traditional Swedish filmmaking. but it is unlikely that he would have been given the same opportunity to learn the trade and use the existing production facilities. He had tried his luck at three different production companies: Svensk Filmindustri. Filmmaking was a craving ‘as primitive and elemental as hunger and thirst’. Ø 1689). He once stated that he would have been willing to make movies about anything. The very timing of Bergman’s arrival in the film studio was perfect. ‘Bergman’s interest in pictorial composition rather than camera movement. ‘even the telephone directory’ [till och med telefonkatalogen] (Kommentar till serie från A till Ö. from French film noir to Italian neo-realism. 82) [Det är klart att jag upplevde både publikfiaskot och kritikerfiaskot som något katastrofalt. The final blow seemed to come in 1953 when Gycklarnas afton (The Naked Night) – today considered one of Ingmar Bergman’s early master-pieces – got a lukewarm reception. Without doubt these ties between stage and screen contributed to the professional quality of Ingmar Bergman’s filmmaking and also helped establish certain specific aspects of his film style. It was a very uncomfortable feeling. s. Ten years later the number had diminished to less than half. Ingmar Bergman might eventually have succeeded at any time. p. As Törnqvist remarks in his book Bergman’s Muses (see Chapter IX. 218). Jag visste att för varje gång blev det osäkrare och riskablare. I knew that for each time things went to pot my subsequent chances to make film became more limited. With his passionate commitment to the medium and his intense determination. A studio lockout in 1950-51 aggravated his situation. Och det var en mycket obehaglig känsla]. In fact. Sektorn blev trängre. The Swedish film industry produced some 40 films a year in the 1940s. His first five years as a filmmaker can be seen as a trial-and-error period when he worked with different production companies. Had he shown up ten years later. who seemed to take much more naturally to the medium. In an excessive response. Jag visste att varje gång det gick åt pipan så var mina fortsatta möjligheter att få göra film begränsade. (Bergman om Bergman. and for long takes may all be seen as theatrical characteristics’ (p. Sandrews. Ø 154). Ø 87). and only a few film companies had survived the industry’s financial crisis. and Terrafilm. his preference for continuity editing. But he shared the film studios with a very talented group of filmmakers of his own generation.Chapter III the Filmmaker been able to assess on stage. I knew that for each time my situation became more insecure and risky. To this one might add his increasing focus on the actor’s dominant space above that of panoramic nature scenes. (Bergman on Bergman. Bergman says in retrospect: Of course I experienced both the public and critical fiasco as something catastrophic. [lika primitiv och elementär som hunger och törst] (‘Det att göra film’.

a rather tenuous and tricky dictum. But in return.jag tillåts förfalska om det är konstnärligt försvarligt. one that seeks the easiest way out to reach the end product. as ‘the first truly existential work for the cinema’ (Andrew Sarris. is one of caution. however. On the contrary. and The Seventh Seal was hailed in the U. SF finally let him make Det sjunde inseglet (1956-57. eventually published in the 1959 essay ‘Varje film är min sista film’ [Each Film is My Last] (Ø 108).000 kronor (at the time about $15. the year of his international breakthrough with Sommarnattens leende (1955. I may prostitute myself if it is beneficial to the cause. The Seventh Seal). Ingmar Bergman directed thirteen feature films. I may also lie if it is an attractive lie. 7) Yet.S. jag får också ljuga om det är en attraktiv lögn. This did not mean however that the filmmaker had to give in to audience pressure: In his second commandment Bergman chooses loyalty to his artistic vision as his number one priority. finally. I ought to murder my nearest ones or myself or anyone else if it helps my film. [Du skall följa ditt konstnärliga samvete] – Every Film Is My Last Film. behind the second commandment lies an absolute demand on the creative self to submit to whatever rigorous discipline and humiliating circumstances necessary to maintain artistic integrity. for he knew that only he and his team could influence the way a 137 .I am permitted to falsify if it is artistically defensible. jag får också lov att prostituera mig om det gynnar saken och jag måste stjäla om jag inte har något eget att komma med]. His artistic credo. Bergman’s third commandment. such a focus on the work at hand. [Var alltid underhållande] – Thou Must Follow Thy Artistic Conscience. precluding any looking back or looking forward. jag bör mörda mina närmaste eller mig själv eller vem som helst. gave Bergman a sense of artistic comfort.. During the 1950s Bergman also formulated certain fundamental principles that would guide him as a filmmaker and keep him from undermining his artistic integrity in a profit-oriented industry. based on his own recognition of the precarious economic basis of filmmaking which meant that each new film he made might very well be his last. giving him the modest sum of 75. was set down as three ‘commandments’ which were presented under the following headings: – Always Be Entertaining.. om det hjälper min film. though all means were permissible as long as they served an artistic goal. After his Cannes recognition in 1956.Ingmar Bergman: His Filmmaking Credo Ingmar Bergman: His Filmmaking Credo Between 1945 and 1956. For this reason he decided that his only loyalty had to be to the film in the making. This is.000) and 35 shooting days to complete the project. Film Culture.. and I have to steal if I don’t have anything of my own to present. 1959). of which he had written the script to eight.. [. (p. [Varje film är min sista film] The first exhortation – to be entertaining – was dictated by the viewing and paying public who had the right to demand a vital and enjoyable experience. True to form. since it implies all kinds of moral transgressions in the name of poetic license: . it did not imply a laissez-faire approach to filmmaking. The film cemented his filmmaking reputation abroad. Smiles of a Summer Night). he disciplined himself to finish the takes in 34 days and within the allotted budget.

Stina Bergman. 118) [Denna filmdramaturgi var ytterst påtaglig. As a young script reader at SF. Ingmar Bergman could also maintain his sense of professional pride and his vitality as a film artist. and interviews: 1. Bergman’s three commandments form his artistic catechism. Ingen tvekan skulle råda om vem som var vem. I sometimes try the riskier alternative. almost rigid: The audience must never have the slightest doubt where they were in the story. was too linear for Bergman’s purposes. (Bilder. 118) American film dramaturgy. Nor could there be any doubt about who was who. and the culmination had to be saved for the end. which had gained international acceptance. High points should be allotted and placed at specific places in the script. in the realistic and formulaic American approach to scriptwriting: This technique was extremely obvious. Eftersom jag inte skapar mitt verk till min egen eller fåtalets uppbyggelse utan till miljonpublikens underhållning segrar för det 138 . and it turns out that the public also absorbs an advanced irrational style with a keen sense. Nevertheless. s.Chapter III the Filmmaker given film would take shape. which can be distilled as follows from several short essays. program notes. Bergman retained as guiding principles some fundamental aspects of his first exposure to American-style scriptwriting: a clear plot development and a sense of climactic timing. But it created a certain tension in him between an artistic desire to experiment with a new visual language and his equally strong desire to be understood and communicate with an audience: The result is a tug-of-war between my need to search for a filmically associative form to express a complicated situation and my demand for absolute clarity. p. To him the film medium should attempt to ‘penetrate into hitherto unseen worlds’ [tränga in i hittils osedda världar]. Filmmaking required of Bergman that he develop a narrative approach and a visual style that could accommodate what he called ‘the dramaturgy of the juicy dream’ [den smaskiga drömmens dramaturgi]. [Det blir slitningar mellan mitt behov att söka ett filmiskt associativt uttryck för en komplicerad situation och mina krav på absolut klarhet. By following his third commandment and relying on his own creative strength and not worrying about future filmmaking opportunities or about the day when the public might be indifferent to his art. närmast rigid: publiken skulle aldrig behöva sväva i tvivelsmål om var man befann sig. My Life in Film. Höjdpunkter skulle fördelas och placeras på bestämda därför avsedda ställen i manuskriptet. (Images. and the transitions between various points of the story were to be treated with care. In fact. och berättelsens transportsträckor skulle behandlas med omsorg. Kulminationen skulle sparas till slutet]. the latter imperative usually wins out. But the transition from a dramaturgy with roots in 19th-century realism to a modernistic structure that attempted to depict the associative and fragmented pattern of the subconscious or nocturnal psyche was not without problems. Since I do not create my work for the edification of myself or a few people but for the entertainment of the masses. But he also developed certain fundamental concepts about the film medium. he had been trained by his boss. clarity in presentation was to remain a self-imposed demand by Bergman throughout his filmmaking career.

My pride is that of a craftsman’ [Jag säger att mina filmer är ett gott hantverk. he suspects that his filmmaking approach ‘might not have been clear enough and simple enough’ [har kanske inte varit tillräckligt tydlig och tillräckligt enkel] (Tre dagar med Bergman. I dag är det ingen på det tekniska planet som kan slå mig på fingrarna] (Bergman on Bergman. in a variety of different ways. 21. Ø 919. (See interviews in Filmnyheter 9. I make my work for daily use and not for eternity.Ingmar Bergman: His Filmmaking Credo mesta det senare imperativet. a man of strong will and conviction. around which the director built a secure fence that prevented any disturbing visitors from entering the area. the sense of security and trust they have felt in his leadership. p. Swedish film production had had a wellestablished crew of skilled craftsmen. Jag skapar mitt arbete för dagligt bruk och inte för evigheten. Actress Eva Dahlbeck once claimed that working with Bergman was like being placed in a garden. omsorgsfull och ytterst noggrann. the hard reality is that without a craftsman’s competence. I am diligent. 63). 3.) Bergman’s creative vision could never bear too much impulsive improvization. Min stolthet är en hantverkares] (‘Det att göra film’/‘What is Filmmaking?’ 1954. yet it should not be so strenuous as to cause fatigue: Every limb in the big collective must know what is to be done. Ibland prövar jag likväl det riskablaste alternativet och det har visat sig att publiken förvånansvärt lyhört absorberar även en avancerad irrationell linjeföring]. To achieve professional skill as a filmmaker became a matter of great pride to Ingmar Bergman: ‘I say. Ø 87). These preparations must not take too long. so that he could better control a production: ‘I was all the time declared an idiot until I stubbornly and step by step learnt everything that had to do with my profession. admired Bergman for his ability ‘to guide him towards profound depths’ [att leda fram mot de stora djupen]. Today there is no one who can rap me over the knuckles in technical matters’ [Jag blev oavbrutet idiotförklarad tills jag benhårt steg för steg lärde mig allt som hade med mitt yrke att göra. While the impulse to create for the screen might spring from an inner drive and a desire to convey a personal vision. Bergman became convinced that some of them helped sabotage his early filmmaking efforts. still towards the end of his career. a precise and punctual tempo. the result will be disappointing. Actor Anders Ek. often filled with laughter and small talk. 4-5) Bergman refers to his modernistic approach to film narration as walking ‘the dangerous roads’ [de farliga vägarna]. As a director he seems to have functioned like an old-fashioned company leader who demanded an absolute work morale from his employees but also shielded them in moments of crisis. Jag är flitig. p. Instead. he evolved a directorial approach where moments of concentrated and controlled takes would alternate with relaxed pauses. p. He knew that the medium had to be challenged and the public tested. This challenged him to learn all the technical aspects of the trade. 58/Bergman om Bergman. 12. Ingmar Bergman’s control of a film production was to become legendary. Yet. my films are good craftsmanship. His actors have expressed. but so would his sense of loyalty to his staff of co-workers. 139 . p. 2. Filmmaking is teamwork. The whole mechanical apparatus must be freed from all uncertainty. Filmmaking is based on good craftsmanship. no. 1954: 4-6. conscientious and extremely careful. 64). many of whom reacted negatively to Bergman as a temperamental novice. (‘Varje film är min sista film’ Each Film Is My Last. The filming itself had to proceed with careful planning. Ever since the silent era of filmmaking.

there is. as Michel Chion has remarked. by Claudia Gorbman. . bildernas inbördes relation. a tremendous difference in experiencing a Bergman film with or without sound.] Men så kommer jag till det essentiella. [. Audio-Vision. To him this was part of his own childhood experience. hela den livsviktiga tredje dimension utan vilken den färdiga filmen är en död fabrikationsartikel. 5). [... the inner relationship of the images. Film Comment 1970. atmosfärer. spänningar. (‘My Three Powerfully Effective Commandments’. varje lem i det stora kollektivet måste veta vad som ska göras.. and now begins a complicated work that is hard to master: To transfer rhythms. ‘an added value’ to the optical illusion of the image. the whole vital third dimension without which the finished film will be a dead mechanical product. Ø 108.. a few bars on a cello seem to guide the camera’s caressing pendulum between the women’s faces: the music suppresses the sound of their voices and assumes the role of an invisible conductor. tonarter. What he calls for is a score that could transform his vision into notes: So I have decided to make a particular film.Chapter III the Filmmaker however. In Laterna magica. an enrichment brought about by a synchronic use of sound and image.. sekvenser. Hela mekaniken måste vara självklart befriad från all osäkerhet. they must not tire or bore those involved. p. rytmen. in Chion’s wording. I mean the montage itself. Such recollections of sounds and images find their way into his filmmaking. Sound and image came to share equal space in his imagination. Sound and Screen. & transl. moods.] And then I come to the essential matter. the rhythm.] manuskript. att allt i en scen måste vara noga förberett. For instance.] readible manuscript. I cannot specify distinct musical keys. 1994.] I don’t have the slightest chance of suggesting the breathing and pulse of the work. atmospheres. from visual images accompanied by captions to sound tracks. Repetitionerna till tagningen måste ske under klar medvetenhet och teknisk precision.] (‘Varje film är min sista film’. a scratching ink pen. [. till ord och meningar i ett läsbart [.. In his adolescence Bergman experienced the important transition from silent cinema to the talkies. for it is built into the very montage and rhythm of a sequence. (Michel Chion. [Jag har alltså beslutat mig för att göra en viss film och nu vidtar ett komplicerat och svårbemästrat arbete: Att överföra rytmer. musical scores to words and sentences in a [. New York: Columbia UP. jag menar själva montaget. de får inte tråka ut eller trötta de inblandade. As a result. Bergman’s creation of audiovisual illusion is. At times it seems to dictate the very movement of a scene and determine the camera’s approach to the photographed image. p.. . Dessa förberedelser får inte ta för lång tid. in a brief and fleeting reconciliation scene between the two sisters Karin and Maria in Viskningar och rop/Cries and Whispers. p. stämningar. 5) Bergman once speculated on how valuable it would be for him to have at his disposal a musical method whereby to realize a film script. ed. ex. tensions. Likewise his use of music in his filmmaking goes far beyond serving as an emotional complement.. Jag kan 140 . The rehearsals before a take must occur in full awareness [of what needs to be done] and with technical precision. I have often asked for a kind of musical score that would give me the chance of translating all the shades and notes of my vision. a creaky cart drawn by a horse on a cobblestone street. 11) [Jag vet t. there are numerous references to audiovisual impressions that used to fascinate him as a child: A swishing light beam...

ljus och mörker. inandning och utandning – och i detta lever vi. despite the risk of oversimplifying. Ögats glädje. Därför att hela vårt liv består av rytmer med dag och natt. the confessional motif.] (‘Varje film är min sista’/Each Film is my Last. man släpper lös.. [All konst har med in. often presented as a series of shifting positions. breathing in and breathing out – and in this we live. slowly. If we don’t inscribe rhythm in every interpretation. His prolific production demands some kind of organized classification even though it is important to bear in mind that almost any categorization of such a large and rich material will imply certain intellectual shortcuts.] jag har inte minsta möjlighet att antyda verkets andhämtning eller puls. Other organizing principles such as a focus on stylistic features or on clusters of actors and actresses/male and female parts would be equally feasible. varje återskapande – snabbt. restrained. man upprätthåller hela tiden en spänning. and a given actor can serve as inspiration for a film narrative. All great art in fact is to Bergman like capturing a sense of rhythm. Yet. The classification used here should not obscure the fact that there are in Bergman’s entire filmmaking what one might call certain primordial tensions and conflicts that permeate his production from beginning to end. so that his characters are seldom either absolute winners or losers. the scapegoat or humiliation motif. p. Jag har ofta efterlyst en sorts notskrift som skulle ge mig en chans att översätta visionens alla dagrar och toner. man gör paus. then it does not function.. 3) Ultimately. 1994. p. so that the public is given an opportunity to breathe along – well. between control and humiliation. you maintain the whole time a tension.. Filmmaking to Bergman is related to music as an art built on creating a flow of harmony and balance. svart och vitt. you make a pause. a mood and a movement that tries to emulate breathing itself: All art has to do with breathing in and breathing out. så att publiken hela tiden får en möjlighet att andas med – ja. återhållet..och utandning att göra. 129) Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production Ingmar Bergman’s filmmaking spans more than half a century or half the history of the film medium. both on the social and personal level. då fungerar det inte. Sometimes a shift in theme also signals a shift in style and milieu.] (Interview in Mikael Timm. there is a continuous awareness of the interplay. one might divide Bergman’s films into different groups where the selected approach is both chronological and thematic. Within the framework of such ‘constant themes’ as the quest motif. Because our whole life consists of rhythms of day and night. black and white. a strong moral viewpoint determines both his metaphysical and psychological motifs. every recreation – swiftly. light and darkness. the voyeuristic or parasitical motif. what Bergman implies in his reference to musical analogies is something that lies beyond mere notes and technicalities. intercepted by moments of dramatic climaxes or crescendos. you let loose. långsamt.Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production inte ange tydliga tonarter [. Om vi inte skriver in rytmen i varje interpretation. Bergman develops conflicts and situations that de- 141 .

Color. Wild Strawberries). which played such a vital part in Viskningar och rop. Scenes from a Mariage). The Devil’s Wanton/Prison) Sommarlek (1950. seems conditioned by his homecoming in the early 1980s after several years in exile. Bergman’s role as either director or scriptwriter is divided into six different group headings. Crisis) Det regnar på vår kärlek (1946. Films originally conceived for television have script references marked TV. Yet another shift has to do with his recognition of the intimate potential of the TV medium. which brings a new psychological intensity to his films (including his TV films and his scripts). Bergman’s next turning-point. Titles listed are original Swedish titles. Smultronstället (1957. and between individuals and their gods and demons. Films from the Forties and early Fifties. from play by Oscar Braathen Director & Script rev. For more details. It is now he begins to explore his family history. Cries and Whispers). Fogelström 142 . and Jungfrukällan (1960. Focus: The Young Couple Hets (1944. Summer with Monica) Script Director & Script rev. plus author’s name. Land of Desire/Ship to India) Musik i mörker (1948. is now explored to the fullest in Fanny och Alexander (1982). he used the medium as a realistic form of screen projection. Film titles are indicated as follows: Scripts revised by Bergman but based on literary works by others are marked rev.-A. The Virgin Spring). Ansiktet (1958. The Seventh Seal). Illicit Interlude/Summer Interlude) Sommaren med Monika (1953. it was at first reserved for adaptations of some of his play productions. which enabled him to dictate his own terms and create his major auteur films of that decade: Sjunde inseglet (1956. It Rains on Our Love) Skepp till India land (1947. In the charts below. from novel by Olle Länsberg Script Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script with P. finally. A second turning-point takes place in the early Sixties when he moves from the epic journey format and/or ‘historical’ films of the preceding decade to the chamber films. The Story of a Bad Girl/Monica.Chapter III the Filmmaker monstrate an emotional tug-of-war between human beings. Through a Glass Darkly) and culminating with Viskningar och rop (1972. beginning with Såsom i en spegel (1961. from play by Martin Söderhjelm Director & Script rev. Group I. check individual films in the filmography chapter (IV) and in media chapter (V). A number of important turning-points in Bergman’s filmmaking may be noted. The first occurs after his international breakthrough in the mid-Fifties. Night is My Future/Music in Darkness) Hamnstad (1948. from novel by Dagmar Edqvist Director & Script rev. Though he had explored television since the 1950s. This shift coincides with Bergman’s discovery of the stark Fårö landscape and with the definite establishment of Sven Nykvist as his cinematographer. But with the documentary TV film Fårö-dokument (1969) and the television series Scener ur ett äktenskap (1973. followed by English distribution titles. The Magician/The Face). Torment/Frenzy) Kris (1946. from play by Leck Fischer Director & Script rev. Port of Call) Eva (1948) Fängelse (1949.

The plots include a number of minor characters who represent law. Group II. A Lesson in Love) Kvinnodröm (1955. Early Family or Marriage Films. from the neo-realistic study of lower class urban life in Hamnstad to the Carné-inspired lyricism and film noir imagery of Det regnar på vår kärlek. His films were often advertised in the Swedish trade journals as particularly appealing to the female public. Ulla Isaksson The generation gap that operated on both a family and social level in Bergman’s earliest films. but bourgeois authority casts its long shadow. Script Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script w. rev. and order: policemen. often with Women as Central Characters Törst (1949. By the mid-Fifties Ingmar Bergman had become known as a connoisseur of women. which could also be referred to as Bergman’s apprentice works. from story by Birgit Tengroth. But the period also includes the nostalgic though tragic Sommarlek. he concluded that the world of women was his universe. where the 143 . Brink of Life/So Close to Life) Director/Script w. In Kvinnodröm and Sommarnattens leende the erotic desires of older men for young women remain unfulfilled: The young are only in love with youth.Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production In this first group of films. Bergman’s first biographer. In a whole series of films. Secrets of Women/ Waiting Women) En lektion i kärlek (1954. Bergman explored the loneliness of housewives and forlorn young girls. In contrast to the crudely cliche-like depictions of women in the Swedish cinema. The couples bond together. The young couples are seldom integrated in a middleclass lifestyle. Smiles of a Summer Night Nära livet (1957. Stepping out of his adolescent spleen. becomes more inner-directed in the films in the second group and often involves painful erotic tensions between young and old. Dreams) Sommarnattens leende (1955. The mood of these early films is often melancholy and escapist. though frequently erupting into rebelliousness. The summer landscape is also the setting of Sommaren med Monika. members of the clergy. the poetic summer film. the first of Bergman’s films exploring a native Swedish genre. Marianne Höök. Mari’s bittersweet young love in Sommarlek is played out against the cynicism of her lascivious uncle Erland. sometimes with the blessing of a providential figure like the Man with the Umbrella in Det regnar på vår kärlek but sometimes with tragic outcomes as in Fängelse. and script excerpts were published in popular women’s magazines. Three Strange Loves/Thirst) Frånskild (1951. school teachers. with an older generation seeking control over the young. states in her book Ingmar Bergman (1962): The women in Ingmar Bergman’s films are usually more interesting than the men. Their function is to stall and frustrate the young couples in their search for freedom and love. Skepp till India land and Fängelse. morality. they stand for repression. and stern parents. we find a variety of visual styles. Herbert Grevenius. Divorced) Kvinnors väntan (1952.

Stina. Secrets of Women). The philosophical mood is in some ways the same in both films: Death stalks nearby and strikes inexplicably: ‘Chance becomes the deciding factor for the weal and woe of mankind’ [Slumpen blir den avgörande faktorn i människors väl och ve] (Ulla Isaksson (author of script) in Vi magazine. The bureaucratic authorities of the earlier films are 144 . he poses some basic questions about the nature of the divine and the purpose of living.] (Höök. In the disguise of a 14thcentury homebound crusader. 1958. Group III. Winter Light/The Communicants) Director & Script Director & Script Director Director & Script Director & Script All of the films in the first and second groups. Stina. and Hjördis. to the past. or part of the action. often with Male Protagonists Det sjunde inseglet (1956. Bergman had depicted a female collective in an earlier film. Cecilia desperately wants her baby but miscarries. 1962. 84) Nära livet (1957. 20). are set in contemporary Swedish society. although she is a glowing. dominated by male protagonists. p. Religious or Existential Quest Films of the Fifties and early Sixties. Wild Strawberries) Jungfrukällan (1960. But while the women in that film formed a cohesive unit of mutual strength and confidentiality. Both milieus are removed from today’s urban reality and provide a distancing effect. healthy housewife. Through a Glass Darkly) Nattvardsgästerna (1963. där vampen och den rödkindade bondflickan finns väl representerade. As an alternative to the ‘historical’ setting. Three women meet in the maternity ward – Cecilia. Bergman’s subtle view of women came as a liberation. The Seventh Seal) Smultronstället (1957. emerges as a Bergman prototype. The setting ranges in time from the early Middle Ages in Det sjunde inseglet and Jungfrukällan to the turn of the last century in the flashbacks in Smultronstället. The focus in the third group of films is on a religious or existentialist quest. Bergman introduces the stark and abstracted winter landscape in Nattvardsgästerna (1962) and the isolated island setting in Såsom i en spegel (1961). Nära livet projects three different destinies threatened by forces beyond the women’s control. 12. But in several of the films in the third group Bergman shifts the action. I motsats till de grovt schablonlika porträtten av kvinnor i den svenska filmen. It is now that Antonius Block. Kvinnors väntan (1952. To give birth is a phenomenon rather than a biological function and becomes part of the same puzzling existential situation as that facing Antonius Block in Det sjunde inseglet. The Virgin Spring) Såsom i en spegel ( 1961 . no. gives birth to a stillborn baby. kom Bergmans subtila syn på kvinnor som en befrielse. with the exception of Sommarnattens leende.Chapter III the Filmmaker vamp and the rosy peasant girl are amply represented. p. [Kvinnorna i Ingmar Bergmans filmer är vanligtvis mer intressanta än männen. the brooding Knight in Det sjunde inseglet. Young Hjördis tries to abort a pregnancy she did not want. Brink of Life) is in some ways the epitome of Bergman’s portrayal of women in the Fifties.

abruptly terminated by her murder. It is as though many of the films of the Sixties emanate from the state of mind of Isak Borg during his night- 145 .e. One can see the shift very clearly in Såsom i en spegel (1961). alternately named the silent God or the spider God. i. Töre’s daughter in Jungfrukällan travels to church with offerings to the Virgin Mary. what one could call ‘the film of the confined space’. the use of flashbacks. Even such a seemingly non-religious film as Smultronstället can be placed within a similar framework. the pastor in Nattvardsgästerna. Professor Isak Borg in Smultronstället sets out on a journey of social recognition after a long life in the medical profession. Her journey. the old waiter in the foreign hotel where the action takes place. and contrasts this to dark foreboding shadows in murky interiors. Tomas. but he too becomes a quester in search of a deeper personal commitment to life. Its main character. Travelling. encounters between the protagonist and other characters. a serene. he encounters a series of events and characters that signify different options to pursue. Bergman furthered the tradition of the socalled Swedish style of cinematography that dated back to the silent cinema: a high contrast photography with frequent use of back-lighting. is completed by Töre in a defiant and absurdist act of faith as he promises to build a church on the very spot where his only daughter was cruelly ravished and killed. which coincides with Bergman’s switch of cinematographers. the father of the child Johan is conspicuously absent and the substitute father figure.Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production replaced by an elusive divinity. Bergman now discards the historical milieu of the central films of the Fifties. Isak Borg. Like a morality play protagonist. Gunnar Fischer. good or evil. But a definite change becomes noticeable in the early 1960s. is really engaged in a struggle for his own soul and peace of mind. In the films that date from the 1950s. is a kind but doddering fool. In Tystnaden. the physical journeys. Nykvist’s camera work becomes more subtle. David in Såsom i en spegel is so absorbed in his own frustrated efforts to write that he is tempted to use his own daughter’s mental illness as an object of study. somewhat theatrical scenography and rather slow pacing. The lyrical nature poet Gunnar Fischer was then replaced by the more robust though uniquely talented Sven Nykvist. Bergman’s so-called trilogy (Såsom i en spegel. Nattvardsgästerna and Tystnaden) depicts the eventual demise of the providential god of Bergman’s religious heritage but also exposes the failure of the earthly father. silhouette shots.. trained in this school of cinematography was the perfect instrument for that time. using a great deal more greyish tones than the earlier black and white contrasts. as if participating in a Christian penitence drama. becomes more confined and reflects the characters’ stymied situation. if it occurs at all. But as Bergman develops a new kind of cinematic structure. Det sjunde inseglet and Smultronstället are road movies or station dramas in the sense that much of the action is structured as a journey where different stops along the way become moments of reflection and inner testing. fails to be the father of his flock that his congregation has a right to expect. where different ‘stations’. In Jungfrukällan (1960) Nykvist still seems to be following in Fischer’s tracks as he photographs a legendary Swedish landscape with glittering waterways and sunlight filtering through birch trees. One might compare such a structure to the soul-searching of the medieval morality play. The Crusader Antonius Block in Det sjunde inseglet is in fact an Everyman figure looking for a sign from God. represent a choice of virtue or vice.

At the same time. 40) [Det mänskliga ansiktet är utgångspunkten för vårt arbete. we can make nature studies of astounding beauty. In these films the road is no longer the main setting or spatial metaphor but is replaced by the circumscribed island landscape. but the approach to the human face is without doubt the hallmark and distinguishable feature of the film medium. we can bring objects and still life into a wonderful rhythm. (Hollis Alpert. Strindberg’s chamber plays were dramatic attempts to convey. yet absolute in its envelopment by the sea. The defiant quester Antonius Block in Det sjunde inseglet.Chapter III the Filmmaker marish dreams in Smultronstället. vi kan göra naturstudier av häpnadsväckande skönhet. He coined the term ‘chamber film’ for this new type of cinema focusing on few characters and building up an intense and intimate atmosphere. It was in fact during the shooting of the first of his ‘Baltic’ films. yet it serves a symbolic function as an extension of the troubled state of mind of the characters. a set of associative relationships structured like a musical composition. through the portrayal and interaction of a small group of people confined to a single locale. 1961). Isak Borg in Smultronstället is quite analytical about his journey into the past. Vi kan visserligen fördjupa oss i bildmontagets estetik. that he declared the importance of the human face to his filmmaking. the disintegrating artist Jan Rosenberg in Skammen (1968). he is 146 . 23 December 1961. The reductive process in terms of film acoustics in the chamber films marks their contrast to the much more rhetorical. by the neurotic painter Johan Borg in Vargtimmen (1967). ‘Style is the Director’. We can certainly become absorbed in the esthetics of montage. 5) With Såsom i en spegel Ingmar Bergman claimed to have found a new direction for himself by concentrating on only four people (see Forslund. which seem to emanate from verbalized crucial moments in the protagonists’ life: Antonius Block in Det sjunde inseglet speaks with Death in a confessional dialogue and addresses a Christ figure in church in defiant words. Bergman abandoned the larger orchestration of his earlier films and discarded conventional film music. 18. male-oriented films of the Fifties. The Baltic setting of many of Bergman’s films from the 1960s is realistic in the sense that it is geographically identifiable. as variations of a leitmotif leading up to a concluding coda. men närheten till det mänskliga ansiktet är utan tvivel filmens adelsmärke och särtecken. the Swedish playwright whose strong influence Bergman has frequently acknowledged. Chaplin no. almost always played on a single instrument. In similar fashion. who challenges Death to a game of chess. Såsom i en spegel. the forlorn islander Andreas Winkelman in En passion (1969). Saturday Review. Even the inclusion of a fragment from Mozart’s Trollflöjten/The Magic Flute in a puppet scene in Vargtimmen is toned down to the chamber music level. Written in 1907-08. This focus on interior psyches rather than external action is noticeable in Bergman’s increasing use of the close-up.] (‘Varje film är min sista film’. Though he relives his life in visual dreams. as bleak and confining as a sickroom. he expressed his reservations of the beautifying imagery of his earlier films: Our work in films must begin with the human face. is now replaced by the frustrated and insecure pastor Tomas in Nattvardsgästerna (1962). The term ‘chamber film’ is a direct reference to the chamber plays of August Strindberg (1849-1912). p. p. The only music heard in his chamber films are a few bars of a Bach or Brahms composition. vi kan sammanföra föremål och stilleben till underbara rytmer.

Höstsonaten/Autumn Sonata) Ur marionetternas liv (1979. Faithless) Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script w. Finally. silence can be interpreted as an absence of life – the whisperings in Viskningar och rop are like the faint echoes of the dead. To Joy) Gycklarnas afton (1953. through the cinema. dialogue becomes subservient to imagery and gesture. There is both a consciousness of the visual medium and a philosophical aspect to this reduction of speech. The Magician/The Face) För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor (1964. All These Women) Persona (1966. The first two words learned by Ester in the unknown language in Tystnaden are naigo and kasi. it is also his questioning. Gone now is a naive visionary like the juggler Jof in Det sjunde inseglet. In the Presence of a Clown) Trolösa (2000.Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production presumably writing down the events of the day in his diary and retelling them to us. What Bergman develops instead is the other aspect of Jof ’s destiny: to be exposed to ridicule. Erland Josephson Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script (TV) Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script Script Bergman’s artist is the central character in the fourth group of films. Rapport comes not through verbal communication – words in fact are often like missiles announcing warfare – but through touch and look. The reduction of the spoken element in Bergman’s films culminates in such works as Persona (1966). Shame) Riten (1969. and Viskningar och rop (1972) where the conversations are sparse and punctuated with long moments of silence or faint whisperings from voices that never fully materialize. There are in fact vestiges in Bergman’s portrayal of the artist of a Platonic pharmakos myth: Plato banished the artist 147 . After the Rehearsal) Larmar och gör sig till (1997. The Ritual) Herbstsonate (1978. The Hour of the Wolf) Skammen (1968. Silence also signifies the Christian deity’s withdrawal from human destinies. Elisabet Vogler. of the trustworthiness of the spoken word. Persona) Vargtimmen (1967. face and hand. Aus dem Leben der Marionetten/From the Life of the Marionettes) Efter Repetitionen (1984. a scapegoat figure forced to perform a table dance in the tavern to the jeers of an onlooking crowd. The Naked Night/ Sawdust and Tinsel) Ansiktet (1958. still in touch with the living. His role ranges from the vulnerable circus director Albert Johansson in Gycklarnas afton to the potential mesmerizer Albert Vogler in Ansiktet or the neurotic wreck Johan Borg in Vargtimmen and the moral coward Jan Rosenberg in Skammen. acts mute. Group IV. Films Exploring the Role of the Artist and/or Directorial Persona Till glädje (1949. But with Såsom i en spegel. whose second sight enabled him to see the holy Virgin. where one of the characters. Language then is an important vehicle in Bergman’s male universe. The relatively sparse dialogue of the chamber films is not only a manifestation of Bergman’s attempt as a filmmaker to free himself from verbal dominance.

half figure on a cross. Like participants in old religious rites. Bergman’s artist may create illusions that provide pleasure and entertainment but also cause irritation and anger. the visionary juggler and actor ‘Det sjunde inseglet’. Bergman’s depiction of the artist and his audience maintains a more precarious balance: at times the artist is destroyed. a cult act in which worship and symbolic sacrifice constitute the essential elements. Skammen. Bergman’s artists can take possession of their audiences. Frost. David. breaks down in anguish in front of the window. the father and writer in Såsom i en spegel. performs his own Golgotha walk. In the TV film Riten this conflict is the very fabric of the film. The humiliation motif is built into such an encounter between artist and spectator. at other times the onlooker becomes the scapegoat. wearing a Christ mask. whose neurotic or egotistical protagonists confirm what Bergman suggests in his essay ‘The Snakeskin’ from 1965: that artistic activity in a godless world is self-focussed and has lost its element of worship. the pedestrian owner of Circus Alberti in Gycklarnas afton and his clown Frost face in turn jeering crowds: Frost in the flashback beach sequence where soldiers become cruel voyeurs of his ordeal as he tries to rescue his wife Alma. A distinct element of eroticism becomes part of such encounters. where his troupe has stopped to perform a seance.Chapter III the Filmmaker from his utopian society for fear that his visionary power might excite the citizens and bring chaos and madness. an artist like the hypnotist Albert Emanuel Vogler in Ansiktet was both prophet and charlatan. But in Persona the sacrificial implications of the artist’s role shift from Christian metaphors 148 . barefoot and humiliated as he struggles to carry his wife on his back like a cross. the clown in Gycklarnas afton. exposed to a taunting public. Vogler in Ansiktet brings the rational doctor Vergerus to the verge of madness by playing macabre tricks on him in an attic. Jof. half bear. In earlier films. and Albert during a performance in the circus round. Albert Vogler in Ansiktet attracts the mistress of the house but is insulted by the Egerman household. Albert Johansson. The self-absorption of the artist is a dominant motif in such Bergman films as Persona. separateness of self and fusion of self. he ‘acted’ mute before a 19th century upper-class group of Pontius Pilates and performed ‘miracles’ before both susceptible and skeptical people. Alma’s identification with Elisabeth is so strong that she momentarily replaces her in a meeting with Elisabeth’s husband. from organized society. his namesake Elisabet Vogler in Persona takes possession of the nurse Alma until Alma’s self-identity is threatened. assumes a tortuous pose. Such Christ references in Bergman’s portrayal of artists are not uncommon in his films from the 1950s. The actress feeds on Alma’s life story vicariously. as he is forced to dance on the table in the tavern scene. The same pose is used to define Tomas’s anguish in Nattvardsgästerna. Elisabet Vogler and Alma take turns in representing the two sides in a symbiotic relationship of would-be lovers exhibiting attraction and repulsion. and Höstsonaten. so that window frame and body form the pattern of a cross. of meaningful ritual. A figure like the self-centered pianist mother in Höstsonaten has lost all spirituality and can only fantasize about money and her next performance. His audiences counter either by being mesmerized by his performance or by exposing the artist as a fake and liar and ostracizing him from their midst. The acting trio in Riten drives to death a Judge who has been sent to question them on a charge of obscenity. It is part of Bergman’s conception of the relationship between artist and audience that performer and spectator take part in a ritual. Vargtimmen.

Peter’s story revolves around deception and self-deception and maintains a narrow distinction between reality and fantasy or nightmare. the artist is thrown back upon himself. Passion of Anna) Beröringen (1970. In probing deeper and deeper into Peter’s psyche.. Just before this scene. may be juxtaposed to the title figure in Fanny and Alexander (1982).Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production to old classical references. In 1965-66 he had left his position at the Royal Dramatic Theatre and was physically ill. The boy’s awakening and subsequent movements culminating with his wiping a glass screen with his hand until a woman’s face becomes visible set the ‘plot’ in motion. The Touch) Viskningar och rop (1972. When art loses its aspect of ritual and cult act. In 1978-79. he may invent his own muse. When the ‘director’ has no subject at hand. Persona’s boy figure may also be juxtaposed to the male protagonist Peter Egerman in Ur marionetternas liv/Aus dem Leben des Marionetten. potential material for a film. Like Johan Borg in Vargtimmen he is haunted by ‘demons’ from his past. Group V: The Haunting Past: Memories and Nightmares En passion (1969. he also provided him with a desperate aggressiveness and vulnerability that makes him a kin to many of Bergman’s artist figures. the communal aspect of art is transformed into a ludicrous dinner party whose participants literally turn into the artist’s ‘consumers’. depicts a world in which a sensitive individual is driven to despair by people who abuse him or fail him. The director in Efter repetitionen and the ‘Bergman’ coach in Trolösa both resist the intrusion of personal matters and old memories and are fascinated and revitalized by them. parasitical bird demons who cannibalize the painter Johan Borg. is much closer to a film like Persona than to the work preceding it. like Henrik invents an affair with his young actress in Efter repetionen or ‘Bergman’ invents Marianne in Trolösa. Both these films grew out of a painful period in Bergman’s life when he was trying to ‘relocate’ himself as an artist. But the artist is himself a ‘cannibal’. where the narrative develops. What is depicted in these instances is actually the creative process itself: an artist’s material beginning to take shape in his mind. The artistic persona appears much more camouflaged in the story of Peter Egerman than in Bergman’s other films in this group. Elisabeth Vogler.. who serves more as a vehicle than actual participant in the film narrative. which is at the same time his dream or his reminiscing. not smoothly and painlessly but as a complicated mixture of personal tensions and professional selfawareness. Aus dem Leben. Though Bergman chose to make Peter a German businessman. Cries and Whispers) Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script 149 . Aus dem Leben.. we have been introduced to a collage of images. he was still looking for a footing in exile and felt he had failed to convey his sense of pain and frustration in his first foreign-made film Das Schlangenei. In Vargtimmen. Das Schlangenei. and as in Ansiktet and Persona.. a detached observer who feeds on other human beings. The rather abstracted nameless boy in Persona. the boy is a creative consciousness who leads us into the fictional story. the silent actress with ‘the cold eyes’ who feeds on her nurse to regain vitality is clearly a pythia figure. In Persona Bergman’s alter ego is a young boy who wakes up in a morgue as if from a deep sleep. who opens the film story by taking the spectator through his grandmother’s apartment.

pictures herself. Bergman’s mature couples of the seventies hark back to such marriage films as Kvinnors väntan and En lektion i kärlek. Thus.Chapter III the Filmmaker Scener ur ett äktenskap (1974. Scenes from a Marriage) Ansikte mot ansikte (1975. the sisters in Viskningar och rop all have their lives shaped by past circumstances beyond their control. if ever. But this is followed by ennui. reminiscences as painful as Isak Borg’s reexamination of his life. the psychiatrist in Ansikte mot ansikte. Isak is led by young Sara. a drifting apart. together with her sisters in the luscious 150 . in a voice-over reading from her diary. Both films end on a similar note of nostalgia and reconciliation. Nevertheless. rigid conventions and role playing. The men and women of Bergman’s films from the 1970s have little in common with the young couples in the very first films he made. Agnes. but now the manipulator dwells inside them like an internalized psychological demon. Face to Face) Höstsonat/Herbstsonate (1978. who threatens to never let go of him. Anna in En passion (1969) wreaks havoc on her lover Andreas Winkelman and herself by her fixation on a marriage and an accident in the past that may or may not be self-styled. Their relationships start where those of the young couples ended: in marriage. through a verdant landscape where he discovers his long since dead parents on a summer outing. Sophisticated and comfortable in their middle-class lifestyle. In Bergman’s world no one escapes his or her destiny. Faithless) Saraband (2003) Director & Script TV Director & Script TV Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script TV In his works from the 1970s onwards. The women’s attempt to deal with the present crisis of Agnes’ death takes the form of a series of flashbacks into their past. or unhappy but insoluble marriages. The puppeteer director of his youth continues to pull the strings of his human marionettes. En passion and Viskningar och rop. Even young Alexander in Fanny och Alexander is pursued to the bitter end by his stepfather’s evil ghost. they are seldom able to bond together but instead face loneliness and anxiety. Bergman portrays women who dwell in the same anguished world as some of his leading male characters in the quest films of the Fifties. be it illness. a film like Viskningar och rop could in some ways be seen as the female counterpart to Isak Borg’s encounter with his impending death in Smultronstället. the psychiatrist Jenny in Ansikte mot ansikte. The episode seems in a way to signal the exploration of the troubled mind of Jenny. impending divorce or break-up. the dying woman in Viskningar och rop. Autumn Sonata) Trolösa (2000. but they seldom. almost succeeds in committing suicide when the ghosts of her childhood begin to haunt her. Bergman’s characters have left their religious baggage behind. seem able to free themselves from the traumas of their past or from some mysterious force of the mind that takes possession of them. In two preceding films. Far from socially maladjusted like their younger predecessors in the films of the 1940s. At the end of Scener ur ett äktenskap Marianne awakens from a nightmare that has thrown her into a state of fright. the eternally young sweetheart. More and more men and women share the dubious pleasure of inhabiting the same angst-ridden bergmanian universe. Hamnstad and Fängelse could dream of. they have achieved an economic status beyond what the working-class youngsters of such films as Det regnar på vår kärlek.

en mycket bestämd och tydlig form till vilken jag kunde överföra och omforma min smärta. set in pre-Nazi Germany in 1923. one of whom is mentally retarded. a very definite and distinct form to which I could transfer my pain. But it is counterbalanced by the critical portrait of the mother in Höstsonaten (1978). Charlotte’s self-absorption in her career becomes the basis for violent accusations by Eva. Charlotte. a year after his departure from Sweden.] None of Bergman’s films made outside of his native country can be said to spring directly from his foreign experience. Jag älskar den filmen. en form. but this time the confrontation is far more ruthless. like Gycklarnas afton. perhaps in response to a need among the critics to atone for their government’s treatment of Bergman. who appeared briefly in the opening sequence of Scener ur ett 151 . became his first critical and public fiasco since the early 1950s. a form. Jag hade redan försökt att ge uttryck för denna smärta och detta lidande med Ormens ägg men utan att lyckas. a family communion that may be as much dream and wishful thinking as was Isak Borg’s final vision of his parents. he says to the interviewers apropos of the making of From the Life of Marionettes: I found myself in a difficult situation. 66). did not reach mass audiences in Europe or the United States. but without succeeding. During a visit to her married daughter Eva. which made the film a target for feminist critique. Some saw signs of this when Das Schlangenei was released in 1977. In retrospect. It is a moment of epiphany. I had already tried to express my pain and suffering in The Serpent’s Egg. min ångest och alla mina svårigheter till någonting konkret. In Tre dagar med Bergman (p. the professional pianist. långt borta från mitt hemland dit jag inte ville återvända. Höstsonaten was the fulfillment of a promise made long before to actress Ingrid Bergman. That whole project was a big mistake. she nevertheless joins the league of selfish parents that used to appear in Bergman’s earlier films. Höstsonaten was made during Bergman’s exile from Sweden. it is a film that has. this time focussing not on a critique of the father but on a scathing exposure of the mother. But in From the Life of the Marionettes I found a way. I love that film.Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production park on her estate. It is also a favorite of Bergman himself. The idealization of the maternal as embodied by the housekeeper Anna in Viskningar och rop (culminating in a pietà scene when she takes the dying Agnes to her bosom) is reinforced in the caring grandmothers in Ansikte mot ansikte and Fanny och Alexander or in the competent ex-wife Marianne in Saraband. The film. attained a special place in the Bergman canon. His second German-made film. Ormens ägg was written before his arrest in Stockholm in 1976. Many had speculated that his creativity would dry up outside of his native country or that the frustrations he would face working with foreign crews would sabotage his future film projects. Men i Ur Marionetternas liv fann jag en sätt. Here Bergman seems to launch on another examination of the parent motif. though it was well received in France. On the whole it fared better with the reviewers in Sweden than elsewhere. my anguish and all my difficulties and reshape them into something concrete. [Jag befann mig i en vansklig situation. Aus dem Leben der Marionetten was based on the couple Peter and Katarina. far away from my homeland where I did not want to return. Though Charlotte is portrayed more superficially by actress Ingrid Bergman than the script suggests. neglects her two daughters. Aus dem Leben der Marionetten. Hela det projektet var ett stort misstag.

The film can in fact be seen as his cinematic testament – a filmmaker’s homage to and exploration of his childhood. Ingmar Bergman began to look upon his distant past with less critical eyes. See Tre dagar med Bergman. In En passion it serves to underscore the repressed emotions of the characters on the Baltic island by projecting them against a subdued scale of earth tones. For his filmmaking. In Viskningar och rop Bergman has stated that the use of red dissolves to signal the flashbacks in the lives of the four women is connected with his own childhood fantasies of the soul as a membrane of red. pyrotechnical manner that fit the farcical mood of the film. self-destruction. Marionetten’s concentration on black-and-white close-ups brought the spectator back to the world of Persona and seemed like an explicit visual statement by Bergman. Thematically. Viskningar och rop. But red also connotes passion and sexual arousal.) As Bergman shifted his focus once more to women in such films as En passion. part retrospection. Fanny and Alexander) Den goda viljan (1991. Beröringen/The Touch. in another woman-dominated film. 64. In the Presence of a Clown) Director & Script Script Script Script Director & Script. Bergman toned down any extravagance in the mise-en-scène. In this ‘intermezzo’ in Bergman’s filmmaking. color was used in a deliberately gaudy. Red is also the life force that is draining from the cancerous Agnes’ frail body. and Hörstsonaten. TV With his reconciliation with the Swedish government in the early 1980s and the warm reception he encountered upon returning to Sweden. The women dress more colorfully and their presence is associated with the prismatic world of filtering light. the shift from black and white to color in Bergman’s filmmaking is in keeping with his memories of the male and female worlds of his childhood. The male figures wear the stark black garb of a man of the cloth and move in the light of harsh realities. Private Confessions) Larmar och gör sig till (1997. Group VI. (Bergman conceived the film in black and white. In both Herbstsonate and Aus dem Leben der Marionetten. In fact. as in Karin’s case. which he had only done once before. a visualization of an inner world of passion – sensuous. as in the flighty Maria’s case. Finally. p. In Das Schlangenei. As for the technical crew. and revenge. dangerous and spiritually redemptive. or blood when passionate emotions spell hatred.Chapter III the Filmmaker äktenskap. The Family Saga Fanny och Alexander (1982. he began to employ color. In films like En passion and Viskningar och rop color plays a more subtle role. Sven Nykvist and several members of the production team remained part of Bergman’s staff for his foreign films and provided a link to his previous filmmaking. suggesting that he always carried his cosmos within him. this mellowed view resulted in Fanny och Alexander. Best Intentions) Söndagsbarn (1992. Sunday’s Children) Enskilda samtal (1996. part fiction. Fanny och Alexander is a summation of long-established 152 . the elaborate studio set reflects more the ambition of American producer Dino de Laurentiis than Bergman’s own intentions as these are indicated in the script. but compromised with the German TV producer by opening the film in color. För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor from 1964.

so often associated with a world of existential pain and anguish. Partly set (for its climax) in the wintry village of Frostnäs where Nattvardsgästerna once took place and using some of the same characters (though not actors).Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production Bergman motifs and conflicts: the creative world of the laterna magica juxtaposed to a world of repression and humiliation. A linkage is established between these two milieus not only in terms of the widowed Mrs. One is reminded that the title of the first film set in the same god-forsaken part of the world was ‘Nattvardsgästerna’ or ‘The Communicants’. With Fanny och Alexander. ends with a celebration of human togetherness and family bonding. Larmar och gör sig till depicts a spiritual moment on a small scale and becomes a moving companion piece to the more flamboyant Fanny och Alexander and. 153 . as it is miraculously metamorphosed into a secular communion that brings about a healing stillness among the audience. Uncle Carl. the assembly hall in Frostnäs becomes a cult place. the doubting minister. the small group of onlookers are exposed to the accidental short-circuiting of Carl’s film projector. the other to the church. Perhaps the most remarkable one is Larmar och gör sig till/ In the Presence of a Clown. who dabbled in film entertainment in the early days of the cinema. out of this provincial chaos amidst candle light and a clinking piano emanates Schumann’s Aufschwung. For a brief moment. his filmmaking Vergilius whose name he invoked in his youthful lecture at the Uppsala Film Studio some 40 years before making Fanny och Alexander. Bergman wrote and directed a number of works for television. never gave comfort to the villagers who came to his church. Ekdahl’s marriage to Bishop Vergerus but also in an explicit stress on ritual in both households: the one pertaining to the theatre. a tribute to art as ritual and worship. The plot revolves around a fictionalized relative. the way Carl’s primitive and aborted film showing does. Bergman restores magic and art as top priorities in his universe. Ingmar Bergman’s work for the cinema. However. above all. as powerful as any holy sacrament. In that film. Bergman executes a self-referential tour de force that forms a fitting finale to his wish expressed at the beginning of his film career to participate in building ‘a cathedral on the plain’. and with an affirmation of the healing power of the imagination. and the would-be filmmaker and his mistress assistant perform a kind of rite amidst a small crowd of spectators. After he bid farewell to filmmaking. Tomas. The film reconfirms his own loyalty to the playful fantasy-maker Méliès.

the rushes from each day's filming were collected to be sent later by boat to the film laboratory.Bergman's early filmmaking took place under rather primitive circumstances. scratches were discovered on the negatives. as suggested in this photo during the filming of Summer with Monica (1953) where Bergman and his crew are seen standing in the water by an island in the Stockholm archipelago. From the shooting of Fanny and Alexander in 1982 (Courtesy: Arne Carlsson/Cinematograph/SF) . To save on transportation costs. so that retakes had to be made. There.

Title explanations are included before the synopsis of the film narrative when the foreign distribution title departs radically from the original or when the Swedish title. Commentaries for those Bergman scripts that have been filmed by other directors tend to be less extensive. i. followed by its year of release and. only the original distribution title is used. The title heading used in each entry is the Swedish distribution title. while the version adapted for cinema viewers has had an international circulation but a limited or no movie house showing in Bergman’s own country. abridged version. his statement only applies to works that were designed from the start to circulate in two different versions. notes. However. unless the Bergman script became the subject of a media debate. critical commentaries. At the end of the Filmography is a selective list of foreign distribution titles. 155 . In the rest of the entry. the original television version has been seen by a Swedish or Scandinavian audience only. In an interview Bergman once commented on making parallel cinema and TV versions of the same work (see preface. 19). p. except in direct quotes where the refereed title appears. The credits include major crew members and a complete cast list. As a rule.Chapter IV Filmography Synopses. and reviews. Each film entry comprises a plot synopsis.. in brackets. a reception summary. though translated literally. Commentaries and Reception Record The Filmography Chapter lists in chronological order all screen works that were scripted and/or directed by Ingmar Bergman. Names of Swedish cinemas where a film first opened are usually limited to one or two samples. by its English title. credits. Credits. A special organizational problem involves Bergman works that were originally conceived for television but have also circulated (abroad) as commercial feature films and then often in a specially edited.e. carries connotations not conveyed in English. Foreign titles of Ingmar Bergman’s early films were often the invention of distributors looking for a way to cash in on the reputation of the Swedish cinema as a producer of sexually titillating films.

2003 For eighteen of Bergman’s feature films. 1958 Såsom i en spegel. for the sake of consistency. 1969. a TV film transmitted in 1984. 1984 Den goda viljan (Best Intentions). and then always. 1974 Trollflöjten (The Magic Flute). 1969 Fårö dokument 1. a Bergman film made only for television was also sold as a movie house product – despite Bergman’s protest. 1976 Ur marionetternas liv. 1966 Skammen. 1957 Smultronstället. and Fanny and Alexander. Variations in length between the film and TV versions are noted in the respective context. 1954 Kvinnodröm. Date of entry may differ between the filmography and media listings. 1980 Höstsonaten. 1957 Ansiktet. 1981 Efter repetitionen. 1979. But the fact is that in several cases. 1998 Saraband. 1975 Ansikte mot ansikte (Face to Face). Examples are Riten/The Ritual from 1969 and Efter repetitionen/After the Rehearsal.. documentary footage or ‘bakomfilmer’ are or will be available in the Ingmar Bergman Archive at the Swedish Film Institute. The following works are involved [first date after the title refers to first television showing. For instance. 1970 Scener ur ett äktenskap (Scenes from a Marriage). A shorter synopsis and credit list is included for the same item in the media chapter. in the Filmography listing. information that pertains directly to the TV transmission. 1958 Nära livet. 1976 Fårödokument 2. 1972 Scener ur ett äktenskap. Ansikte mot ansikte/Face to Face. 1962 Persona. 1961 Nattvardsgästerna. 1984.Chapter IV Filmography films like Scener från ett äktenskap/Scenes from a Marriage. on the internationally circulated cinema versions) and to single out Swedish (or sometimes Scandinavian) reviews and comments in the media chapter (i. ‘Bakomfilmer’ so far pertain to the following film titles: Gycklarnas afton. occasionally. The procedure followed here with regard to both multiple-version and multipledistribution works has been to focus on the foreign reception in the Filmography entry (i. 1973. Scener ur ett äktenskap has a 1974 title date in this chapter but a 1973 date in the media chapter. For space-saving reasons. second date (if different) to its international release]: Riten (The Ritual). 1996. 1997.e. 1968 Viskningar och rop. 1992 Enskilda samtal (Private Confessions/Conversations). thus referring to its first TV transmission. 1984 156 . 1955 Det sjunde inseglet.. 1998-99 Larmar och gör sig till (In the Presence of a Clown). 1953 En lektion i kärlek. 1955 Sommarnattens leende. 1980 Fanny and Alexander. 1991-92. However an item originally conceived for television may. have a later release date than the film version. a full synopsis and complete credit list only appears once in such cases. including press debates). 1982-83 Efter repetitionen (After the Rehearsal).e. 1973 Ansikte mot ansikte.

Berta Olsson. Jan-Erik Widgren. The opening sequence. Ø 249). takes place in a boys’ school in Stockholm in the 1940s. trembling with fear and self-pity. a tense atmosphere. Credits. Special TV documentaries have been made using several of Bergman works. symbolic of educational success. Ø 796). as a reflexive verb. who works in a tobacco shop. see Varia.Synopses. Ignoring him he steps out into the sunshine. A documentary was made by the American producer of The Serpent’s Egg (see film entry in this chapter. B/W Director Screenplay Alf Sjöberg Ingmar Bergman The Swedish word hets implies stress. hetsa upp sig carries the meaning of ‘working oneself into a frenzy’. 1944 [Torment. (The ending brings to mind the opening vignette in Strindberg’s novel Röda rummet/The Red Room where an angry young Arvid Falk stands in the same location as he begins his exploration of the city’s corruptive mores and institutions). The final shot shows him standing on a hill overlooking the city. Frenzy]. Jan-Erik finds Caligula on the stairs. he becomes hysterical until an autopsy establishes that Berta died of natural causes (a heart attack). The verb hetsa connotes the baiting of animals. 202. establishing the use of film noir-inspired photography. HETS. documentary footage from Bergman’s film Beröringen/The Touch. the first film scripted by Bergman. All of these connotations have a bearing on both the school situation and the personal relationships in Hets/Torment. young passion and frustration. Synopsis Hets. Brought to the police station. Caligula is crouching like a frightened animal. 1970. When his classmates matriculate. an agitated mood. and sexual promiscuity. Jan-Erik’s performance in school deteriorates. The dramatic action reaches its climax when Jan-Erik finds Berta dead in her bed. For a complete list. in the conservative upper-class home of one of the pupils. Credits Production company Executive producer Production manager Director Assistant Director Svensk Filmindustri Harald Molander Gösta Ström Alf Sjöberg Ingmar Bergman 157 . Jan-Erik stands alone in the rain outside the school watching them emerge in their white student caps. Slowly he begins to walk down towards it. and in the cheap lodging of a young girl. was used in Stig Björkman’s portrait of Ingmar Bergman (see Chapter VIII. What follows is an addition to the original script: Jan-Erik moves away from home to Berta’s apartment where the school principal visits him. Later during a Latin class the friction between Jan-Erik and a sadistic teacher nicknamed Caligula becomes evident. Jan-Erik responds by hitting Caligula and is subsequently suspended from school. depicts the late arrival of a young schoolboy and the rigid school atmosphere during compulsory morning prayers. Commentaries and Reception Record In addition. segment A. To have a hetsigt temperament means to be hot-tempered and choleric. parental and social pressure. Outside in the hallway. Later. whom he has found drunk in the street. Caligula turns the tables on Jan-Erik by reporting his affair with Berta to the school principal. which is a film depicting teacher abuse. and he becomes the target of Caligula’s sarcasm and despotism. Interviews. A love story develops between Jan-Erik and Berta. offering to help.

opening Svensk Filmindustri Oxford Films 101 minutes 12 September 1944 2 October 1944. Bergman’s original script. Rune Landsberg Torsten Hillberg. was considered too depressing. Carl-Olof Alm. Cast Caligula Caligula’s mother Jan-Erik Widgren Berta Olsson School Principal Teacher ‘Pippi’ Jan-Erik’s friend Sandman Jan-Erik’s father Jan-Erik’s mother Jan-Erik’s brother Dr. Lundh. Arne Ragneborn. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm).S. et al 21 April 1947 Commentary Hets was part of SF’s 25th anniversary program aimed at quality production and introducing a new policy of giving aspiring young filmmakers a chance to succeed in the industry. Distribution U. Nilsson. Paul ‘Palle’ Granditsky. ending with the matriculation sequence. and he 158 . Oscar Rosander Stig Järrel Hilda Borgström [part cut in released version] Alf Kjellin Mai Zetterling Olof Winnerstrand Gösta Cederlund Stig Olin Olav Riégo Märta Arbin Anders Nyström Hugo Björne Jan Molander Birger Malmsten Bengt Dalunde Gunnar Björnstrand Bertil Sohlberg Nils Hultberg. Lennart Nyberg. beginning 21 February 1944 and completed 25 May 1944. John Zacharias Lillie Wästfelt Edvard Danielsson Selma Sandberg Greta Stave Curt Edgard.Chapter IV Filmography Artistic Director Screenplay Cinematography Architect Music Costumes Make-up Editor Victor Sjöström Ingmar Bergman Martin Bodin Arne Åkermark Hilding Rosenberg Mimmi Törnquist Carl M. physician Student Pettersson Student Krantz Student without hymn book Teacher proctoring late arrivals Student arriving late at school Teachers at morning prayer Physicians at the morgue Police Woman The Pastor at Berta’s funeral Parish Assistant Lina. Sten Gester. et al.S. Widgren’s housemaid Student Extras Bergman’s voice is heard once on the radio in Berta’s apartment. Filmed on location at Norra Latin School in Stockholm and Råsunda Studios. inc. Distribution Running Time Released Premiere U. Allan Linder. Rolf Bergström.

32. Vecko-Journalen. Several early drafts of ‘Hets’ are among Bergman’s Fårö papers. Film was attacked in all articles in this teacher publication. a study that has played a great and. The script was also dramatized as a stage play and performed in 1948 in Oslo by the city’s newly founded Studio Theatre. These drafts are discussed extensively in Maaret Koskinen’s book I begynnelsen var ordet. most often. 13 October 1944. 20 (21 October 1944). pp. 45 (5 November) 1944. 12-15 (1959). The screenplay to Hets has never been published. Upon the release of Hets. p. 12 October 1944. no. 10. 330. 9 (editorial by Carl Björkman. nos. entitled ‘Frenzy’. Peter Ustinov made a stage adaptation based on the film. pp.Synopses. 11. 34-57. Commentaries and Reception Record was asked to add the scene depicting Jan-Erik’s return to Berta’s apartment. 2 (20 January) 1945. 4 (editorial). Alf Sjöberg (director). During the shooting Bergman. nos. Mr. 1. 11 pp. no. Ø 1141).. 7 (article by Stig Järrel’s teacher). 4 (Margot Wohlin. 51/52 (1944) – 8 (1945) and in Bildjournalen. SF Nyheter. 11 (1944). pp. with a commentary on the added ending of the film). but the story appeared as a novella in Filmjournalen. which coincided with an intense discussion of the old-fashioned structure of the Swedish school system and the need for democratic reform. 159 . 350. 33 (1944). Bergman published a brief newspaper account of his own years in school: ‘Skoltiden ett 12-årigt helvete’ [School a 12-year hell]. no. pp. (article by Elsa Brita Marcussen titled ‘Skolans auktoritestro måste bort’ [School Authoritarianism must disappear]. p. Swedish author Frank Heller [Gunnar Serner] wrote: ‘To air his antipathy for the Swedish school system. 21 April 1948. Hilding Rosenberg (composer) and Erik Tuxén (music director). the production company (SF) issued a brochure (Stockholm: SF. See Øyvind Anker (Chapter IX. which contains brief statements by Bergman (see Ø 24). He describes the job in Bilder/Images. ST. pp. 2002. Svenska Morgonbladet. no. 119-122. p.16. A comment by his former headmaster (Håkansson) at the Palmgrenska School in Stockholm appeared in the same paper (AB) on 5 October 1944. Reply by Bergman in same paper. p. Reception Literary magazine BLM’s editor Georg Svensson reviewed Hets and praised SF for bringing together so much talent. school pedagogue). and no. sad role in literature’ [För att lufta sin antipati för det svenska skolsystemet. In connection with the premiere of Hets. 321-22 (editorial) and p. In the public response to the film there was more focus on Bergman’s script than on Alf Sjöberg’s direction. who was more of a script boy than an assistant director. n. d. p. 6 October 1944. p. pp. 1. pp. Aftonbladet 3 October 1944. 43 (22 October 1944). Martin’s Theatre in London. pp.). leading Stockholm film critic). p. pp. 18-19. mobiliserar herr Ingmar Bergman både ett triangeldrama och ett prov på Krafft-Ebings Psychopatia sexualis. 21 (4 November) 1944. 36-37. Tidning för Sveriges läroverk (Journal of the Swedish Teachers Association): no. 4 (résumés of public response to Hets). 4. no. now deposited at SFI. en studie som har spelat en stor och oftast sorglig roll i litteraturen]. SvD. Part of the film’s tremendous impact in Sweden can be related to its timely story. Vecko-Journalen. For sample views see the following: Beklädnadsfolket 1. was however assigned the task of handling the outdoor scene at the end. shot in South Stockholm. 30. 9 October. Credits. My Life in Film. Ingmar Bergman mobilizes both a triangle drama and a sample of Krafft-Ebing’s Psychopatia sexualis. It opened at St. 14 and no.

2177. 17 (1949).Chapter IV Filmography Hets/Torment opened to several devastating reviews in the U. on 21 April 1947 but later became somewhat of a cult film. Updated information on internet: www. Allan Ekelund (production manager). no. no. Göteborg press. pp. no. Detta underliga skådespel som heter livet (Linton. p. pp. SF has no further data on this. and students in at least one city demonstrated by burning the head of the censorship board in effigy. pp. Reviews Cinématographie française. See Röster i Radio-TV. Vecko-Journalen. Carl Anders Dymling. no. Filmnyheter. pp. p. p. Filmnyheter 1. p. 591 (April 1983): p. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman. pp. p. KRIS. 96. SF-nyheter. 46. 15. 4 pp. the Legion of Decency began a crusade against the film in New York and other American cities. BLM 13. svenskfilmdatabas. S. p. 11. Svensk filmografi. 42 (1944). Vi no. 10. Ø 1526). 96-97. no. 61-69. no. (March 1966). pp. 1285). pp. 3 October 1944. 8. Monthly Film Bulletin. 4). (no. 4 March 1953. 13 November 1947. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. p.’ Birgitta Steene published an essay on Hets titled ‘The Sjöberg-Bergman Connection: Hets. 14 April 1947. referring to positive reviews in Newsweek (‘honest approach makes for unusual film’). no. Krohn. NYT Film Reviews. See also Filmnyheter. See also Bergman. 34:2.S. item has somewhat misleading title ‘Ingmar Bergman’s Schooldays. See Monthly Film Bulletin L. adapted from a radio play by Leck Fischer 160 . 150 (13 June 1946). 1940-1949 (Ø 1314). Karin. 1947. 11 (4-10 March 1972). 11 (1946):17-9 (reception in England). Filmorientering (NFI/Norwegian Film Institute). According to head of Svensk Filmindustri. carries a news item about a similar reception of Torment in Canada. 1913-1968 p. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). Peter Cowie interviewed Bergman in September 1982 about his memories of the shooting of Hets and of Alf Sjöberg as a director. New York Herald Tribune. 22 April 1947. no. 16-17. Collaboration and Reception’ in Tijdsschrift voor Skandinavistiek 20:1 (1999): p. Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). 86. p. no. 4 pp.p. Torsten Jungstedt interviewed Alf Sjöberg (director). Dansk Film Museum program note. where local censorship boards closed cinemas. 230-32. 34:2. pp. Newsweek. n. 21 (1945). 42 (1944). Interviews and Longer Articles In connection with a Swedish TV broadcast of Hets in 1972. 7 November 1944 (see especially GP. 7 November 1944. 785. 9 1944. 84-85. 1946 [Crisis]. 85-102. New York Times. no. and Jarl Nylander (assistant photographer) about the filming of Bergman’s first film script. 152-53. 22 April 1947. 385-88.se 203. 28. 10-13.

travels to the city in search of Nelly but has to return home alone. now deathly ill. Jenny wants Nelly to work in her beauty parlour in the city. physician Aunt Jessica Malin. Jenny. a considerably older agronomist. The couple is surprised by Jenny. Credits Production Company Exexcutive Producer Production Manager Director Artistic Advisor Screenplay Svensk Filmindustri Harald Molander Lars-Eric Kjellgren Ingmar Bergman Victor Sjöström Ingmar Bergman. The rendez-vous is intercepted by Ulf. In a vengeful mood she tells Nelly that Jack is a mythomaniac who makes up stories about himself to arouse women’s sympathy. Credits. Drömmen om Nelly [The dream of Nelly]. At the ball Jack approaches Nelly and offers her a drink which he calls ‘Jack the Ripper’s Evensong’. Nelly’s foster mother Jenny. Ingeborg. Inc. Seivie Ewerstein Inga Landgré Stig Olin Dagny Lind Marianne Löfgren Allan Bohlin Ernst Eklund Signe Wirff Svea Holst Arne Lindblad Julia Caesar Alternate titles Architect Music Sound Props Make-up Continuity Cast Nelly Jack Ingeborg. somewhat more hesitantly. Preparations are under way for Nelly to attend her first ball. Moderdyret [The mother animal] Arne Åkermark Erland von Koch Lennart Svensson Harry Malmstedt. Commentaries and Reception Record Synopsis Kris opens with a speaker voice-over introducing the idyllic town where 18-year-old Nelly lives with her foster mother. Arriving in the city she begins to work in her mother’s beauty parlor. Nelly is shocked by his suicide but returns home to the small town where she is warmly received by Ingeborg and. However. He and Nelly cause a scandal by interrupting the traditional entertainment with modern improvised jazz. Lundh. housekeeper Mayor Mayor’s Wife 161 . but Nelly decides shortly thereafter to leave town. Nelly’s mother Ulf Uncle Edward. first produced by Danish radio (DR) on 27 September 1944. Nelly’s biological mother. on that same day. arrives in town and is later joined by her lover. Jack leaves very upset and shortly afterwards shoots himself against the flickering neon signs of a theatre. Ingeborg. One evening Jack comes to the beauty salon where Nelly is alone. Jack explains to Nelly that he is a ‘moonlight creature’ who can love no one but himself. Jack. Escaping outdoors. with Ulf as her escort. Ragnar Carlberg Carl M. Nelly is courted by Ulf. based on radio play by Leck Fischer entitled Moderhjertet [Mother heart].Synopses. by Ulf. Mitt barn är mitt [My child is mine].

Hanna Adelby. Bergman commented on his debut as a film director in a special series of program notes (see Ø 154): ‘If someone had asked me to film the telephone book I would have done so. Hariette Garellick John Erik Liebel Sture Ericson Wiktor ‘Kulörten’ Andersson Gus Dahlström John Melin Holger Höglund Ulf Johanson Margit Andelius Carin Cederström Mona Geijer-Falkner Singoalla Lundbäck Nils Hultgren.Chapter IV Filmography Singer at ball Nelly’s dance partner Beautician Assistant at beauty parlor Customers at beauty parlor Man in the beauty parlor Musician at ball Trumpet Blower Bass Tuba Player Flute Player Clarinet Player/Orchestra Leader Pianist Wife of Town accountant at ball Young Woman on train Old Woman on train Gypsy Woman Men in the street at Jack’s suicide Participants at ball Dagmar Olsson Karl-Erik Flens Siv Thulin Monica Schildt Anna-Lisa Baude. Ullastina Rettig. Reception Most reviews of Kris were critical. For Bergman’s account of the genesis of the Jack character. 67-73). The foster mother in the Helsingborg production was played by stage actress Dagny Lind. were singled out as showing great promise. Filmed on location at Hedemora in central Sweden. Gustaf Hedström. and remarks about the shooting of Kris in Bilder/Images. could do nothing and felt like a crazy cat in a ball of yarn’. Maud Hyttenberg. 122-130. Resultatet hade möjligen blivit bättre. see Chapter II (Ø 41). comparing the film to the original 162 . Bergman’s screenplay shows some changes from Leck Fischer’s play. Otto Adelby. But individual sequences. Directed by Ingrid Luterkort. kunde ingenting och kände mig som en galen katt i en garnhärva. especially from the beauty parlor. beginning 4 July 1945. Jack is Bergman’s own invention. 81-88 (English edition. Per H. Distribution Running Time Released Premiere Svensk Filmindustri 93 minutes 12 February 1946 25 February 1946. and the most dramatic figure in the film. Spegeln (Stockholm) Commentary Leck Fischer’s play was produced at the Helsingborg City Theatre during Bergman’s first season there as head of the theatre. Jag visste ingenting. et al. and completed 31 August 1945. Britta Billsten. the film was termed unbalanced in style and juvenile in mood and character depiction. Rune Ottoson. Danish reviews. Stockholm (Djurgården) and at Råsunda Studios. In a 1973 retrospective at SFI. Gösta Qvist. who appears in the same role in Bergman’s film version. Jacobsson. I knew nothing. pp.] See also comments on his novice status in the film world in Laterna magica. it opened on 6 October 1944. [Om någon hade bett mig filma telefonkatalogen hade jag gjort det. The result might have been better. 1990. pp. pp. My Life in Film. such as a shift of focus from the struggle between mother and foster mother to a love story between Nelly and Jack.

p. 85 (July 1958). 4 pp. 2 (Summer 1946): 114-120. meet at Stockholm’s Central Station. 6. 1946 [It Rains on Our Love]. 7. including his commentary in the same paper on 16 March. pp. Synopsis The film opens with a Hitchcock-inspired shot (Foreign Correspondent) showing a crowd of people under umbrellas waiting in the rain for a bus. 9 March 1946.Synopses. as yet ignorant of Maggie’s pregnancy. 9. Cahiers du cinéma no. Håkansson. joins her. Such attention suggests that Bergman was not treated as an ignorant novice among the film critics. appears and threatens to report them for trespassing. 486 (December 1994). Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. no. Maggie. 10 (9 March). A discussion of Kris between critics Bengt Chambert. no. 204. Vecko-Journalen 39. A young couple. p. 11 pp. David has found employment at a garden nursery run by Mr. a nasty old man who lives alone with a hoard of cats. Perspektiv 2. Kris got better reviews outside Stockholm. p. pp. which tended to favor faithfulness to the literary original above cinematic criteria. Biografbladet 30. 21. Vi. DET REGNAR PÅ VÅR KÄRLEK. Later he changes his mind and offers to sell them the cottage. Danish Film Museum program. 22-23. p. 9. and the two leave the city. B. p. has made a living as a prostitute. Filmnyheter 3. 9 September 1945. 8. 8 (October 1951): 498-505. David. were mostly negative. sec. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). 3 (March 1946): 246-47. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). Variety 8 May 1946.. SF program to Kris. no. 19 (1948):7-9. Two well-meaning Robin Hood-like characters keep leaving household utensils at David’s 163 . The next day the owner. Andersson and his shrewish wife. 8. 71-78. Commentaries and Reception Record Danish play. no. and Gösta Werner appeared in Biografbladet 27. Svensk filmografi 1940-1949 (Ø 1314). who once had ambitions to become an actress. 6. p. SDS (Malmö). no. and by Thorsten Eklann in UNT 5 March 1946. 2. David has recently been released from prison. 512-14. He is the narrator of the story and also acts as a providential character. p. To find shelter. 10 (1946): 27. Maggie and David. 11 September 1973. no. An older man turns to the camera and introduces himself as the Man with the Umbrella. no. p. See positive write-up by Gerd Osten in GHT. 26 February 1946. 7-11 November 1960. no. This is in line with most adaptation discussions at the time. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman & Herbert Grevenius. they break into an empty pea patch cottage. pp. Gerd Osten (Pavane). BLM 15. Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma. p. 4 (Winter 1949-50): 226-27. Expr. Credits. Now she is pregnant with a child whose father is unknown.

He is a civil servant. A. bum Stålvispen [Eggbeater]. he offers to marry her. The Man with the Umbrella appears. labeled City and Country. Arriving back home. who reports the incident to the police. Lundgren Erland von Koch Lars Nordberg Tage Holmberg Gun Holmgren Barbro Kollberg Birger Malmsten Gösta Cederlund Ludde Gentzel Douglas Håge Hjördis Pettersson Julia Cæsar Gunnar Björnstrand Magnus Kesster Sif Ruud Åke Fridell Benkt-Åke Benktsson Erik Rosén Albert Johansson Sture Ericson Ulf Johanson Cinematography Architect Music Sound Editor Continuity Cast Maggi David Lindell Man with the Umbrella Per Håkansson. The pastor turns out to be a pedantic bureaucrat who obviously takes unctious delight in stalling their plans. who tells them to leave immediately. acting as Maggie’s and David’s defense attorney. cottage owner Anderson. Anderson Hanna Ledin. Maggie. In a fit of anger. however. The film ends as the young couple take leave of the Man with the Umbrella at a crossroad. He gets David acquitted of Purman’s assault charge. Maggie and David find yet another bureaucrat waiting in front of their cottage. Maggie tells David of her pregnancy. which causes him to run off on a drunken spree. miscarries. first produced at the Oslo National Theatre on 9 September 1930 Göran Strindberg. They have stolen the items from the Andersson couple who accuse David of the theft. proprietor of nursery Mrs. A sign appears with arrows pointing in opposite directions. Credits Production Company Executive Producer Production Manager Director Screenplay Sveriges Folkbiografer Lorens Marmstedt Lorens Marmstedt Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman and Herbert Grevenius adapted Norwegian playwright Oskar Braathen’s play Bra Mennesker [Decent people]. bum 164 . The last fourth of the film is set in a courtroom. The cottage had been expropriated by the town council before Maggie and David moved in and is now going to be torn down for a new development. Later. The two go to the local pastor to register and to ask him to read the marriage banns in church. David and Maggie choose the road to the City. Hilding Bladh P. David hits Herr Purman. Herr Purman. in shock. Purman Bicycle Mechanic.Chapter IV Filmography and Maggie’s front steps. a friendly neighbor Mr. friend of David His Wife The Pastor The Prosecutor The Judge Assistant to Judge Kängsnöret [Shoestring].

pp. A longer analysis of Bergman’s film was published by Bengt Chambert in Biografbladet 27. A Norwegian film based on Braathen’s play was made in 1937 with the title Bra mennesker [Decent people]. 132-33. Vi no. 10 November 1946. Commentaries and Reception Record Clerk Policemen Attendant at station Ticket salesman at station Men at Café Women in Courtroom Erland Josephson Bertil Anderberg. Each one is responsible for about 50% of the footage. 27-29. Astoria (Stockholm) Commentary The Man with the Umbrella and other allegorical overtones in the film exist already in Braathen’s play. Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma no. Björling. Vecko-Journalen 37. but on the whole Bergman was praised for his playful and lyrical approach. comparing it to Marcel Carné’s film noir and noting Méliès’ influence on Bergman. Edvard Danielsson Carl (Johansson) Harald Nils Hultberg John W. Hilding Bladh started shooting Det regnar på vår kärlek but had to turn over the job to Göran Strindberg because of a time conflict. Margot Lindén Filmed on location at pea patches near Hellasgården in South Stockholm and at Drevviken and Sandrews’ Novilla Studios in the Stockholm nature park Djurgården in August 1946 (completed on August 22nd). 10 (December 1946): 906-907. Strindberg remembers shooting outdoor scenes and interior scenes from pea patch cottage. In early 1947 Det regnar på vår kärlek began a very successful round in the Swedish provinces. 7. i. 4 (Winter 1946-47): 235-239. BLM 15. Britta Billsten. directed by Leif Sinding. Distribution Running time Released Premiere Svenska AB Nordisk Tonefilm 95 minutes 31 October 1946 9 November 1946. 47 (1946). to the most realistic part of the film. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press.. 26 February 1947 p. Bilder/Images. 74 (August–September 1957). no. no. his footage in Fängelse/ Prison.e. Ingmar. 14-15. 28. Julien Duvivier. concluded: ‘We have to go back to the era of Victor Sjöström to find anything comparable on the Swedish screen’ [Vi måste gå tillbaka till Victor Sjöströms epok för att hitta något jämförbart på den svenska duken]. and Marcel Carné. no. Many pointed to the influences from French cinema of René Clair. pp. 47 (1946): pp. See also Bergman. Strindberg’s footage in the city scenes is typical of his film noir style. Cf. 45. Reception Reviews were mixed. 85 (July 1958): 6. 165 .Synopses. My Life on Film. Cahiers du cinéma no. Bergman’s work on the script confines itself to the trial. p. Credits. Einar Hylander Karin Windahl. Signature Björn in Hudiksvallsposten. Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788).

Frida.Chapter IV Filmography Danish Film museum program. Some time later she waits for him outside the university where he is a student. Martin’s and Rut’s liaison is short-lived. with Ragnar providing an alibi for them. 4 pp. but Martin does not see her. 10 November 1946 p. whose lover Victor is the model for Rut’s portrait of the devil. 1947 [Woman without a face]. talks briefly to Rut. The family is gathered for dinner at Martin’s parents. After he is gone. 29 August 1974. SDS. He goes back to his family and avoids charges of desertion by claiming a nervous collapse. 24. She returns to Martin who flies into a jealous rage at the sight of the large sum of money. and their small son Pil. and later they climb up on the roof to make love. Svensk filmografi. B/W Director Screenplay Gustaf Molander Ingmar Bergman Synopsis Ragnar Ekberg. But Ragnar and Martin are drafted. no. Martin’s parents suggest that he go to the United States. 79-85. They talk about their future together. it is Sam Svensson. pp. Martin deserts from the army and returns to Stockholm. 4 (Winter 1949-50): 217-236. She deliberately breaks off the heel on one of her shoes and accepts Martin’s offer to drive her home. At the florist he sees Rut for the first time. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). Martin insults Frida. Rut is also at the station. pp. p. 6-7. Seeing Rut leave the hotel alone. an author. H. Biografbladet 30. Film was ranked best Swedish film for 1946-47 by Swedish Film Journalists Club and the film magazine Biografbladet. Awards 1946: 1947: Ingmar Bergman won a Charlie (Swedish Oscar) for the film. Rut takes him to Sam Svensson’s concert and persuades Sam to rent them a room. Expr. 2 October 1964.. while Rut returns to her mother. 30. Ragnar checks on Martin and finds him dying after a suicide attempt. ST. 205. 14-17 May 1962. She shows him a portrait she has painted representing the devil and tells him a fairytale called ‘The Three Chimney Sweeps and the Changing of Guards’ [De tre sotarna och Vaktparaden]. A quarrel starts over the way the grandparents spoil their grandson. 542-544. Rut pursues Martin who accompanies her to the hotel where the film started. The film ends at the train station with Frida saying goodbye to Martin who is leaving to board a ship for the US. p. 166 . sits at a hotel bar while his off-screen voice introduces him as the narrator of a story whose main characters are Martin Grandé and his mistress Rut Köhler. expressing her pity.. In a flashback we see Rut in her mother’s apartment as a caller arrives. 1967 (Ø 1233). Image et son. Later. his wife Frida. KVINNA UTAN ANSIKTE. Rut serves him beer. Rut tells her mother how Victor tried to seduce her when she was only 12. feeling guilty. They begin an affair. a chimney sweep and trumpeteer who offers Rut free tickets to a concert. Later at the hospital Ragnar meets Rut and follows her home. pp. 18. Ragnar’s voice interrupts Rut’s story while the camera introduces us to Martin. Wortzelius. Worried that Rut will not be faithful. In the hospital. Robin Hood. and extracts 700 kronor from Victor as compensation. 1940-1949 (Ø 1314). Martin finds himself a cold shack. he takes Pil with him in the car to buy flowers for Frida.

Mitt i allt 167 . ett teateraktigt ‘mycket väsen för ingenting’. one easily gets a feeling of being offered dramatic drugs. gnistrande av ett mycket ungdomligt geni som fått både teaterns och filmens alla djävlar i blodet. Distribution Running time Released Premiere Svensk Filmindustri 100 minutes 9 July 1947 16 September 1947 Commentary For genesis of script. charmingly immature at times. Credits. often leaving question marks. beginning 3 February 1947 and completed in Spring 1947. his convulsive furor. But always inspired. one suddenly begins to wonder if he actually has anything to say’ [Inför Ingmar Bergman med hans hetsiga upprördhet. A bit uneven and jerky at times. Reception Bergman’s script caught the limelight. Nils Svenwall Sven Hansen Erik Nordgren Oscar Rosander Lucie Kjellberg Alf Kjellin Gunn Wållgren Anita Björk Stig Olin Olof Winnerstrand Linnea Hillberg Marianne Löfgren Georg Funkquist Åke Grönberg Cast Martin Grandé Rut Köhler Frida Grandé Ragnar Ekberg Martin’s father Martin’s mother Rut’s mother Victor Sam Svensson Filmed at Råsunda Studios and at Märsta station. see (Ø 42). förtjusande omoget ibland.] Björkman’s appreciative review might be juxtaposed to Artur Lundkvist’s negative reaction: ‘When faced with Ingmar Bergman’s fiery excitement. a violent storm in a teapot. ofta med frågetecken. hans konvulsiviska furia får man lätt en känsla av att bli bjuden dramatisk narkotika. Lite ojämt och ryckigt någon gång. According to an article in Filmnyheter 2. known for his sober and elegant upper class comedies and melodramas. a theatrical “much ado about nothing”. 4 (1947): 21-22.Synopses. In the midst of all the noise and all the rebellious gestures. Commentaries and Reception Record Credits Production company Director Screenplay Photography Architects Sound Music Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Gustaf Molander Ingmar Bergman Åke Dahlqvist Arne Åkermark. [Ingmar Bergmans ‘Kvinna utan ansikte’ är en diktares verk. ett våldsamt stormande i ett vattenglas. Director Gustaf Molander was one of SF’s grand old men. Men nästan hela tiden inspirerat. The leading film critic Carl Björkman noticed Bergman’s dramatic and lyrical talents: ‘Ingmar Bergman’s “Kvinna utan ansikte” is the work of a poet. no. Bergman followed part of the shooting of film. with the brilliance of a very youthful genius who has all the deviltry of film and theatre in his blood’. just as had been the case with Hets.

followed by his Musik i mörker/Music in Darkness and Skepp till India land/A Ship to India. He succeeds in persuading her to leave with him. Awards 1948: Stockholm film critics (and Uppsala critic Pir Ramek) voted Kvinna utan ansikte best Swedish film of the year. decorated with model ships and exotic objects which he now proceeeds to destroy. ‘Kvinna utan ansikte’. He looks up Sally. Johannes falls in love with Sally. DN. In a flashback he recalls his past. and the father flees in panic to a room he keeps in town. His neglected wife Alice hopes his condition will worsen to make him dependent on her and give up Sally. Danish title – ‘Sømandstøsen’ or ‘The Sailor’s Gal’ – changes the conflict (as does one of the French titles. ‘Film’. by renaming it Indialand. beginning on the day his father Alexander brought home Sally. ‘Ship to Indialand’ or ‘Ship to Never-Never Land’ would come closer to the original meaning. She tells him she does not need his pity. Johannes Blom returns from long service in the merchant marine. SKEPP TILL INDIA LAND. the poet converts a distant geographic spot to a melodious land of fantasy. no. Artur. Credits Production company Executive producer Production manager Sveriges Folkbiografer Lorens Marmstedt Allan Ekelund 168 . See Biografbladet. a never-never land: ‘Jag ville jag vore en drömlands son/en infödd av Indialand’ (I wish I were a dreamland’s son/a native of Indialand). he forces Johannes to work as a diver against his will and attempts to murder him by cutting off the air in the diving tube. The Swedish name for India is Indien. who is living alone. not as lovers but as mutual friends. which begins: ‘Jag ville jag vore i Indialand/och India vore sig själv’ (I wish I were in Indialand/and India were itself). Alexander Blom is going blind. Final distribution title Ship to India places skipper Blom’s unreachable destination firmly on the map.Chapter IV Filmography bullret och alla de upproriska åthävorna kan man plötsligt börja undra om han egentligen har något att säga. 1947 [A Ship to India]. Lundkvist. Synopsis The film opens seven years after the main action has occurred. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman after a play by Martin Söderhjelm The original Swedish title is a direct reference to a poem by Gustaf Fröding (1860-1911). with whom he planned to sail for ‘Indialand’. but becomes crippled and totally dependent upon his wife. and they depart together. He then makes an aborted suicide attempt. 206. 17 September 1947. The film ends as Johannes snaps out of his reveries and returns once more to Sally’s place. ‘Frustration’ and ‘Land of Desire’. When Captain Blom discovers Sally’s interest in his son. Johannes goes down to the harbour where his father’s sloop used to be. Johannes is rescued at the last minute.] Reviews Björkman. Carl. place emphasis on psychological mood while ignoring the irony of the setting: a tug boat serving as a launch pad for escapes to exotic lands. Early American and British titles. ‘Le port des filles perdues’) to the story of a promiscuous woman. Summer 1948. BLM XVI. 8 (October) 1947: 683.

Arne Lundh Tage Holmberg Gerd Osten Holger Löwenadler Birger Malmsten Gertrud Fridh Anna Lindahl Lasse Krantz. first produced at the Swedish Theatre in Helsinki. Torö. In a reportage from the shooting of the film in Expr.S. beginning 28 May 1947. NYC Commentary Bergman’s screenplay intensifies the father-son relationship in the original play by Söderhjelm and adds a variety-show sequence. and completed 16 July 1947. Credits. a dwarf Alexander Blom’s partners Street girl Girl on beach Young man on beach Woman witnessing arrest Black crew member Old men in the street Filmed on location at Ankarsudden. Bergman writes about the making of Skepp till India land in Bilder/Images. p. Björling. Sven Josephson Inga-Lisa Storthors. Janus Films. 169 . My Life in Film. Royal (Stockholm) 29 August 1949. Erik Selma Sofi Manager of music hall A foreign crewman Kiki. Bergman stresses both the escapist motif and the theme of youthful rebellion.S. Inc. Jan Molander. his son Sally Alice Blom Crewmen Hans. 11. Bertil. 7 June 1949. 1990. Rialto. A. in which Ingmar Bergman can be seen as a man in beret (his ‘trademark’ for many years) watching a Punch-and-Judy show.Synopses. in Stockholm archipelago and at Sandrews’ Novilla Studios in Stockholm’s Djurgården (Deer Park). pp. Erik Hell Naemi Brise Hjördis Petterson Åke Fridell Peter Lindgren Otto Moskowitz Gustaf Hiort af Ornäs. Rolf Bergström Ingrid Borthen Amy Aaröe Gunnar Nielsen Svea Holst Charles White John W. distribution Running time Premiere U. Distribution U. 23 October 1946 Göran Strindberg P. 136-139. Commentaries and Reception Record Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman after Martin Söderhjelm’s play Skepp till Indialand. 102 min 22 September 1947.. Opening Nordisk Tonefilm Film Classics. Lundgren Erland von Koch Lars Nordberg. Uno Larsson Photography Architect Music Sound Make-up Editor Continuity Cast Captain Alexander Blom Johannes Blom.

1948 [Music in darkness]. Early American title ‘Night is my Future’ focusses on main character’s blindness and ignores importance that music plays in the film. 7:3.p. 31 August 1949. 2355-56. 79 (November 1964). Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. 86-90. In France. 30 (1947): 10-11. New York Herald Tribune. New York Times. 22 October 1947. 8. 8.. The only longer study of Skepp till India land was published by Hugo Wortzelius: ‘Ensamhet och gemenskap. 27 August 1949. Svensk filmografi. pp. 1940-1949 (Ø 1314). MUSIK I MÖRKER. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Dagmar Edqvist and Ingmar Bergman The Swedish title has alliteration and cadence. 207. 4 (Winter 1947-48): 229-235. 40 (1947): 39. no. Arne Sellermark in Filmjournalen 29. pp. 139) Bergman calls the reception of Skepp till India land ‘a massive adversity’ [en massiv motgång]. 11. Vi no. pp. 23 September 1947. NYT Film Reviews. p.e. 13. p. referred to it as ‘a horror ship of fyrtiotalism’ [ett fyrtitalistiskt skräckskepp]. no. 11. market. 170 . Variety.. 40 (1947). i.’ Biografbladet 28. But Variety. no. p. Scen och Salong no. BLM 16. 1913-1968. (SFI clipping). p. He also compares the film’s strong element of escapism to so-called utbrytningsdröm [dream of breaking away].S. lost in literal English translation. recommending the film for the U. Nils Beyer in Stockholm MT. 4 pp. Filmjournalen 29. 31 August 1949. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). He sees family conflict in the film as a desperate human search for contact rather than a generation battle. Reflexioner kring Ingmar Bergmans “Skepp till Indialand”. criticized Bergman for using a trendy literary cliché in his portrait of Sally. Danish Film museum program. 7 (1947): 8-10. dismissed it as a ‘a slow murky film with no appeal for the US market’. See Cahiers du cinéma no. same date. pp. Vecko-Journalen 38. 1964. p. pp. 40 (1947): 7. 7-9. 610-612. no. the film became a modest success during the Bergman vogue of 1958. 23 September 1947. the good prostitute. a common motif in Swedish cinema at the time..Chapter IV Filmography Reception In Bilder/Images (p. full of the malaise of Sweden’s literary Forties (see Ø 952). but actually the film received mixed reviews. Awards 1947: Honorable mention at Cannes Film Festival. p. n. Image et son (Ø 1233). Foreign Reviews Il giornale d’Italia (Rome). carried a brief note about Ship to India. but was in general positive about the film. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). 86 (August 1958): 42-43. 4. Filmorientering (Norwegian Film Institute). 22. 30-31. 3 October 1968. pp. no. Variety. 4 pp. 8 (October 1947): 683. no.

The films ends as they leave by train for their new life together. Ebbe wins. Credits Production company Executive producer Production manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Props manager Music Sound Make-up Editor Continuity Terrafilm Lorens Marmstedt Allan Ekelund Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman and Dagmar Edqvist. after her 1946 novel of the same name Göran Strindberg P. Bengt’s sister Lovisa. music director 171 . In a contest of bending arms. The pastor in the church where Bengt used to play the organ is Ingrid’s guardian after her father’s death. Later he hits Bengt when discovering that Ingrid is in love with him. Subsequently. whose father is being buried. A chance encounter brings Ingrid and Ebbe together with Bengt. Beatrice Schröder Augustin Schröder Agneta. The two fall in love. housekeeper at Schröder’s Otto Klemens. Bengt. for he feels that Ebbe has treated him as an equal and not as a handicapped person. and Ingrid encourages Bengt to pursue his musical studies. One day Bengt is falsely accused of theft and loses his job. The pastor finally gives them permission to marry.Synopses. The two men are jealous of each other. In the meantime Ingrid has been admitted to a teacher’s college where she meets Ebbe. A. Ingrid needs a job and becomes a servant in Bengt’s home. Bengt is grateful. He applies to the Academy of Music in Stockholm but fails his entrance exam. Ingrid. Bengt tries to adjust to a world of darkness and begins to play the organ in a country church. Commentaries and Reception Record Synopsis The film opens with an expressionistic dream sequence: young Bengt Vyldeke is blinded when trying to save a puppy during a rifle drill in the army. partly because of their social differences and partly because of Bengt’s blindness. Lundgren Gösta Pettersson Erland von Koch Olle Jakobsson Inga Lindeström Lennart Wallén Ulla Kihlberg Birger Malmsten Mai Zetterling Bengt Eklund Olof Winnerstrand Douglas Håge Gunnar Björnstrand Naima Wifstrand Åke Claesson Bibi Lindqvist-Skoglund Hilda Borgström John Elfström Sven Lindberg Cast Bengt Vyldeke Ingrid Olofsson Ebbe Larsson Kernman. Returning to his family residence in the country. pastor Kruge. however. He refuses to give his blessing to a marriage between Ingrid and Bengt. pub owner Klasson. Credits. he begins to play in a pub whose owner exploits all the employees. Ingrid will teach grade school. One day when playing at a funeral. blind worker Hedström. musician at pub Mrs. decides to pursue a career as a church organist and is accepted into such a program. he meets a lower class girl.

Robin Hood claimed that the expressionistic opening was an obvious imitation of Eisenstein (ST 17 February 1948. the first Bergman film to make money.. was conceived as an ‘Italian’ neo-realist film. It has had limited distribution outside of Sweden but was not released in U. 6). Commentary Bergman switched the focus of Edqvist’s novel from a love story across class barriers to a psychological study of a traumatized young man. Opening Terrafilm/Stjärnfilm Embassy Pictures/Janus Films.]men entonigt berättad. and. My Life in Film.S. his mother Anton Nord Post office clerk Jönsson. though acknowledging Bergman’s obvious artistic ambitions. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. 18 January 1948). In a shooting reportage in Expr. agony and anguish’ and only sees ‘the dark aspects of life’ [en man som hetsar och hatar och handlar i skräck. humor and emotional involvement rather than ‘narrow anguish’ [snäv ångest]. NYC Bergman can be seen as a train passenger in the final scene. Björkman suggested that Bergman look at the current Italian cinema for a treatment of tragic subjects with warmth. Reception Reviewers approved of Bergman’s adaptation of the original story but were somewhat divided about the filmic result. (11 December 1947. Carl Björkman (DN. Eight Street Playhouse. 172 .S. as slick as drawing paper [. until 1963. Inc. Bergman’s next film venture. pp. it is proper in its smallest detail.. glättad som illustrationspapper [. waiter Blind pianist Woman throwing out garbage Chief cook Train engineer Man at train station Mrs. 139-40.Chapter IV Filmography Einar Blom Blanche Sylvia Evert. hates and acts in fear. Distribution U. 85 minutes 15 January 1948 17 January 1948 8 January 1963. he is described as a man who ‘aggravates. Hamnstad/Port of Call. [en alltigenom snygg film. utan glädje och spontanitet]. boy in pub Hjördis. Else Klemens Hotel guest Bengt Logardt Marianne Gyllenhammar Ulla Andreasson Rune Andreasson Barbro Flodquist Segol Mann Svea Holst Georg Skarstedt Reinhold Svensson Mona Geijer-Falkner Arne Lindblad Stig Johanson Ulf Johanson Britta Brunius Otto Adelby Filmed at Sandrews Studios at Lästmakargatan. den är proper in i minsta detalj. termed Musik i mörker no more than ‘an altogether presentable film. without joy and spontaneity.S.] but narrated in a monotone. Stockholm. p. He talks briefly about the making of Musik i mörker in his book Bilder/Images. vånda och ångest (och bara ser) livets mörka sidor]. beginning 1 November 1947 and completed 30 December 1947. 16). Musik i mörker was said to be an answer to his critics that he could also make ‘happier’ films.. p. in fact. The film was a modest public success in Sweden..

Films and Filming. Musik i mörker was an entry at the 1948 Venice Film Festival but won no prize. p. Vi no. 5 (1948): 24. He follows her home and spends the night with her. a serious man who reads contemporary Swedish poetry. no. 7 (April 1962) p. 25 January 1963. 1940-1949 (Ø 1370). 7 February 1963. 99-102. but her mother has her admitted to a juvenile institution. 1948 [Port of Call]. she has been released on probation and is working in a ball-bearing factory. 30-31. pp. 208. 18 January 1948. 153-154. another shows her strict mother moving about in the home.ed. 6). p. 4 (Winter 1949-50): 217-236. Credits. Monthly Film Bulletin. 59). Time. Vilander. p. Mr. 42 (Am. New York Herald Tribune. HAMNSTAD.Synopses. BLM. a 29-yearold sailor who has just returned home after eight years at sea. pp. the main character. When Gösta meets her. The story begins as Gösta. pp. p. and no bonds are formed between the two. p. Berit escapes but is caught and and sent back. Svensk filmografi. NYT Film Reviews. 3371. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1382). 5 (1948). p. p. p. She moves in with him. p. 9 January 1963. 8 no. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. Foreign Reviews Filmfacts. In a flashback we learn that Berit is the product of a broken home. 1913-1968. referring to it as an old picture showing some talent. One scene depicts her parents quarreling. Time. 173 . 32. passes the spot where Berit has just tried to commit suicide by jumping into the water. no. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman after Olle Länsberg’s novel Guldet och murarna [The gold and the walls] Synopsis A docu-style camera depicts the bustling port of Göteborg. who then attended a milliner’s school. is locked out by her mother when she returns home late one night. 226 (March) 1969: 9-10. 15. Still another flashback tells how Berit. Variety. 29 July 1959. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 790). compared its ‘silly plot’ favorably to Jane Eyre. Later Gösta. 33. p. 645-647. 59). 5:-6. 42 (Am. 25 January 1963. p. NYT. meets Berit in a dance hall. Vecko-Journalen 39. imposing her meticulous sense of order and fundamentalist religion on Berit. Commentaries and Reception Record Variety reviewed it on 29 July 1959 (p. dismissed it as ‘cinematic juvenilia of a painful sort’. It is a casual relationship. lives and the factory where she works. Berit’s mother reports her daughter’s encounter with Gösta to the probation officer. On this occasion Berit has met a young man reminiscent of Jack in Kris. 6. March 1961. Image et son. the tenement housing where Berit. 14.Ed. February 1948. 31 December 1962. Biografbladet 30.

Berit is now apprehended. Else-Merete Heiberg Bill Houston Britta Nordin. Krona. abortionist Police superintendent ‘Tuppen’ [the Rooster]. foreman Tuppen’s buddies Gunnar Johan. In a plea-bargaining for her freedom. Gösta is upset. He comes late to a second meeting. but just before boarding. runs away and gets drunk with a prostitute. Berit tells him of her past. Credits Production company Executive producer Production manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Propman (Studio manager) Music Sound Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindusti Harald Molander Lars-Eric Kjellgren Ingmar Bergman Stig Ossian Ericson Ingmar Bergman. social worker Mr. After they have had a good time together at an amusement park. New complications arise. Hans Sundberg Bengt Blomgren Helge Karlsson Hanny Schedin Stig Olin Brita Billsten Ernma Groth. Berit takes the critically ill Gertrud to Gösta who helps her to the hospital.Chapter IV Filmography Gösta is uncertain about his feelings for Berit. Estrid Hesse Cast Berit Holm Gösta Andersson Berit’s mother Berit’s father Berit as a child Gertrud Ljungberg. hotel maid Gertrud’s father Agneta Vilander. Stockholm kid Mrs. Gertrud. Vilander. they change their minds and decide to stay in the harbour city. his father His mother Thomas A prostitute Girls from reform school Joe. she divulges the address of the abortionist. She and Gösta make plans to stow away on a ship. from Olle Länsberg’s Guldet och murarna [The gold and the walls] Gunnar Fischer Nils Svenwall Gösta Ström Erland von Koch Sven Hansen Oscar Rosander Ingegerd Ericsson Nine-Christine Jönsson Bengt Eklund Berta Hall Erik Hell Kate Elffors Mimi Nelson Sture Ericson Birgitta Valberg Hans Strååt Harry Ahlin Nils Hallberg Sven-Eric Gamble Sif Ruud Nils Dahlgren Yngve Nordwall Torsten Lilliecrona. a pregnant friend of Berit’s. has arranged for an abortion which fails. a Negro Salvation Army soldiers 174 . probation officer Man from Skåne Gustav ‘Eken’.

Vi no. Kaparen (Göteborg) 18 October. 9). BLM 17. usually critical of Bergman. 19 October 1948. Monthly Film Bulletin. 147. and the U. and on the Södertälje-Stockholm train. social workers. a labor conflict jeopardized shooting schedules. 19 October 1948. It got respectful though lukewarm reception during auteur-oriented Ingmar Bergman retrospectives in France (1958). beginning 27 May 1948. 44 (1948). directed by Ingmar Bergman but not based on his script. November 1959 Commentary In late winter and early spring 1948. November 1959. the film was shown too late to ride on the neorealistic wave of the Forties. p. 12 October. Reception Swedish reviews of Hamnstad were mixed. Swedish Reviews Göteborg press. Films and Filming. 85 (July 1958): p. except that the latter film was set in Göteborg. cheap seductions and equally cheap dance halls’ [Man är led vid aborter.S. same date. pp. p. 12) was very negative: ‘One is tired of abortions. 4. Skandia (Stockholm) as Port of Call. two productions got under way: Eva. opening Svensk Filmindustri 99 minutes 4 October 1948 11 October 1948.S. Ingmar Bergman added one scene to the original script. October 1959. p. ‘kvinnofängelser’. 25. (1959). 45 (1948). Distribution Running time Released Premiere U. no.Synopses. Mikael Katz (Expr. and Hamnstad. When SF studios opened again on 27 May. Those who saw Hamnstad as an example of postwar neorealism favored it. Swedish censorship board cut about 30 seconds from a scene of violent abuse (in ‘act 3’). approved of a ‘new’ Bergman who subordinated himself to the docu-style of the script. Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma no. where Bergman resided at the time. 20. 707-708 (review by Artur Lundkvist). and completed 17 July 1948. (November 1948): pp. those who compared it to Swedish street-and-problem films of the Forties were negative. 9. Commentaries and Reception Record Captain on Dutch ship Girl in dance-hall Swing kid at the dance-hall Man at card game A screaming girl Police sister Voice reading court verdict Herman Greid Vanja Rodefeldt Rune Andreasson John W. Britain. Abroad. written by Bergman but directed by Gustaf Molander.. Björling Harriet Andersson Inga-Lill Åhström Stig Ossian Ericson Filmed on location in Göteborg and Hindås. 175 . Cosmorama. p. p. 6-7. Credits. the episode where Gösta gets drunk with a prostitute. But Bergman’s supporter in ST (Robin Hood. billiga förförelser och lika billiga danshak]. women’s penitentiaries. 24. Why Molander got to direct the very personal script of Eva and why Bergman took care of the social-realistic Hamnstad is not clear. socialkuratorer. Vecko-Journalen no. and Stockholm press.

he kills Göran. In the birth of their son. and Bo is a happy expectant father. encouraged by Susanne. Oscar Rosander Birger Malmsten Eva Stiberg Cast Bo Fredriksson Eva 176 . Bo feels that death has ceased to be a threat. Image et son. Bianco e nero. pp. nos. Filmnyheter 3. After his visit to his parents. pp. May 1960. Bo and an old fisherman.Chapter IV Filmography See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). returns home on leave. a trumpeteer in the navy. Vi 39. Johansson. Ernesto. The two decide to leave town and move out to the skerries. 103-107. This triggers a second flashback in Bo who remembers bringing blind Marthe on board a locomotive and setting it in motion. Johansson helps Eva to a midwife who delivers her of a healthy boy. But one day when the baby is almost due. from a synopsis by Ingmar Bergman Åke Dahlqvist Nils Svenwall Eric Nordgren Lennart Unnerstad Carl M. find the corpse of a German soldier who has washed ashore on the Swedish coast. Danish Film Museum program. Their joy ride ends in disaster as the locomotive derails and Marthe is killed. Svensk filmografi. Ever since. Marthe. 1948. Göran. Credits Production company Director Screenplay Photography Architect Music Sound Make-up Editor Svensk Filmindustri Gustaf Molander Ingmar Bergman and Gustaf Molander. the Berglunds. whose niece Eva is working on the farm. 32-33. and his wife Susanne. On the train he remembers how he ran away at age 12 after quarreling with his father and joined an ambulatory theatre company whose director had a 10-year-old blind daughter. Inc. Wortzelius). pp. Lundh. After a night of heavy drinking Bo has a nightmare in which. In the evening he visits a neigbouring family. 58-72. cared for by his wife. At the same time old Berglund dies. Eva watches the two men carry the soldier into a nearby storage shack and goes to check on them. The shock of seeing the dead soldier precipitates the birth of the child. Eva is pregnant. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). 1940-1949 (Ø 1314). L. Later Bo makes love to Eva. Returning to the present. pp. who makes passes at Bo. The next morning Eva comes to Stockholm to surprise Bo. EVA. 209. 8-9 (1964). no. 678-680 and 716-720 (H. 47 (1952): 3-4. Bo has felt that death follows him everywhere. B/W Director Screenplay Gustaf Molander Ingmar Bergman Synopsis Bo Fredriksson. 226 (March) 1969: 10-11. Bo receives a warm welcome from his parents. 15 (1948): 16-18. no. Bo returns to Stockholm where he shares an apartment with a musician. He now accepts death as an inevitable part of life. no.

Hudiksvall. no.Synopses. January 1949. Eva was chosen to represent Swedish filmmaking in an arts festival celebrating the 500th anniversary of Saõ Paolo. 101-06. Marthe’s father Josef ’s brothers Karl and Fritz Man in the train Midwife Train engineer in flashback Waitress Station Master Station Master in flashback Railroad Worker Eva Dahlbeck Stig Olin Åke Claesson Wanda Rothgardt Inga Landgré Monica Weinzierl Yvonne Eriksson Olof Sandborg Hilda Borgström Carl Ström Lasse Sarri Anne Karlsson Sture Ericson Erland Josephson and John Harryson Hans Dahlin Hanny Schedin Lennart Blomkvist Barbro Flodqvist Göthe Grefbo David Erikson Birger Åsander Filmed on location in Tylösand. Cosmorama (Göteborg). Biografbladet vol. Bo’s sister Aron Berglund Mrs. Scania (Malmö). Maria Berglund Mikael Johansson. written in the aftermath of the release of Bergman’s Fängelse/ Prison in 1949. Nynäshamn. Hugo Wortzelius provided a rereading of the film. in 1954. In an article titled ‘Eva – en ingmar bergmansk vändpunkt?’ [Eva – a turning point for Ingmar Bergman]. the blind girl Josef Friedel. Biografbladet. See also (Ø 58-59) for published prose excerpt called ‘Den lille trumpetaren och vår herre’ [The little Trumpeteer and our Lord]. 2. Distribution Running time Released Premiere Svensk Filmindustri 97 minutes 6 December 1948 26 December 1948. et al. Bo’s sister Frida at 7 Lena. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm). Tvetaberg. Handen. Commentary Swedish censorship board cut about 1 minute from the seduction scenes. and Norrköping. 18 January 1948. See (Ø 57) for Bergman essay on genesis of Eva. 1949. Bogesund. Credits. acts 3 and 4. Bergman’s original working title was ‘Starkare än döden’ [Stronger than death] while original title of script was ‘Trumpetaren och vår herre’ [The Trumpeteer and our Lord]. Anna Fredriksson Frida. 30. Together with Bergman’s Gycklarnas afton (The Naked Night). p. and at Råsunda Studios. no. 52-53 (Artur Lundkvist). 2 (Summer) 1949: 101-06. UNT. Brazil. Commentaries and Reception Record Susanne Bolin Göran Bolin Erik Fredriksson Mrs. Reviews Stockholm. beginning 27 May 1948 and completed 28 June 1948. Malmö and Göteborg press. 27 December 1948. pp. Tumba. BLM. fisherman Bo at 12 Marthe. 177 .

p. a hand lifts up the doll. This anticipates Birgitta-Carolina’s suicide after she has been tortured with cigarette butts by a former lover. Lundgren Sven Björling Erland von Koch Olle Jakobsson Inga Lindeström Lennart Wallén Chris Poijes Doris Svedlund Birger Malmsten Cast Birgitta-Carolina Söderberg Tomas 178 . Bergman tells of a rendezvous between Tomas and Birgitta-Carolina in an old attic..Chapter IV Filmography Obs!. The answer is that it would never work. Next the camera follows Tomas to the harbor. the story turns to a prostitute. ‘The Devil’s Wanton’. The film ends in the film studio. Tomas’ account is visualized. Birgitta-Carolina has been his vicarious sufferer. 1949 [Prison]. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman The original title is symbolic.A. his former pupil. at the home of Tomas. 1949. The film is to open with a proclamation by the Devil that human life is an inferno. a young author whose marriage has brought him to the verge of suicide. In the attic. 1. Credits Production Company Executive producer Production manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Property Music Sound Make-up Editor Continuity Terrafilm Lorens Marmstedt Gösta Pettersson Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Göran Strindberg P. FÄNGELSE. Bergman’s version of Sartre’s Huis clos [No Exit]. The suggestion is dismissed with laughter. i. The early American distribution title. no. Birgitta-Carolina. of an idea for a screenplay. the ‘real’ film begins. In her nightmare Birgitta-Carolina reenacts an earlier episode in her life when she had to surrender her newborn baby to the sister of a pimp who drowned it. 210. Mixing naturalistic details with expressionistic dream sequences. Tomas returns home to his wife. 3. a depiction of human existence where hell is other people. no. p. Vi. Birgitta-Carolina falls asleep and has a nightmare. In a bathtub she sees a doll bobbing in the water. Synopsis An old mathematics teacher tells the director. 1949. while picking up on Bergman’s reference to the film as a morality play for the screen. focusing on the young girl and demonstrating the schoolteacher’s thesis.e. 52. He sees a dead bird and kicks it into the water. where the couple project an old silent farce they find in a movie projector. 19 (Gerd Osten/Pavane). is too suggestive of promiscuous living and ignores the main character’s trapped life condition and tragedy. but it changes into a fish that is squashed. Later. The teacher comes back to ask the director about his opinion of the original plot idea.

the actress. saying to Arne 179 . distribution Running time Released Premiere U. then a ‘postludium’ that takes place in the film studio. young boy Lasse’s mother Cinematographer Lighting crew Police superintendent Plainclothes policemen Man in Birgitta-Carolina’s dream Voice of B-C’s mother in nightmare Man in Birgitta-Carolina’s nightmare Dark woman Guest at boarding house Workers in film studio Make-up artist in film studio Scriptgirl in film studio Minister Performers in film projector farce Eva Henning Hasse Ekman Stig Olin Irma Christenson Anders Henrikson Marianne Löfgren Carl-Henrik ‘Kenne’ Fant Inger Juel Curt Masreliez Åke Fridell Anita Blom Arne Ragneborn Lasse Sarri Britta Brunius Torsten Lilliecrona Segol Mann Börje Mellvig Åke Engfeldt. and a plot narrative constructed as a series of flashbacks. Inc. with Greta. 80 minutes 18 March 1949 19 March 1949. with a metafilmic frame showing scenes from a film studio. This is closer to the finished film than Bergman’s original script. Signe Bohlin. 55th St. Credits. Björling Gunilla Klosterborg. actor in film studio Greta. 4 pp. Playhouse. It suggests a dissolve on Tomas. Original title of film was ‘Fängelset’ (The Prison). landlady Arne. Distribution U. Gösta Ericsson Ulf Palme Britta Holmberg John W. beginning 16 November 1948 and completed 4 March 1949. Janus Films. The script was based on an unpublished novella by Bergman called ‘Sann berättelse’ [True story]. Kalle Öhman. Stockholm. showing the arrival of the old teacher. Peter’s friend Magnus. Birgit ‘Bibi’ Lindkvist Sven Björling. opera singer Anna.Synopses. in which the tone in the studio is more serious. director/narrator Peter. landlady’s young relative Anna’s fiance.S. Birgitta-Carolina’s pimp Linnéa. mathematics teacher Mrs. postman Lasse. Astoria (Stockholm) 4 July 1962. NYC Commentary Structurally. One copy of the script in SFI Archives has an added ending with Kenne Fant’s name on it.S. An episode using a wallpaper motif was not included in the film but was used many years later in Såsom i en spegel/Through a Glass Darkly (1961). Harry Karlsson Inga Lindeström Chris Poijes Rune Lindström [cut] The Brothers Bragazzi Filmed on location in Stockholm’s Old Town and at Sandrews’ Studios at Lästmakargatan/ Gärdet. opening Terrafilm Embassy Pictures. Commentaries and Reception Record Sofi. actress Alf. Fängelse was Bergman’s most complex film to date. Tomas’ wife Martin Grandé. Peter’s sister Paul.

Film was shown to the employees at EPA. burns Birgitta-Carolina with a cigarette is ‘När lillan kom till jorden’ [When baby arrived on earth]. he was supposed to receive 10% of the profits. barnamördare. Biografbladet 30. pp. Hitchcock’s technique was originally a fascinating thought. etc’. See editorial in Filmnyheter. p.P. 145-53. 6 April 1949. avoiding overtime. pp. p 7). a pimp. 22) called it ‘loaded with private symbolism and expressionistic bric-a brac’. 351 (12 pp).Chapter IV Filmography (her co-actor) and Martin (the director): ‘In spite of everything one must seek God. argued that Bergman’s film represented a stylistic analogy to Swedish modernist poetry by breaking with traditional linear cinema and using an associative technique built on an intricate flashback structure. 5 April 1949.v. 2 April 1949. see (Ø 952). alkoholister. Det är sista chansen. see a newspaper ad signed by Bergman in DN. That’s the last chance’. 180 . sutenörer. men den för onekligen med sig en del besynnerligheter när man följer den in absurdum]. reprinted in part in Röster i Radio/TV. 8 (1949). Bergman made Fängelse without any pay. He also reveals a decision to follow Hitchcock with long takes and few cuts or by using cuts-in-the-camera. 7 April 1949. written by its Stockholm correspondent. using no extras and little music.s. 6. but the film was an economic flop. ‘Filmen om Birgitta-Carolina’ (see Ø 60). [i Ingmar Bergmans filmer är samtliga huvudpersoner i regel gatflickor. no. Most Swedish critics rejected Ingmar Bergman’s bleak view of life in Prison. Hitchcocks teknik var urprungligen en fascinerande tanke. no. calling Ingmar Bergman ‘one of the leading men in the Swedish Angst Union’ [en av de ledande männen i Svensk Ångestunion U. knowing that ‘in Ingmar Bergman’s films all the main characters are usually prostitutes. no. See also Robin Hood’s defense of film in ST. and many saw it as flirting with the metaphysical spleen of Sweden’s literary Forties. p. 14 June 1962. 9. But after its release in France on 17 March 1959. In it he mentions trimming the budget for Fängelse by cutting down the number of studio days.]. and Expr. but it no doubt implies a few weird consequences when carried to the extreme’ [Min nuvarande teknik ser inte ut på samma sätt. doing rehearsals outside of scheduled shooting time. pp. 11 (reprinted in Filmnyheter 4. Prison received a favorable review in Variety. alcoholics. sinnesrubbade o. He now responded to a question about his Hitchcock technique: ‘My present technique is not the same. instead. Humorist Erik Zetterström (Kar de Mumma) wrote a column about the incident in SvD. The most extended foreign analysis of Fängelse is by Marsha Kinder (Ø 1373) and a review article in Télé-Ciné no. the European correspondent in Variety (25 March 1959.A. 8. 9. p. Prior to a 1962 TV showing. [Trots allt måste man söka Gud. 8 (1949):3). Swedish censors cut ten meters from Birgitta-Carolina’s suicide scene. SVT. pp.. 23 (1962). 1 April 1949. 83 (July 1959). 1. 1 (Spring 1949): 15-23. a nursery rhyme by Alice Tegnér known to all Swedes of Bergman’s generation.] There are some ironies in the film that are probably lost on a non-Swedish audience: The song heard on the radio when Alf. EPA decided not to take any action (see DN. p. for discussion of the lawsuit threatened by the Turitz Corporation over the fact that the film’s prostitute is said to work in one of its chain stores (EPA). no. demented people. 13. Though still dissatisfied. Thorsten Eklann in an article titled ‘40-talistisk filmmoralitet’. For Ingmar Bergman’s response. For ‘fyrtiotalism’ issue. p. 6 April 1949. Reception Fängelse caused a lively debate in Swedish press. limiting the sets and supplies for the outdoor shooting. Bergman was interviewed about the film. pimps. child murderers. F. Bergman discusses the same material in Bilder/Images. starting work earlier in the morning and trimming the manuscript minutely. On the eve of the opening of Fängelse. 27-28.] and telling EPA to relax. Bergman published a brief newspaper essay.

no. Cahiers du cinéma. [SFI clipping]. BLM 18. p. 46 (8-15 November) 1970. in 1946. p. pp. no. 22 (1961). 58-59. Commentaries and Reception Record Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. p. are about to return home to Sweden after a trip abroad. 95. pp. p. p. 38-44. 53. 16 (1949): 31 (portrait of Doris Svedlund). 35 (April 1959): 100-102. pp. 113-129. 7-8. 51-53. April 1961. Credits. New York Times. Films in Review 13. no. no. New York Herald Tribune 31 December 1962. 5 July 1962. Osten. 13 pp. 4 (April 1949): 315-317. no. and 25 March 1959. Films and Filming. Monthly Film Bulletin. 78-79. 1949 [Thirst]. 14 (1949): 7 and no. 1913-1968. 18 March 1959. no. 26-28. pp. 22. is 181 . no. no. (American Motion Picture clipping).Synopses. p. 23 (10-18 June) 1962. n. 6. no. 713-720.Plebe. 34-36. no. 1951: 28-37. 85 (July 1958). (May 1959). Neue Filmkunst. The husband. pp.p. 3 pp. Svensk filmografi. 20. 77 (December 1966). 1 (1962): 22-25. 122-123 (May-June 1959): 34. 39 (November 1958): 70. Filmorientering (NFI). 11 July 1962. p. 23 (1961). n. A couple. 15. 2122. and no. 1962. no. no. pp. Image et son. Filmkritik. Isstkustvo Kino. Kosmorama. Cinéma 59. 226 (March) 1969: 11-14. no longer young but not yet middle-aged. no. Variety. Image et son. p. New York Herald Tribune. pp. pp. 3333. 10 (October 1989): 92-94. Cahiers du cinéma. 61 (July 1956). 20 March 1949. p.p. Filmcritica. Die kleine Filmkunstreihe Hefte. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1314). same date. 43. Kosmorama. Vi. 53. Filmjournalen 31. 6 (June/July 1962): 360-361. (German program to ‘Gefängnis’). 7 (April 1962): 33. Bertil. no. Filmfacts 3 August 1962. no. NYT Film Reviews. pp. no. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Herbert Grevenius. 161-162. no. Switzerland. Motion Picture Herald. and Kosmorama (394). See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). Films in Review 4. TÖRST. 12. Röster i Radio-TV. Birgit Tengroth Synopsis Törst begins in a hotel room in Basel. p. A. no. 211. 31 (November 1959). 9 (November 1953): 461-464. pp. 1940-1949 (Ø 1314). Foreign Reviews Arts (French). 133 (May 1963): 255-262. G. 61 (July 1956). 14 (2 April) 1949. 6 April 1949. Positif. 3 pp. pp. 21-2. no. no. and no. Värld utan nåd (Stockholm: Wahlström & Widstrand).

Bertil shows his pedantry and stinginess. Oscar Rosander Ingegerd Ericsson Eva Henning Birger Malmsten Birgit Tengroth Hasse Ekman Mimi Nelson Bengt Eklund Gaby Stenberg Naima Wifstrand Cast Rut Bertil Viola Dr. She walks past groups of dancing couples. the first one depicting her love affair many years earlier with Raoul. She is completely absorbed in her work and has no time for love. Her best friend is Valborg. their private war escalates. The film shifts to Viola. his wife Rut is a former ballet dancer who is now too old to perform. and continues down to the waterfront where she commits suicide. psychiatrist Valborg Raoul. whose past is revealed in flashbacks. Horrified. He denies his paternity and forces her to have an abortion. A second flashback depicts Rut’s life as a student in ballet school. who is lesbian. As a result. The two plots now coalesce. Rosengren. she meets Valborg who follows her home and tries to approach her sexually. captain. Rut’s former lover Astrid. she seeks the help of a psychiatrist who tries to seduce her. his wife Dance teacher 182 . an army captain. Bertil’s former wife. Rut has become sterile. Waking up in a cold sweat. But the affair continues. Lonely and unhappy. Rut displays her frustration and messiness. which climax in a nightmarish sequence with Bertil dreaming that he has murdered Rut. As Rut and Bertil travel through bomb-devastated Germany. he tells her of his intention to return to his wife and children. he finds her alive and realizes that in spite of their incessant arguments. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Music Orchestration Choreography Costumes Props Make-up Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Helge Hagerman Hugo Bolander Ingmar Bergman Herbert Grevenius. The film ends on a note of resigned reconciliation. The focus is on Rut. Inc. celebrating Midsummer. he does not want to lose her. Viola escapes and begins to drift through the city. Lundh.Chapter IV Filmography an art historian and coin collector. from Birgit Tengroth’s short story ‘Resa med Arethusa’ (1948) Gunnar Fischer Nils Svenwall Lennart Unnerstad Erik Nordgren Eskil Eckert-Lundin Ellen Bergman Gösta Ström Hilmer Peters Carl M. whose story runs parallel to Bertil’s and Rut’s. As she flees from his office. At a summer outing in the archipelago. and one day Rut tells the captain that she is pregnant. Viola’s death is juxtaposed to Rut’s and Bertil’s quarrels.

Together they discussed the script in the evenings. She introduced him to the close-up of the lighted match against the human face. Herbert Grevenius discussed his and Bergman’s adaptation of Birgit Tengroth’s Törst in Filmnyheter. Inc. Distribution Running time Released Premiere U. but SF retained Bergman and signed a contract with Tengroth behind Sandrews’s back. Herbert Grevenius chose one of them. 88 min 24 September 1949 17 October 1949. Sandrews entered into negotiations. despair and resignation. Laila Jokimo. probably for PR reasons. An article about shooting the studio-built train compartment scenes appeared in AB. no. Bergman discusses their collaboration in Bilder. According to Rune Waldekranz. Credits. which was to be used again in Vargtimmen/Hour of the Wolf. In the film. Carl Andersson Peter Winner Oscar Rosander Hermann Greid Sif Ruud Inga-Lill Åhström Inga Norin. pp. on Ornö in the Stockholm archipelago. Ingeborg Bergius. Opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. beginning 15 March 1949 and completed 5 July 1949. provided Ingmar Bergman got to direct it. Many of the foreign exteriors were shot using back projections. Tengroth had a verbal agreement with Sandrews to film her book.S. and at Råsunda Studios in Stockholm. 183 . 4-7 (also in German program note issued by Superfilm). often erotic thirst for life is replaced by repressed hate. Öllegård Wellton Filmed on location in Stockholm. for Tengroth’s work had caused quite a stir in Sweden. 154-57.Synopses. Birgit Tengroth played Viola in the film. Spegeln (Stockholm) 11 July 1961 Commentary Törst was the collective title of a volume of three short stories published by author/actress Birgit Tengroth in 1948. pp. 10 April 1949. as the narrative basis of his film script but retained the book title. Ingmar Bergman appears for a split second in a train scene depicting a Swedish and a Danish pastor conversing about trivia while ruins from World War II pass by before their eyes. Distribution U. Commentaries and Reception Record Workman Male nurse Nurse Patient Swedish pastor on train Danish pastor on train Woman on train Her little girl German train conductor Train passengers German policeman Hotel guest Porter in Basel Widow in cemetery Piano teacher Ballerinas Sven-Erik Gamble Gunnar Nielsen Britta Brunius Estrid Hesse Helge Hagerman Calle Flygare Else-Merete Heiberg Monica Weinzierl Verner Arpe Erik Arrhenius.S. ‘Resa med Arethusa’ (Journey with Arethusa). and several film production companies were bidding for it. The film’s depiction of a lesbian relationship involving Valborg was cut by the censors. 9-10 (1949). Tengroth’s uncompromising. Grevenius wrote the script in Göteborg while Ingmar Bergman was rehearsing a play there.

B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman 184 . 120 (June 1961). no.] to rule out Goya who poked around among Spanish idiots. 13 (1950). 52-53.’ After an appeal from the West German distributor and further negotiations. Cahiers du cinéma no. 9. and Dostoyevski who focussed on prostitutes in St. Reception Swedish reviewers spoke of Ingmar Bergman’s controlled intensity and Grevenius’ sober handling of sensationalist material. 131-38. 7). 6 May 1963. no. and Robin Hood retorted in ST. Arts (French) 3 May 1961. och Dostojevskij som rotade i gatflickor i S:t Petersburg. Cinéma 61. 38. 14 (1949). replied: ‘To call “Törst” meaningless is [. 8-9 (August–September 1964): 58-72. 47. Törst had limited circulation abroad. pp. p. 9. p. p. 18 October 1949. 22. Svensk filmografi. 18 October 1949. Jr. 1949. pp. TILL GLÄDJE. The most extensive discussion of Törst can be found in the Danish Film Museum program by F. 9 (November 1949): 731-732. p. Image et son 226 (March) 1969: 14-15. On the contrary! My only task is to see to it that people who watch my films do not remain indifferent. 1 November 1949. som rotade i spanska dårar. 44. Télé-Ciné no. it was considered of interest only to Bergman cinephiles. no. 9. who referred to the film as ‘meaningless digging in angst’ [meningslöst rotande i ångest]. BLM 18. p. Bergman was interviewed briefly by the Düsseldorf paper Der Mittag. 8-9 and no. Script to Törst was published as a novella in Filmjournalen 31.. 25 October 1949. See also Bianco e nero 25.] Mikael Katz replied in Expr. carried a reportage about Thirst. p. 20 October 1953. 57 (June 1961): 105-106.] är att utdöma också Goya.p. 51-52 (1949) through 32..Chapter IV Filmography p. An exception was Mikael Katz in Expr. 9. It ran into trouble in West Germany when the film industry’s selfcensorship (Filmbewertungstelle in Wiesbaden) first refused to pass it because of its lesbian motif. [att kalla ‘Törst’ meningslös [. Vi.. Robin Hood in ST. no. no. Filmnyheter. Released in France in 1961. p. in which he responded: ‘No one can claim that my film makes such matters desirable. 142 (June 1961). 1940-1949 (Ø 1314). the Filmbewertungstelle changed their decision on the ground that the ‘destructive moments’ in the film could be seen as a deterrent (see report in Dagens Nyheter. pp. 740-42. 23 October 1949. Image et son no. 85 (July 1958).. Petersburg’. Reviews Stockholm press. no. in which Bergman was presented as a real connoisseur of women. Jüngersen... Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). 12. 23 February 1953. 4 pp. p. pp. Variety 15 March 1950. describing Bergman’s use of long takes (like Hitchcock and the earlier Bergman film Fängelse/Prison) and the difficulties he had in varying the scenography in such a limited space. 97 (July 1961). p. 9. no. n. 212. 1950 [To Joy]. pp.. 4-6.

Oscar Rosander Ingegerd Ericsson Cast Stig Eriksson Stig Olin Marta Olsson Maj-Britt Nilsson Lisa. In the last scene. actor Erland Josephson Anker Georg Skarstedt Man performing marriage ceremony Allan Ekelund Two housewives Carin Swensson. Commentaries and Reception Record Synopsis During rehearsals of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony – ‘Ode to Joy’ – the young violinist Stig Ericsson gets a telephone message that his wife Marta has been killed in a kerosene explosion at their summer cottage. Agda Helin Salesgirl Maud Hyttenberg 185 . It is shortly thereafter that Marta is killed. Gradually. Stig’s small son enters the concert hall. The final sequence brings us back to the present. their daughter Berit Holmström Lasse. Credits. When Stig fails as a soloist. Marta soon discovers that Stig is an ambitious egotist. He sits down to listen to the orchestra as it bursts into ‘Ode to Joy’. Returning home to an empty apartment. Beethoven (Egmont Overture. Stig and Marta get married and have children. their son Björn Montin Sönderby Victor Sjöström Mikael Bro John Ekman Nelly Bro Margit Carlquist Marcel. Svea Holm Nurses Svea Holst. a view confirmed by their music conductor. Mendelssohn. Stig accepts his artistic limitations and is reconciled with his wife. Sönderby. starting seven years earlier when Stig and Marta were novices in the orchestra. he blames Marta and deserts her. Credits: Production company Production manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Music Orchestration Props Make-up Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Gunnar Fischer Nils Svenwall Sven Hansen From Mozart. a joy beyond pain and despair. First and Ninth Symphonies) Eskil Eckert-Lundin Tor Borong Carl M. Inc. cello player Birger Malmsten Stina Sif Ruud Persson Rune Stylander Bertil. Lundh. As Stig returns to the orchestra for a rehearsal. Marta saves Stig from the clutches of an evil couple. Sönderby talks about the joy that Beethoven wanted to express in his music. The rest of the film is a single flashback. Eventually. He remembers their quiet moments of happiness. Smetana.Synopses. Mikael and Nelly Bro. Stig spots a doll he once gave his wife and begins to remember their life together.

p. Télé-Ciné. 124-126. no. 26. Vi. SF’s Filmnyheter. 6 October 1971. Distribution Running time Released Premiere Foreign Opening Svensk Filmindustri 98 minutes 17 February 1950 20 February at Spegeln (Stockholm) Paris. while SvD (same date) thought Bergman wrote the best dramatic dialogue since Strindberg. 9 (1950). Variety. pp. 74 (August–September 1957). 1 August 1950. 8. Reception Swedish reviews were mixed and somewhat contradictory.12. on video. Filmjournalen 32. See review section below. nos. no. no. 15. Film had a limited circulation abroad. p. 21 February 1950. Commentary Bergman appears briefly as an expectant father in the maternity ward. p. 85 (July 1958). and at Råsunda Studios in Stockholm. at 3 Lasse. beginning 11 July 1949 and completed 2 September 1949. Marianne Schüler. 30 April 1971 To Joy has only been released in U. 186 . n. (SFI clipping). 12 through 20 (1950).Chapter IV Filmography Doorman Lisa. pp.p. AT. 27. 187 (May 1974). Marrit Ohlsson Dagny Lind [cut] Filmed on location in Hälsingborg and Arild. no. southern Sweden. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). BLM 19. no. Filmforum (Emsdetten) July 1954. 18. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). Summation of Swedish reception of Till glädje can be found in Filmjournalen 32. 45-47. Cinéma 74 no. Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma. 11 (1950): 7. pp 15-16. 3 (March 1950): 232-233. advised Bergman to stop trying to be a writer. 9-10. 3 (1950). 139-145. pp. Radio-Cinéma-Télévision. pp. no. 299 (October 1975). Image et son. 4-5. Cahiers du cinéma. 27 July 1958. pp. p. Bergman discusses the film in Bilder (pp.S. p. 21 February. 21.22.p. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. n. 1949. no. IV. published Bergman’s script as a novella. 277-82) where he calls it ‘an impossible melodrama’ [en omöjlig melodram]. no. published a reportage from the shooting. p. at 3 Man waiting in maternity ward Guests at Marta’s birthday party Grandmother Ernst Brunman Eva-Fritz Nilsson Staffan Axelsson Tor Borong Astrid Bodin. Filmblätter (East Berlin). no. 189 (June 1974). p. 21. Teatern.

Credits Production company Director Screenplay Svensk Filmindustri Lars-Eric Kjellgren L-E. MEDAN STADEN SOVER. He drags other members of the old gang with him and sabotages their attempt at social rehabilitation.Synopses. Synopsis by Ingmar Bergman Martin Bodin Nils Svenwall Gustav Roger Sven Hansen Erik Nordgren Oscar Rosander Sven-Erik Gamble Inga Landgré Adolf Jahr Märta Dorff John Elfström Barbro Hiort af Ornäs Carl Ström Ulf Palme Hilding Gavle Svensk Filmindustri 101 minutes 29 August 1950 8 September 1950 Photography Architect Location manager Sound Music Editor Cast Jompa Iris Her father Her mother Jompa’s father Rut Doorman Kalle Lund A Cad Distribution Running time Released Premiere 187 . Jompa quits his job afterwards and goes downhill rapidly. and after a wild chase. 1950 [While the city sleeps]. but does not know that he has stolen it from her father’s boss. But the police track them down. pp. They decide to break with their criminal past and continue without their leader Jompa. Commentaries and Reception Record Image et son. 64-67. Svensk filmografi. Synopsis by Ingmar Bergman Synopsis A gang of young boys brought to court on charches of car theft and rabble-rousing are given suspended sentences. During a break-in in a pawn shop. Iris finds a large sum of money in Jompa’s wallet. 1950-1959 (Ø 1314). When she becomes pregnant. Jompa is caught. Kjellgren/Per Anders Fogelström. 213. 15-16. Jompa’s girlfriend Iris hopes she can change his antisocial lifestyle. Kjellgren/Per Anders Fogelström from the latter’s novel Ligister [Hoodlums]. On her wedding night. a decent man who has found Jompa a job as a car mechanic. no. 272.-E. In panic Jompa kills the man and flees with Iris to a hideaway cabin. B/W Director Screenplay Lars-Eric Kjellgren L. 299 (October) 1975: 391. pp. Jompa and his companions are surprised by the owner. and no. Credits. her father forces Jompa to marry her. 1949.

he is tortured and confesses his plans to defect to the United States. Atkä Natas. wife of Natas. warning them about a third world war and urging them to return to their homeland. But the phone has been cut. and the house is surrounded by Natas’s people. From his hotel he calls the American Embassy. now working for his torturers. One of the guests is Vera. Natas’s body is stolen. Björn Almqvist discusses Natas’s ‘death’ with Vera. She discovers and copies an important paper in Natas’s briefcase. Natas knocks Almqvist unconcious and disappears with Vera. arrives by plane on a diplomatic passport. Björn Almqvist. I løpet av 12 timer [Within 12 hours]. Inc. Credits Production company Production manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Svensk Filmindustri Helge Hagerman Ingmar Bergman Hugo Bolander Herbert Grevenius. During the night. The groom from the wedding is there and accuses Vera of working for the authorities back home. Natas tries to escape but is cornered on top of an outdoor elevator and jumps to his death. He suspects her of foul play and orders her followed. Synopsis A voice-over announces the location of a small. Lennart Wallén Photography Architect Props Sound Music Orchestrations Make-up Editor 188 . She has adjusted to her new country. British title High Tension seems like a witty reference to the villain’s final fate: suicide in a fall over high tension wires. Peter Valentin]. Almqvist arrests her for attempted murder. SÅNT HÄNDER INTE HÄR. She knows Björn from before. looks up one of the woman’s relatives. Recovering. then calls a doctor who pronounces Natas dead. Lundh. investigating the attemted suicide by an old Baltic woman. one of the policemen. find a note adressed to Baltic refugees. Vera asks Natas about the fate of her parents but receives evasive answers. 1950 [High Tension]. Recovering consciousness. Almqvist takes up the chase in a black Chrysler parked outside. She meets with a group of Baltic refugees in a small movie theater. sheltered country. But before the ambulance arrives.Chapter IV Filmography 214. In the meantime. They are surprised by Natas. West German title Menschenjagd suggests the politicized man hunt from East to West Germany that took place during the Cold War. To protect Vera. The police find Vera drugged and hidden in a lifeboat on board an East European steamer. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Herbert Grevenius Spy thriller. He is revealed to be an agent spying on the refugees. an engineer from the country of Liquidatzia. Almqvist visits Vera at her lab. after a novel by Waldemar Brøgger [pseud. she tries to murder Natas with an injection. published in 1944 Gunnar Fischer Nils Svenwall Tor Borong Sven Hansen Erik Nordgren Eskil Eckert-Lundin Carl M. based on the idea that dangerous political spies can operate also in idyllic and neutral Sweden. a lab technician and refugee. Mrofnimok Dagyn. A Baltic wedding is under way. The police. He has been picked up by an agent from his own country.

Ivan Bousé Hugo Bolander Stig Olin Ragnar Klange Lillie Wästfeldt Magnus Kesster Alexander von Baumgarten Hanny Schedin Gunwor Bergqvist Mona Geijer-Falkner Erik Forslund Helga Brofeldt Georg Skarstedt Tor Borong Maud Hyttenberg Mona Åstrand Fritjof Hellberg Eddy Andersson Harald Björling Ingemar Jacobsson Wiktor ‘Kulörten’ Andersson Agnes Lepp-Kosik. and at Råsunda Studios. woman at wedding The ‘Shadow’ Agents for Liquidatzia Hotel manager Young neighbour Filip Rundblom Mrs. Marja Parkas. Hans Laks. Gustav Laupman. Priit Hallap. Teet Koppel. Karl Sööder Cast Vera Irmelin Björn Almkvist Atkä Natas A doctor Policeman Refugee pastor Vanja. Helmi Nerep. Distribution Running time Released Premiere Svensk Filmindustri 84 minutes 18 October 1950 23 October 1950. beginning 6 July 1950 and completed 19 August 1950. Willy Koblanck. shocked woman Worker with hang-over Stage manager/laboratory attendant Student at Charles XII statue Young girl First mate on ship Engineer on ship His assistant Policeman Projectionist Estonians Filmed on location in Stadsgården and Ängby. alias Sander. Credits. refugee Speaker at meeting Leino. Gösta Holmström. Commentaries and Reception Record Continuity Speaker Sol-Britt Norlander Stig Olin Signe Hasso Alf Kjellin Ulf Palme Gösta Cederlund Yngve Nordwall Hannu Kompus Sylvia Tael Els Vaarman Edmar Kuus Helena Kuus Rudolf Lipp Segol Mann. Elmar Nerep. Stockholm. Haari Kaasik. Hilma Nerep. Gregor Dahlman. Riina Reinik. Rundblom The house owner Captain on Mrofnimok Gadyn Disturbed woman Switchboard operator Woman in rental flat Caretaker Old.Synopses. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 189 . informer Refugee.

in protest over the high entertainment tax on box office receipts. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. 1951-53 [Breeze soap commercials]. becomes Kominform Nydag (Ny Dag [New Day]. London: Studio Vista. Furhammar. To have an income 190 . Leif & Folke Isaksson: Politik och film. but in Bilder (1990. Autumn 1972. (SFI library). 10 (1950): 799-800. 325) reviewed the film and found it interesting as a marriage drama pointing forward to later Bergman films. Image et son 226 (March) 1969: 19. Sånt händer inte här has been withdrawn from circulation by Bergman. 7 (1962). January 1953. Monthly Film Bulletin. (SFI clipping). p. title of Swedish Communist daily). 9. p. titled ‘Sånt händer inte här: Detaljer och synpunkter kring en thrillerfilm av Ingmar Bergman’ [This doesn’t happen here: Details and views about a thriller film by Bergman]. 1962. pp.. 20. Bergman is said to have had his doubts about her participation in the film from the moment he met her at Stockholm airport (she was ill with a thyroid infection. using returning Hollywood actress Signe Hasso as a major drawing card. 32 (1950): 10-11. Cahiers du cinéma. 54/ Bergman on Bergman. tr. 7. 182-186. pp. Stockholm: PAN Norstedt. p. 3 (March 1953): 132-133. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). p. 285-90) he attributes his difficulties in making the film to his own illness (sinusitis) and his encounter with the Baltic refugees that appear in the film. BLM no. 1950-1959 (Ø 1314). 87-90. 133-135. 24 October 1950. as Politics and Film. p. 1968. 1971. BRIS-FILMERNA. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). n. pp. Svensk filmografi. p. Mrofnimok Gadyn. Atkä Natas becomes Äkta satan [Real Devil]. Film/Theatre Dept. pp. 74 (August 1957). B/W Director Screenplays Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman In 1951. Perspektiv 4 no. 215.p. Robert Stiernevall wrote an undergraduate paper on the film. Sånt händer inte här was a commissioned work. Filmjournalen 32. It was shown briefly in England under the title High Tension. 25 pp. no. Stockholm Univ. ca. Swedish film producers closed their studios and began a year-long lockout of their film crews. Der Neue Film. 325. see Bergman om Bergman. Foreign Reviews Filmkritik. 48). pp. while the name of the ship. 147-55. In 1972. whose real life stories made Sånt händer inte här appear ‘almost obscene’ [nästan obscen]. no.Chapter IV Filmography Commentary Read backwards. 20 June 1959. 47-50. pp. no. Twelve years after the original release. Reception Swedish reviews were unanimous in their view that this type of secret-agent film was not Bergman’s forte. the German film journal Filmkritik (no.

it is the skin bacteria that cause the smell when they come in contact with perspiration’ [Svett i sig själv luktar inte. Credits. each commercial had to contain one of two slogans: ‘Perspiration alone does not smell. much discussed at the time. 1952. these commercials reflect on a small scale Bergman’s filmmaking at the time by pinpointing two of his favorite themes: the magic of the film medium and the deceptive nature of filmmaking. ‘Tvålen Bris’/‘Bris tvål’ [‘Bris Soap’]. played by veteran comedian John Botwid. 1-3). for which the viewers needed special glasses. now with the Bris slogan as text. ‘Tredimensionellt’/‘Filmföreställningen’ [‘Three-dimensional’/‘The Film Showing’]. was quite unbearable. According to Bergman om Bergman (p. whose task it is to misunderstand the name of the soap. det är bakterier. The films were made in 1951. and 1953. 8. 1952 (no. ‘Tennisflickan’/‘Magisk teater’ [‘The Tennis Girl’/‘The Magic Theater’]. A man dreams that he has invented a marvellous soap that can work miracles. Commentaries and Reception Record Ingmar Bergman signed a contract with the Sunlight & Gibbs Corporation to make nine commercials for one of its products. ‘Gustavianskt’/‘Gustav III’ [‘King Gustavus III’]. Bergman shows the viewer how a commercial film is made. ‘Rebusen’ [‘The Rebus’]. In this one. ‘Operation’/‘Filminspelning’ [‘Operation’/‘Film Shooting’]. A historical setting. 7-9) AB Filmkontakt 2. 3. Svensk Filmindustri for AB Sunlight Ragnar M. which neither the princess nor the king can resist. 4-6). In this metafilm we witness the projection of a commercial in a movie theater. In fact. Bergman introduces an old man. ‘Uppfinnaren’ [‘The Inventor’]. 4. Bergman’s swineherd possesses a remarkable soap. Lindberg Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Gunnar Fischer 1951 (no. ingen lukt]. ‘Trolleriet’/‘Trolleriföreställningen’ [‘The Magic Show’]. though commissioned. som gör att när de kommer i kontakt med svetten blir det lukt] or ‘Bris kills the bacteria – no bacteria – no smell’. 5. In the most conventional of the nine commercials. 1. whereupon it is shown a second time. so that the viewer is challenged to interpret them. though he had some difficulty fitting the Bris text into the films. Again Bris soap comes to the rescue. Credits Production company Producer Director Screenplays Photographer Production year Distributor 191 . The first half of the commercial shows images without any text. 9. which has to be repeated over and over again. 57). even in the royal court. only seemingly splendid. inga bakterier. The film is conceived as a Méliès farce. It is intended as a spoof on the three-dimensional film. and the stench. Evil monsters – the skin bacteria – fight harmless creatures – the perspiration drops – and the contact produces a nasty smell that only Bris soap can eliminate. A variation on the Hans Christian Andersen tale of the princess who promised the swineherd one hundred kisses in exchange for a music box. A voice asks if the film was difficult to follow. Three of the commercials utilize the film medium self-consciously. Ingmar Bergman had fun making the commercials. [Bris dödar bakterierna. The starlet who presents Bris steps out of the screen-within-thescreen and falls on a spectator. for in the 18th-century Bris soap was not yet invented. Bris soap.Synopses. 6. 1953 (no. Miniature people in a puppet show are engaged in a struggle between good and evil forces. ‘Prinsessan och svinaherden’ [‘The Princess and the Swineherd’]. 7.

21-28. This. 215-216 (1988) pp. contain stenciled manuscripts to three of the Bris commercials. titled ‘Operation’. The man The woman The magician 7. 1 (January 2003). The introducer 8. The spectator Woman in shower Narrator Bergman’s Bris films have only rarely been shown. 192 . Torsten Lilliecrona Georg Adelly Emy Hagman Lennart Lindberg Berit Gustafsson Carl-Gustaf Lindstedt Barbro Larsson John Botwid Bibi Andersson Curt ‘Minimal’ Åström John Botwid Marion Sundh Gösta Prüzelius 2. XIII. Maaret Koskinen analyzes the commercials in ‘Tvålopera à la Bergman’ [Soap-opera à la B. The king The princess The valet 9. has made them somewhat of a cult phenomenon among Bergman commentators. Teodor His wife 6.]. ‘Uppfinnaren’ (The inventor) and ‘Trolleriet’ (Magic act). pp. deposited at SFI. also published in Il giovane Bergman. 1992 (Ø 1521) pp. Introducer King Gustav III The valet Negro valet Doris Svedlund Åke Jensen Börje Lundh Charles White Ulf Johanson Barbro Larsson Erna Groth Barbro Larsson John Botwid Gösta Prüzelius Barbro Larsson Lennart Lindberg John Botwid Gösta Prüzelius. 30-34. The actress The husband Botte.Chapter IV Filmography Cast 1. 84-88. Chaplin no. Sight and Sound. no. plus the fact that they represent a film artist’s concession to make commercials. p. 8. Other material on the same matter include the following: Bergman’s Fårö papers. stage manager Grips 5. but this has not been confirmed elsewhere. mentions the making of a documentary about the Breeze films. Introducer A girl The old man Man in white coat 4. each 2 pp. Translated in English in Chaplin special issue titled ‘Ingmar Bergman at 70 – a Tribute’. Introducer Girl in the shower 3.

a journalist. But the coined word sommarlek suggests the Swedish word for love. 32:6: ‘The film no more merits the pornographic word ‘illicit’ than it deserves to be labelled smut. On the impulse of the moment. Marie. During a dress rehearsal of Swan Lake. dressed in his role as magician in Coppelia. The third flashback is triggered by Marie’s meeting with Uncle Erland on the island. He struggles ashore and dies in Marie’s arms. The rest of the film consists of three flashbacks and a final sequence in the present. Mrs. Süddeutsche Zeitung. no. 7 June 1996. The camera recaptures the lyrical beauty of the summer landscape and the sequence ends as Marie takes Henrik to her secret wild strawberry patch. p.Synopses. This flashback is filled with tension and pain. The seond flashback takes place when Marie returns to the small shack where she stayed that summer. The first recollection occurs on the steamer and is seen partly from Henrik’s perspective. 1951 [Summer Interlude]. dear-play). 6 (December) 1978: 10-11. kärlek (lit. passive and waiting. Tidning för Unilever-anställda i Sverige. Hitting his head on an underwater rock. but instead is surprised by her ballet master. He appears twice in the film. David comes to Marie’s dressing room. 216. Gertrud Wennström’s article ‘Ingmar Bergman gjorde reklam för tvålen Bris’ [Bergman made commercials for Bris soap] appeared in Unisont. Calwagen. SOMMARLEK. she leaves on a small steamer headed for the island where she and Henrik were once lovers. is a ballerina. Credits Production company Production manager Director Svensk Filmindustri Helge Hagerman Ingmar Bergman 193 . next to hers. and comes upon David in the wings. In her memory she is back in his villa. Cf. and she gives him the diary to read. is a misnomer for a film that according to Ingmar Bergman depicts the best there is. After ballet practice Marie quarrels with her present boyfriend David. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman The second half of the title (lek) means play as in children’s play. rehearsing while young Henrik sits on the floor. and ends as Marie relives Henrik’s fateful leap into the sea. When Marie goes to look for him. he breaks his neck. but also to warn her of the ephemeral nature of her work. Credits. a diary is delivered to Marie written on an island in the Stockholm archipelago many summers ago when she had a love affair with a young student. The plot returns to the present. Illicit Interlude. who is dying of cancer. schäumende Autorenfilme’. the face of young Henrik appears as if in a mirror. young love and the Swedish archipelago. The diary is being returned to her by her Uncle Erland.’ Synopsis This structurally intricate film begins and ends at the Opera in Stockholm where the main character. 27 October 1954. She dances off the stage. She imagines his return. namely summer. Annoyed. The two embrace. Bosley Crowther in NYT. Early American title. She is playing chess with a clergyman. he runs away. In the final scenes Marie stars as the lead ballerina at the opening night of Swan Lake. she meets an old black-clad woman. an embittered old man who has been in love with her for a long time. Commentaries and Reception Record Susan Vahabzadeh writes about the Bergman commercials in ‘Kleine. As Marie opens her diary. Henrik. both times to remind Marie of her commitment to dancing.

Chapter IV Filmography Screenplay Photography Architect Props Music Orchestration Make-up Editor Continuity Working titles Ingmar Bergman and Herbert Grevenius from an unpublished story by Bergman. Inc. Plaza. Resubmitted in the following year. Distribution U. Calwagen. ballet dancer Captain on steamer A doctor A nurse Uncle Erland’s housekeeper Delivery boys Carlsson. Gerd Andersson. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 26 October 1954. Oscar Rosander Ingegerd Ericsson. Sandemar) and at Råsunda Studios. Saltsjöbaden. Göte Stergel with the ballet at the Royal Opera in Stockholm. it won no prize. dresser Sandell Lighting man Kerstin. Sol-Britt Norlander Sentimental Journey. Sommarleken [The summer play] Maj-Britt Nilsson Birger Malmsten Alf Kjellin Georg Funkquist Renée Björling Mimi Pollak Annalisa Ericson Stig Olin Gunnar Olsson Douglas Håge John Botwid Julia Caesar Carl Ström Torsten Lilliecrona Marianne Schüler Ernst Brunman Olav Riégo Fylgia Zadig Emmy Albiin Sten Mattsson. Carl-Axel Elfving Gösta Ström Gun Skoogberg Monique Roeger. workman at the opera Maja. NYC Commentary The film was withdrawn from the Venice Film Festival in 1951 because SF wanted to test it out in Sweden first. ballerina Ballet master Clergyman Nisse. ‘Marie’ Gunnar Fischer Nils Svenwall Gösta Ström Erik Nordgren Eskil Eckert-Lundin Carl M.S. Inc. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. beginning 3 April 1950 and completed 18 June 1950. 194 . stage manager at opera Marie as ballerina Ballet dancers Filmed in the Stockholm archipelago (Dalarö-Rosenön. 96 minutes 2 April 1951 1 October 1951. Cast Marie Henrik Marie’s boyfriend David Nyström Uncle Erland Aunt Elisabeth Mrs. Lundh.S. black-clad woman Kaj. doorkeper at the theater Karl. opening Svensk Filmindustri Gaston Hakim Productions.

character analysis. 45-47. plot synopsis. Sommarlek was not released in the U. praised Bergman’s filmmaking: ‘Ingmar Bergman’s filmmaking method is miraculous. 2820.. Harry Schein in BLM 20.. 156. Stig Almqvist in Filmjournalen 33. 43 (1951). 78 (fiche no. containing credits. contains interview/article with Ingmar Bergman where he reports that the earliest draft for the film was written in a Latin notebook at age 18. 6. 1990. 7-15 May 1958 (C. New York Times. Filmorientering (Norwegian Film Institute). 26-28.Synopses. pp. This has not been verified. Teatern no. pp. Givray). p. 29.] Han hör till dem – en handfull benådade här och där i världen – som nu upptäcker filmens framtida artikulation. 8 pp.. 339. 3 (December 1959): 25. 2 October 1951. illustrated with photographs from the film. 195 . pp. 27 October 1954. newspapers carried analyses and comments about the film on 3 October 1968. no. freed from his earlier metaphysical brooding. October 1958). 21. Cahiers du cinéma. nos. p. 12 pp. 28 (June 1958). plot synopsis. 1960. and short essay by Ingmar Bergman (see Ø 76). Variety. suggested the emergence of a new Ingmar Bergman. 18 (November 1956). 6. pp. The screenplay has been published in French in Oeuvres (see Ø 122). Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. 84 (June 1959). p. p. In Italy. Longer Review Articles C. and a bibliography. p. 108 (November 1966).. Centro S. och resultatet kan bli en revolution]. 41 (1951): 18-19. and critical comments. credits. 32-6. same date. 29. 2. no. 44. Cinéma 58 no. until 1954. The script to Sommarlek was serialized as a film novella in Allers Familjejournal.] He belongs to a handful here and there in the world who are now discovering the future articulation of film. 1913-1968. listing openings worldwide. 311-312. Milan. 116-17. 26-30.. and the result can be revolutionary’ [Ingmar Bergmans metod att göra film är mirakulös. December 1959. Positif no. Films and Filming 6. The earliest American version is rumored to have had inserts of silhouetted nude bathing scenes filmed on Long Island Sound but removed in later distribution copies. Foreign Reviews Arts. This view was reported in Variety. pp. Monthly Film Bulletin. 28 December 1964. [. Vecko-Journalen no. New York Herald Tribune. Commentaries and Reception Record SF issued an undated program to Sommarlek with notes. 28 November 1951. 283-85. 9 (November 1951): 713-714. 28 November 1951. 9 (1950): 25. in connection with Italian TV broadcast. pp. Film a Sogetto. p. 6 (June) 1964. In France. review excerpts. 5-100. p. a film in which he helped solidify and give depth to the native ‘summer film’ genre. NYT Film Reviews. Télé-Ciné published a special issue on Jeu d’été in no. no. Credits. Dedelle dello Spettacolo. Reception Sommarlek was Ingmar Bergman’s first real critical success in Sweden. p. Bergman writes briefly about Sommarlek in Bilder/Images. no. Filmjournalen 32. where he mentions a teenage love story as the background of the film.S.. no. [. 4 pp. Filmkritik no. no. which also appeared in the Danish program issued by Nordisk Film Kompagnie. Bretteville.. is an Italian fact sheet on Un’ estate d’amore. excerpts from reviews. 5 (1951).

B. Later Bertil seeks Gertrud’s company. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). Of their two children. She rebuffs him. 8-10. Svensk filmografi. Wide Angle 2. On Christmas Eve. 21 (12 October 1956) n. pp. a son died at an early age and a daughter is living in a modern student marriage. 9-10 (1950): 23-35. Röster i Radio-TV. 2. a man her own age shows an interest in her.ed. He is a young doctor engaged to Marianne Berg. J.p. Kosmorama 137. J. no. pp. 2 (Summer 1951): 55-59. The next day Gertrud decides to leave while Bertil is at work. April 1963. 2 (1978): 26-30. 10-11 Autumn 1961. no. Gertrud visits friends in the country. Marianne arrives and accuses Gertrud of stealing Bertil from her. 24. Perspektiv 2. She discovers that she is loooking forward to her first vacation in 23 years. and soon afterwards he leaves for work at a regional hospital. Sw. 20-21. a socialite. but leaves when Tore and his wife arrive. pp. Gertrud moves into a rented room. 8 (1978). On Midsummer Eve. Museo de arte cinematografica (Brazil). Donohoe. 48-51. Gertrud is surprised to find that her rival is neither younger nor prettier than she is. pp. n. On the train. 294 (May) 1990: 47-50. Danish Film Museum program. 63-67. Cicim. Rivette. no. an engineer.. Cahiers du Cinéma. for 20 years.Chapter IV Filmography E. 65. B/W Director Screenplay Gustaf Molander Ingmar Bergman & Herbert Grevenius Synopsis Gertud Holmgren.. They make love. no. paid with her own money. Her landlady’s son. Awards 1952: Honorary mention for script and direction by Svenska Filmsamfundet (Swedish Film Society). Gertrud gives some advice and departs. but one day Tore asks for a divorce. Etudes cinématographiques no. He wants to marry a colleague with whom he can share his professional interests. Comuzio. no. 1978: 26-30.p. Returning to her room. 162-67. 214 (March) 1968: 173-178. Revue pour le cinéma français. she finds Bertil waiting. pp. ‘Die Seele im Bauch’. Bertil Nordelius. Image et son. G. Gertrud is invited to share Christmas with the Nordelius’s. 133-137. 25 August 1952. 160-163. Gertrud’s daughter and her husband come to visit but soon leave to spend the holidays with Tore and his new wife. 1951 [Divorced]. no. D’Orazio in 1975 dissertation (Ø 1265). no.. pp. 1950-1959 (Ø 1314). 16 (October 1952): 7. has been married to Tore Holmgren. 51-54. Gråsten. no. ‘Cultivating Bergman’s Strawberry Patch: The Emergence of a Cinematic Idea’. Filmnyheter 5. Gertrud considers herself happily married. 217. FRÅNSKILD. program no. Cineforum no. and 6. 4 pp. ‘Un estate d’amore’. 68-71.. Biografbladet 32. no. January 1989. a middle-aged woman. 10 (December 1951): 625-633. Wide Angle 2. 12 (1951): 2. Cine Club del Uruguay. pp. Bertil and Marianne quarrel. program 114. takes an interest in her. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). 1978. 207-216. 196 .

Synopses. he gets desperate and. but her somewhat bitter view is that married women’s consolation lies ‘in Jesus or the grandchildren. claims that their marriages will not stand up to the close scrutiny of a long summer together. titillating suggestion of female freemasonry. who had come to the summer house on a visit. KVINNORS VÄNTAN. 218. and at Råsunda Studios. Distribution Running time Released Premiere Svensk Filmindustri 103 minutes 25 September 1951 26 December 1951. threatens to shoot himself. Four of the women are married. hiding in a woodshed. Her own story never gets told. It has had limited circulation abroad. To pass the time. 1952. Nordelius Ingeborg Hans Man on the train Filmed on location in Stockholm and Uppsala.’ The first episode is related by Rakel whose marriage to Eugen is childless. Commentaries and Reception Record Credits Production company Director Screenplay Photography Architect Music Editor Svensk Filmindustri Gustaf Molander Ingmar Bergman and Herbert Grevenius. the fifth is the teenage sister of one of them. Kaj. He tells 197 . 1952 [Waiting Women/Secrets ofWomen]. Synopsis Kvinnors väntan is made up of three separate stories told by a group of women who live with their families in a summer compound in the Stockholm archipelago. Credits. each of the married women agrees to tell the others a crucial episode from her marriage. from a synopsis by Bergman Åke Dahlqvist Nils Svenwall Erik Nordgren Oscar Rosander Inga Tidblad Holger Löwenadler Alf Kjellin Irma Christenson Doris Svedlund Hjördis Petterson Marianne Löfgren Stig Olin Håkan Westergren Cast Gertrud Holmgren Tore Holmgren Dr. When Eugen finds out. the oldest of the women. Bertil Nordelius Tore’s new wife Marianne Berg Mrs. She tells of an affair she had with a former lover. Annette. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman American title Secrets of Women has an unfortunate. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) Note Frånskild was an entry in the Berlin Film Festival. beginning 15 November 1950 and completed 30 December 1950.

her husband Marta Berg Martin Lobelius. They decide to go on a second honeymoon. she leaves her Amercan fiancé. Later Martin returns to her. They set out in in a small boat just as the husbands arrive from the city. Walter Sarmell Oscar Rosander Bente Munk Anita Björk Jarl Kulle Karl-Arne Holmsten Maj-Britt Nilsson Birger Malmsten Eva Dahlbeck Gunnar Björnstrand Gerd Andersson Björn Bjelfvenstam Aino Taube Håkan Westergren Carl Ström Märta Arbin Kjell Nordenskiöld Cast Rakel Kaj. The film ends as the younger sister of Marta. Marta’s lonely delivery is depicted in nightmarish vignettes from her life with the immature Martin who abandons her. her husband Karin Lobelius Fredrik Lobelius. her lover Eugen Lobelius. and then make love for the first time in many years. a painter and the family’s black sheep. Marta looks upon her husband as a big child. Like Rakel. When the elevator gets stuck. Marta’s younger sister Henrik Lobelius. and soon she is pregnant.Chapter IV Filmography Rakel that it is his sense of shame and loneliness rather than her unfaithfulness that plagues him. but when the elevator is repaired in the morning. Marta. Inc. her husband Anesthesiologist Rut. Nothing is done to try to intercept the young couple. Fredrik discovers that he is late for a business meeting and rushes off to work. forgetting the entire incident. husband and wife tease each other with their infidelities. Lundh. American pilot 198 . Marta and Martin become a couple. having learned nothing from the older women’s accounts. meets Marta in a nightclub. In a flashback within a flashback. Rakel calms him. her husband Maj. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Music Orchestration Make-up Props Editor Continutity Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Gustav Roger Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Gunnar Fischer Nils Svenwall Sven Hansen Erik Nordgren Eskil Eckert-Lundin Carl M. return home from a party. a successful and preoccupied businessman. her boyfriend Annette Paul Lobelius. The second episode concerns a young woman. nurse Bob. When Martin. decides to elope with her boyfriend. The third story. Karin Lobelius and her husband Fredrik. and they continue their marriage. Karin muses over the fate of women. and her husband Martin. and they get married. comical in tone. is a visual tour de force set in an elevator. The setting is Paris.

The script of Kvinnors väntan was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. (1990). Kvinnors väntan was said to be Bergman’s brightest and most optimistic work so far. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. The film was shown at the Venice Film Festival in 1953. Credits. pp. Koval discussed it briefly in a report from the festival in Films in Review. Kvinnors väntan made its first international round in Latin America (1956 in Brazil.Synopses. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 11 July 1961. riding on 199 . pp. no. 46. In a brief interview in Vecko-Journalen no. NYC Commentary Bergman appears briefly as a man on the stairway outside a gynecologist’s office.S. It was ranked Best Swedish Film in 1952/53 by Swedish film critics in a poll taken by magazine Filmnyheter. Lobelius Doorman Newspaper distributor Garbage man Stranger outside Marta’s door Åke. Distribution U. 22-25. F. it created little attention. with reprinted pages from script. Bergman talks in private terms about his motivation to make Kvinnors väntan: He had long planned to make a film about women and to try his hand at a comedy. Argentina and Uruguay). Marta’s boy Karin’s boys Nurse Young man by the elevator Man outside nightclub Dancers at night club Trumpet players at night club Lena Brogren Torsten Lilliecrona Naima Wifstrand Douglas Håge Mona Geijer-Falkner Wiktor ‘Kulörten’ Andersson Sten Hedlund Leif-Åke Kusbom Jens and Peter Fischer Rut Karlsson Sten Mattsson Gustav Roger Inga Berggren. Carl-Gustaf af Verchou Rolf Ericson. G. 1/1960. 1952. opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. and at Råsunda Studios. Bengt-Arne Wallin Filmed on location on Siarö in the Stockholm archipelago. In magazine Se. Instead he was given the go-ahead with Kvinnors väntan. 107 minutes 22 October 1952 3 November 1952. It opened in France in 1959. Bergman discusses the genesis of the film in Bilder. 48 (1952). Fifth Ave. a script inspired by his third wife (Gun Grut) who had experienced a similar situation in a summer family compound. beginning 3 April 1952 and completed 20 June 1952. 7. pp. Commentaries and Reception Record Nurse Nightclub waiter Old Mrs. illustrated with photographs from the film. 390-391. Reception Kvinnors väntan received glowing reviews in the Swedish press and established Ingmar Bergman’s reputation as a filmmaker with a unique understanding of women and their emotional crises. Surrealistic Paris flashback and elevator episodes were singled out as visually outstanding. 49-52/1959 and no. Bergman had been scheduled to direct Hon dansade en sommar (One Summer of Happiness) but was replaced by Arne Mattsson. in Paris. In an unsigned article from the shooting of the film in ST 22 June 1952. 290-291. Cinema.S. p. October 1953. Inc. nos. Like most Bergman films of the early Fifties. Olsson provided an insider reportage: ‘Det får publiken aldrig se’ [What the audience will never get to see].

Filmfacts. A review in Filmblätter (East Berlin). 6 (June) 1962. same date. 10 (December 1952): 475-476. 10 (December 1952): 796-797. 6. 221-222.p. no. 5 October 1956. p. 19. pp. 173-178.Chapter IV Filmography Cahiers’ Bergman wave in 1958-59. pp. pp. pp. 15. 1913-1968. no. 7-8.. 6 (1959):44. 311-313. Institut des hautes études cinématographiques issued a fiche (no. 15 Time. New York Times. p. 92 (February 1959). 85 (July 1958). 92 (A. 121-22. pp. Critisch Film Bulletin 12. Image et son. January–March 1968. 3266. Kauffmann. 2-3 (February 1961). 176-186. Films and Filming 6. It opened in East Germany in 1972. pp. 157) on Kvinnors väntan. 20 December 1959. n. 46-48.. revealing the limitations of bourgeois society’. pp. BLM 21. Monthly Film Bulletin. Vecko-Journalen no. p. p. 46 (1952). A World on Film (112). no. no. 41-43. January 1953. 80 (January–February 1959). NYT Film Reviews. p. 55. SOMMAREN MED MONIKA. 118 (January 1959). New York Herald Tribune. no. pp.1952: 12-14 (reportage from shooting). 219. 12 July 1961. 11. see section on ‘Foreign Reception’ below. 11 pp. 33 (February 1959). Filmnyheter 7. Gauteur). no. 1952. pp. Hörde ni?. and in the U. and no. 3 (December 1959): 24. 1953 [Summer with Monica]. Bianco e nero. pp. 266-268. La cinématographie française. Télé-Ciné no. 234-237. See also SF program. Perspektiv 3. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. S. p. 226 (March) 1969: 19-21: Museo de arte cinematografica (Rio De Janeiro). Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). 36:1. Camera. no. predictably called it ‘a sad film.E. 67 et passim. p. 33 National Review. 10-11 and no. 214 (March 1968). no. p. 9-10. Appearing in West Germany in 1962. 24 December 1958. Filmkritik no. 3-10 December 1958 (C. 108 (1972). 70). Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). Foreign Reviews Arts. pp. Cahiers du cinéma.. 15. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Per Anders Fogelström & Ingmar Bergman For early foreign distribution titles. 14 July 1961. pp. Variety. p. p. Svensk filmografi. 6 October 1961. in 1961 where it was treated as a museum piece. 1950-1959 (Ø 1314). 42. 23 October 1952. 279-280. pp. program no. March 1960. Cinéma 59. pp. Film Quarterly. it received quality rating by the West German Classification Board. 4 November 1961. 119-122. 200 . 1 (Fall 1961). 45-47. Image et son no.S. no.. p. no.

Harry beats up Lelle. Inc. The next morning Harry arrives late for work and is fired. she steals from a summer resident but is caught in the act. has difficulty adjusting to her role as wife and mother. Waltz ‘Kärlekens hamn’ [Haven of love]. and takes up with former boyfriends. Monica becomes pregnant and grows increasingly desperate about it. Gunnar Fischer P. Her father drinks.Synopses. composed by Filip Olsson. She decides to leave him. He lifts her up and the reflection of both of them is seen in the window. She neglects the baby and the housework. former boyfriend Harry’s father Forsberg. At the movies on a date. She herself finds escape in sleep and in romance magazines. Lund. Lundgren and Nils Svenwall Tor Borong Sven Hansen Erik Nordgren. Harry’s boss in store Forsberg’s accountant Johan 201 . One day after a quarrel she gives up her job and leaves home. and he in a store selling glass and china. But Monica escapes. and Harry hits Monica. The upper-class owner is full of contempt for Monica and calls the police. With Monica’s help. Harry and Monica have divergent visions of the future. They get married. Two young people. They don’t like their jobs. meet in a café. Lelle. Lindström. and she and Harry return to Stockholm. They quarrel. Harry finds Monica in bed with another man. Monica’s former boyfriend arrives and sets the motorboat on fire. One morning after returning home from a trip with the construction team. however. Harry’s aunt Lelle. Credits. When food gets scarce.A. The film ends with shots of Harry walking past a display window. She looks up Harry. Harry wants to study and improve his social status. Monica dreams of film stars. carrying his baby daughter in his arms. Ornö Eskil Eckert-Lundin Carl M. from a novel by the same name by Fogelström. Credits Production company Production manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Music Orchestration Make-up Editors Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman and Per Anders Fogelström. Monica lives at home in narrow quarters. her mother is worn out. Harry goes to night school and gets a new job in the contruction business. 1951. and they spend the night in his father’s small motor boat. Monica and Harry. Commentaries and Reception Record Synopsis The film is set in the working-class section of South Stockholm and in the archipelago. Tage Holmberg and Gösta Lewin Birgit Norlindh Harriet Andersson Lars Ekborg Dagmar Ebbesen John Harryson Georg Skarstedt Gösta Ericsson Gösta Gustafsson Sigge Fürst Cast Monika Eriksson Harry Lund Mrs. He and Monica leave the city in the boat and spend a leisurely summer in the archipelago. She is working for a wholesale fruit and vegetable dealer. Monica.

S. The Orpheum Theater. Harry’s father calls him a good-for-nothing. parson Tobacconist Harry’s buddy Harry’s construction boss Harry’s workmates Bums Monica’s boyfriends Monika’s date at café Scrap dealers Ladies in backyard window Nurse at maternity ward House owner His daughter A girl Gösta Prüzelius Åke Fridell Naemi Briese Arthur Fischer Torsten Lilliecrona Bengt Eklund. Fogelström 202 . Tor Borong Mona Geijer-Falkner. Soon they are part of the social system and feel a loss of freedom. Gordon Löwenadler Bengt Brunskog Nils Whiten. 96 min 6 February 1953 9 February 1953. Britt leaves Harry and child. Gustaf Färingborg Hans Ellis Ivar Wahlgren Renée Björling Catrin Westerlund Carl-Uno Larsson Hanny Schedin Kjell Nordenskiöld Margaret Young Nils Hultgren Ernst Brunman Sten Mattsson Åke Grönberg Magnus Kesster. Birger Sahlberg Anders Andelius. When Britt becomes pregnant. the emphasis shifts from Harry to Monica. There are several confrontations between father and son. café owner Movie star Movie star Lindevall. Fogelström presents Harry as a 17-year-old daydreamer and schoolboy who lives with his father. and his aunt takes care of the child. an artist. Harry’s aunt insists they get married. Inc. and at Råsunda Studios./Gaston Hakim Prod. opening Working title Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. Harry is told he has only himself to blame. beginning 22 July and completed 6 October 1952.S. Spegeln (Stockholm) 3 February 1956. The two live part of the time in a boat that belongs to Harry’s father. Los Angeles En sommar med Monika [One summer with Monica] Commentary In a first synopsis (SFI Archives). she comes from a dysfunctional family. Carl-Axel Elfving Wiktor ‘Kulörten’ Andersson. Monika’s young brother Mrs. He meets Britt (later named Monica) in a café. Boman. Distribution U. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. Astrid Bodin Gun Östring Harry Ahlin Jessie Flaws Mona Åstrand Filmed on location at Sadelöga.Chapter IV Filmography Salesman in glass shop Ludvig. In Ingmar Bergman’s screen adaptation of Fogelström’s novel. Monika’s father Monika’s mother Monica’s boss Driver Monicas’s male colleagues at work Messenger boy at Monika’s work Owner of summer home His wife Their daughter Hasse. near the island of Ornö in the Stockholm archipelago.

no. To save the transportation costs from the archipelago to the photo lab in Stockholm. However. 38. 8-10. carelessly directed sexploiter about a stupid teenager’.. no. Walter’s summation of the case: ‘Monica appeals to potential sex murderers. the editing poor. Swedish Reception Swedish reception of Sommaren med Monika was rather lukewarm. manager of the Orpheum Theatre in L. in 1960. This is one of the reasons. and Filmnyheter 8. for his response to the film. and the typecasting unfortunate. was acquitted from the charge one year later in higher court. no. 6 February 1956. 1 (1953): 20-23. during a showing of Summer with Monica or The Story of a Bad Girl. Filmnyheter 7. but its old reputation as pornography lingered. 32-35. Commentaries and Reception Record accepted this. the American distributor had added scenes of nudist bathing to Bergman’s original version. Foreign Reception In a review in Variety. pp. no. 5) carried a front page news report from Los Angeles about the arrest of Morton Lippe. 13 (1952): 8-10. Filmnyheter 7. AB (pp. The Los Angeles Examiner quoted from Judge Byron J. 1 (2-8 January) 1953. the tempo dull. Los Angeles Times and Los Angeles Herald Tribune all reported that L. pp. an ironic piece of advice in view of the film’s later fate in the U. 203 . 23. Apparently. For details. see FIB. Filmnyheter 7. the film became recognized by the Swedish social-conscious generation of the Sixties. p. Mosk[owitz] suggested cutting the nude bathing scene. 24. Credits. The summer landscape was termed trite and overused. Most of the film was shot on location during a summer that Ingmar Bergman and his crew recall with nostalgia. pp.S. 1. 7 July 1954. while another argued that Monika’s escape from marriage was a flight into a tough male world that would destroy her. the sexy image of the actress in a décolleté sweater launched the film both in Sweden and abroad. After Sommaren med Monika was rediscovered in 1958 by Jean-Luc Godard in France (see below).Synopses. p. One viewer saw Monika as defiant of a male chauvinist society.] Crime is on the increase and people wonder why. p. The film became known mostly for Harriet Andersson’s pouting portrayal of Monika. On 26 April 1956. (American Motion Picture Academy clipping) reported further confiscations in the Los Angeles area. no.S. Swedish censors cut a love-making scene between Monika and Harry after their fight with Lelle. Variety. On 5 February 1956. Films in Review.p. contain interviews with Harriet Andersson and Lars Ekborg and a series of articles titled ‘Männen kring Monika’ [The Men around Monica]. But once the film was developed. see Jack Stevenson in Chaplin 258.’ The distributor. 295-96. no.A. Lippe was booked on misdemeanor charges. pirated copies of the film circulated at drive-in theaters in the American midwest as early as 1954. 3 (Summer) 1995: 18-22 (Ø 1596). 22. and 7 February 1977. [. 6. Bergman let the daily rushes pile up over a three-week period. necessating 75% retakes. 17. 3. A television showing of Monika in Sweden in 1977 led to a feminist reader exchange in GP. n.. Sommaren med Monika was released again in the U. 173-174. Bergman talks briefly about the shooting of Sommaren med Monika in Bilder/Images (1990). however.. pp. March 1960. SF head Carl Anders Dymling denied rumors that SF had made a special export version of the film with added nude shots. called it ‘a clumsily. See (Ø 84) for Bergman vignette from the shooting. film distributor Jack Thomas was fined $750 and sentenced to 90 days in jail. under the original Swedish title. 2. 28 January 1977. the film was confiscated by local police. 10-11. it showed a bad scratch on the negative. which was the first American distribution title. In AT. they found the film uneven. 1920 (1952). p. pp. Los Angeles Times. Though critics praised its realism. 7 February 1956.A.

Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). had termed it ‘the most erotic film since Gustav Machaty’s L’Extase’. hubba. 88-89. no. Four years later Monika was shown on a commercial rerun in Paris and received overwhelming support by Jean-Luc Godard (Arts. J. 45. T. Films and Filming 5. Cahiers du cinéma 14. Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). 72-79. no. Sw. 1953.’ In an extensive analysis of Monika in Image et son. 3 (March 1953): 233-34. no. 204 . no. 19-20 (in special issue on the portrayal of adolescence in the cinema). 3 (March 1953): 129-30. August 1992. 19. 68. p. no. pp. the realism of Monika resulted in a glowing response from I.’ Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. no. p. 5 (interview with Harriet Andersson). pp. 187-195. Narboni. 1967. 84 (June 1958): 11. Allombert. In England. Image et son. no. BLM no. See also G. SF program.’ In France the release of Sommaren med Monika in 1954 as ‘Le sac du douchage’ or ‘Monique ou le désir’ led to a lively press debate after Cahiers du cinéma. no. and no. 36 (1954): 50. Perspektiv IV. Quigly. American Film. Teatern. In (West) Germany. 19 December 1957. pp. 267-270. 84-85. pp. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Milne). 30 July-5 August 1958. who termed it the cinematic event of the year: ‘You must dash to the Cinéma Panthéon as you dashed to the van Gogh exhibit. 1967 (Ø 1233). p. 1972. Foreign Reviews Arts. 5 (February 1959): 25. 76-80. See Spectator. no. pp. Monica is the most original picture by the most original of filmmakers. 11 pp. pp. Cahiers du Cinéma. no. Bianco e nero. 30 July – 5 August 1958. pp. Critisch Film Bulletin 12.. 1953. Godard review appeared in English in Godard on Godard (ed. pp 21-24. no. Film und Mode Revue. 122-123 (May-June 1959). p.ed. vol. usually a severe Bergman critic. Review concluded: ‘This is one of the director’s rare movies of which it can truly be said: hubba. 1953. François Truffaut includes a poster reference to Monika in his film Les 400 coups (The 400 Blows). 19. p. which anticipated the nouvelle vague by several years. Svensk filmografi.Chapter IV Filmography In 1989. February 1959. 6. 85 (July 1958): 11. 16. 113-120. gave Monica an A rating in a review of a released video recording by Connaisseur Video Collection. 36 (1954). 11-12 (November-December 1961): 82-85. no. the Film und Mode Revue. 10 February 1953. 6). Monthly Film Bulletin. 10 (1959): 78. Hubert Arnault suggests that the tremendous critical success of the film on its second round in France depended on its combination of two features dear to French cineastes at the time: the exoticism of the Nordic summer and the handheld cinéma-verité camera. no. ‘Mabuse’ (Stockholm Film Festival program). 14. 2 (February 1953): 6. London: Secker & Warburg. 205. Image et son. p. called many scenes in the film too constructed and excessive but saw in Bergman’s filmmaking the work of ‘a personality with whom every film fan should get acquainted. 7. 24 February 1956. 1950-1959 (Ø 1314).

With his long riding whip Albert flips off Frans’s hat. Setting out in their Sunday best to borrow costumes for their dilapidated circus from the repertory theatre in town. 17 November 1990 (five minute introduction to TV showing of film by Ulrika Knutsson and Maaret Koskinen). Jens. Frans kicks sawdust in Albert’s eyes until he is like an enraged. Suddenly. Gycklare were people who used to entertain the public with gyckelspel at fairs and in market places. Albert tumbles ouside. Back in his trailer. Afterwards he goes to the stables to seek the company of the horses. The theatre company has been invited to the circus performance. The flashback sequence is an overexposed white-out. Albert Johansson. the theatre’s manager. As he leaves his wife. who has made love to her in his dressing-room and given her a worthless trinket in return. Most misleading foreign title is the Italian one: Una vampata d’amore. wakes up in his cramped wagon. 1953 [The Naked Night/Sawdust and Tinsel]. 220. he takes out his pistol and shoots his own image in the mirror. The owner. who operates a small store in town with the help of their two young boys.Synopses. Albert pleads with her to take him back but is rebuffed and pitied. John Simon’s English translation ‘The Clown’s Evening’ in his book Ingmar Bergman Directs (pp. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman The Swedish word gycklare is often used by Ingmar Bergman in its original medieval sense of an itinerant performer. In an ensuing fight. channel 1. Anne intervenes. It is likely that Bergman intended the title of his film to refer to circus performers as a collective group. this is a night film. Frost sheds his clown suit and carries Alma out of the water and back to the circus. walks outside and climbs up next to the coachman. One summer seven years earlier. an actor in the repertory theatre. twilight and darkness enveloping its main characters from the opening shot to the final vignette. 50-105) seems to point to the single character of Frost. 205 . Back in the circus wagon. The sequence has no dialogue but is accompanied by Karl Birger Blomdahl’s modernistic music. Both men get drunk. Then he walks outside to the cage that houses Alma’s bear. GYCKLARNAS AFTON. When notified. Despite her protestations. He orders the circus tent raised. blinded animal. Sjuberg. The film’s only flashback follows as Jens tells the story of Frost the Clown and his wife Alma. and Albert is carried out. Anne. She has been visiting Frans. he kills the animal. and the diegetic sound effects – the jeering laughter of the soldiers and the firing of the cannons – have a surreal quality. Credits. Albert vents his frustration on Anne. The humiliation of Frost and Alma is soon to be felt by Albert and his mistress. Frans and the audience taunt Anne during her performance as a Spanish equestrienne until she falls off her horse. his mood changes. he sees Anne exit from a pawn shop. Synopsis Gycklarnas afton opens with a bleak shot of Circus Alberti arriving in a small Swedish town at the turn of the last century. they face the ridicule of Mr. Albert takes out his pistol and threatens Frost. with dawn. American distribution title The Naked Night has a certain relevance probably not intended by its original distributor: Film depicts a night of unmasking when circus owner Albert Johansson is deprived of professional dignity and faces personal despair. is a more direct reference to the film’s circus milieu. Visually. Later Albert leaves the circus to visit his wife. British title. who tells him to shoot Alma’s sick bear instead. Sawdust and Tinsel. Alma went swimming in the nude before a group of soldiers on artillery practice. He and Frost sing a popular broadsheet song. Commentaries and Reception Record SVT. but is interrupted by Frost who arrives with a bottle.

the coachman Dwarf Officer Blom. Fager. Albert walks beside Frost who relates a dream he has had: he became smaller and smaller until he was only a seed in Alma’s womb and then he disappeared altogether. Agda Helin Sigvard Törnqvist John W. Sjuberg. Sture Höglund wig shop Carl-Olov Skeppstedt Marianne Axelsson Harriet Andersson Åke Grönberg Hasse Ekman Anders Ek Gudrun Brost Annika Tretow Gunnar Björnstrand Erik Strandmark Kiki (Otto Moskowitz) Åke Fridell Curt Löwgren Majken Torkeli Vanje Hedberg Hanny Schedin Göran Lundquist Mats Hådell Eric Gustafson Michael Fant Julie Bernby Conrad Gyllenhammar Mona Sylwan Naemi Briese Lissi Alandh. Credits Production company Executive producer Production manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Music Costumes Make-up Editor Continuity Sandrews Rune Waldekranz Lars-Owe Carlberg Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Hilding Bladh. Ekberg. Olav Riégo. circus performer Policeman 206 . Björling Gunborg Larsson Gunnar Lindberg Cast Anne Albert Johansson Frans Teodor Frost Alma. Meijer. circus performer Albert and Agda’s oldest son Little Albert. his wife Agda. stage manager Mrs. circus performer Uncle Greve. Albert and Anne come together alongside the circus wagon. circus performer Mrs. circus musician Mrs. Without a word they walk off towards another day. Karl-Axel Forsberg. circus performer Mrs. Ekberg’s son Aunt Asta.Chapter IV Filmography The next day the circus is on the road again at early dawn. circus performer Tightrope dancer Fager. Frost goes into his wagon to join Alma. Albert’s wife Mr. Göran Strindberg and Sven Nykvist Bibi Lindström Olle Jakobsson Karl-Birger Blomdahl Mago (Max Goldstein) Nils Nittel. Erna Groth. John Starck. circus performer Mrs. Tanti. circus performer Theatre actors Meijer. theatre director Jens. their youngest son Policeman ‘Beautiful Anton’.

Commentaries and Reception Record Filmed on location in Arild. Stockholm. pp. accused Ingmar Bergman of giving circuses a bad reputation by showing ‘pornographic trash in which the female circus artists are depicted as prostitutes’[en pornografisk smörja i vilken kvinnliga cirkusartister porträtteras som prostituerade]. Ø 211). 1. 1956. During the shooting. at Kullaberg and Ystad. 7. Generally. p. opening Sandrew-Baumanfilm Times Film Corporation/Janus Films 92 minutes 11 September 1953 14 September 1953. såvida man inte som en August Strindberg kan sublimera sitt elände. but contains only credits and plot synopsis. to produce the film. Reception The Schreiber Circus in Örebro.). p. no. Credits. southern Sweden. excerpts from Swedish reviews. 106. Kulturens värld no. Olsson in Lantarbetaren. Waldekranz persuaded his boss. NYC Commentary Bergman writes about the genesis of the film in Bilder (1990). Cinematographer Hilding Bladh shot the flashback sequence. Bergman still felt obliged to make a film for Sandrews. Sweden. no. 15 September 1953. Distribution U. Though he expected no immediate box office success. 1956. 5. Sven Nykvist was proposed as his substitute.Synopses. Sandrews issued a program to Gycklarnas afton (no. Robin Hood in ‘Filmskott’. MT (Stockholm). Anders Sandrew. Waldekranz had tried earlier to engage Bergman for a film project with Sandrews but had lost out to SF (see Commentary to Törst. 29 September 1953. same date.S. 207 . Nils Beyer. p. p. ST. Gärdet. n.d. called Gycklarnas afton Ingmar Bergman’s best film. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. Grand (Stockholm) 9 April 1956. beginning spring 1953 and completed in early summer 1953. This film marks the first time that Mago (Max Goldstein) worked as Bergman’s costumier. 17.S. and presentation of leading actor Åke Grönberg. 11: ‘I am of the opinion that one should not defecate in public even if one has a lot to get rid of – unless one can sublimate one’s miseries like August Strindberg’. in the Gävle City Theatre. nos. 184-88. and by I. 8 pp. By contrast. Göran Strindberg had to make a study trip to Hollywood to learn the new cinemascope technique. An English version is available at SFI archives. Nykvist passed Bergman’s test and eventually won his approval. Critical reactions oscillated from enthusiasm to abusive remarks. and at Sandrews’s Studios. Little Carnegie. The most notorious review was by Filmson [Sven Jan Hanson] in AB. 4 (November 1995): 50-57.. Nykvist shot scenes in the circus tent. 1960. p. 4. See Örebro Dagblad.] Other negative assessments were made by Viveca Heyman in Beklädnadsfolket. failed but suddenly Bergman was there with his jesters]. Göran Strindberg shot the outdoor scenes and most indoor scenes. The film is shot by three different cinematographers. with credits. the film got better reviews in the press outside Stockholm. 12. Gycklarnas afton. 7. Producer Rune Waldekranz has given an account of the origin of the film in an article titled ‘Birgit Tengroth svek men plötsligt stod Ingmar Bergman där med sina gycklare’ [Birgit T. 20 September. discussed the mixed response to Gycklarnas afton. illustrated with photographs from the film. p. [Jag anser att man helst bör undvika att orena offentligt även om man har mycket att bli av med. and a few years later he proposed his script. The script of Gycklarnas afton was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. 40-44.

p. which at first was only appreciated in cineast circles in Latin America. no. Norwegian censor Bernt A. In November 1961. pp. The climate is cold and drizzly. everybody is seething with passion and remorse. Joseph. Holmer. 8 (October 1953): 638-639. pp. the cuts were from the fight in the circus arena and from Albert’s suicide attempt. Télé-Ciné published a special issue on the film (no. Foreign Reviews Arts. 144 (March-April 1962). 6 December 1958. ‘Förnedringsmotiv i femtiotalsfilmen’ [Humiliation motifs in Fifties film]. BLM 22. pp. 208 . 10 April 1956. 154-155. p. Die Welt. Perspektiv 5. fiche 324. is an Italian fact sheet on Vampata d’amore. 302-308. Per. Bianco e nero. p. and in 1958. no. p. Revista de cinema. Filmkritik Jahrbuch 2 (1960): 3-5. dubbed La nuit des forains a remarkable auteur film. no. no. Ramseger. Film Notes (Wisconsin Film Society). Teatern 20. This view was echoed in Newsweek. p. 8 February 1956. 27 (February 1958). 18 March 1954. 10 pp. Longer articles/discussions Doorman. 38-41. ‘The Naked Night’. pp. pp. NYT Film Reviews. p. pp. no. Films and Filming 1. In retrospect.. listing openings worldwide. pp. 4 February 1965. no. has become an Ingmar Bergman classic. pp. 77 (December 1957). 1. 22 (April-May 1956).. 83. He became upset over Norwegian cuts. See Bergen Morgenavis. winning several awards (see below. 20. Awards). including a discussion of Bergman’s use of the circus as an emblem of life. where W. p. was devastating. pp. comparing it to Dupont’s Variété. Le Monde. 112). Film a soggetto. review excerpts. 121-127. 11 (August 1955): 18. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. Cahiers du cinéma. 1950-1959. ‘Ein Film der uns den Atem verschlägt’. 27: 5.Chapter IV Filmography Foreign Response Bergman visited Oslo and Bergen in connection with the Norwegian opening of the film. Cinema Nuovo. 1 (January) 1959. 10 April 1956. 10-14. calling the film an offensive imitation of the worst aspects of cinematic expressionism. 23 April 1956. no. no. Georg. 10-13. no. 15-22 October 1957 (Eric Rohmer). 73. referring in particular to the flashback sequence of Frost and Alma in the beginning of film. Monthly Film Bulletin. plot synopsis.’ The review in NYT. 1960. 31 October 1957. no. presented The Naked Night as ‘a controversial Swedish import with stress on sex and morbidity’. Cahiers du cinéma. 2919. 4 (1953): 13-14. 77 (December 1957) and no. Svensk filmografi. June 1955. credits. Zinsser wrote: ‘The Naked Night. February-March 1961. 6. 53. and New York Herald Tribune. Variety.. Filmkritik. Milan. pp. 48-50. Centro S. and a bibliography. Danish Film Museum issued a five-page program on Gycklarnas afton. Nissen claimed that only two meters had been cut beyond the 25 meters already omitted by Swedish censors. is a rueful tale. 8 (October 1953): 380-381. 12 September 1953. In both cases. Fedelle dello Spettaculo. 11-12. Positif. 1913-1968. Gycklarnas afton. 102-105. 85 (July 1958).

pp. Commentaries and Reception Record Schildt. Kosmorama no. Film Culture no. David has now broken off his affair and tries to regain Marianne’s love. Schildt’s review article recognizes Bergman’s visual talent. 209 . 1978. Frankfurt am Main. 1954 [A Lesson in Love]. Image et son no. pp.) no. an ironic voice announces: ‘This is a comedy that could have been a tragedy. 221. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis As the credits roll across the screen. Gold Plaque in Buenos Aires Film Festival. 1-2 (1960): 109-114. 302-05. pp. German Film Critics Award for Best Direction. Awards 1954: 1957: 1958: 1959: 1999: First prize in Montevideo Film Festival. 2 (December 1960). It is at this point in the film that the bet occurs. to whom she was once engaged. 17-18. 12 p. EN LEKTION I KÄRLEK. 197-213. L’Etoile du Cristal de L’Académie du Cinéma. 8. Offers the most extensive (and also the finest) analysis of the film in his book Ingmar Bergman Directs. Etudes cinématographiques 1. unknown to the viewer.. Paris. Film Inst. Jurgen. ‘Abend der Gaukler’. Praktische Hinweise für die Jugenfilmarbeit: Filmbesprechungen. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). S. Listed in Swedish Filmrutan survey as one of the ten best Swedish films of the century. no. 50-105. Simon. 226 (March) 1969: 24-28. 1953: 380-382. David and Marianne have been married for 16 years. Wolf. In a series of flashbacks we see the development of their relationship. One of the men is David Erneman. 1950-59. pp. Suzanne. 1954. Highest quality rating by the West German Classification Board. 125 (November) 1959: i-xi (special supplement 17). With credits and a presentation of film as one of several Bergman movies selected for young people. German program to Abend der Gaukler (Göttingen: Walter Kircher Filmkunst) 1959.. and in his collection of reviews Private Screenings. Second Prize by Polish Film Critics’ Society. the woman. a gynecologist. n. pp.d. from their first romantic summer together to a farcical episode when Marianne surprises them in bed at a tourist inn. ‘Den allvarsamma leken’ [The serious game]. 12 pp. 51-54. and no. 81-96. This view of Bergman as a gifted image maker but a poor writer represents a very common view of him among Swedish commentators in the 1940s and 1950s. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). Credits. John. no. is his wife Marianne. but the script is said to be full of trite statements about art and life. 29 (Summer 1963): 23-24. He pursues her on the train to Copenhagen where she is scheduled to meet her lover Carl-Adam. 137. Svensk Filmografi (Ø 1314).Synopses. Filmorientering (Norw.’ The plot of En lektion i kärlek begins with a bet made by two men about a woman with whom they share a train compartment. David is having an affair with his former patient. Perspektiv IV. pp.

Nix talks to her grandfather about her fear of death.A. The next flashback takes place a year before the present events on the train. Erneman’s daughter Harriet Andersson Carl-Adam. nurse Dagmar Ebbesen Traveling salesman Helge Hagerman Pastor Sigge Fürst Train conductor Gösta Prüzelius Uncle Axel. turns the sign. In a farcical scene. Marianne’s former fiance Åke Grönberg Henrik Erneman. a powerless pastor has to witness how all the ceremonious preparations for the wedding are smashed to pieces. Oscar Rosander Birgit Norlindh. the text on the turned sign reads: ‘Silence! A Lesson in Love’. chauffeur John Elfström Lisa. who was a tardy bride-to-be. David was sent by Carl-Adam to fetch Marianne. Later in the day they all go on a traditional automobile excursion. Lundgren Gustaf Roger Sven Hansen Dag Wirén Eskil Eckert-Lundin Carl M. A cherub comes through the hotel corridor. his children and grandchildren serve him morning coffee in bed. In the first. David and Marianne are seen sitting on the bed. Marianne decides not to pursue her relationships with CarlAdam. Two flashbacks on the train focus on David’s family. It is Henrik’s seventy-third birthday. She and David check into a hotel room where Cupid himself hangs a ‘Do Not Disturb’ sign on the door. who reveals her disgust with the erotic interests of her friends and with her parent’s extramarital affairs. potter Carl Ström 210 . David responds by telling Nix of his boredom.Chapter IV Filmography Another flashback gives us a glimpse of the first encounter between David and Marianne. It is an early summer morning in the country home of David’s parents. Credits Production company Production manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Music Orchestration Make-up Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Ingmar Bergman Rolf Carlsten Ingmar Bergman Martin Bodin P. which ocurred in Copenhagen. Inc. The film ends in Copenhagen. maid Birgitte Reimer Sam. grandfather Olof Winnerstrand Svea Erneman. Lundh. In the evening there is a dance at which the mutual trust of the older Erneman couple becomes a lesson to David and Marianne. toasting in champagne. David and Marianne fell in love. Henrik and Svea Erneman. and opens the door. Bente Munk Cast Marianne Erneman Eva Dahlbeck David Erneman Gunnar Björnstrand Suzanne Verin. his ‘affair’ Yvonne Lombard Nix. When the door is closed. grandmother Renée Björling Lise. he is walking on the beach with his 15-year-old daughter Nix.

opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus 94 minutes 23 August 1954 4 October 1954. called it ‘pointless adolescent tom-foolery’ and Film Quarterly.S. pp. 1954) that Ingmar Bergman was a genius in depicting women. Distribution U.Synopses. pp. p. 1990. DN termed it an ‘unpretentious’ film combining joie de vivre and esprit. Gustaf Färingborg.. beginning 30 July 1953 and completed 16 September 1953. Commentaries and Reception Record Hotel manager Jönsson. Marianne and David’s son Hotel maid Clarinet player at cabaret Man looking for his wife at cabaret Young men at cabaret Taxi driver in Copenhagen Piano player at cabaret Bellboy Filmed at Filmstaden (Råsunda). in Copenhagen (Nyhavn). 4 (Summer 1960). Kaj Hjelm. Olof Ekbladh. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 14 March 1960. New York Herald Tribune. ST referred to it as a spontaneous and visually conceived comedy bubbling over with fresh ideas and dialogue. Arild. until 1960. illustrated with photographs from the film.S. Perhaps inevitably. It is enough to make one want to learn the language. But SvD termed the film a disappointment after the more subtle ‘woman’s film’ Kvinnors väntan. the Mjölby train station. did not find ‘Bergman doing a turn of Ernst Lubitsch [. The script of En lektion i kärlek was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. Bergman writes about the film in Bilder/Images.] very funny’. voiced a rare appreciation: ‘[It is] like Schopenhauer giggling. 11 pp. February 1960. 173-178 contains a longer analysis of film. NYC Commentary Ingmar Bergman appears briefly in the train sequence. no. no. Vincent Jonasson.. 211 . in the aftermath of such major Bergman successes as Sjunde inseglet/The Seventh Seal. Several months later Hanserik Hjertén in Arbetaren (4 January 1955. The film was not distributed in U. 214 (March 1968). 4) questioned an earlier statement by film critic Marianne Höök in Vecko-Journalen (no. in Hälsingborg. 15 March 1960. Murry Hill Theatre. 342. Wera Lindby. Credits. Beatelund. Image et son. 15. Films in Review. Georg Skarstedt. 52-53. Smultronsstället/Wild Strawberries. reading a newspaper. and Saltsjöbaden. nos. 95 (April 1961) published a fiche on the film (no. hotel clerk Bartender Wedding guests Arne Lindblad Torsten Lilliecrona Georg Adelly Julie Bernby. Henning Blanck.’ Télé-Ciné. no. 44. distribution Running time Released Swedish premiere U. Bengt Thörnhammar Yvonne Brosset Göran Lundquist Margareta Öhman Torbjörn ‘Tompa’ Jahn John Starck Kjell Nordenskiöld. AB called the film ‘capricious and entertaining’. Pålsjöskog. 380). Reception En lektion i kärlek was Ingmar Bergman’s first popular success in Sweden. p. on the Malmö-Copenhagen ferry. 103. and Ansiktet/ The Magician/The Face. this made it seem a minor work. p.S. p. 6-10/1960. Ramlösa. Tor Åhman Tor Borong Mats Olsson Björn Näslund Dancer at cabaret in Copenhagen Pelle.

Awards 1955: 1963: Punta del Este Festival Award. p. pp. no. ignores that this is a film about women. 2 (1963). 226 (March) 1969: 28-29. Her struggle is reflected in quick images of her face against a rain-swept train window. p. p.. 137. 85 (July 1958). fashion designer Susanne and her model Doris. BLM 23. 16. Journey into Autumn. 3 (1963). p. 26. 43 (February 1960): 121-123. 103. 43 (1954). In a wordless sequence (the only sound being that of the train’s wheels) Susanne fights an impulse to commit suicide. 14 (1960). no. p. 34-35. Opening sequence is silent and tense. 46. however. 47. Positif. New Republic. 53-54. New York Times. (part of a presentation of Scandinavian film in Paris). NYT Film Reviews 1913-1968. Doris. p. 2 (1955). Cahiers du cinéma. 18-9. pp. 1950-1959 (Ø 1314) pp. Perspektiv no. no. 7. Svensk filmografi. 25 April 1960. p. FIB no.Chapter IV Filmography Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. p. Synopsis Kvinnodröm begins and ends in a fashion photographer’s studio in Stockholm. 78. 74 (August-September 1957). Doris is getting ready for the photographer. 3178. no. 126 (October 1959). 133-4. Kosmorama. 17 (June-July 1956): 51-53. travel on business. 212 . Image et son no. pp. 1955 [Dreams/Journey into Autumn]. no. 1954. is hardly applicable to one of the main charachters. SF program in Swedish and English. 20. Cinéma 60. Filmkritik no. p. Filmfacts 1 April 1960. 16-23 December 1959. 15 March 1960. Atlas Filmheft. 5 pp. pp. 7. Neither title. Variety. 44 (1954). Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma no. Dreams. 58-60. 12 and no. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman The American title. an obese businessman and fashion director. the rest of the film takes place in Göteborg. 222. p. 68. can be heard. a teenage model. no. 95 and no. The British title. 9 (November 1954): 762. no. Only the drumming fingers of Magnus. p. pp. p. 4 Nov 1959. Monthly Film Bulletin June 1959. KVINNODRÖM. Vecko-Journalen no. where the main characters. Image et son. See also Arts. 5 October 1954. Unspecified award at Film Comedy Festival in Vienna. is as offensive as the Argentine one: Confeción des pecadores. 384-87. Susanne’s tension continues on the train trip to Göteborg. 1978.

Palle. Berger Women aides in fashion studio Ferdinand Sundström.Synopses. a young student. Susanne and Doris go their separate ways. Back in Stockholm. In a parallel episode. Consul Sönderby buys her clothes and jewellery. Both women seek solace from their ruptured dreams through hard work. one involving Susanne and her attempt to get her lover Henrik Lobelius. Susanne receives a letter from Henrik Lobelius. They go to an amusement park where a roller coaster ride brings out the age difference between them. he admits his economic dependence upon his wife. Susanne realizes that Henrik will never seek a divorce. who reminds him of his dead wife. Doris gets tipsy on champagne and reveals her completely materialistic dreams. Their fantasies are interrupted by Sönderby’s cold and offensive daughter. The plot follows two tracks. fashion director Marianne. Doris decides to leave without the gifts bestowed upon her by the Consul. The dreams of the two women are thus revealed: Susanne wants to get married and have children. his wife Palle Palt Magnus. Folke Åström Cast Susanne Frank Doris Consul Otto Sönderby Henrik Lobelius Marta. Sönderby’s daughter Mrs. Credits. Doris wants to be rich and live the life of a movie star. Henrik Lobelius arrives at Susanne’s hotel room. Sönderby’s motives are also self-centered: he wishes to rejuvenate himself through Doris. photographer in Göteborg Sundström’s aides 213 . Gunhild Kjellqvist Ludde Gentzel Maud Hyttenberg. Consul Sönderby. Doris returns to her former boyfriend. we follow Doris’s excursions in the city. Returning to the Consul’s villa. Commentaries and Reception Record Arriving in Göteborg. suggesting that they continue their clandestine affair. a businessman. Credits Production company Executive producer Production manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Make-up Editor Continuity Sandrews Rune Waldekranz Lars-Owe Carlberg Ingmar Bergman Hans Abramson Ingmar Bergman Hilding Bladh Gittan Gustafsson Sven Björling Olle Jakobsson Sture Höglund Carl-Olov Skeppstedt Katherina Faragó Eva Dahlbeck Harriet Andersson Gunnar Björnstrand Ulf Palme Inga Landgré Sven Lindberg Benkt-Åke Benktsson Kerstin Hedeby-Pawlo Naima Wifstrand Renée Björling Git Gay. When Mrs. the other depicting Doris and her brief encounter with a much older man. Arén Mrs. to make a commitment to her. Lobelius arrives unexpectedly. Susanne tears up the letter. Preoccupied with his faltering business.

Distribution U. Reception Bergman’s Kvinnodröm had been rumored to be a continuation of his rose-colored period. Elsa Hofgren. But Marianne Höök (Vecko-Journalen. Fith Ave. 89 (November). 214 . Inc. 6-7.Chapter IV Filmography Sundström’s assistant photographer Make-up girl Fanny Katja Fashion photographer Photographer in Stockholm Model Mr. pp. jeweler Hotel clerk Man at Liseberg Shop assistant at café Taxi driver Ladies in a café Curt Kärrby Jessie Flaws Marianne Nielsen Siv Ericks Bengt Schött Axel Düberg Viola Sundberg Tord Stål Carl-Gustaf Lindstedt Richard Mattson Inga Gill Per-Erik Åström Ninni Arpe. Rohmer called Bergman a truly international filmmaker. This typifies a divided critical view that was to surface many times during Bergman’s career. no. p. Reportage from filming Kvinnodröm by Arne Sellermark appeared in Allers.S. Inga Rosqvist. no. NYC Bergman appears briefly in train corridor during Susanne’s and Doris’s journey to Göteborg. Stockholm. with statements by Ingmar Bergman about his views on women and how to depict them on the screen. Millan Lyxell. Télé-Ciné no. opening Sandrew-Bauman Film Janus Films.. To her.p. pp. B. no. and Arts. the part went to Gunnar Björnstrand.S. It was reviewed by Eric Rohmer in both Cahiers du cinéma. In France Kvinnodröm/Rêve des femmes was shown in early fall of 1958 during the peak of the Ingmar Bergman vogue. on the film. 35 (1954). objected to Bergman’s female portraits. n. 15-22 October. refused to work with Bergman. with reference to French playwright Jean Anouilh’s division of his own plays into pièces noires and pièces roses. Grand (Stockholm) 31 May 1960. Instead. Gerd Widestedt Filmed at Sandrews Studios. 11 pp. 86 minutes 28 May 1955 22 August. 3. Autumn Sonata). Margareta Bergström. Greta Stave. 37-38. Cinema. Ehrén in Ny Dag. p. 14) found Kvinnordröm to be a dark and brooding film. It was a term used by reviewers for such films as Kvinnors väntan and En lektion i kärlek. See group entry (Ø 975). 46-49. it confirmed Bergman’s strength in depicting women. However. 23 August 1955. however. Ella Welander. 36. 1955. Barse. calling them ‘a sexist presentation’. 80 (January-February 1959) published a fiche (no. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. who. Commentary The role of the Consul (Sönderby) was written by Bergman for the actor Anders Henrikson. beginning 15 June 1954 and completed 4 August 1954 (additional takes in February 1955). up to and including Herbstsonate (1978. 342).

Sw. Vi no. p. p. February-March 1961. Sandrews’ program no. same date. Dansk Film Museum program. 17 June 1959 (SFI clipping). 4 pp. pp. Positif no. 3192-3193. 42. p.ed. 67. BLM no. pp. Commentaries and Reception Record Kvinnodröm was discussed extensively in the Argentinian press during the summer of 1959. 1 June 1960. See Buenos Aires El Pueblo. 23. Vecko-Journalen no. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press.. 215 . The various tours of love matching create an intricate plot pattern and represent the three smiles of the summer night. Cinéma 58. Variety. 22 August 1955 (also in English). 5. 89 (November 1958): 46-49. echoed the Latin American evaluation. 100-101. in the local theatre and the lodgings of Desirée Armfeldt. 120-127. 34 (April 1962). p. pp. 143-144. FIB no. Time 13 June 1960. 17. p. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). reception of Dreams. 223. The action takes place in the Egerman household. 279-280. 226 (March) 1969: 29-31. 12 (September 1959): 22-23. 14. p. Svensk filmografi.Synopses. no. Cahiers du cinéma no. 4 pp. pp. 567. p. pp. pp. New York Times. Filmorientering (NFI). August 1959. p. 23 August 1955. 6. 465-466. but was considered a minor film. (July 1959). released out of sequence in the 1960s. 118 (January 1959). pp. p. 44-45. 32 (January 1958). 456-459. an actress. 12-13. 38 (1955). 3 (1955). 42: 1. pp. 102-104. 114. pp. Teatern no. 10 (1955). NYT Film Reviews. 9 (1954). 1950-1959 (Ø 1314). 426-428. Filmfacts 15 July 1960. 85 (July 1958). Image et son no. 7 (1955). Kauffmann. Foreign Reviews Bianco e nero. p. 35 (1955). Filmkritik no. no. 9 (1963). 30. pp.S. Musikern. and at the Ryarp manor house owned by her mother. no. 1955 [Smiles of the Summer Night]. 134. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis Sommarnattens leende is an erotic masque set in southern Sweden in 1901. no. 19 November 1958. Perspektiv no. 1913-1968. New York Herald Tribune. 6. January 1965. no. A World of Film (Ø 1011). U. 36 (1955). 20. and no. Image et son. p. SOMMARNATTENS LEENDE. Films and Filming 5. p. Credits. Monthly Film Bulletin.

old Mrs. Later that night the two elope with the willing assistance of Petra.A. Outside. Soon afterwards. Planning to hang himself from a damper. Early the next morning Desirée persuades her aged mother to arrange a party on her estate. Bells begin to chime and the bed in an adjoining room comes rolling into Henrik’s room. sad and lonely. ‘Liebestraum Opus 62. are seen romping in the hay. Anne and Henrik are attracted to each other. Count Malcolm has hinted to his wife Charlotte that Fredrik Egerman is an intimate friend of Desirée Armfeldt. and Frid. the pistol was loaded with soot. ‘Fantasie-Impromptu Opus 66’ Franz Liszt. but wards off her advances while quoting the Scriptures. Charlotte and Desirée are waiting. Charlotte is reconciled with her husband. watches from a distance. and Fredrik Egerman.Chapter IV Filmography Anne Egerman. The film ends with the sun rising over the summer night. are to be invited. Inc. Lundgren Ove Kant P. the groom.O. returns to Desirée. Count Malcolm. Later he tries to commit suicide. while Fredrik Egerman. which was the scheme set up by the actress and her mother. At the gathering at Ryarp. The lawyer is the unlucky player who ends up shooting himself. no. ‘Aufschwung Opus 12’ Frédéric Chopin. asleep. Charlotte Malcolm. falls in a puddle of water and borrows a nightshirt and cap belonging to Desirée’s current lover. A young child appears. Credits Production company Production manager Location manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Music arrangement Orchestration Music Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Gustav Roger Ingmar Bergman Lennart Olsson Ingmar Bergman Gunnar Fischer P. Armfeldt serves a love potion at dinner. Costumes Make-up 216 . Henrik Egerman is approached by Petra. having made a bet with her husband. rebuffs her husband’s physical advances. he accidentally touches off a mechanism on the wall. 3’ ‘Bort med sorg och bitterhet’ (Text: Ingmar Bergman) ‘Freut euch des Lebens’ (sung by Eva Dahlbeck) Mago (Max Goldstein) Carl M. The Malcolms and the Egermans. Fredrik goes to visit his former mistress Desirée Armfeldt. black in the face. In the meantime. Count Malcolm has challenged Fredrik Egerman to a game of Russian roulette in a pavillion on the estate’s park grounds. and the astounded Fredrik learns that he is the father. Petra. Charlotte conveys this information to Anne Egerman during a visit. virgin wife of middle-aged lawyer Fredrik Egerman. Jealous charges and countercharges follow. without their knowledge. Henrik is upset over the cynical conversation at the dinner table and leaves. Fredrik Egerman notices Anne’s tender feelings for Henrik. In the bed lies Anne. a student of theology. tries to seduce Henrik. Suddenly. but Anne proudly declares that she is already aware of her husband’s liaison. the maid. Lundh. Pettersson Erik Nordgren Eskil Eckert-Lundin Robert Schumann. but his attempt ends in a surprise. To defend his honor. Count Malcolm makes a stormy entrance. including Fredrik’s adult son Henrik. Fredrik Egerman stumbles out. the maid.

Almgren Policeman Maids to old Mrs. NYC Ingmar Bergman appears briefly as a bookkeeper at Egerman’s legal office in a scene that was cut from the final version of the film. Mona Malm Josef Norman Börje Mellvig David Erikson Arne Lindblad Einar Söderbäck Sten Gester. Credits. Armfeldt Dinner guest Notary Tobacconist Actor Curtain puller Servants Mrs.S. Georg Adelly [cut] Cast Desirée Armfeldt Fredrik Egerman Anne Egerman Henrik Egerman Old Mrs. Sutton. Stockholm. Distribution Running time Released Premiere U. Armfeldt’s butler Aide at lawyer’s office Clerks at lawyer’s office Filmed on location at Jordberga estate in Skåne (southern Sweden) and at Råsunda Studios. Commentaries and Reception Record Editor Continuity Oscar Rosander Katarina (Katherina) Faragó Eva Dahlbeck Gunnar Björnstrand Ulla Jacobsson Björn Bjelfvenstam Naima Wifstrand Harriet Andersson Jarl Kulle Margit Carlqvist Åke Fridell Jullan Kindahl Gull Natorp Birgitta Valberg. Armfeldt Petra Count Malcolm Charlotte Malcolm Frid Beata. Distribution U. photograper Mrs.S. 217 . British version 104 min 14 December 1955 26 December 1955. Bibi Andersson Anders Wulff Gunnar Nielsen Gösta Prüzelius Svea Holst Hans Strååt Lisa Lundholm Sigge Fürst Lena Söderholm. opening Svensk Filmindustri Bank Film Distributors of America 108 min. Mille Schmidt John Melin Ulf Johanson Carl-Gustaf Lindstedt. plus two days in November 1955. beginning 28 June 1955 and completed 29 August 1955. Malcolm’s aide Butler Dresser Adolf Almgren. the cook Malla.Synopses. Desirée’s maid Actresses Desirée’s son Niklas. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 23 December 1957.

10 March 1956.Chapter IV Filmography Commentary The script of Sommarnattens leende was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. Filmnyheter 10. p. all is pure to the pure] Hjertén persisted. 2. and lacks the element of personal involvement evident in Vilgot Sjöman’s record of the shooting of Nattvardsgästerna/Winter Light. He also states that the film could have been a tragedy but that he chose the comedy form as better suited for a costume film. Best actor. In the meantime Olof Lagercrantz. 9. Assistant director Lennart Olsson kept a two-volume diary during the shooting of Sommarnattens leende (deposited in SFI Library). the obscene dreams of an immature heart. 26-29. directed by Harold Prince and starring. ett gränslöst förakt för konstnärlig och mänsklig sanning]. Reception Reception of Sommarnattens leende was very favorable. nota bene Who had as her guest The City’s high priest But then. no. influential editor of Stockholm paper DN had jumped on the bandwagon with an editorial protest (‘Ett filmpris’. among others. 1955: 4-7. Nevertheless. Bergman was asked to respond. some years later (see Ø 1100). in an article titled ‘Bergmanfallet eller sommarnattens falska leende’ [The Bergman Case or the False Smile of the Summer Night]. Arne Sellermark interviewed Bergman during the shooting of Sommarnattens leende: ‘Tre nattliga leenden’ [Three nightly smiles]. 10. he accused Bergman of making egocentric and hysterial films. [There once was a broad in Mykene Clever and beautiful. Best film. pp. His review is important since it recognized Bergman as an auteur before the term became fashionable. Swedish premiere took place in Göteborg’s Stora Teatern on 11 January 1974. Elizabeth Taylor. 3 February 1956. pp. Vecko-Journalen. Bergman states his satisfaction with having found an expressive comedy form. See also KvP 27 January 1974. p. pp. 41 (15 October) 1955. Sommarnattens leende elicited a rather intense negative press debate after the jury in FIB (Folket i Bild) gave the film several awards (Best direction. 1 (1956). 4. Bergman supporter Nils Beyer considered it one of the best Swedish films ever. in which he referred to Bergman’s film as ‘the bad fantasy by a young man with acne. A Little Night Music was in turn made into a movie. 16-20/1960. titled ‘Är han tyrannregissör?’ [Is he a tyrant director?]. for Olsson’s account of filming: ‘Bergman was like a thundering cloud’ [Bergman var som ett åskmoln]. nos. p. a boundless contempt for artistic and human truth’ [en finnig ynglings dåliga fantasi. In February 1973. a musical by Steven Sondheim titled A Little Night Music based on Bergman’s Sommarnattens leende opened in New York. 345-46. Bergman writes briefly about it in Bilder/Images (1990). no. Reportage from filming Sommarnattens leende appeared in ST 31 July 1955. 19-20. The script is included in an English translation in Four Screenplays by Ingmar Bergman (Ø 110). 4). rather dull day-to-day recording of Bergman’s production. To Lagercrantz. 4-5. 16. Sec. Olsson’s diary is a detailed. Filmfront 4. ett omoget hjärtas fräcka drömmar. no. Best script. In yet another Sellermark interview article. p. and Best supporting actor). and did so with a limerick (same date): Det var en gång en sköka uti Mykene Skicklig och vacker. illustrated with photographs from the film. Hanserik Hjertén wrote an open letter to Ingmar Bergman in Expr. Anti-Bergman critic Viveca Heyman supported Hjertén (and Lagercrantz) in 218 . Bergman reveals that he got the idea for Sommarnattens leende from his Malmö staging of Lehar’s operetta The Merry Widow.. nota bene Som hade som sin gäst Stadens överstepräst Men allt är ju rent för de rene. charging him with pornography. Bergman did not have ‘enough wit to fill a doll’s thimble’ [nog av ande att fylla en dockas fingerborg].

7). p.J. Swedish comedian. 1965). 698. 4. p. Monthly Film Bulletin November 1956. no. 4.S. 22 March 1956. pp. p. p. pp. 3 (1956). 16 January 1956. were left untranslated. in Washington Daily News (22 February 1958. this was followed with repartees by Heyman and L. p. filmmaker. same paper. 42. I Lost It at the Movies (Boston: Little. is available – for the grown-ups please – at. O’Neill.. 2 (1954). 49-51. The film was awarded the Special Jury Prize for its ‘poetic humor’ at Cannes Film Festival in spring 1956. 16. Comments were also made by Nils Beyer in MT. 4 (1956). 45. no. 3 (1958). p. Brown & co. Jr. 273.. Swedish style. p. This in turn elicited responses from film critics Mauritz Edström and Gunnar Oldin. 4. 2 January 1958. p. 4-5. p. 17 (1956). Kosmorama no. Image et son. was viewed as a risqué comedy.’. Matthias. a Swedish smorgasbord of sex. Cinéma 73. 27 December 1955. in late 1957. Harmless pieces of dialogue. 26 March 1956. 3030. no. 3. 14 March 1956. no. Perspektiv no. 1 (1956): 13. Credits.. A review by J. were inaccurate and sparse. 11:3. Released in the U. Björklund in Scen och Salong no. 2 (November 1956): 26. Contributing to the reaction was probably the fact that English subtitles in the British and American distribution copies of Smiles. FIB no. Films and Filming 3. 11 March.. Foreign Reviews Arts 1956: 573. New York Times. Arbetaren. Motion Picture Herald. member of the FIB jury. However. p. Vi no. Kael. suggesting frivolities that supposedly had been silenced by the censor. New York Herald Tribune. 3 (1956). Isabel Quigly in The Spectator described Bergman’s film as ‘a series of dazzling stills. p. lit by a silvery Scandinavian light’. such as a giggling exchange in a bedroom scene between Anne and Petra. pp. 1 (1956). 83-84. November 1958. Filmkritik no. distributors. New York Times Film Reviews. 40-42. Lasse Bergström. p. and by Thorsten Eklann in UNT 22 March 1956. same paper. 4. 138-139. 16 March 1956..S. sin and psychiatry. no. Sommarnattens leende led to Ingmar Bergman’s international breakthrough as a maker of sophisticated film comedy. p. BLM no.Synopses. p. Swedish Reviews Stockholm/Göteborg press. 181 (November 1973): 44-45. 109 (February 1958). Critisch Film Bulletin 12. 27. responded on FIB’s behalf in Arbetaren. and finally Heyman again. 6 (1956).. p. p. film critic Stig Ahlgren called Sommarnattens leende ‘A Swedish pilsner film in a champagne bottle’ [en svensk pilsnerfilm på champagnebutelj]. p. 20 (October 1956). 10. 61 (July 1956). In an editorial in Vecko-Journalen no. 6. Sample quote: ‘Smiles of a Summer Night. pp. 6. 1913-1968. Teatern 22. Commentaries and Reception Record Arbetaren. 219 . p. and vaudeville artist Povel Ramel made a parody of the dinner sequence at Mrs Armfeldt’s estate in his film Ratataa eller The Staffan Stolle Story (1956). The Legion of Decency labelled the film ‘immoral’ (class C). no. C. Vecko-Journalen no. pp. 5 (see also Eklann’s positive comment. 12) was used in its entirety as an advertisement for U. and again in same paper. p.. 24 December 1957. Cahiers du cinéma. 15. 4. 16 March 1956. pp. 4 (April 1959): 28-29. same date. 105-108.. p. Smiles. Pauline. Filmforum.

10 pp. no. pp. See also Annotations on Film (Melbourne). listing openings worldwide. 2 (Spring 1976): 169-180. Film a sogetto. 501-05. De Filmkrant 207. Kael. p. no. Télé-Ciné no. 1973). January 2000. 90-91. 1950-1959. Spectator. (Ø 1218). John. Films and Filming 8. For reaction in DN. Paisley. 281-283.. Includes perceptive discussion of Smiles of a Summer Night in his book Ingmar Bergman Directs. 24 July 1957. Variety. 28 September 1956. Fedele della Spettacolo. An Italian fact sheet on Sorrisi di una notta. pp. Weiss (New York: Grossman. Fact Sheets L’Avant-scène du cinéma 454 (July 1996) is a special 102 pp. Milan (10 January 1965). Filmorientering (Norw. Image et son 226 (March) 1969: 31-36. 62 (December 1956). Longer Studies and Special Issues include the following Baron. 66 (May 1962): 108. Swedish cultural magazine) in March. d’Yvoire. no. credits. 233 (November) 1969: 179-91. p. ed. pp. C. no. 1982. Scandinavian Studes 48. Jacob A Rawlings) no. Ohio State University Germanics Dept. Anita. 108-143. 6. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 29. 110-142. 7 (April 1962): 38. 1972. 1972). sequence and dialogue outlines. Simon. 16 May 1956. 2 (Autumn 1956): 98. Svensk Filmografi. Grabowski. Mast. ed. and a bibliography. (Ø 1384). Le cinéma moderne (Lyon: Serdoc. 99-112. Brown and E. Image et son no. 13-14. Brown. F. 1962 220 . In his The Comic Mind (Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill. by J. In Movie Comedy. 418. Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). Unpublished paper. Simon. ‘The Phaedra-Hippolytus Myth in Ingmar Bergman’s Smiles of a Summer Night’. Pauline. S. review excerpts. 6. Centro S. 99 (March 1966). James. p. chose Sommarnattens leende/Sourires d’une nuit d’été to represent year 1955 in an annual selection of best films. Time. pp. (argues that Bergman’s use of still photographs of Anne Egerman can provide a key to the film’s stylization). pp. R. See Cahiers du cinéma. p. see above commentary. 1964). Awards 1956 Sommarnattens leende received FIB’s film trophy (FIB = Folket i Bild. 289 (10 pp) is a fact sheet in French. 72-76). issue on Sommarnattens leende including French text of the film. pp. Lefèvre. no. Spring 1992. pp. Ingmar Bergman and the Rituals of Art. Cinema (Bucharest) 10. 18 (November 1956). 1-6. ‘Les jeux de l’humor’. pp. 501-05. no. p. pp. plot synopsis. 27 January 1958. 1950-1959. 6. 146-50. ‘Undermining the Gaze: Voyeurism in Ingmar Bergman’s Smiles of a Summer Night’. Gerald.Chapter IV Filmography Positif. 26-28. pp. ‘Sourires d’une nuit d’été’. no. Livingston. 2 (Winter) 1970: 203-207. Film Inst. 5. Special Jury Prize at Cannes Film Festival for ‘its poetic humor’.. 2 (February 1972): 11. Svensk Filmografi. 60 (June 1956). pp. Credits and brief critique of Glimlach van een zomernacht. Term 1 (1964). Sight and Sound 26. no. 313-316. Cinéma 62. pp. Issue also includes an article by David Alman. a compilation of press clippings from original release of film in 1956 and from later retrospective showings in France (pp.

Bo takes his younger brother Sven with him to visit his grandmother. Depressed. 1956 [Last couple out]. who lives in the same apartment complex as Dr. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) Cast Bo Bo’s grandmother Kerstin Kerstin’s mother Anita Bo’s father Bo’s mother Dr. Alf Sjöberg from a story by Bergman Martin Bodin Björn Bjelfvenstam Märta Arbin Bibi Andersson Aino Taube Harriet Andersson Olof Widgren Eva Dahlbeck Jarl Kulle Hugo Björne Svensk Filmindustri 98 minutes 8 November 1956 12 November 1956. but in the evening she departs together with Dr. Fontänen. Commentaries and Reception Record 224. Fårell Teacher Distribution Running time Released Premiere Commentary As in Hets from 1944. Fårell. He goes back to Anita. But scared of her rootlessness. Credits. 221 . he finds his mother waiting. Bo goes to the opera. Dr. His father provides some paternal support. Fårell. Bo returns home. an 18-year-old student. also directed by Sjöberg. The party is getting rowdy. Bo accompanies Kerstin home. and Bo wants to attend the opera. Arriving there. and Bo leaves deeply hurt. walks home with his girlfriend Kerstin. and depicting a parental crisis where the wife has a lover. but is too unhappy to stay very long.Synopses. a girl without a family. SISTA PARET UT. He drifts over to Anita’s party where he meets Kerstin. he goes back to school on Monday morning. see (Ø 73 and 97) in Chapter II. Kerstin wants to go to a party that her friend Anita is giving. Bo eavesdrops on his parents who are having a violent argument and learns that his mother has a lover. and Bo Dalin. The script dates back to Bergman’s earliest writing efforts. with a young man torn between idealism and resentment. The two argue. Returning home. Fårell. and Kerstin and Bo decide to leave. this film has an unmistakable adolescent Bergman quality to it. The last class is dismissed. But they cannot agree on how to spend the evening. He has no intention of staying but when Kerstin’s mother arrives suddenly. Credits Production company Director Screenplay Photography Svensk Filmindustri Alf Sjöberg Ingmar Bergman. He persuades her to return home with him. He gets the keys to the apartment where his mother and her lover usually meet. Contrary to his earlier decision. she misunderstands the situation and accuses Bo of seducing her daughter. B/W Director Screenplay Alf Sjöberg Ingmar Bergman & Alf Sjöberg from a story by Bergman Synopsis The film opens on a Saturday in May in a Stockholm senior high school.

now turned thief. a young girl is tied to the stocks. 222 . In the meantime Skat has taken off with Lisa. Plog. The Knight is seen kneeling on the shore. whom the Knight asks for objective proof of the devil’s existence. The Knight and the Squire arrive at a church. Next. Jof escapes and returns to Mia. The Knight and the Squire ride past a covered wagon in which Jof the juggler. whose murals depict the dance of death and penitents flogging themselves. Jof sees the Knight and his companions in a silhouetted Dance of Death across the horizon. A knock on the door announces Death. Having enterered the tavern. They witness the burning of the witch. Jof is a visionary. The film opens with oratorio music and a shot of the grey sky. and their companion Skat are all asleep. 1955 Synopsis The setting of Det sjunde inseglet is 14th-century Sweden. Outside the church. Raval. Unaware that Death has taken the confessor’s place. Jöns. against which can be seen a lonely bird. the Knight and his companions. In the early morning he sees the Virgin Mary walking in a rose garden. the black-robed figure of Death appears. Mia offers them a bowl of milk and wild strawberries. encounter Raval who is dying from the plague. the Knight and Jöns come to a farm where Jöns rescues a young woman from a former priest.Chapter IV Filmography 225. The woman. his wife Mia. and their child as well as Plog and his wife. He has come to claim the Knight who asks for a respite by challenging Death to a game of chess. the others stand up to face ‘the stern master’. Mia. the Knight is tricked into revealing his chess game strategy. Film ends as Jof. DET SJUNDE INSEGLET. He also expresses his frustration in his search for a God that does not speak to him. They are later joined by Jöns and the silent woman he rescued earlier. Later. Lisa returns to Plog. strikes up a conversation with a church painter. Mia. who prepares supper and reads to them from the Book of Revelations. After a palaver. The Knight vows to remember the moment. Jöns appears amd marks Raval’s face with a knife. The Squire is asleep. Suddenly. then leaves to resume his game of chess with Death. and Skat performs a mock suicide. his life ends for real as Death saws down the tree in which Skat has taken refuge for the night. 1956 [The Seventh Seal]. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman from his play Trämålning [Wood Painting]. their small son Mikael. The Knight gives her a sedative to soothe her fear and pain. Moments later. Antonius Block and his companions arrive at the Knight’s castle and are greeted by his wife. Death announces that the Knight will be checkmated at their next meeting. While the Knight prays. Mia. She is thought to be a witch and will later be burned at the stake. joins the Knight and the Squire for the rest of the journey. now including Jof. putting the title of the film in its biblical context. They are interrupted by a train of flagellants whose somber singing of Dies Irae ends the sequence. While Block goes to pray. The Knight has one more encounter with Death at the chess board. wife of a smith. Jof is approached and tormented by Raval to the cheers of other tavern guests. The Knight Antonius Block and his squire Jöns are returning home after ten years in the Crusades. Jof spots them and escapes with his family while the Knight overthrows the chess pieces to distract Death’s attention. who remains silent until the very end of the film. and Skat are performing. a non-believer. In the meantime. and their child walk off towards a new day. a country ravaged by the Black Plague. A voice reads from the Book of Revelations. Jof and Mia have sensed ‘the Angel of Death’ sweeping by their wagon. At dawn. who has been befriended by the Knight on a sunny hillside. Later that night. The next stop is outside a tavern where Jof.

A. Helge Sjökvist. Commentaries and Reception Record Credits Production company Production manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props (Studio manager) Sound Special sound effects Music Orchestration Choreography Costumes Make-up Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Ingmar Bergman Lennart Olsson Ingmar Bergman from his play Trämålning [Wood Painting]. Caya Wickström Mona Malm Cast Antonius Block. the Crusader Jöns. Uno Larsson. Lundh. Lars Granberg.Synopses. Gunlög Hagberg. the accused witch Karin. Sten Ardenstam. Lennart Lilja. Gun Hammargren. Lennart Tollén. Knight’s wife Mute girl Raval Doomsday monk Church painter Monk outside church Merchant in tavern Tavern hostess Peasant in tavern Merchant in tavern Old man at tavern Soldiers involved in witch burning Cripple Mikael. the smith Plog’s wife. Gordon Löwenadler Karl Widh Tommy Karlsson Siv Aleros. Monica Lidman. Bengt Gillberg.) Lennart Wallén Katarina (Katherina) Faragó Max von Sydow Gunnar Björnstrand Bengt Ekerot Nils Poppe Bibi Andersson Erik Strandmark Åke Fridell Inga Gill Maud Hansson Inga Landgré Gunnel Lindblom Bertil Anderberg Anders Ek Gunnar Olsson Lars Lind Benkt-Åke Benktsson Gudrun Brost Tor Borong Harry Asklund Josef Norman Ulf Johanson. Lisa Tyan. Jof and Mia’s son Flagellants Pregnant young woman 223 . Credits. the Squire Death Jof Mia Jonas Skat Plog. Lundgren Carl-Henry Cagarp Aaby Wedin Evald Andersson Erik Nordgren Sixten Ehrling Else Fisher Manne Lindholm Nils Nittel (Carl M. Ragnar Sörman. Inc. Georg Skarstedt. 1955 Gunnar Fischer P.

. Gösta Prüzelius. pp. L’Avant scène du cinéma no. and Skytteholm outside of Stockholm. beginning 2 July 1956 and completed 24 August 1956. 233-38. nos. Bergman the image maker was praised. Expr. 5 July 1956. 90-94. 25 February 1957. produced by Erik Goland and transmitted 26 February 1957. 4 (April 1958): 350-353.S. opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. Max von Sydow discusses his role as the Knight in E. An article in Expr. and talks about it in Bergman om Bergman/Bergman on Bergman (1971. to Hanserik Hjertén’s advice in Arbetaren. Pyramid Distributors). 410. Det sjunde inseglet elicited a media debate about Ingmar Bergman’s originality as an artist. p. p. BLM 26. My Life in Film (1990).S. 7) by actor Keve Hjelm and author Bengt Anderberg. see list of foreign translations in Chapter II (Ø 98). but reaction ranged from Robin Hood’s panegyrics in ST. It has also been produced on stage (see Ø 424. 95 minutes 12 December 1956 16 February 1957. Productions. 15. p. Humorous references to the film appear in Woody Allen’s Love and Death (1980).. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. and Bergman the scriptwriter lambasted. Trämålning (Wood Painting) has been published both in Swedish and English (see Ø 90). p. 4. p. See Ivar Harrie. A reportage from the shooting of the film appeared in ST. that Ingmar Bergman should stop filming for a while. March 1992. p. 4) and responses in GHT (1 March 1957. Skevik. In radio program ‘Tidsspegeln’. and Anthony Lover (CoeDavis Ltd. Viby. George Coe. NYC Commentary Original film title was Riddaren och döden [The Knight and Death]. All major reviews recognized the film as an ambitious undertaking. pp. on which Det sjunde inseglet was to be based. Paris. 1961. Gustafsberg. 51 (1956): 20-21. A 15-minute American film parody of The Seventh Seal (and Wild Strawberries) entitled Da Duwe [The dove] was made in 1972 by Sidney Davis. 3 February 1957. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 13 October 1958. Bergman’s writing style was also critiqued by Harry Schein. 26 July 1954. Stockholm. John Landquist (AB. pp. no. Later Bergman writes about the shooting in Bilder/ Images. and at Råsunda Film Studios. p. On this occasion he also refers to his one-act play Trämålning. contains the manuscript in French. 8. compares the play and the film. 13. On the whole. Reception Det sjunde inseglet opened in Stockholm with pomp and circumstance. 4. 17 February 1957. An excerpt from the script appeared in FIB no. (2 March 1957.Chapter IV Filmography Dark-haired woman Old man watching procession Other men in crowd scenes Catherine Berg Nils Whiten Tor Isedal. 53. at Hovs hallar in southwestern Sweden. p. illustrated with photographs from the film. Bergman’s first mention of a project to make a film set in the Middle Ages is in an interview in AB. Max von Sydow berättar. The screenplay has never been published in Swedish but is included in Four Screenplays by Ingmar Bergman (Ø 110). Fritjof Tall Filmed on location at Östanå. Sörenson’s biography Loppcirkus. Distribution U. 14-18. Bergman introduced the script with a short ‘message’ to the magazine’s readers. The script to Det sjunde inseglet was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. Bergman is interviewed about the film. 19 February. 3) charged Bergman with plagiarizing Strindberg’s 224 . 425) and on the radio (Ø 283). Inc. 121-22/114-15).

pp. The film was referred to as ‘Bergman’s Faust’ by Eric Rohmer (Arts. 72 (July 1957) and no. and original imagery. Film Quarterly. pp. Bergman topped the list. who became one of Bergman’s most ardent admirers (see Ø 982. pp. Smultronstället. Vi no. Landquist aired his views again on Swedish radio in a discussion with filmmaker Vilgot Sjöman (26 February 1957. no. no. Credits. and by Paul Patera in Arbetaren. 1 (1957). The film was called ‘the first truly existential film in the history of the cinema’ by Andrew Sarris in Film Culture. in yet another poll confined to listing the ten best Swedish filmmakers and films of the century. 3 (Spring 1959). 5. 23-29 April 1957. and Persona got more votes than Det sjunde inseglet. no. Daily Telegraph (London). no. Film Ideal. 23 April 1958. Influential reviewer Carl Björkman (DN. 83 (May 1958). A television production of Trämålning. Barry Lyndon). 19 March. p. 68 (1964). In the UK Films and Filming (April 1958. Cinema Nuovo. listing as its special qualities: historical authenticity. Religious and philosophical implications of Det sjunde inseglet aroused little interest in Sweden. February–March 1961. Amadeus. a nihilistic state of angina temporis. 194-195. Svantesson in Svensk Kyrkotidning. 19 (April) 1959: 51-61. 40-41. pp. 2 (1957). pp. 1999) asked Swedish film critics to list the best feature films of the century. Commentaries and Reception Record Folkungasagan/The Saga of the Folkungs. pp. pp. Stockholm). ‘Dödsdans och pest stötande’ [Dance of death and plague are offensive]. p. 4. 163-164. 70-74. 121-127. Films and Filming 5. 18-19) chose The Seventh Seal as ‘the film of the month’. 13-14. head of TV Drama Department at SR/TV and was moved to a later date (22 April 1963). A. However. was stopped by Henrik Dyfverman. pp. See also comment by Marianne Höök in SvD. 2 (1962). 17 February 1957. 21 (1957). pp. 43-46. universal theme. 4-5. Films in Review 9. p. p. Franzén in Ghöteborgske spionen. 42 (19 November 1958). Bianco e nero. Several monographs and longer articles have been published on the film (see below). The Seventh Seal established Bergman as an international filmmaker and auteur of rank. a poll in Swedish magazine Filmrutan (no. In 1999. None of Ingmar Bergman’s films scored any top place. and in same journal’s February 1963 issue (pp. See AB. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. 28. 22-23. 37-38) Peter Cowie termed The Seventh Seal one of ‘the great films of the century’. 28 February 1957.-O. French Reception). 45-46. pp. typescript in SR Archives. attacked the film for conveying ‘the emptiness ecstasy of the Fifties’ [femtiotalets tomhetsextas]. Vecko-Journalen no. Foreign Reviews Arts. 7 (April 1958). no. Teatern no. Taxi Driver. pp. 42-44. Filmkritik no. The Strindberg-Bergman connection was also discussed by L. 515-517. FIB no. p. The Wild Bunch. 115-16. 9. 225 . Cahiers du cinéma no. 9 (1957). 17 February 1957. 9 (November 1958). no. 4). 4. pp. 20 March 1963. 143 (January-February 1960). 21. 11. 8 March 1958. Filmfacts no. Best among his works was Det sjunde inseglet as number 26 (after such films as Singing in the Rain. p. p. 20) declared that he found Bergman’s metaphysical worries monotonous. planned to air on Easter Sunday 1963. p. pp. One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest. Cinéma 58 no. 11 (1957). Bergman declined to comment. 12. but now Gycklarnas afton. no.Synopses. no. pp. 26.

p. Ingmar Bergman y El septimo sello. La stampa (Turin). 3088-3089. 1 (Fall) 1994: 38-39. 4 (Spring 1958). 48 (February 1960). p. Holland. 16 April 1962. Jean. Süddeutsche Zeitung (Munich). 7331294. 1972. pp. ‘The Shock of Revelation’. pp. 303. pp. Communion. p. pp.P. ‘De stora frågornas sorti och Antonious Block’ [Exit the big questions and AB]. The Seventh Seal. pp. 44:1. (Iranian filmmaker writes about the impact of Bergman’s film on his own conception of cinema as art). 226 . MA thesis: Pacific Lutheran University. no. Monthly Film Bulletin. 20311). West Virginia Philological Papers 27. Darius. 12-13. Cebollado. Pressler. 18 October 1958. 54 typed pp. 2 (1985). Saturday Review. 21-27. (Traces Dance of Death motif in The Seventh Seal to its medieval representations in mural art and engraving). Edmond. ‘Going Roundabout: Similar Images of Pilgrimage in Ibsen’s Peer Gynt and Bergman’s The Seventh Seal’. Videocassette issued by Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. Positif. and in Renaissance of the Film. Sight and Sound 28. (August–September) 1994: 79. New York Herald Tribune. Joseph and Lanayre. In Ingmar Bergman and the Arts.Chapter IV Filmography Image et son no. Ingmar Bergman. pp. Santa Barbara. 95-101. Dutton. 104 p. p. Bragg. 3/1989: 177-86. Ralph E. ‘The Problem of Evil in Ingmar Bergman’s The Seventh Seal’. Osterman. Microfilm International 1980. 1991. 408. Malmnäs. 1957. 1993. no. 8 March 1958. ‘Art as Inspiration’. (Roos).. p. 1998: 34-45. Finsk Tidskrift. 112 (May 1958). Bernt. ‘Le septieme sceau: une analyse’. 1972. pp. no. Sonnenschein. 25-26. Ericsson. 137-143. same date. Literature/Film Quarterly 13. New York Times Film Reviews. University of California.. 199-200. Hudson Review 12. (Analysis of film using Wittgenstein’s philosophy). Pascual. no. 16. Sight and Sound 7. p. Grandgeorge. Robert. 220 pp. 1913-1968. BFI Film Classics. sec. 4 Approach to The Seventh Seal as a musical piece of four symphonic movements and a coda. Norman. 1981. Monograph on the film. Monograph on the film. John Drew. Nordic Theatre Studies. 1 (January 1964): 71-96. 1970. New Statesman.p. n. Gessner. New York Times. no. Le septième sceau. 1960). Melvyn. (Analyzes film and play/script as allegory for stage and screen). no. Longer Studies and Special Issues Anderson. no. (Paris: Nathan. Reviews: Film Quarterly.p. pp. ‘Iconography in The Seventh Seal’. ‘Film är inte litteratur’ [Film is not literature]. 58. 72 pp. reprinted in Focus on The Seventh Seal (Ø 1220). May 1958. Arne. Eva Sundler. Pressler. and Significance in The Seventh Seal’. West Virginia University Philological Papers 35. Univ. Kosmorama no. Slayton. n. 5. Positif. Diss. ‘The Ideal Fused in the Fact: Bergman and The Seventh Seal’. and Skrien. ‘Ingmar Bergman’s The Seventh Seal’. Douchet. 239-243. in The Moving Image (New York: E. (Madrid: ABC del Cine. 2. 8 March 1957. 1989.. ‘Individualism. SDS. Liggera. 127 p. New York. 2 (Summer 1959): 266-270. by Julius Bell. Vol 11. pp. 6 (June) 1997: 69. 59-60. 1994: 75-77. Merjui. pp. no. no. 127-132. 1992). 10 October 1968. Richard. reprinted in part in Journal of Social Issues 20. ‘The Obligatory Scene’. VHS. ed. 14 October.

Study guide (in Swedish) with teacher and student manuals. filmography and bibliography.d. ‘Det sjunde inseglet: en filmhandledning’. 1992. pp. N. 107 (November 1966).) brought out a video cassette of The Seventh Seal in its Great Directors Series. 1969. no. Special issue on Le septième sceau. 77 (August-September) 1958. Burvenich. 37-9. 10-11. 29 May 1957. 410 (March 1992). 1972. —. An Italian fact sheet on Il settimo sigillo. T. —. no. Centro Fedelle Spettacolo. Fact sheet analysis of sequences dealing with natural sounds/music. 55-60. 331bis (numéro hors series). 1964). A special issue on the film. no. 227 . March 1992 are special issues on Le septième sceau. listing openings worldwide. Image et son. Media C 50. November 1977 and L’Avant scène du cinéma. pp. pp. Maaret. pp. pp. review excerpts. Film a sogetto. no. and an analysis of its dramatic structure and religious implications. and a bibliography. ( Ø 1220). Positif no. Special Issues and Study Guides on The Seventh Seal L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma. Focus on the Seventh Seal. Uppsala. 226 (March) 1969: 36-39. including biographical note. 22. p. plot synopsis. ed. 5 pp. Filmorientering (NFI). no. 592-595. no. p. Lumière du cinéma. Film Heritage 8. characters. excerpted dialogue.J. ii–vii. 11 & 15 pp respectively. 229-34. ‘The Milk and Strawberry Sequence in The Seventh Seal’. 1978. See also Filmnyheter 11. 4 (January 1963): 25-29. Télé-Ciné. Cine cubano 4. 4 (Spring 1957): 173. Paired with Night is My Future (Musik i mörker). 1995. ‘Het zevende zegel’. Variety. 1-13. 146-147. In Nordisk litteratur och mentalitet.. Sight and Sound 26. synopsis of script. Birgitta. 17 (1956): 4-6. ed. by Malan Marnersdottir and Jens Cramer. Commentaries and Reception Record Steene. Image et son. 1-94. Image et son no. pp. 24-25. and no. Annales Societatis Scientiarum Færoensis XXV. pp. pp. Brief study guide (in Swedish) for high school students. credits. no. Etudes cinématographiques. Autumn 1961. Credits. 1950-1959. 10-18. fiche 333. Film Classics (Rockleigh. no. ‘Det sjunde inseglet: Filmen som ångestens och nådens metafor [The Seventh Seal: Film as metaphor of angst and grace]. Torshavn: 2000. 22 (1964). pp. 493-99. 4 (Summer 1973). 25-26 (1957). Milan (25 March 1958). Extensive source book on the film in English. no. ‘Från subjektiv vision till tidsdokument och arketyp: Ingmar Bergmans Det sjunde inseglet i mentalitetshistorisk belysning’ [From Subjective Vision to Time Document and Archetype: Bergman’s The Seventh Seal in the Light of Mentality History’. Ø 997. With credits. pp. Contains study material and excerpts from French reviews of the film. Svensk filmografi. Zoom 1/1998. pp. pp. Koskinen. 30-33. and 22 October 1958. n. 18 (1956): 1-3. 207-216. Special section on The Seventh Seal. Many religious discussions of Bergman’s work in the cinema include analyses of The Seventh Seal. no. Steene. 13 pp.Synopses. Cinema (London: Cassel. J. See special group item. 18 (May 1957). no. 6. Cinéma 57 no. 119 (February 1959). Folkuniversitets Filmbyrå. Birgitta. Wiseman. Films and Filming 9.

Stubbs. E. A set of daydream reminiscences and nightmare sequences interrupt the account. segment C. pp. Literal translation would point to a spot where smultron or wild strawberries grow. his daughter-in-law. Anders and Victor have an argument about God. 1957 [Wild Strawberries]. Sara is hitchhiking with two boyfriends. Isak. 88-89. no. 589-592. who does not want to have children. pp. Törnqvist. In a reverie. Borg stops at a big country house where he and his large family used to spend their summers when he was a child. The first of these occurs early. Borg encounters a hearse. 13 (1981). who is about to receive a jubilee degree at the University of Lund for his long service to medical science. driven by an engineer Alman and his wife Berit. The Great Films: Fifty Golden Years of Motion Pictures (New York: G. who believes she sees the same emotional atrophy in old Mrs. Robin Wood. pp. pp. 1995. But the word smultronstället also carries symbolic meaning and refers to a person’s ‘jewel of place’. For more prizes. Bergman’s title carries this meaning for Isak Borg. 1967). He sees his sweatheart Sara picking wild strawberries while being courted by Isak’s brother. 112-119. places where they grow are often kept a secret in the family. Awards 1957 Cannes Film Festival. Since these berries are rare in Sweden.C. its lid opens and a corpse bearing his likeness tries to pull him in. Synopsis Set in present-day Sweden. 226. an actress. Smultronstället depicts one day in the life of a medical professor in his seventies (Isak Borg). Driving to Lund with Marianne. 2 (1975): 62-76 (script excerpt and study questions). At an outdoor luncheon Isak recites a poem by 19th-century Swedish poet and bishop Johan Wallin. A coffin slides off. Stopping for gas. Afterwards Borg and Marianne leave to visit his old mother who is 95. a favorite or special retreat. J. Anders and Victor. Svensk filmografi. Jury’s Special Prize (shared with Andrzej Wajda’s Kanal). and she is the look-alike of Isak’s sweetheart. a recitation Marianne helps him to finish. SMULTRONSTÄLLET. 228 . 1950-1959. Borg as in her own husband Evald. 22-42. the film’s main character. after Borg has introduced himself as an old pedantic widower. 218-222. (Ø 1314). Sigfrid. pp. They praise him for the work he did. Filmdiktaren Ingmar Bergman. see film title in varia. and Isak wonders to himself if he should not have stayed there. The visit is a chilling experience. witnesses a breakfast gathering from his youth. The two join the group for a short while but carry on an argument until Marianne asks them to leave the car. A ‘smultronställe’ is often a place associated with a sense of roots and self-identity. still an old man. (Ø 788). Journal of Aesthetic Education 9.P. Bergman’s beloved Fårö could be his ‘smultronställe’ in life. 1969. All three join Isak and Marianne in the drive south. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman The Swedish title is difficult to convey in English. Crowther. Bergman on Bergman.Chapter IV Filmography B. pp. A young girl wakes him up. Ingmar Bergman. Finding himself wandering alone in a surreal landscape. Putnam’s Sons. Röster i Radio-TV no. Her name is also Sara. Isak meets the Åkerman couple whom he knows from the time he was a country doctor in the area. 82-95. Back on the road Isak’s car narrowly escapes colliding with a VW. especially for Marianne.

Isak and his travel companions are greeted by Agda. he has a comforting vision: young Sara. In a flashback we witness her discussion with Evald on this matter. ‘Fugue in Ess Minor’ ‘ Royal Södermanland Regiment March’ (Carl-Axel Lundwall) ‘Marcia Carolus Rex’ (W. who has flown there. Alman. Credits Production Company Production manager Location manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Music Arrangement Music Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Sven Sjönell Ingmar Bergman Gösta Ekman Ingmar Bergman Gunnar Fischer Gittan Gustafsson K. As he is about to fall asleep. The academic ceremony at which Isak Borg becomes a jubilee doctor is stately and solemn. The film ends as Isak Borg falls asleep. takes him by the hand and leads him to a lake where he sees his parents on an outing in an idyllic countryside. Evald and Marianne are reconciled. She tells him of her marital problems: she is pregnant and does not want to abort the child. he decides to write down the strange events of the day. Isak finds himself alone with Marianne in the car. Carl M. Inc. dead since many years. now parked by the roadside. Awake again. Topelius/Herman Palm) Millie Ström Nils Nittel. Lund. Alman brings him to witness how his wife. Harteveld) ‘Parademarsch der 18:er Husaren’ (Alwin Müller) ‘Under rönn och syren’ (Z. is seduced by her lover. At night. Isak is serenaded by Sara and her friends before they continue to Italy. But Isak’s thoughts wander.Synopses. Isak’s housekeeper. Bergman Aaby Wedin Eric Nordgren Johann Sebastian Bach. and Isak falls asleep. Commentaries and Reception Record Marianne has taken over the driving. as was also the original plan for Isak. Isak’s housekeeper Sten Alman 229 .A. This sequence is followed by a return to the present. Arriving in Lund. Sven Rudestedt Oscar Rosander Katherina Faragó Victor Sjöström Bibi Andersson Ingrid Thulin Gunnar Björnstrand Folke Sundquist Björn Bjelfvenstam Naima Wifstrand Jullan Kindahl Gunnar Sjöberg Costumes Make-up Mixing Editor Continuity Cast Isak Borg Sara Marianne Evald Borg Anders Viktor Isak’s mother Agda. They wave at him. Credits. He fails the test and is found ‘guilty of guilt’. his sweetheart of long ago. with Sara and her boyfriends presenting a bouquet of wild flowers to Isak. In a nightmare he is examined by Mr.

Filmnyheter 12. his wife Karin. 12. 16-20/1962. opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. 7 through no.S. pp. 16 July. pp. (See Chapter I. Its first publication as a script was in Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman (see Ø 110). He also comments on his 230 . 9. 45 (April 1960). 3 (Autumn) 1982: 2-7. Beekman Theater NYC Commentary In Bilder/Images (1990). 14 pp. indoor shooting at Råsunda Film Studios. In an article in Sight and Sound (Spring 1960). 14. It has never been published in book form in Swedish. pp.. It contains a Bergman interview with himself titled ‘Dialog’. 159-160 (Eng. At the release of the film. Isak’s wife Her lover Henrik Åkerman. English. nos. pp. no. Distribution U. p. 11-24. ST. no. illustrated with photographs from the film.S. and Bengt Forslund in Filmrutan 25. Stockholm. 144-45/ Bergman on Bergman. For an assessment of the Sjöström-Bergman relation. and also appeared as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. 131-33) he relates the genesis of Smultronstället to an early morning visit to his grandmother’s living quarters in Uppsala many years after she died. at the university town of Lund. Svensk Filmindustri (SF) published a program in Swedish. pp. The screenplay was serialized in Swedish in FIB 25. KvP. the twins Hagbart Benjamin Elisabet. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 22 June 1959. see DN 5 July 1957. and Gunnar Fischer. 16 August. 38-39. p. SvD. see Bergman om Bergman. Bergman outlines the personal background of Smultronstället. For articles during the shooting of the film. 16. 131-133 (Ø 788) and Bilder (Ø 198). and German. available in SFI library. his wife Aunt Olga in breakfast sequence Uncle Aron Sigfrid Sigbritt Charlotta Angelica Anna Kristina and Birgitta.Chapter IV Filmography Berit. Inc. 18-20 (1957): 16-19. and at Dalarö and Ägnö in Stockholm. pp. Isak’s mother’s nurse Chancellor. and a plot synopsis.) In Bilder he claims the story was made up. no. 1958. In Bergman om Bergman. a presentation of Bergman. beginning 2 July 1957 and completed 27 August 1957. 90 minutes 6 December 1957 26 December 1957. University of Lund Isak’s father Bishop Jakob Hovelius Professor Carl-Adam Tiger Gunnel Broström Gertrud Fridh Åke Fridell Max von Sydow Anne-Marie Wiman Sif Ruud Yngve Nordwall Per Sjöstrand Gio Petré Gunnel Lindblom Maud Hansson Eva Norée Lena Bergman. pp. ed. Ingrid Thulin in Cinéma 60. 1 August. 10-11. Sjöström. no. Bergman honors Sjöström. p. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. Monica Ehrling Per Skogsberg Göran Lundquist Vendela Rudbäck Professor Helge Wulff Ulf Johanson Gunnar Olsson [cut] Josef Norman [cut] Filmed on location at Vida Vättern and the Gyllene Uttern Inn (at Lake Vättern). gas station owner Eva.

pp. 1958.Synopses. with a discussion that includes his role as Isak Borg. 3133. 4 (April 1959): 231-232. 3 (1958). and Films and Filming 5. Filmkritik no. FIB no. 1993 (Ø 927) and a presentation in Röster i Radio-TV. n. is a special Sjöström issue. L’Avant-scène du cinéma. pp. 44. 37:1. p. p. 1 July 1959. Wild Strawberries: A Critical Commentary (New York: Syllabus Press. 2 (1958). 31. no. New York Times Film Reviews. no. and photography. 16-17) carried interviews with actors Bibi Andersson and Gunnar Björnstrand reminiscing about the shooting of Smultronstället. no. 355-359. Letter. 24-25) and again in 1988 (16 July 1988. p. Ord och Bild. Pierre and Kersti French. Films and Filming 5. (the most concise monograph study of the film). 3 (Winter 1958/59): 35. 23 June 1959. 3 (December 1958): 24. same date. as one of Bergman’s major films. no. Foreign Reviews Arts.. Cinéma 58. no. Film News 31 (February-March 1974): 23. In retrospect. no. Monthly Film Bulletin. no. 1981). 50. Cahiers du Cinéma. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. 3. See for instance New Yorker. The analyses have concerned both the narrative structure and the psychological content of the film. See Films in Review 10. Wild Strawberries. 95 (May 1959). 2. 151-152. Reception Smultronstället received very fine reviews in Sweden. Monographs Diane Borden and L. no. Positif no. beyond doubt. 78 pp. and saw the film as the meeting of two generations in Swedish filmmaking. 7 (1961). 15. p. 4 (1958). no. 1975) (a basic close reading of the film). 331-332 (1984). pp. 1958: 150. Commentaries and Reception Record talent in Gösta Werner’s film Victor Sjöström (SFI. Credits.. 1. Earliest foreign reception of film focussed on Victor Sjöström’s performance. p. and NYT. 98 pp. 11. 37-38. A number of American reviews expressed puzzlement at the story and found the film mystifying. 28 (12 August 1959): 157-159. Filmkritik Jahrbuch 3 (1962): 30-32. 1981. Village Voice. pp. 1913-1968. p. no. 14-15. p. 82 (April-May) 1959: 9. pp. Smultronstället has elicited a great many longer articles and has been regarded. pp. New York Herald Tribune. Sight and Sound 28. (7 December 1981. pp. Reporter. Critics praised the script. ‘Ny film’. Télé-Ciné no. 9 July.p. acting. 3 (December) 1958: 24. 37:1. p. Beklädnadsfolket no. At a revival of the film in 1981. no. 6. See also comments by assistant director Gösta Ekman in Interviews. 25 July 1959. p. 23 June 1959. 22. 50. p. 22 April 1959. 231 . 31 (November) 1959): 59-60. 50. Teatern. 1975. London: BFI. 62 ff. Expr. 36. Vecko-Journalen no. December 1958. Vi. Filmfacts 2. 27 (May) 1958: 79-83. 1958. no. New York Times. 27 December 1957.

Archer. 44-47.Chapter IV Filmography Margareta Wirmark. Rhodin. pp. pp. ‘Ingmar Bergmans Smultronstället och Homo Viator motivet’ [Bergman’s Wild Strawberries and the Homo viator motif]. Törnqvist. Béranger. 34 (Winter 196061): 44-46. ‘Minnets spelplatser. pp. 1980: 197203. Chaplin 234. Solomon. Bergman and the autobiographical witness]. 239-292. Scandinavian Studies 37. F. half won: Thoughts about the prologue in Wild Strawberries]. Vår lösen. pp. ‘Rack of Life’. Eugene. pp. Jean. Tulloch. no. 2. Mats. Reprinted from Dædalus 105:2 (Spring) 1976: 1-28 see item Ø 1281. Erikson Erik H. Holland. Harvey. ‘Archetypal Patterns in Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman’. 1958. J. ed. Eleanor. 1998). With a response by Seldon Bach. Birgitta. 1. ‘I det undermedvetnas labyrint’. 4-14. 15. (charging Bergman with using a set of clichéd oxymora in Wild Strawberries). 1 (Fall 1959). no. no. Filmrutan XXVIII. Literature/Film Quarterly 8. 4. pp. p. McCann. pp. Ingmar Bergman och det självbiografiska vittnet’ [Locations of memory. no. pp 128136. in Cahiers du cinéma. S. 79-83 (on Smultronstället and the journey motif). Cinéma 58. ‘Åldrad och återfödd’ [Old and reborn]. Richard A. 1994). ed. ‘A Life History. Smultronstället och Dödens ekipage (Stockholm: Carlsson. Strindberg’s Post-Inferno Plays. —. ‘The Rhetoric of Wild Strawberries’. Aura IV. pp. 4 (Winter 1959/60): 570-577 (on Wild Strawberries and parenthood). Maaret. Asta. no. 18 August 1990. SJ. cf. ‘Images of Dying’. ‘A Brace of Bergman’s’. no. 3. Bolin. Carl-Johan. no. Hoveyda. no. B2. 95 (May 1959). ‘Il visible e il non visible’. hälften vunnet: Tankar kring prologen i Smultronstället’ [Well begun. ‘En odyssé i minnets landskap’ [An odyssey in the landscape of memory]. In Kela Kvam. Blake. 1972). 4. (On Smultronstället as a road movie. by Saul Brody and Harold Schechter. no. Norman. DN. Sight and Sound 30. Reprinted in Kaminsky (Ø 1266).39. ‘The Filmic Dream and Point of View’. ‘Salvation without God’. (A close psychoanalytical reading of Wild Strawberries). I. 45-70. no. 1986. Dennis. 1 (Spring) 1970: 66-82. 344-347. In CUNY English Forum. 1985: 6-8. Isak Borg in Ingmar Bergman’s Wild Strawberries’. 1 (February) 1965: 58-76. Törnqvist discusses the same subject in his book Between Stage and Screen. pp. ‘The Rags of Time’. 40-47. Steene. 1991. ‘Väl börjat. Egil. p. Filmcritica (June-July) 1986: 272-282. cf. R. L. New York: Norton. Encounter 28. 4. Film Quarterly 13. 186195. 63 (1988). (notes the Proustian flashback structure of the film). 1998: 15-33. Koskinen. 1995. no. ‘Long day’s journey into night: Bergman’s TV version of Oväder compared to Smultronstället’. [In the labyrinth of the subconcious]. Eberwein. Béranger and Andersson above). 4 (Autumn 1967): 313-26 (discusses Lutheran concept of salvation in Wild Strawberries). pp 69-71. Denitto. Malmberg. Brace. (on Isak Borg’s psychological quest. in The Film Idea (New York: Harcourt. Archer above). Scheynius. (Focus on dream sequences). 1998. no. 232 .. Filmhäftet no. Greenberg. Vol. Jovanovich. 2 (1978): 33-61. no. no. Articles Albano. Australian Journal of Screen Theory. pp. Lectures given at the 11th International Strindberg Conference (Copenhagen: Munksgaard/Rosinante. 194-200. American Imago 27. pp. In Vital Involvement in Old Age by Erik Erikson et al. Hudson Review 12. ‘Bakvänd predikan’ [Sermon in reverse]. Aura IV. 179-194. Lars Gustaf. (discussion of the dialogue and visual context of Borg’s and Mariannne’s first conversation in the car). 1985. 27 (May 1958). ‘Ingmar Bergman’s Wild Strawberries: A Jungian Analysis’. 26. Andersson.

14 pp. Presentation in connection with film festival: Schrijvers Kiezen Film. 1950-1959. pp. 13. pp. Film a sogetto. in his The Screenplay as Literature (London: The Tantivy Press. 1962). Stina Andersson is a 25-year-old wife of a workman. See also Peter Cowie. pp. 85 (October 1959). Films and Filming 4. 654-657. James Limbacher brought out a video recording based on reviews of Wild Strawberries. E. 96-115.. 1982. where three women share the same room. pp. 331-332 is a special issue on Smultronstället. Ingmar Bergman. 144 (March–April 1960). no. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman and Ulla Isaksson. no. Donohoe (Ø 1321). J. E. Kosmorama 24. Cairo Cineclub Bulletin. is a fiche on Les fraises sauvages. 156-166. 226 (March) 1969: 42-45. A World of Film (Ø 1011). It was nominated for an Oscar in category ‘Best Story or Screenplay written directly for the screen’. Törnqvist. Tyler. 314 bis. review excerpts. Gado. F. 1979. Cecilia Ellius is a professional woman who suffers a miscarriage in the third month of her pregnancy. The Passion of Ingmar Bergman. 151 (MayJune 1960). 1 (January) 1970: 37-40 (about music in the film). no. 227. (Prize went to Pillow Talk). no. Nära livet takes place in the maternity ward of a modern Swedish hospital. 9 (June 1958): 31-32. 169-178 (excerpted dialogue and commentary) and no. Cinema Nuovo. Classics of the Foreign Film (New York: Citadel Press. listing openings worldwide. 102-120. ‘Smultronstället’. P. Special Issues and Fact Sheets L’Avant-scène du cinéma no. Kauffmann. Murray includes Wild Strawberries in his selection of Ten Film Classics (New York: Frederick Ungar. A Critical Biography. Télé-Ciné published a fiche on Les fraises sauvages: no. and Hjördis Pettersson is a 19-year-old pregnant unmarried girl who wants to have an abortion. 1973). 3 (Fall 1992): 86. n. 210-224. no. Awards Smultronstället remains to date Ingmar Bergman’s most decorated film. 18-20 (1957): 1-3. Image et son. 100 (March 1966). and a bibliography. whose baby is overdue. Centro Fedelle dello Spettacolo. (Amsterdam: Kastalia. Credits. 270-273. 23 March 1967.Synopses. Kastalia (Dutch). D. 50 pp. 1993. F. pp. See list in Varia. Milan (10 July 1962). based on her short story ‘Det vänliga. 211-227. pp. pp. dignity] in her 1954 book Dödens faster [The aunt of death]. 356 (12 pp). Lundell and Mulac (Ø 1374). is an Italian fact sheet on Smultronstället. Image et son. See also Filmnyheter 12. 232-235.p. Filmrutan. Commentaries and Reception Record Winston. no. 137 (Spring) 1978: 58-59. no.. plot synopsis. pp. det värdiga’ [Kindness. see Journal of Popular Film and Television. XX. pp. 43-61. Svensk filmografi. credits. Filmorientering (NFI) no. no. 233 . pp. 1958 [Brink of Life/Close to life]. C. Filmdiktaren Ingmar Bergman. NÄRA LIVET. 2001). 1986.

where she miscarries. Thylenius Night nurse Hjördis’s friend Maud. Hjördis wanders listlessly in the hospital corridors. The midwife calls for the doctor. Anders Ellius sees little point in bringing children into the world and finds Cecilia’s fear of losing the child hysterical. but his intervention is fruitless: the baby is stillborn. Hjördis’ boyfriend never comes to visit her. Nordlander Gran. Stina’s husband is all excited about the baby. she blames herself for her miscarriage. Stina is depressed and embittered. She accepts and decides against having an abortion. Cecilia’s husband Greta Ellius Harry. The film opens with Cecilia’s arrival in the hospital. When the doctors make their round. She is left alone in the examination room. Credits Production company Production manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Props (Studio manager) Sound Make-up Editor Continuity Medical adviser Nordisk Tonefilm Gösta Hammarbäck Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman and Ulla Isaksson Max Wilén Bibi Lindström Gunnar Lundin Lennart Svensson Nils Nittel Carl-Olov Skeppstedt Ingrid Wallin Dr. and no longer cowers in self-accusation before her husband. assistant nurse A nurse A doctor Woman with newborn baby 234 . Her delivery is long and painful. After a long wait Stina is ready to give birth. Cecilia in the meantime has become fond of both Stina and Hjördis. She meets with a social worker who tries to persuade her not to have an abortion. Stina’s husband Sister Britta Dr. Medical expertise finds the tragedy a mystery. and she does not want to bear his child. Larsson Dr. social worker Sister Mari Dr. Lars Engström Ingrid Thulin Eva Dahlbeck Bibi Andersson Erland Josephson Inga Landgré Max von Sydow Barbro Hiort af Ornäs Gunnar Sjöberg Anne-Marie Gyllenspetz Sissi Kaiser Margaretha Krook Lars Lind Gun Jönsson Monica Ekberg Maud Elfsiö Kristina Adolphson Gunnar Nielsen Inga Gill Cast Cecilia Ellius Stina Andersson Hjördis Pettersson Anders. she asks for an explanation for the stillbirth but receives no answer. Hjördis is persuaded to call her mother who invites her home to have the child. For the rest of the film she is in bed. Back in the ward.Chapter IV Filmography The attitudes of the three prospective fathers are reflected in the women’s different feelings about childbirth. and Stina is happy and impatient about the arrival of the child. Hjördis tries to befriend Stina but receives a slap in the face.

nos. Arbetaren. Cinéma 59. i. 17 April 1958. no. 1959. p. in 1957. and no. and continuing through no.S. p. 1990. opening Nordisk Tonefilm Ajay Film Co. no. 85 (July 1958). Rohmer. 144 (March-April 1960). 7. 48. Commentaries and Reception Record Father with injured child Bengt Blomgren Filmed on location at South Hospital. pp. 13-14. Reception All Stockholm critics praised the film. by John Russell Taylor. Stockholm. 10-11. 10-11. (April 1959). He writes about the shooting of the film in Bilder/Images. 12 (1958). 155. a film calling for some intelligence but not too much. p. 101-105. Most critics treated it as a semi-documentary about childbirth or as an auteur movie (especially in France). 48. no. 20-21. no. some in superlative language. 311-314. Many felt that Bergman’s collaboration with novelist Ulla Isaksson meant an improvement: ‘Bergman’s pretentious language has been replaced by a poet’s’ [Bergmans pretentiösa sprsåk har ersatts av en diktares]. social workers and nurses. illustrated with photographs from the film. 59 (May 1959). p. Foreign reception of Nära livet was respectful. Also approving was the usually critical Bergman reviewer Viveka Heyman in Beklädnadsfolket no. 235 . who were asked to comment on the film. 5 (May 1958): 224 and Films in Review 10. pp. p. 44. Inc. pp. Arts. Exact dates not available. 7 (1958). beginning in no. never much of an Ingmar Bergman supporter: ‘Close to Life is a superior woman’s picture. pp. 9. 10-12 and no.Synopses. 28 (June 1958). 1 April 1958. 8. Cinema Nuovo. p. FIB no. My Life in Film. 37-41/1961. See also Perspektiv. The script was also serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. and Image et son. pp. 48-51. 100-2.. that Nära livet shares its ascetic style with Bergman’s later films but that the realistic setting links it with his earliest production. 4 (Spring 1961): 90-91. See Arbetet. Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma. 15 (1958). Bergman added the character of Hjördis Pettersson (young girl who wants an abortion) to Isaksson’s original story. 14 (5-11 April 1958). Stockholm. pp. 29 (1958). 17 (1958). 7. Distribution U. 84 minutes 19 March 1958 31 March 1958./Janus Films. Credits. pp. See E. 33-35. no. no. p. Cinéma 58 no. After a showing on Swedish TV. and at Nordisk Tonefilm Studios. 28. A curiously sexist assessment appeared in Sight and Sound 30. 18. 94. contains an interview with Bergman and Ulla Isaksson on their collaboration. 25. no. no. no.’ Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. no.e. Little Carnegie. NYC Commentary The script was published by Ulla Isaksson in FIB (Folket i Bild). pp. 11 March 1959. 10 (December 1959): 624-25. pp. Nils Petter Sundgren argued in Röster i Radio/TV. 19 (2 May 1958). Many welcomed Nära livet’s realistic style and subject matter. A number of brief press interviews were made with doctors. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 8 November 1959. Vi no. 189.S. Vi. pp. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. Bergman researched the film in the Söder (South) Hospital in Stockholm and also consulted a medical adviser. 12 (1968).

4 April 1958.Chapter IV Filmography Critisch Film Bulletin. and the actor Spegel. pp. 60. April 1959. 1958 [The Magician/The Face]. Svensk filmografi. p. Variety. 172-73. 271-72. pp. 16. Filmfacts. Awards 1958: 1958: Best Director and Best Actress (jointly to Ingrid Thulin. However. no. 14-18. p. Film Journal. pp. 21 May 1958. the coachman Simson. pp. 13. Synopsis Ansiktet is set in Sweden in July 1846. no. no. 7 (April 1961): 25. the American title ‘The Magician’ might seem unfortunate in its suggestion of hocus pocus. Films and Filming (July 1958). nakedness vs. 1913-1968. p. Positif. 189 (December) 1965: 101-105. 22 (October 1963). ANSIKTET. 18-20. 21 November 1959. Monthly Film Bulletin. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). 116. R. 10-11. no. pp. New York Times. 11. whom the troupe has found en route in a state of delirium tremens. and Bergman’s great emphasis on face vs. 7 (14 April) 1958. Image et son no. 236 . Spegel has collapsed and is presumed dead. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman In view of the original film title. 122-123 (May-June) 1959: 32. pp. 3 (Spring 1960): 49-50. With him are his disciple Aman-Manda. 1 (Summer 1961). same date. 1-3. 45. 1950-1959 (Ø 1314). Wood. Film Quarterly 13. 3155. Filmnyheter. 124-133. mask. pp. 26-27. but also to the magic potential of his art. when juxtaposing this title and Bergman’s discussion of himself as an illusionist using a modern variation of the old magic lantern. 36: 2. FIB. pp. 84 (June 1958). p. Ingmar Bergman. ‘The Magician’ becomes an appropriate name for the film. p. no. 255-56. 23 November 1959. April 1961. camouflage. 683-686. his manager Tubal. Newsweek. New Yorker. pp. 9 November 1959. pp. 18-19. Image et son no. Télé-Ciné. 78 (October 1958). New York Herald Tribune. no. Motion. Films and Filming 7. p. Bibi Andersson and Barbro Hjort af Ornäs) Cannes Film Festival. 228. Cahiers du cinéma. an herb-collecting old woman called Granny. ‘The Face’. no. pp. NYT Film Reviews. no. p. 1969. Albert Emanuel Vogler arrives with his ‘health theatre’ at the middle-class home of Consul Egerman. Eva Dahlbeck. Venice: Film Critics Award (out of competition). 30 (July 1959). 9 December 1959. referring not only to the main character’s deceptive tricks.

Anders Vergerus 237 . In Vogler’s bedroom. Later Sanna.A. The autopsy takes place in the attic where Vogler proceeds to play a number of frightening tricks on Vergerus until the medical doctor screams in fright and stumbles down the stairs. Credits Production company Production manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Studio manager Props Sound Music Orchestration Costumes Make-up Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Ingmar Bergman Gösta Ekman Ingmar Bergman Gunnar Fischer P.A. Greta Johansson Carl M. the cook. but young Sara joins the troupe. Vogler joins the rest of the troupe in the kitchen. Credits. Powerless and fettered. who – having feigned death – has substituted the body of Spegel. and Egerman’s coachman. and Sara flirts with Simson. his wife and assistant Tubal Granny Dr. Vergerus dismisses Vogler’s muteness as a hoax. Vergerus decides to perform an autopsy on Vogler. Granny and Tubal decide to stay behind. two maids. the town’s medical counsel. now really dead. When alone with Aman-Manda. Starbäck. is visited by Dr.Synopses. Antonsson. and to Sara and Sanna. is consoled by Granny. Antonsson dashes out and is later found dead. The next day a performance takes place in the Egerman living room. is put in a trance and reveals her husband’s gauche manners. Inc. Lundgren Carl Henry Cagarp K. and confesses to his wife that he fears the public whose scrutinizing eyes make him feel powerless. Commentaries and Reception Record At the Egerman house. Vergerus. Vogler. Dr. where Tubal and Granny sell love potions to Sofia Garp. Sofia is attracted to Tubal. who is said to be mute. wife of the town’s chief of police. Vergerus. The film ends as Vogler’s Health Theatre departs in triumph to gallant music suggesting royal pomp and circumstance. for his own. now unmasked as Mrs. as he meets the unmasked Vogler in the hallway. Antonsson tries to strangle Vogler and apparentely succeeds. is tied with the invisible chain. But the tables are turned once more as Vogler and his companions are suddenly called to the Royal Palace. Vogler removes his wig and false beard. frightened by the troupe. Bergman Aaby Wedin Erik Nordgren Eskil Eckert-Lundin Manne Lindholm. Vogler appears in the room and becomes enraged at seeing Vergerus there. It consists of two numbers: Mrs. Vogler. Lundh. Aman-Manda. having hanged himself. is examined by Dr. Oscar Rosander Katherina Faragó Max von Sydow Ingrid Thulin Åke Fridell Naima Wifstrand Gunnar Björnstrand Cast Albert Emanuel Vogler Aman/Manda. he denies having been affected by the ‘seance’ in the attic and continues to ridicule the troupe. Suddenly the ‘dead’ Spegel comes sweeping into the kitchen and grabs a bottle of liquor. who sings her an old ballad. Later. Humiliated.

NYC Commentary On the frontpage of Bergman’s shooting Script II to Ansiktet there is a crossed-over quote from the ‘Sound and Fury’ monologue in Act V in Shakespeare’s Macbeth. Henrietta Starbäck Simson Antonsson Rustan Sofia Garp Customs officials Bengt Ekerot Bibi Andersson Birgitta Pettersson Erland Josephson Gertrud Fridh Toivo Pawlo Ulla Sjöblom Lars Ekborg Oscar Ljung Axel Düberg Sif Ruud Frithiof Bjärne. and H. no. pp. 96-100 (Ø 1493). Bergman’s statement in Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). p. 1959. Stig Wikander compared Bergman’s film to the gnostic legend of Simon Magus. See also interview with Bergman during making of film in L. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 27 August 1959. 3 1959. p. Filmnyheter 13. no. opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. Stockholm. Bergman was also interviewed on Swedish public radio about the film. reprinted in English in Focus on The Seventh Seal (Ø 1220). 20 January 1959. 14) interpreted Vogler as a Christ figure. published a series of interviews with the actors in Ansiktet. beginning 30 June 1958 and completed 27 August 1958. titled ‘Brev till Ingmar Bergman’. p. In ‘Biodags’.Chapter IV Filmography Spegel Sara Sanna Consul Abraham Egerman Mrs.S. See Birgitta Steene. Jean Béranger reports on a meeting with Bergman during shooting of the film. p. Ottilia Egerman Police Chief Frans Starbäck Mrs. Bergman writes about Ansiktet in Bilder/Images. 4) contrasted Bergman’s illusionist to the 19th-century hypnotist Mesmer. 88 (October 1958). 16-18 (1958). 238 . 161-172. Löthwall: ‘Ett nytt ansikte’ [A new face]. asking him about his face and mask. SR. In Cahiers du cinéma. no.S. Tor Borong. 1990. p. Cf. p. 151-153). 100 minutes 13 December 1958 26 December 1958. 1. 4 January 1959. Åke Runnquist in BLM 28. Distribution U. Harry Schein Filmed at Råsunda Film Studios. no. SF published a 14-page program in English on Ansiktet (SF: Stockholm 1959). Inc. 1968. pp. 23 September 1958. pp. 15 (April) 1958: 22. nos. Torsten Jungstedt and Marianne Höök discuss the film. 12-20. 4.-O. See Vecko-Journalen 49. 127. Carl-Eric Nordberg in Vi (no. SR. as did Gunnar Eddegren in Gaudeamus. 9 (November 1959): 784-787. 44. Theater. It is the same passage that Bergman refers to in the original title of his TV film Larmar och gör sig till (In the Presence of a Clown). Max von Sydow talks in retrospect about the film in Elisabeth Sörenson’s biography Loppcirkus. Arne Mårtensson. Jurgen Schildt wrote an open letter to Bergman. Lindström in UNT (15 January 1959. pp. Fifth Ave. Ingmar Bergman. 43 (March 1959). 85 for resumé in English. see ‘Biodags’. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. 4. pp. saw Vogler as Bergman’s persona in his role as public artist. 1989. 4 (reprinted in Kosmorama no. Svenska Morgonbladet 28 August 1958. In a learned article in SvD. 1. Reception In Sweden Ansiktet elicited a lively press debate.

p. 101 (November 1959). 26 September 1959. Ord & Bild no. Swedish Reviews Stockholm. no. and reprinted in Kaminsky (Ø 1266). pp. special issue on Le visage. Vecko-Journalen no. Most extensive American critiques of The Magican are: Norman Holland. What the viewer gets out of it is his personal business’ [Mitt svar är min film. and no. Films in Review 10. 1 (Fall 1959): 47-50. Bengt Forslund summarized the Swedish discussion of Bergman’s film. Vi no. 207-216. pp. 272. 201-214. See also Cowie. Malmö press. no. p. no. Bergman responded in a reported telephone interview (SvD. and Time (7 September 1959.’ Henry Hart in Films in Review 10. pp. Ingmar Bergman. 1982. 28. no. New York Times. 31 (November 1959). Filmkritik. Ed. 10-11 (Autumn 1961). 5 September 1959. Télé-Ciné no. Positif. 4 (Winter 1959/60): 573-577. Centro S. 45-46. p. 239 . Peter. listing openings worldwide. no. no. pp. 17 February 1961. no. Sight and Sound. 173-178. 78 [Am. 3-4 (Autumn-Winter 1959): 167-68. Vad åskådaren får ut av den är hans personliga ensak].Synopses. Fedelle dello Spettacolo.. Commentaries and Reception Record In Filmrutan 2. 60]) termed it Bergman’s least successful film to date: ‘’Just what this Gothic hoedown signifies is anybody’s guess. 13 January. 180. New Yorker. Monthly Film Bulletin. November 1959. 146. 86 (Nov-Dec 1959). p. Fact Sheets Film a sogetto. Image et son no. 141 (September-October 1959). pp. 38.S. Nation. Etudes cinématographiques.. pp. 354 (16 pp). 130-132. 27 December 1958. pp. 1913-1969. Film Ideal. FIB no.. 4-5. no. plot synopsis. Göteborg. 323-325. 2 (November 1959): 20-21. p. Variety (14 January 1959. New Statesman. saw the film as ‘the impetuous outpouring of a demonic poet’. 174-87. 15 December 1961. 4 (1959). 126 (December 1959). Credits. A Critical Biography. no. 203-205. F. pp. 30 September 1959. 8 (October 1959): 486-489. p. Cinéma 59. p. 16): ‘My reply is my film. 16) considered The Magician a rather exclusive product. Filmfacts. 11-12. 2 (1959): 5-7. Italian fact sheet on Il volto. pp. Films and Filming 6. credits. 88 pp. 1 (1959). 8 (October 1959): 486-89. 40 (October 1959). 28 August 1959. 5-9. ‘A Brace of Bergmans’. Cinema Nuovo. 11 (1960). Milan (11 July 1962). no. pp. p. 430-431. pp. p. 71-73. New York Herald Tribune. p. Teatern no. 27:1. no. 76-77. no. NYT Film Reviews. 1 (1959). Vernon Young’s review in Film Quarterly 13. p. In U. 14. 3145-3146. pp. p. pp. and a bibliography. pp. 3 (1959). Hudson Review 12. 2 (1959). 9. review excerpts. 19. 41 (November-December 1959). pp. slightly abridged in Cinema Borealis: Ingmar Bergman and the Swedish Ethos (306). same date. Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma no.

respectively. Ingeri has watched the violent deed from a distance. Ingmar Bergman and the Ritual of Art. 11. She meets three shepherds. The ballad ends by telling of the subsequent violent revenge by Karin’s father. the toad jumps out. The youngest shepherd.) issued a cassette analysis of The Magician in agreement with Janus Films Inc. Ingeri accompanies Karin on her ride to church. and innocent of their motives. Cinema Nuovo Award. pp. (Best Foreign Film). 1950-1959 (Ø 1314). Acapulco Film Festival: Unspecified Award. He overcomes the two oldest ones while the young boy rushes to Karin’s mother for protection. A World of Film (Ø 1011).Chapter IV Filmography Image et son. Måndagar med Bergman. 1982.Y. 51-54. Karin rides on alone through the pastoral landscape. National Review. Going outside he fells a birch tree with his bare hands and beats his body with the twigs. After the killings. Karin’s dark-haired foster sister who is big with child. and Birgitta Steene. This becomes the incitement for the shepherds to violate Karin. 20 January. pp. Several book-length studies of Bergman’s filmmaking pay particular attention to Ansiktet as a film portraying Bergman’s view of the artist. Töre. She is willing to save him. But in the forest she stays behind to consult with an old sorcerer who practices pagan charms. 137 (Spring) 1978: pp. who did not rape her. As 240 . The film opens as Ingeri. 91-102. who begins to prepare for revenge. Awards 1959: Venice Film Festival: Special Jury Prize. they arrive at the house of Karin’s parents. See: Paisley Livingston. pp. As Karin begins to cut the bread. 2 (December 1960): 94-101. 1996. The shepherds collect Karin’s expensive clothing and ride on. 33-37. The meal was prepared by Ingeri. Blond Karin wakes up and gets ready to ride to church with candles for the Virgin Mary. who in a fit of envy has put a toad between two loaves of bread. 226 (March) 1969: 46-48. Töre wakes up the shepherds. 16 March. and the miracle – the welling forth of a fresh spring – that occurs on the spot of her death. After supper the two older shepherds try to sell Karin’s clothing to her mother. International Film Annual 1959. N. They are received hospitably and invited for supper. Educational Dimensions Corporation (Great Neck. 6 July. JUNGFRUKÄLLAN. Instead. pp. who recognizes her daughter’s robe but says nothing. Töre kneels and promises God to build a church on the site. Töre sets out with his household to find the body of young Karin. Karin. she notifies Töre. no. 229. pp. During the meal the youngest shepherd gets sick again. no. Variety. no. 273-275. 15. Svensk filmografi. 257-258. Kauffmann. prepares the morning meal. When they come upon it in the forest. pp. 22 April 1961. 1960 [The Virgin Spring]. but Töre dashes him against the wall. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ulla Isaksson Synopsis Jungfrukällan is based on a 13th-century Swedish ballad called ‘Töre’s Daughter in Vänge’. Tulane Drama Review 5. She is raped by two of them and afterwards killed with a blow to her head. 727-730. Kosmorama. gets sick and vomits. Pasinetti Award. in 1973. 24. Ready to kill. 66-109. which relates the rape and murder of a young maiden. Unwittingly. she offers to share her lunch with them. and 26. pp.

S. Credits Production Company Production manager Location manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Music Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Carl-Henry Cagarp Ingmar Bergman Lenn Hjortzberg Ulla Isaksson Sven Nykvist P. a spring wells forth at the spot where Karin’s smashed head has been resting on the ground. Töre’s wife Shepherd/rapist Mute shepherd Shepherd boy Bridge keeper Frida. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. Commentaries and Reception Record he prays. which he had read as a student. Distribution U. Dalarna and at Råsunda Studios. i himmelen’ (rev. housekeeper Simon of Snollsta Farmhands Stand-in for Birgitta Vallberg & Gunnel Lindblom Filmed on location at Styggeforsen and Skattungsbyn.S. Credits. opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 14 November 1960. beginning 14 May 1959 and completed in late August 1959. Beekman Theater.Synopses. Leif Forstenberg Ann Lundgren Costumes Make-up Editor Continuity Cast Karin Ingeri Töre Märeta.A. Inc. He 241 . NYC Commentary Ingmar Bergman first toyed with the idea of writing his own screenplay based on the medieval ballad. text: Ingmar Bergman) ‘ Tiggarens visa’ (text/music: Ingmar Bergman/Erik Nordgren) Marik Vos Börje Lundh Oscar Rosander Ulla Furås Birgitta Pettersson Gunnel Lindblom Max von Sydow Birgitta Vallberg Axel Düberg Tor Isedal Ove Porath Axel Slangus Gudrun Brost Oscar Ljung Tor Borong. Lundgren Tor Borong Aaby Wedin Erik Nordgren & Alexander Surkevitz ‘I himmelen. ‘Töres dotter i Vänge’ [Töre’s daughter in Vänge]. 88 minutes 19 January 1960 8 February 1960.

no. 13 November 1960. 7 March 1960 (p. 49 (October 1959). For discussions of the rape sequence. 15 February 1960 (p. pp. Expr. p. p. arguing 242 . 5) started a month-long debate on Jungfrukällan. In an editorial on 10 February 1960. 13 February (p. with a loss of critical acumen. 4). p. p. French version. p. 8 (19 February 1960). Agreement was unanimous. appeared in Kosmorama. She conceived of the story as a novel and changed the order of events by placing the miracle at the very end. Among the many responses to Lagercrantz’s editorial. 3). 9) reported the decision by the Swedish Film Censorship board not to cut anything in the submitted version of the film. 10 February 1960. Jungfrukällan became Bergman’s most controversial film in Sweden. A long segment of the script in English. Lagercrantz charged Swedish reviewers. p. who praised the film. see AB. 9 (‘Source of a Spiritual Spring’). published in Danish translation. p. p.. December 1959. An editorial comment in Arbetet. In that sense the film is very Lutheran. but dwelt more on the rape scene than on Töre’s savage vengeance. 22. To Lagercrantz. 5). and SDS. published a public poll on audience response to the film. and discusses her collaboration with Bergman in NYT. pp. 1960. did not object to the muchpublicized rape scene but questioned the use of a toad in the bread prepared by Ingeri. and Vecko-Revyn. The same statement appears in French in the above-mentioned special issue of Cinéma 60. An interview with the actors appeared in DN. (läsbilagan/reading supplement). and explains the change in the American preface to her novel The Virgin Spring (New York: Ballantine Books. Reportages from shooting of Jungfrukällan appeared in DN. 12. An interview with Jean Béranger. 13 March 1960. 3). 22 May 1959. no. Kristianstadsbladet. 4). in Hemmets Journal no. Two issues crystallized during the Swedish discussion of Jungfrukällan. and in Expr. vi): ‘It is of great importance that the spring wells forth when all need it. less than ten seconds of the rape scene was cut. 33-43. DN. p. 16 February (p. One concerned Bergman’s standing as a film artist: was he an authentic artist or a sensationalist? The other matter focussed on violence and censorship. Stig Ahlgren in Vecko-Journalen. Ingmar Bergman was a master of histrionics and not an authentic artist. ST. titled ‘La Ballade de la fille de Töre à Vänge’ was published in a special issue on the film in Cinéma 60. 2. SvD. Reception Next to Tystnaden/The Silence (1963). (p. 14. Ulla Isaksson talks about her novel in ‘Boken jag minns’ [The book I remember]. 5). two days after the Stockholm opening. no. see AB. 3 December 1972. 15.’ The English preface to Isaksson’s book was actually an 8-page program issued by Svensk Filmindustri (SF) in English and French (available in SFI archives). 22 May 1959.Chapter IV Filmography later turned to Ulla Isaksson as a collaborator. sec. 17 January 1961. Gunnar Oldin interviewed Ingmar Bergman about Jungfrukällan on Swedish TV (SVT) on 14 February 1960. claimed that the real rape was the artistic violation of the ballad source. appeared in Continental Film Review. 26 February (p. and 4 March 1960. SvD (p. an editorial comment by Olof Lagercrantz in DN (p. 14-15. 51 (November-December 1960). 50-51 (by Arne Sellermark). the board denied rumors that Ingmar Bergman had threatened to withdraw his film if any cuts were made. p. In the American release of the film. 6-7. after Töre’s revenge. 14. 44 (1959). and 2 March 1960 (p. 14-17. 9 February 1960. 11 March 1960. 2 (review). L’Avant-Scène du cinéma 444 (July) 1995 includes the full manuscript in French (La source). pp. This issue also contains a brief note from Bergman’s diary during the shooting of the film. 21 February 1960. concluded that Bergman lacked artistic integrity when he chose to ‘arrange brutally murdered people in such exquisitely aesthetic settings’ [att arrangera brutalt mördade människor i så raffinerat estetiska positioner]. 2. 4). That this possibility exists is the very meaning of the film. On 12 February 1960. A public request that the Swedish attorney general examine the rape sequence was denied. pp. with a concluding synopsis. 15.

Films and Filming 8. Foreign Reviews Arts. saw the film as Bergman’s (rather than Ulla Isaksson’s) expression of a religious and moral vision. 179-82. 152-54. pp. 2 (1960). Hjalmar Bergman. pp. pp. Educational Dimensions Corp. Andresen in Arbetaren.. 8 (1960). Pär Lagerkvist. no. felt that the film was more ‘brutal and less sophisticated than earlier Bergman’. 9 February 1960. Cahiers du cinéma no. no.) issued a cassette analysis of The Virgin Spring (and The Magician) in agreement with Janus Films. Films in Review 11. The journal Granta. 444 (July 1995). who calls the film ‘supernatural mumbo-jumbo’. Other issues raised about Jungfrukällan concerned its literary and philosophical parallels. Cuadernas de Cine Club Mercedes no. pp. Toads and frogs were represented in medieval drawings as a metamorphosed uterus and were thought to have special sexual power. New Yorker. In Scandinavian folklore. 22-26. Ahlgren claimed to have seen ecstacy in Karin’s eyes as she is raped by the shepherd who wears a Mephistopheles mask. (Great Neck. 277-279. 1204 (26 November 1960) contains a special write-up on The Virgin Spring (BFI info). p. Spring 1960: 66-67. 94-97. Credits. reviews were mixed. Definition no. 17. [Excerpted in Kaminsky. 3 (1961). 215-221]. 19 November. Commentaries and Reception Record that what we witness is not rape but a caricatured cult act. no. p. B. 62-63. New York Herald Tribune. N.S. no. 243 . pp..p. related its artistic vision to that of Strindberg. pp. 12 (17 May 1960) for a compilation of international reviews of Jungfrukällan/La source in connection with its showing at the Cannes Film Festival. pp.Synopses. 51-53. 10 (July 1961): 26-27 Filmfacts 9 December 1960. 10 (1960). 50 pp. and no. pp. 1 December 1961. pp. Filmkritik no. 53 (February 1961). 22. 98-100. pp. 1 (May 1963). 7 (1960). Birgitta Steene in Ingmar Bergman. 116 (February 1961). pp. and Brendan Gill. L’Avant Scène du Cinéma no. 1955. Title on the container is ‘Two Films by Ingmar Bergman’.) See also Agence France-Press. this to Stanley Kauffmann. 1973. Film Ideal. no. Jörn Donner in BLM 19. no. thought The Virgin Spring was ‘Bergman’s most lucid film’. the film marked the beginning of the Cahiers group’s disenchantment with Bergman. Cf. 16. Cinéma 61. 17 March. 15 November 1960. 3 (March 1960): 254-59. 1975 (Ø 1266). pp. Teatern no. New Republic. In France. and Swedish poets of the Forties. 14-21 December 1960. p. 9 (March 1960). 46:1. Ahlgren’s folklore reference was elaborated on in a newspaper essay by historian Sven Ulric Palme (ST. Swedish Reviews Stockholm/Uppsala press. Chaplin. discusses The Virgin Spring as a Kierkegaardian credo quia absurdum est.Y. U. (See Ø 982. 1-2. 5 December 1960. while NYT. Vi no. 26-31. is an issue devoted to La source in connection with a Bergman revival in Paris. p. troll women who had sex with the devil gave birth to toads. 292-295. 8 October 1960) in which he discusses the medieval use of toads as host in witch sabbaths. 21-22. The Swedish debate of Jungfrukällan/The Virgin Spring was summarized in Sight and Sound. n. p. Inc. pp. contains sample reviews in Spanish. no. who refers to Bergman in a derogatory way as ‘a cinema Kierkegaard’. 9 (November 1960): 556-557. LXIV. same date. 1968. 11. toads being the devil in disguise.

21 (1964). 57-59. Saknar innhållet intresse?’ [The Virgin Spring. see Varia. Télé-Ciné no. ST. 4 (Summer 1960): 43-47. no. Ronny & Anna-Karin Blomstrand. Variety. Temas de cine. Time. 244 . no. no. pp. no. pp. no. 22-26. no. pp. 1913-1968. 1 (January 1960). 5 December 1960. Filmnyheter. See also Cine cubano. 4. Los Angeles 1961. 18-29. 1 (Summer 1961). Does the content lack interest?]. ‘UCLA Art Films’. Spectator. no. 21-22. no. C. Film Heritage 2. Longer Articles and Special Issues Ambjörnsson. ‘The Virgin Spring: Anatomy of a Mythic Image’. Young. pp. Motion. pp. After Jungfrukällan received an Oscar. pp. p. Vernon. 4-page program analysis of film. no. p. Image et son. 8 October 1960. William. NYT Film Reviews. 332-335. 3 (Spring-Summer 1968): 53-66. 4. ‘Fotnot till Jungfrukällan’ [Footnote to the Virgin Spring]. pp. Salmagundi II. Golden Globe Award by Hollywood Foreign Press Association. pp. 46 (May 1960): 85-88. 40). p. SR (Sveriges Radio) interviewed Bergman in ‘Dagens eko’. Kenyon Review. 49 (April 1960). 1960. p. 29-33. Vecko-Journalen no. Spring 1961. 4. New York Times. April 1962. Positif. 85 (1 December 1961). ‘Ingmar Bergman and the Religious Film’. pp. no. Awards 1961: Academy Award for Best Foreign Film. 226 (March) 1969. also in Filmkultura. 13-15. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). 63 (A. 19 November 1960. pp. 40 (October 1959): 93-100. 6. no. p. 4. Cinéma 60. pp. For more awards. 24 February 1960. 26 (January-February 1963). Götheborgske Spionen. pp. no. pp. Svensk filmografi. Stolpe Sven.Chapter IV Filmography Film Quarterly 13. 9 June 1961. pp. 48-51. pp. no. 839. 46. 2 (Winter 1967): 2-20. Films and Filming.E. 18 April 1961. 13 February 1960. same date. Madden. 39-40. ‘The Ballad and the Source’. 1983: 37-41. 207-216. pp. p. 18-19. Variety. ‘Jungfrukällan. N. 4-7. Kosmorama no. Palme. Etudes cinématographiques. 10-11 (Autumn 1961). 15 November 1960. 38 (March 1961). 5 December 1960. 3223. ‘En vårnatt i Dalarne’ [A spring night in Dalecarlia]. 26-27). 152-154. p. Pechter. 154-155: New Republic. 91 (September-October 1960). New Yorker. 17. p. 78. Silverstein. Film Ideal. no. 65-66. 7 (12 February) 1960. Sven Ulric. p. New York Herald Tribune. David. no. Cinéma 59. p.

The reason is that a young girl of 20.’ Designed in four acts like a stage play. contrary to all infernal calculations. in a final flashback to the vicarage on the occasion of Britt-Marie’s wedding. a totally naive and innocent man. who provides a Brechtian commentary during three ‘intermissions’. During a stormy night. selections from sonatas by Domenico Scarlatti. Don Juan vender tilbage [Don Juan Returns]. Renata. and his frustrated wife. whose punishment in Hell is to remain forever aroused and never sexually fulfilled. accompanied by his jovial servant Pablo. Don Juan seduces Britt-Marie while Pablo devotes himself to her mother. remains a virgin though she is engaged to be married. Still another defeat occurs for Satan when the parson. The actual plot concerns the legendary Don Juan who has spent 300 years in Hell. DJÄVULENS ÖGA. from a Danish radio play by Oluf Bang. However. since it spells defeat for the infernal principles that rule the underworld. is ordered by Satan to return to Earth. The main action is set in Hell and in a vicarage in the Swedish countryside.A. which in turn causes consternation among the Devil and his advisors. and the stye disappears from the Devil’s eye. BrittMarie. 1940 Gunnar Fischer P. for they realize the temporal nature of their visit and become aware once more of what they have forfeited in an earlier life through their lecherous living. This is a minor victory for the forces of Hell. His mission accomplished. Commentaries and Reception Record 230. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Music Costumes Make-up Mixing Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Lars-Owe Carlberg Ingmar Bergman Lenn Hjortzberg Ingmar Bergman. The pastoral beauty intensifies their agony. Don Juan. Lundgren Karl-Arne Bergman Stig Flodin Erik Nordgren.Synopses. forgives his wife for her infidelity. the head of ‘this inverted parish’ gets a stye in his eye. Credits. She is the daughter of the parson. One day. Don Juan must return to Hell. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis The theme of the film is an ‘Irish’ motto invented by Bergman: ‘A young woman’s chastity is a stye in the Devil’s eye. 1960 [The devil’s eye]. the film is introduced in a theatre by a speaker dressed in formal attire. Satan learns that the young girl lies to her husband during their wedding night. Arriving at the vicarage they meet Britt-Marie. played by Käbi Laretei Mago (Max Goldstein) Börje Lundh Olle Jakobsson Oscar Rosander Ulla Furås 245 . The two men emerge from the underground into an earthly paradise. But this time – unlike his earlier erotic escapades – Don Juan has actually fallen in love with the object of his seduction.

Text-based reportages also appeared in Röster i Radio/TV. though Cinéma 62. 1-2/1961. pp. no. Inc. p. Distribution U. 16-24. pp. 52 (1959).Chapter IV Filmography Cast Don Juan Britt-Marie The Parson Pablo Speaker Renata Satan Count Armand de Rouchefoucauld Marquis Guiseppe de Maccopazza An old man Jonas. Britt-Marie’s fiancé A demon Woman with veil Demon keeping watch The hairdresser Doctor giving enema Cosmetics doctor Assistant to tailor Maid Tailor The Metamorphosis Expert Negro masseur Jarl Kulle Bibi Andersson Nils Poppe Sture Lagerwall Gunnar Björnstrand Gertrud Fridh Stig Järrel Georg Funkquist Gunnar Sjöberg Torsten Winge Axel Düberg Allan Edwall Kristina Adolphson Ragnar Arvedson Börje Lundh Lenn Hjortzberg John Melin Arne Lindblad Inga Gill Sten-Thorsten Thuul Svend Bunch Tom Olsson Filmed at Råsunda studios. and in ST 6 December 1959. beginning 19 October 1959 and completed 1 January 1960. published a pictorial reportage by Lennart Nilsson from shooting of The Devil’s Eye. 15 and 22 February 1960. Similar reportage appeared in Swedish in Vecko-Journalen. 1960.S. no. pp. 86 minutes 8 October 1960 17 October 1960.S. no. 246 . 10. Life. NYC Commentary The script of Djävulens öga was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. 10-13 (Matts Rying). 50-52/1960 and nos. Reception Djävulens öga was well received by Swedish critics who regarded the film as an entertaining intermezzo in Bergman’s production. 21. 63 (February 1962). Stockholm. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 30 October 1961. 102-3. Beekman Theater. published a review that denounced not only the film. illustrated with photographs from the film. opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. p. 18) called it ‘a placebo in a Swedish vicarage park’ [ett lusthus i en svensk prästgårdspark]. Carl Björkman (DN. Foreign opinion also tended to view the film as an interlude in Bergman’s career. 18 October. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. but Ingmar Bergman as a filmmaker. nos.

p. p. pp. 16. pp. Commentaries and Reception Record Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. Prague: Department of Czech Theatre Studies. 244-49. p. 36. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman The film title is a direct quote from the Bible (Paul’s first epistle to the Corinthians. New York Times. 82-85. Filmkritik no. 27:4 and NYT Film Reviews. 1913-1968. P. Svensk filmografi. no. Kosmorama no. a young woman who suffers from schizophrenia. 2 (February 1963). 13:12). 18 October 1960. pp. 22 September 1961. p. 45. Gilliatt. SÅSOM I EN SPEGEL. p. 204-205. Vecko-Journalen. pp. Ord & Bild 69. FIB no. 151-152. 1961 [Through a Glass Darkly]. Synopsis The film occurs during a 24-hour period on an island in the Baltic.) See also Kauffmann. 4 November 1961. 51-52. 78-79. 63 (February 1963). pp. English translation uses King James’ version. 148 (February 1962). Egil. 53 (April 1961). p. 247 . Image et son no. 207-208. Unholy Fools (New York: Viking Press). 244-245. 27 September – 1 October 1991. her husband Martin. p. 280-282. pp. no. 1993. 9 November 1960. 43 (1960). New Yorker. Films in Review 12. p. In Sormova. 35. Variety. pp. no. no. Positif no. no. p. 45 (May 1962). Cinéma 62. 11 January 1963. 31 October 1961. Image et son. ‘Ingmar Bergman and Don Juan’. Monthly Film Bulletin. 9. 74-75. Filmfacts. her younger brother Minus. Eva (ed). Vi no. Foreign Reviews Bianco e nero. (Article deals primarily with the Don Juan motif in Bergman’s film but with some references to same motif in his theatre productions of Molière’s Don Juan. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). and their father David. A World of Film (Ø 1011). 19. 51 (December 1960). 4 (April 1966). a medical doctor. p. Films and Filming 10. 12 (December 1961): 620-621. 72. 4. 85-88. 8 December 1961. 116. Don Juan and Faust in the XXth Century. and no.Synopses. pp. 10 (December 1960): 521-527. Proceedings from Theatre Conference. 283-284. 3286. pp. p. no. Spectator. 4 (1966). 19 pp. pp. no. Longer Articles Törnqvist. no. 47 (1960). no. 44 (1960). 19. 11-12 (November-December 1961). a novelist and widower. Film (Hannover). p. Cinéma 60. no. 5 (February 1963): 37-38. Time. 226 (March) 1969. pp. 231. Credits. It concerns a family of four: Karin. 46 (May 1960).

Minus listens to David talking about the human love that surrounds Karin. After dinner Karin and Minus put on a play for David: a poet promises to follow the Princess of Castille into the realm of death. and she withdraws to the hull of an old. and Karin cowers in a corner of the room. A helicopter arrives to pick her up and is seen descending outside the window. After they have left. Quieted she reveals her vision to them: God emerged from the closet in the shape of a huge spider and tried to penetrate her. screaming hysterically. The positive implication of this is shown in Minus who seems overwhelmed that his father has confided in him: ‘Father spoke to me’. Martin and David leave in the motorboat to go to the city. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Lars-Owe Carlberg Ingmar Bergman Lenn Hjortzberg Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist P. where he breaks down crying. and she receives a tranquillizing injection. There Minus finds her and comforts her. The scene changes to a rowboat in which Martin and David discuss Karin’s illness. it seems to move and come alive. Lundgren Karl-Arne Bergman Stig Flodin 248 . Karin tells him of voices that speak to her. Karin wakes up.Chapter IV Filmography The film opens as these four characters emerge from a swim. The sound from the helicopter is deafening. He also reveals his intent to leave soon. David is visibly shaken by the play. she comes upon his diary. Martin appears at the window and asks his father to go fishing. The film ends with Karin’s departure. Karin and Martin retire to bed. Minus and Karin go to fetch milk at a nearby farm. His children are unhappy about this announcement. Minus hears Karin talk to imaginary voices. she falls asleep in her father’s study after David has tucked her in. There is a suggestion of incest. but soon voices call on her again. Later when David and Martin return from the city. Rummaging around in David’s desk. Karin recovers her sense of reality briefly. Later. David and Martin overpower her. She asks Martin to kneel beside her. she goes to the attic where she communicates with her voices. Martin and Minus discovering Karin in the attic again. obviously bought at the last moment. Worried. David’s homecoming is celebrated with an outdoor dinner during which David presents gifts. Minus reveals his uneasy feelings about sexuality. When the sun’s rays hit the wallpaper pattern. Suddenly she asks him to leave her alone. David leaves the table and goes inside. and the princess departs alone. Her posture suggests sexual rapture. The air vibrations from its rotating wings force a closet door to open in the attic. David reveals having made a suicide attempt during a recent stay in Switzerland and claims it filled him with a new sense of love. But he regrets his promise. The final sequence begins with David. this time as a tour guide in Yugoslavia. Karin helps Minus with his Latin lesson. A scene from within the attic shows Karin standing against its papered wall. Waiting outside the room. Early the next morning Karin wakes up to the shrieks of seagulls. in which he has written about his fascination with her illness. then takes him to the attic.A. stranded ship. Later in the day. Martin makes arrangements to have Karin moved to a hospital.

Holden below.] Här har jag kommit till en lösning]. 89 minutes 4 October 1961 16 October 1961. with the idea of atonement (försoningstanken): ‘The God problem has always been my concern and is perpetually present to me. 14). 4. had decided with eight votes against two to shoot Bergman’s next film in black and white (see ‘Ingmar Bergmans färgfilmklubb röstade svartvitt för “Tapeten”. DN. D minor for cello. 14 July 1960. 9. The press conference was also covered by Philip Scheuer in Los Angeles Times (1 August. which had experimented with color for some months. Report also states that during the shooting. As this motif remained in Bergman’s mind. sec. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. Suite no. Commentaries and Reception Record Sound effects Music Costumes Editor Continuity Evald Andersson Erik Nordgren. Here in [Through a Glass Darkly] I have found a solution’ [Gudsproblemet har alltid varit angeläget och ständigt närvarande för mig.Synopses. NYC Commentary Bergman discusses the film in Bilder/Images. the first two being Smultronstället and Jungfrukällan.S. pp.S.S. opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. Bach. played by Erling Blöndal Bengtsson Mago (Max Goldstein) Ulla Ryghe Ulla Furås Harriet Andersson Max von Sydow Gunnar Björnstrand Lars Passgård Cast Karin Martin David Fredrik. In a Swedish newspaper write-up a few weeks before the press conference. All three works dealt. See SvD. 2. p. p.’[Bergman color film club voted black and white for ‘The Wallpaper’]. 1990. and that Bergman would begin to give color a dramatic role in his filmmaking as soon as he ‘felt comfortable with the new medium’ [kände sig hemmastadd med det nya 249 .. Fontänen and Spegeln (Stockholm) 13 March 1962. Bergman held a press conference on 13 July 1960. Såsom i en spegel was the first Bergman script to be published in book form in Sweden. Beekman Theater. The working title was Tapeten [The Wallpaper]. and ST. [. announcing his intention to shoot his next film on Fårö. 11. See (Ø 124). Inc. Cf. he searched for a new name for his film and almost opted for Bekänna färg [Show your hand] but remembered that this title had already been used by Swedish novelist Olle Hedberg. p. footage in color would be done as an experiment. p. beginning 12 July 1960 and completed 16 September 1960. based on an idea that had been omitted in Bergman’s film Prison: a mad painter thought the wallpaper in his room moved. 13) who reports on reasons for Bergman to abandon earlier plans to shoot the film in color. Chapter II. it was reported that the so-called Color Film Club (consisting of Bergman and his collaborators). Credits. Distribution U. same date.. step by step. 16 June 1960. At the time of the press conference Bergman viewed Såsom i en spegel as the last film in a trilogy. 243-256. J. called Minus Filmed on location on the island of Fårö and at Råsunda Studios.

Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. ‘A Passion for Light’ in American Cinematographer. 230-31. 96. Christian Century. Spectator. 3 October 1962.] My fictional people were not left alone. pp. Time (23 March 1962. no. Cf. 6. 9 (November 1961): 760-762. no. 48-50.. Films and Filming 10. and its resolution unconnected to the plot. pp. 46-47. no. p. p. Chaplin. 16 November 1962. Sedan ‘Såsom i en spegel’ låter jag dem leva sitt eget liv]. pp.S. Foreign Reviews Arts.. Vi. 210-211. regretted that Bergman had relinquished his visual talent and created a movie that was basically uncinematic. and Birgitta Steene. 34) felt it surpassed Bergman’s previous work in its clarity and directness. 5 September 1962. Bergman talks about the importance of the new intimate format of Såsom i en spegel and how it changed his approach to his characters: ‘Earlier I played the guardian. Ingmar Bergman. See Sven E. see the following: Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). no. p.Chapter IV Filmography mediet]. 24. For a report of the shooting of Såsom i en spegel. Since Through a Glass Darkly I can let them live their own lives’ [Förr spelade jag förmyndare. pp. no. 26-27. no. F-Dienst 30. 9-10. 19 September 1962. no. p. and no. 1968. 43 (1961).. p.] De människor jag diktat upp fick inte vara i fred. FiB. both in its preoccupation with the role of the artist and its examination of religious issues. p. no. pp. Expr. its themes undefined. In an interview in DN. 4 (Summer 1962): 52-3. 4 (Summer 1962): 52-53. no. 4. 70 (November 1962): 106-108. was mixed. 5 November 1961. no. BLM 39. Cahiers du cinéma. Vernon Young in Film Quarterly 15. April 1972. p. In Såsom i en spegel he (and Bergman) began to develop a new ‘chamber film’ style. 69 (September-October 1962). 13 April 1962. Olsson in ‘Bergman som Guds spegel’. Le Figaro. See Ø 1680. Chapter III. 59-61. Over the years Bergman critics have frequently singled out Through A Glass Darkly. pp. For an explanation of the term. There were other specific challenges in photographing the film. 44 (1961). 19 January 1962. [. especially its ‘forced’ ending. p. 761. Reception Swedish critical reception of Såsom i en spegel was enthusiastic. 67) called it Bergman’s most mature creation to date. Reaction to the film in the U. But questions were raised about whether the film was not too exclusive. as a target. But Stanley Kaufmann (New Republic. 28-29.. Films in Review April 1962. 168. 16. 22-23. no. 41-45. and Arthur Knight in Saturday Review (17 March 1962. p. no. 17 October 1961. Nykvist had taken over as Bergman’s main cinematographer with Jungfrukällan. pp. [. 69 (September-October 1962). pp. reprinted in A World on Film. Filmfacts.. 7 (March 1977). 4 (January 1963): 47-48. pp. Götheborgske Spionen. pp. 23 (November 1961). 1198. Cinéma 62. p. Film Quarterly 15. p. Reviewers stressed Bergman’s masterly control of the medium and labeled the film his most essential work to date. 1961. see Jean Béranger. I interfered with their actions and their destinies. 16 March 1962. jag lade mig i deras handlande och deras öden. Cinéma 62. 12 a-d. See Sven Nykvist. 282-284) found the film confusing. 250 . 137 (November 1962).

26-27. Tony. Gibson. 1913-1968. Hubert L. Winter Light. In The Hero in Scandinavian Literature. pp. (Ø 1546). 72-77. 1 (Winter 1974): 22-29 see Ø 1252 Lundell. Movie. 34. p. The Art of Confession. 106-139. pp. p. p. Arthur. Part of the same material appears in Cinema Nuovo. pp. Steene. pp. pp. Literature/Film Quarterly II. passim. New Republic. p. pp. and excerpts from the script. 159 (September–October 1962). no. Martin. ‘Die Trilogie der Anfechtung’ in author’s Filme und ihre Regisseure.Synopses. 6 (January 1963). 30-31. 45:1 and NYT Film Reviews. Temps Modernes. (Ø 1100). p. 77-133. no. 14 (April 1962). See the following: Buzzonetti. 196-202. Gado. a special issue on Como in uno specchio. p. no. ‘Suffering into Ideology: Bergman’s Såsom i en spegel (Through a Glass Darkly)’. F. (Bern: H. Marc. Cowie. 1963. no. no. contains a review of the film by Stig Björkman. 37. Also issued in 1966 under title Bilder des Dichterischen Themen und Gestalten des Films. bio-presentation of Bergman. 1965 (Ø 1129). Jeune Cinéma.. no. Cohen. no. Sjöman. Birgitta in ‘Bergman’s Movement towards Nihilism’. 1982. 1969. Ingmar Bergman. 96-113. Credits. 198 (November 1962). Le monde. Mulac. Frank. 1969. R. (Ø 1657). pp. 40 (October 1963). A Critical Biography. ‘Husband and Wives in Bergman’s Films’. 14 March 1962. The Passion of Ingmar Bergman. 23 March 1962. (Ø 1185). pp. Austin: University of Texas Press. L-136: Dagbok. New York Herald Tribune. Schlappner. Ingmar Bergman. 67. 19 September 1962. Steene. 3. 375-78. 17 March 1962. and The Silence). Torborg and A. Göran. 8 (June-July) 1965. Peter. Birgitta. 3 (Winter 1962/63): 38-39. pp. 5. pp. no. Ingmar Bergman. Robin. Wood. (Analysis of student response to Bergman’s film). (Ø 1381). Huber. by Robert Rovinsky and John Weinstock. 239-241. Commentaries and Reception Record Filmkritik no. Longer Discussions Most longer discussions of Såsom i en spegel are parts of essays on what became known as The Trilogy (Through a Glass Darkly. 8 (1962). 1999. Special Studies French. 1993. Time. Fact Sheets and Special Journal Issues Cineforum. 1963. 1975. 34 (June 1994): 68-72. pp. and 18 May 1963. Revista del cinematografo 36. New York Times.. Chaplin. same date. 6 (July 1964): 255-58 (analysis of philosophical progression of the Trilogy). p. Vilgot. Sight and Sound 32. 267-80. no. Holden. p. 3311-3312. 123. 171-82. D. 4. The Silence of God. ‘Archetypal Patterns. Persson. pp. ed. pp. pp. Magician and Prophet. Journal of the University Film Association 1(Winter) 1981: 23-37. January 1963. 26 March 1962. CineAction. 1967).’. Saturday Review 17 March 1962. (Ideology referred to in title is ‘a suspect ideology of Love out of someone else’s anguish’). Monthly Film Bulletin. no. ‘Three Literary Sources for Through a Glass Darkly’. 21. 87-105. 63-78. Variety 3 January 1962. New Yorker. (Ø 1432). which also 251 . Gervais. p. Ingmar Bergman. 1986.

and proudly introduces Fanny to the townspeople. plot synopsis. 24. 11 pp. pp. has had an affair with Miss Fanny. 102-105. Miss Fanny decides to leave town. La Biennale 7. Both men are anxious not to reveal their liaisons. listing openings worldwide.. pp. 42 (1970).ed. see Varia. Lundberg have an argument and break off their liaison. is an Italian fact sheet on Come in uno specchio. Lundberg spreads the rumor that Mr. Svensk filmografi. The book sells out in no time. pp. Film a Sogetto. Media C. 48 (1963): 29-44. Awards 1962: American Motion Picture Academy Award (Oscar) for Best Foreign Film For additional awards. July 1962. 160-72. ‘Secrets of the Heart’. Western Humanities Review. credits. Milan (22 April 1965). but encouraged by Miss Astrid. pp. He sends for Miss Fanny’s 20-year-old daughter. and Franzén begins to regret his action. no. pp. 137 (Spring) 1978:59-61. Eastmancolor Director Screenplay Alf Kjellin Buntel Ericsson (joint pseudonym for Ingmar Bergman and Erland Josephson) Synopsis For several years Samuel Franzén. Centro S. Fedelle dello Spettacolo. 1-7.. no. Kosmorama. who has been living with her grandmother. His colleague Mr. 52-56. issued by Nora Filmverleih. Télé-Ciné. 1961 [The Garden of Eden]. 22-23. 120 (March 1965). n. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). Sw. 232. When the bookstore receives a few copies of a romantic collection of poetry. 56 (February 1962). 226 (March) 1969. he reveals his poetic ambitions and his affair with Miss Fanny. 16 pp. pp.d. 105. including retrospective evaluation by Jörn Donner. C. pp. and a bibliography. 1-11. 91-97. W. Franzén is the author. though the whole town knows about them. 65-66. Zurbuch edited a special program for West German release of the film. (Guido Aristarco) on Kierkegaardian aspects of the film. 3-13 and 42-56. pp. LUSTGÅRDEN. and Kosmorama. review excerpts. no. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). no. 1 (Winter 1964). After Såsom i en spegel received an Oscar as Best Foreign Film. Brussels: Cedoc-Film and Amsterdam: Centraal Filmberaad. Etudes cinématographiques. no. Miss Astrid who manages the town bookstore.A. pp. Hurt and disillusioned by her lover’s ambivalent attitude. At first Franzén denies having anything to do with the book. a waitress at the local hotel.. Lundberg has a mistress. 252 . Mr.Chapter IV Filmography has an article entitled ‘L’aut-aut di David nell’opera di Bergman’ by G. In the meantime Fanny’s daughter falls in love with the local pastor and becomes secretly engaged. a high school teacher in a small Swedish town around the turn of the last century. 46-47 (1966). is a dossier with credits and other information on the film. pp. no. is devoted to A travèrs le miroir. 10 April 1962. 174-186. no date. Miss Astrid and Mr. But they frown upon the whole matter. Röster i Radio-TV no. Image et son. no. SR (Swedish Public Radio) discussed the matter briefly in ‘Dagens eko’.

Mr. Skänninge. Brusén Policeman Filmed on location at Vadstena. Arboga. Commentaries and Reception Record Mr. Franzén. Lundgren Erik Nordgren Lars Lalin Ulla Ryghe Gunnar Björnstrand Sickan Carlsson Bibi Andersson Stig Järrel Hjördis Petterson Kristina Adolphson Per Myrberg Gösta Cederlund Torsten Winge Lasse Krantz Fillie Lyckow Jan Tiselius Stefan Hübinette Sven Nilsson Rolf Nystedt Sten Hedlund Stina Ståhle Lars Westlund Ivar Uhlin Birger Sahlberg Cast David Franzén Fanny Anna. Credits Production company Production manager Director Artistic advisor Screenplay Photography Architect Music Sound Editor Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Alf Kjellin Ingmar Bergman Buntel Ericsson (joint pseudonym for Ingmar Bergman and Erland Josephson) Gunnar Fischer P. and they are reconciled. young Pastor Liljedahl Wibom Innkeeper Berta Ossian The volunteer Bishop Mayor Principal Principal’s wife Postmaster Dr. nos. Distribution Running time Released Premiere Svensk Filmindustri 93 minutes 5 December 1961 26 December 1961. and at Råsunda Studios in Stockholm. 3-7/1962. her daughter Lundberg Ellen Astrid Emil.A.Synopses. She prefers that they go back to their old arrangement. beginning early summer 1961 and completed late summer 1961. Fanfaren and Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) Commentary The script of Lustgården was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. 253 . But Miss Fanny refuses to marry Mr. Credits. illustrated with photographs from the film. Franzén soon discovers he needs Miss Fanny and asks her to marry him. Lundberg approaches Miss Astrid.

took place on the Råsunda Film-Teknik premises and was apparently a disaster.] It was an extraordinary gathering of black ravens who had watched our little summer comedy. Winter Light. Föreställningar.) The film has never been released internationally.. den lättaste att förlåta] (Röster i RadioTV. his feeling that God has abandoned him. set in the present. Walking across the backyard at Film Teknik I saw the critics streaming out. In an interview in connection with a 1970 TV showing of the film. [. then opens a letter that Märta has sent him earlier. Sanningslekar. En hård nordostan. but seems very abstract in comparison to the poetic Swedish word. She ends by asking Tomas to use her. 1963 [Winter Light/The Communicants]. wintry light. The camera shifts to a long close-up of Märta’s face as she recites the letter. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman The American title. a nonbeliever. opens with a service in Mittsunda church where Tomas Eriksson. The press showing. Bergman was right but claims he has retained a certain faiblesse for the film. who is in love with Tomas. After the communion. Fredrik Blom. 368 (from Sanningslekar). a weather for catching colds. his head and arms resting on the table. 1970.. the easiest one to forgive’ [en nästan vit synd. (See Ø 1498. Persson is depressed. referring to it in the same interview as ‘an almost white sin. 1990. 17). The Communicants. and his wife suggests that he come back to church alone later. the church warden. a middle-aged widower. p. A bitter northerly wind. this being his first attempt to use color film.Chapter IV Filmography Though Lustgården was not directed by Ingmar Bergman but by Hollywood emigré Alf Kjellin during a return visit to his native Sweden. the church organist. and the sexton Mr. [. fisherman Persson and his wife come to see the pastor. NATTVARDSGÄSTERNA. began to pray for a cure of her eczema after Tomas had failed to do so. And I said to myself: This film is dead!’ [Det var en ohygglig dag. He insisted that SF buy new projectors for the opening of the film at Röda Kvarn to avoid ‘piss yellow and cadaver blue shades’ [pissgult och likblått ljus]. He reveals his angst. Bergman commented on the event: ‘It was a terrible day: snow storm and slush. 254 .. Algot Frövik. 13. Synopsis The film. storm och snöglopp. The British title. grey and dark. Tomas shows only irritation. Erland Josephson comments briefly on the origin of the pseudonym Buntel Ericsson in the memoir collection Rollen. is the dictionary meaning of the Swedish title. is well chosen in terms of the landscape and mood of the film. Jonas Persson suddenly appears. Only a few parishoners are present. Bergman was engaged in the project and particulary sensitive about it. fisherman Jonas Persson and his wife. which is shot in a bleak. förkylningsväder och gråmörkt. in which she reveals her agony over her unrequited love for Tomas. She gives an account of how she. p. Aronsson. is officiant. however. no. among them the local schoolteacher Märta Lundberg. Though visibly upset over the letter. 233.] Det var en enastående samling svarta korpar som hade sett vår sommarlätta lilla komedi. Och jag sa till mig själv: ‘Den filmen är död’!]. Märta Lundberg arrives with hot coffee and sandwiches.. Jag kom över gården utanför Film-Teknik när kritikerskaran strömmade ut. a compound noun meaning ‘guests at the last supper’. Tomas who has a bad cold dozes off. Märta leaves. Tomas ponders the photographs of his dead wife. but Tomas can only respond by talking about his own anguish.

organist Knut Aronsson. 14. Märta cries but later (upon Tomas’s request) accompanies him to the church at Frostnäs for the afternoon service. was his sense of being abandoned by all those he loved. Christ’s real suffering. The film ends as Tomas pronounces the words of the church ritual: Holy. 508.A. When Märta returns. but the noise from a passing freight train drowns his voice. holy. 520. The church bells. he has a brief and stilted conversation with Tomas. Tomas stays below in the classroom. in Heaven as on Earth. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Assistant directors Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Sound effects Music Costumes Make-up Props Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Lars-Owe Carlberg Ingmar Bergman Lenn Hjortzberg. His decision comes at the same time as Märta. together they head back to the schoolhouse where Märta lives in an upstairs apartment. Tomas begins to tell Märta of his past. 400 in Swedish hymn book from 1937. calling the congregation to service. but no one has come to church. holy. kneeling in a pew. The rheumatic Algot Frövik comes to talk with Tomas. Tomas breaks down coughing and crying in Märta’s arms before the altar. stop ringing. Under such circumstances Tomas could cancel the service but decides to conduct it. The last part of the film takes place inside the church at Frostnäs. Credits. sexton 255 . Märta later joins him.Synopses. While Frövik talks to Tomas. Tomas again shows his irritation over her concern for him. Persson and informs her of her husband’s death. Back in the car. Vilgot Sjöman Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist P. Postludium (Johan Morén) Mago (Max Goldstein) Börje Lundh Karl-Arne Bergman Ulla Ryghe Katherina Faragó Gunnar Björnstrand Ingrid Thulin Max von Sydow Gunnel Lindblom Allan Edwall Olof Thunberg Kolbjörn Knudsen Cast Pastor Tomas Ericsson Märta Lundberg Jonas Persson Karin Persson Algot Frövik Fredrik Blom. An old woman enters and informs them that Jonas Persson has shot himself down by the rapids. A boy comes in to get a book. asks for peace of mind for both of them. On the way there. Tomas leaves in the car to help take care of Jonas’s body. says Frövik. Märta listens to the organist Blom. Lundgren Stig Flodin Evald Andersson Nos. Tomas pays a visit to Mrs. Commentaries and Reception Record Jonas Persson leaves. While Märta goes to fetch some medicine. including God himself. Frövik has read the Gospels and has come to the conclusion that his own prolonged physical suffering is probably comparable to the physical pain endured by Christ on the cross. who advises her to leave and seek employment elsewhere. and Märta returns. Thy Name be Honored.

S.. policeman Persson’s daughter Persson’s son A man Two boys Elsa Ebbesen-Thornblad Tor Borong Bertha Sånnell Helena Palmgren Eddie Axberg Lars-Owe Carlberg Ingmari Hjort Stefan Larsson Johan Olafs Lars-Olof Andersson. illustrated with photographs from the film. p. 264. In a series of TV programs called ‘Återsken’ (Reflections) by Lennart Ehrenborg. For a similar mixed response to film. and at Råsunda Studios. Reportage from filming of Nattvardsgästerna appeared in DN. no. filmed only in fog and cloudy weather. p. The script was published in book form in En filmtrilogi (1963). see Chaplin. SR (Swedish Public Radio) reported on the same subject in ‘Dagens eko’. 19 January 1962. opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. one by Lutheran pastor 256 . Beekman Theater. He describes Nattvardsgästerna. and by Bergman in Bilder/ Images (1990). See Lillie Björnstrand. 6. 18 October 1979). Fontänen and Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 13 May 1963. a Catholic convert cast as a doubting Protestant minister. Inc.S. schoolboy Stefan Larsson. 6-10/1963. an excerpt from the shooting of Nattvardsgästerna was shown in segment 14 (SVT. 20 March 1963. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. Mauritz Edström – though praising the film’s artistry – referred to Bergman as a ‘religiously infected’ person. 4. p. 35 (February 1963). Bergman writes about the film in Bilder/Images (1990). p. same matter also discussed in Expr. farmer Hanna Appelblad. in a way that confirms a common (nonSwedish) view of his filmmaking as a whole: ‘Det är den svenska mänskan vid den svenska verklighetens slut och den svenska väderlekens lågpunkt’ [It is the Swede at the end of Swedish reality and at the low point of Swedish weather]. summed it up: ‘An extremely moving and fascinating film for the religiously aware. 25 October 1975. 55-58. 80 minutes 19 November 1962 11 February 1963. 14). nos. The shooting of Nattvardsgästerna seems to have been troublesome for actor Gunnar Björnstrand. NYC Commentary The script to Nattvardsgästerna was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. 14.) Reception Nattvardsgästerna has remained a film with a rather narrow but special appeal. and a somewhat boring one for the religiously indifferent. baker Doris.. p. Inte bara applåder. see (Ø 1100). which contains two reviews of the film. Björnstrand’s daughter Gabriella touched on the subject in Expr. 256-274. Distribution U. beginning 4 October 1961 and completed 14 January 1962. 18. oscillating between faith and doubt whose world view had few contemporary followers. Variety. 1975 (Ø 1263). pp. 3 October 1961 (Bergman interviewed by Lennart Swahn). pp. her five-year-old daughter Johan Strand.’ In his review of the film in DN (12 February 1963. Christer Öhman Filmed on location in Dalarna. 2 December 2003. Filmmaker Vilgot Sjöman who followed the entire shooting of the film later published his extensive notes as L-136: Dagbok.Chapter IV Filmography Old woman in church Johan Åkerblom. later issued in paperback as Filmberättelser 1 (1973). Skattunge Church in Orsa. p. (See Ø 1685.

Bengt Landgren published an article in DN. 32. Lundberg in UNT. 4. 1 & 4. theologian Hans Nystedt interpreted Nattvardsgästerna as a religious parable with Märta Lundberg. 11. Lönnroth wrote a joint reception study of Swedish public response to Nattvardsgästerna: ‘Ingmar Bergmans film Nattvardsgästerna’ (with summary in English). 2. see comment entitled ‘Ingmar Bergman och kritiken’ by Robin Hood in ST. Available at Department of Literature. 13 February 1963. Bergman responded on Swedish Radio. Kaj Munk. 1963. Lidström and L. A Dutch reassessment of the film was published in 1988 by Willem Jan Otten. With the exception of Henry Hart in Films in Review 14. BLM 32. 24 May 1963. is an Italian fact sheet on Luci d’inverno. 9. and Evangeliskt drama. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. 11 February). Renzo Renzi in Cinema Nuovo. Vi no. p. Fedelle dello Spettacolo. p. ST. 13 and 15. 110 typed pp. To Sven E. 166-168. p. 26 February 1963. no. pp. Guido Oldrini discussed Tomas Ericsson’s crisis in terms of the Protestant emphasis on individual salvation rather than on symbolic congregational rites. titled ‘Bergman. 1969. B. Centro S.. 5 (May 1963): 51-55. p. J.S. In an interview. Film a Sogetto. listing openings worldwide. See also group item ‘Religious Approaches to Bergman’s Filmmaking’ (Ø 997). while Brendan Gill in the New Yorker. 169-73. and Strindberg. 443-445. no. 21 April 1963. dismissed the film as ‘the latest installment of Ingmar Bergman’s running debate with God’. and Judith Crist in the New York Herald Tribune. vad rör oss prästerna?’ [B. 27 February 1963. A debate on religious implications of the film was published in the Lutheran state church magazine Svensk Pastoral Tidskrift. 6-7. nos. 98 (A. declined to answer). ‘Fantomen op kousevoeten’ in N. 14). 1963. 163 (May-June 1963). the schoolteacher. American press reception of the film was rather negative. 5 (May 1963): 299-301. p. saw Luci d’inverno as a paradoxical film about atheism played out in a religious setting. In Cinema Nuovo. called Winter Light ‘bleak and cold in its abstract ideas’. 2 (February 1963): 158-61. p. 166 (November-December 1963). Time. Lönnebo and P. 25 February 1963. 12 February 1963 (AB. Lund University. See also review by Robin Hood.E. p. p. 12 February 1963. 22. Bergman’s own father. 5 (1963) pp. no. 18 May 1963. 16 pp. 40). 6 July 1973 (p. what concern to us are the priests?]. Mario Verdone analyzes the film as an extension of literary works by Scandinavian writers Ibsen. no.C. plot synopsis. Henriksson in Ergo (Uppsala University student publication). 10. 7 October 1988.R. Credits. for whom Winter Light redeemed all previous Bergman films. 14 May 1963. the other by agnostic author Margaretha Ekström. Göteborg bishop Bo Giertz commented on Nattvardsgästerna as a deeply degrading document on the church (GP. pp. 1963: 9. Olsson in Scen och salong 48. Commentaries and Reception Record Ludvig Jönsson. p. 3) comparing Bergman’s Nattvardsgästerna and the modernist work of Swedish poets Gunnar Ekelöf and Erik Lindegren. and between Leif Furhammar and T. pp. referred to Bergman as ‘Sweden’s cinematic poltergeist haunting the dark and chilly corridors where Man loses God’. 4 (1963): 22-23. nos. Articles appeared in church publications Vår kyrka. In Bianco e nero 24. followed by interview comments by four ministers of the Swedish Lutheran State Church (a fifth minister.O. no. credits. 24. Jönsson. The most thorough discussion of Nattvardsgästerna outside of Sweden took place in Italy and the U. Milan (23 April 1965). In SvD. review excerpts. Handelsblad. portrayed as a Christ figure. no. 257 .Synopses. See also discussion by theologians M. 7 (1963). no. 13. no. and a bibliography. the pastor’s role depicted a psychological transference of the concept of God from father-fixation to mother-dependence.

The Passion of Ingmar Bergman. Marianne Höök. Torsten Jungstedt. pp. no. Films in Review 14. F-Dienst XXX/11. Films and Filming 9. no. Selznick Silver Laurel. pp. 146. Frank Gado. Cinema Nuovo. p. 1 May 1963. (Ø 1218). Estève. New Republic. 124 (October 1965). 37 (1963). pp. 168 (July 1965). 47-47 (1966). pp. 1962. E. no. p. pp. no. 27 May 1963. 32:1 and NYT Film Reviews. 1913-1968. 9 (June 1963): 27-28. Filmkritik no. pp. Newsweek. pp. 11 May 1963. no. Monthly Film Bulletin. pp. 135-38. 4 October 1961. pp. no. Filmfacts. – Ingmar Bergmans Nattvardsgästerna’. Schreckenberg. Sight and Sound. 1993. Hudson Review 16. February. pp. pp. 1994: 44-51. Cinéma 65. pp. 21-23. 23 May 1963. June 1963. 258 . Hubert Cohen. Saturday Review. 1972). C. ‘Wenn Filme Texte sind’. 14 May 1963. Télé-Ciné. 97. Filmbulletin no 196. pp. Martyr and Bergman’s Winter Light’. New York Times. Jeune cinéma. pp. 280-94. and no. 52-55. 192 (March 1966). Literature/Film Quarterly 10. 85-87. See also Chaplin. 226 (March) 1969. 10 a-d. no. Jörn Donner in Svensk filmografi. May 1977. pp. 99-102. no.Chapter IV Filmography Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma. 182-94. pp. 37. 5 (May 1963): 299-301. and no. 156 (June 1964). p. Sveriges Radio (SR). pp. 35-36. see Varia. p. 15-27 (interview). 1995. 88-89. Image et son. no. p. 18 May 1963. no. ‘Från manus till film. Ingrid Thulin. 56 (February 1962). 2 (Summer 1963): 262-264 (reprinted in On Film: Unpopular Essays on a Popular Art (Chicago: Quadrangle Books. 67 (October 1964). 443-45. 138-40. Allen. 3386-87. Simon. Se Bergman. no. 1 (1982): 53-61. 130-36. M. pp. 79. Törnqvist. Summer 1963. Vecko-Revyn. Birgitta Steene. 1986. Times (London). 30-39. 97-99. pp. Cineforum. ‘The Unbelieving Priest: Unamuno’s Saint Emmanuel the Good. no. pp. Awards 1964: David O. Etudes cinématographiques. pp. 145-206. 35 (1963). 5. 214-16). p. Eqil. 19-23. Kosmorama. 1968. Young.. no. pp. pp. pp. J. 26-27. The Art of Confession. Ingmar Bergman. 3 (1972). 1960-1969. ‘Films to Confirm Poets’. 224-38. 56-75. no. 2003 (Ø 1690). no. 10 (1962). pp. Extensive analysis in Ingmar Bergman Directs 1972. 3 (1963). 21-29. pp. 8 (June-July 1963). American Film. Kosmorama no. no. 17 (July 1962): 681. p. 166 (November-December 1963). SvD. no. 103-4. John. Ingmar Bergman. 56-58. 102-108. For additional awards. 112-14. Britt Hamdi. ‘Biodags’. 5. Leif Zern. Vernon. Comolli. p. Longer discussions Lacy.-L. Cahiers du cinéma.

Anna is ready to leave again. Commentaries and Reception Record 234. presumably his wife. Anna is enraged and hysterical. In the meantime. Johan comes to her bed and shares her meal. face. when Ester’s illness forces them to interrupt their journey and check into a hotel in a city named Timoka. Bach is heard on the radio.Synopses. Soon after arriving there. Except for the opening on the train and a sequence in a cabaret hall and bar. such as kasi. while Ester. She quarrels with Ester. caressing them in their sleep. He spies on the old waiter but is discovered and invited to share a piece of chocolate with him. she falls down on her bed and begins to masturbate. coming in to check on him. with Anna and Johan visible in the adjacent room. hand. When she returns home. TYSTNADEN. his lips barely moving. Soon afterwards Anna announces that she and Johan are leaving to go home. Johan hides the pictures under the hotel carpet. Left alone. on a bier. now dressed up in strange costumes. The old waiter brings her fresh bedding and food. Ester. Soon afterwards. Credits. He draws a picture of a sad face. Later. Anna and Ester. who sends Johan out of the room. Ester goes in search of her sister. he pretends to shoot down an electrician who is repairing a light fixture in the ceiling. A painting depicting a satyr seducing a woman catches his attention. The last shot is a close-up of Johan. starts drinking. and the figure of Death. He dresses. Angered. The film ends as Johan is seen lip reading the list silently on the train. Johan is sent out of the room. then performs a pantomime with two hand puppets. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Lars-Owe Carlberg 259 . B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis The setting of Tystnaden is an imaginary foreign country. Anna tells her a story about making love in a church. When alone. Ester goes to see Anna and Johan. playing Bach. Johan discovers a room occupied by a group of dwarfs. She learns a few words in the foreign language. Anna and Johan take an afternoon nap. where she attracts the attention of a waiter. a man and woman fighting. Drinking and smoking. A bitter scene ensues. a groom. a couple is copulating. while his mother opens the window to let the rain wash over her face. Ester leaves but collapses outside the room. She leaves and goes into a bar. The waiter gives him a set of photographs showing a woman. and naigo. she is questioned by Ester about her whereabouts. She gives him a list of words in the foreign language. The game is interrupted by the arrival of the leader of the troupe. Across the aisle from her. Johan comes to borrow cigarettes from Ester for his mother. The radio is on. Anna has gone to a cabaret hall where the dwarfs are performing. The dwarfs pass her. from an old waiter who brings her another bottle of liquor. puts a toy pistol in his belt. Two sisters. in an adjacent room. and goes exploring in the hotel corridors. are on their way home to Sweden with Anna’s young son Johan. the film takes place in the hotel. The last sequence in the hotel depicts Ester resting in bed. Johan wakes up at the sound of air raid sirens. Returning to her room. learns of Anna’s meeting in the hotel with the café waiter. including a bride. Ester has a severe attack of suffocation. 1963 [The Silence]. Johan says goodbye to his aunt and embraces her. Ester will stay behind. Johan is in bed reading Lermontov’s A Hero of Our Time. she finally collapses on the floor. He joins them in their funmaking and is dressed up in a girl’s frock. Upset.

96 minutes 4 July 1963 23 September 1963 Fontänen and Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 3 February 1964. opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. and ‘Rock in the Rough’. Rialto and Translux East. Distribution U. Swedish Public Radio. pp. an Estonian word meaning ‘Belonging to the Executioner’. ‘Coffee Bean Calypso’.S. 1990. Inc. Lundgren Stig Flodin Ivan Renliden Excerpts from J.A. Bergman discusses the genesis of the film in Bilder/Images. Mersey’s ‘Mayfair Waltz’. Stockholm. ‘Sing. Sing’ (text/music: Yellen/Pollack) Marik Vos Lundh Gullan Westfeldt Karl-Arne Bergman Ulla Ryghe Katherina Faragó Ingrid Thulin Gunnel Lindblom Kristina Olavsson Jörgen Lindström Håkan Jahnberg Birger Malmsten Olof Widgren Lissi Alandh Leif Forstenberg Birger Lensander Nils Waldt Eskil Kalling Karl-Arne Bergman The Eduardini Eduardo Gutierrez Costumes Make-up Props Editor Continuity Cast Ester Anna Double for Lindblom Johan Old waiter Anna’s lover Electrician in corridor Woman in cabaret Her lover Usher Cabaret doorman Bar owner Newspaper salesman Dwarfs Their manager Filmed at Råsunda Studios. Baby.Chapter IV Filmography Director Assistant directors Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Sound effects Music Ingmar Bergman Lars-Erik Liedholm.S. distribution Running time Released Premiere U.S Bach’s ‘Goldberg Variations’. 260 . 104-112. He talks briefly about the film in a radio interview in program ‘Filmkrönika’ [Film Chronicle]. ‘Club Cool’. ‘Jazz Club’. beginning 9 July 1962 and completed 19 September 1962. R. Lenn Hjortzberg Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist P. 20 September 1963. NYC Commentary The script’s working title was ‘Tiimoka’.

1964. pp. lists length at 95 minutes. pp. claimed that Tystnaden had made the Censorship Board an impossible institution. (p. Swedish public reaction to Tystnaden is the subject of a sociological paper by Jan Ekecrantz. Becoming a test case for the Swedish Censorship Board. On 17 November 1963 (p.Synopses. among others. if he alone had been in charge of the decision. 7. 24. claiming that Bergman’s film might serve as a warning and a deterrent against decadence. 20). p. 24. same paper. The same commentary appears in Svensk Filmografi 6 (Ø 1314). 28 September. p. and B5. p. On 14 January 1964. Commentaries and Reception Record The script of Tystnaden was published in book form in En filmtrilogi (1963). It also caused a debate in the Swedish Riksdag. 6. 4-8/1967. pp. Filmkritik. no. 10. 7. p. 43-45. 66. The February 19. Norwegian paper Morgenbladet (Oslo) carried on a debate about Tystnaden during the same period of time. 70. The public debate followed three directions: (1) a moral approach. 16 October and 25 November 1963. listing the length as 105 minutes. 15 November 1963. refused to accept. 5. 1964: 10-12. 53-55. and by Martin Ripkens in ‘Kein Licht im Winter’. p. An editorial in Expr. than any previous Bergman film. 7.4 million people and had been sold to 19 countries. which Janus Films. This was corrected to 96 minutes in the issue of 19 February 1964. but only a few frames were cut. 29 October 1963.) The Swedish Ombudsman of Justice received several complaints on the issue (See ST. pp. American distributor of The Silence. p. same date. pp. p. 60) (very glib).S. AB tried to summarize the vast number of articles and letters to the editor that the film had elicited. which either condoned or condemned the film. p 2. Lagercrantz’ assessment of Tystnaden as a non-religious work of art was attacked in an article by Torsten Strömner (‘Ingmar Bergmans nihilism’) in the journal Origo 4. 9 November 1963. See Kurt Almkvist’s article ‘“Tystnaden” och Hermesstaven’ [The Silence and the Hermes staff] in Horisont XI. pp. p. the same paper reported that the film had been seen in Sweden by 1. 27 September 1963. no. 2. p. 1. is apparently false. NYT. no.. 33-39. 2 October 1963. 17. both in Sweden and abroad. 10-11.E. and 13 November 1963. p. Reception Tystnaden caused more discussion. 7 October 1963. it passed uncut. pp. 32-34). 12. Expr.. Time.. 3 November 1963.. 1964. 72 (A. typescript. ‘Tystnaden och publiken: En sociologisk studie’. Rumor that ten minutes of the original film were cut in U. sec. pp. for the latter this represented a shift in attitude towards Bergman’s filmmaking. (See SvD 3 November 1963. 261 . 154. 29 October 1963) – defended the film. The script was also serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. later issued in paperback as Filmberättelser 1 (1973). 12. p. 68. published an interview with Bergman about the film and its reception. University of Uppsala Department of Sociology. and (3) a gender approach charging Bergman with sexism and hostility towards women’s liberation. the reason being that ‘Bergman did not try to force a pattern of salvation on the viewer’. 1. Swedish media discussion was reported in Films and Filming. 16). illustrated with photographs from the film. 1964. p. Variety ran several notices on the actual running time of The Silence. Inc. in which. (2) an assessment of Bergman as a ‘film dictator’ whom no one dared oppose. Credits. the Swedish author Sven Stolpe participated. 1 December 1963. the first one on 6 October 1963. from then on ‘pornography of violence’ rather than ‘explicit eroticism’ was the key criterion in censoring films to be released in Sweden. 50 pp. pp. December 1963. no. 12. 18). p. and DN.. 17 (1964). 1964 issue of Variety also reports that Bergman edited a special ‘international’ version of the film. See the following press sources: Dagen. 7. p. 31. 1. 30 October and 3 December 1963 (printed protocols A4. But the head of the Censorship Board later revealed that he would have censured the film. 1. 4. 35. and 4 October 1963. no. no. 1. 1. Janus Films Inc. Two influential editorial voices – Bo Strömstedt (Expr. 3 November 1963) and Olof Lagercrantz (DN. ST. Swedish magazine Året runt. nos. 1.

Critical response to The Silence in the U. 37. 10 (1963). 2 (1965). BLM no. Mass. no. 31 March 1964. 24-26. Film Kritik Jahrbuch 65 (Emsderfen: Verlag Lechtl. pp. n. 153 (March 1964). 15). 48 and no. no. 154 (April 164). no. pp. 8 July 1964. Filmfacts.. 115-17. 117-22. two unsigned articles on the film and one signed by I. 40 (October 1963). Vi no.Chapter IV Filmography Bergman reports on receiving hate mail and threatening phone calls about Tystnaden. p.’ The Argentinian distributor of Tystnaden received a one-year prison sentence (on probation) according to Expr. 168 (July 1965). pp. 25 March 1964. no. 32 (1964) is a special issue on Das Schweigen. 18 (mostly on its economic success). 48. p. 224-38). and excerpted West German reviews. 1965). 56-58. 21-23. Weltwoche. ranged from Henry Hart’s dismissal of the film as ‘one of Ingmar Bergman’s sexploiters’ (Films in Review 15. 133-35. 3 (March 1964): 176-78) to Stanley Kauffmann’s cautious assessment in New Republic. and Dieter Strunz. also reports on West German debate and success of film. p. pp. 42-44. pp. contains a report of the Bundestag discussion on the film. no. 239-41 (preceded by article by psychiatrist Göran Persson on the Trilogy. Welt am Sonntag. pp. 9 (June 1964): 22. 20 March 1964. no. Lundberg in Atlas. reprinted in his A World on Film. 1965). 168 (March-April 1964). 2. 21). 460-61. Berliner Morgenpost.S. releasing the film uncut. p. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. 19). 187 pp. p. pp. see AB. Chaplin. Atlas Filmhefte. 6 (1964): 13-20. Variety. no. 21 March 1964. For reports on the film’s reception in the U. 684-87. 27 May (p. 3 (1964). See Film (München) 2. 7 (1964): 4-5. and 30 June (p. Die Information: Nachrichten für die Film Wirtschaft.S. 52. 22 February 1964. Gert H. especially in West Germany. Kosmorama no. Theunissen published a book-length study of West German public response to Tystnaden. 1990. 86 (May 1964). also a synopsis of the plot. He discusses the film in Bilder/Images. 166-69. 32 (February 1964). 8 (October 1963). pp. Filmkritik no. 11 (reporting on attempt by police chief in Braintree. ‘Ballade der Einsamkeit’. pp. 99-102. Tystnaden caused a controversy in a number of countries after its foreign release in 1964. pp. NYT. pp. Films and Filming 10. 119-21). Cinema Nuovo. 5. 3 (Summer 1964). pp.p. 286-89: ‘Bergman is a director who knows more and more about less and less. 1966. pp. pp. 66 (April 1964). where it was discussed in the Bundestag and became a test case for West German Censorship Board.. 25 March 1964 (p. no. 2 February 1964. no. For the response to Tystnaden in Israel. 29 March 1964. Perspektiv no. 2 no. There were several German interviews with Bergman on the same subject: ‘Ingmar Bergman bricht Schweigen’. 18. no. pp. 88. Cinéma 64. pp. no. Flatow. which contains the West German censorship statement. Michael Salzer. see Variety. pp. Film Comment. the first foreign country to purchase the film. 12 March 1964. Cineforum. ‘Das Schweigen soll für sich sprechen’. p. 24 September 1963 (reviews by Robin Hood in ST and Mauritz Edström in DN were translated by H. 2 [1964]. and Filmkritik no. pp. no. 179. 4 December 1964.. to stop showing of the film). See Bergman on Bergman. 262 . 1 January 1964. titled Das Schweigen und sein Publikum (Cologne: M du Mont Schauberg. p. 122-30. 104-112. Variety. 40 (1963). Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma. pp. 10 pp.

367-73. 254. 1-50 (special issue with dialogue sequences). a review article by J. Buzzonetti. 5. Blackwell.. Film Quarterly 17. p. San Jose State University. pp. 18 March 1964. Sidney P. ‘Meningen med ‘Tystnaden’’ [The meaning of ‘The Silence’]. ‘The Silence: Disruption and Disavowal in the Movement beyond Gender’. 28:1 and NYT Film Reviews. Hiroshi. 1913-1968.A. no. BLM 33. Lehman. 46-47 (reassessment of film). Variety. 91. Longer Review Articles and Special Journal issues Abenius. Margit. producing no liberation from Christian dogma. no. New York Times. 150 leaves. Sight and Sound 33. (structuralist study of Johan’s ‘conversion’ from innocence to insight). K. L’Avant-scène du Cinéma. M. Monthly Film Bulletin. 3444. 106-8. B. but a deep sense of abandoment). Also in Kinoerzählungen. ‘Analyse structurale: Le silence’. 2 (November) 1996: 233-68. pp. pp. Time. reprinted in Kaminsky. ‘The Silence’. no. 23. pp. Commentaries and Reception Record Le monde. Télé-Ciné no. p. 10 (December) 1963: 820-822 (pursues religious symbolism in film and sees waiter as an obsolete and powerless God figure). no. B. Adams. 4 (1963). New Yorker. 37 (15 May 1964). 21 July 1966 (English transl. no. 104-7 (Guido Aristarco analyzes the film as a Borghesian form of atheism. pp. Credits. p. 14 February 1964. Scandinavica 35. cf. 3 (Summer 1964): 142-43. 32 (February 1964): 120-73 (special issue on Il silenzio with excerpts from scenario. Abenius above). Burvenich. 4 (Summer 1964). pp. Brightman. 237 (February 1976). 1969. J. thesis. Times (London). 32 pp. Saturday Review.Synopses. sound. 35-38. 4 February 1964. 10. 6 (July 1964): 255-58 (analysis of philosophical progression of the Trilogy).’ Journal of Academy of Child Psychology. no. 8 February 1964. 2 October 1963 (sign. p. Cinema Nuovo no. 123-25 (sees Johan as a contemporary Everyman figure and the old waiter as a naive representation of God. R. Denk). ‘The Word. Comuzio). p. Carol. 263 . 3-11. 115 (February-April 1964). Labraaten. no. no. in SFI library). p. ‘Tystnaden’. New York Herald Tribune. Munich: Hanser. pp. Kieslowski. 8 February 1964. pp. p. p. 186 (March-April 1967). p. Revista del cinematografo 36. 128-30 (on financial success of film). 4 February 1964. ‘Symbolical Understanding of Ingmar Bergman’s Tystnaden’. 1975 (Ø 1266). 70. Marilyn Johns. and discussion of music.. Lee. ed. Business Week. June 1964. p.W. and silence in the film by E. Cineforum 4. no. ‘Some Comments About Ingmar Bergman’s The Silence and its Sociocultural Implications. pp. no. 10. 4 pp. Brussels. June-August 1966. 239-52. the Image and The Silence’. Amis de la télévison. 23 April 1964. Hamilton. Institut national supériur des arts du spectacle et technique de diffusion. 22 February 1964. pp. no. 38. 1995. 12 (Spring 1965). Gordon. 45. Japan. by Vernea Lueken. 1994: 26-30. 1995. Filmrutan 6. ‘Perceiving Ingmar Bergman’s The Silence through I Ching’. ‘Kan Kieslowski lösa Tystnadens gåta’ [Can K solve the riddle of The Silence?] Chaplin. Film Culture 76 (June) 1992. Movie.

p. SFI library. review excerpts. 85 (April 1964). Italian fact sheet on Il silenzio. 1975 (Ø 1269). H. 209-12. (Courtesy: SFI) Sammern-Frankenegg.och trilogibegreppen i Ingmar Bergmans filmtrilogi’ [Chamber play and trilogy concepts in Bergman’s film trilogy].. 30-39. Fact Sheets Film a Sogetto. listing openings worldwide. no. 39 (1964). 29 May 1964. Steene. Cinema (Zurich). 3 (Summer 1977): 301-10. Milan (30 July 1965). Sjögren. 34. See also Abraham. pp. ‘Learning “A Few Words in a Foreign Language”: Ingmar Bergman’s “Secret Message” in the Imagery of Hand and Face’. no. Commonweal. 83-88. Fedelle Spettacolo. no. Photo shows Kari Sylwan as Anna and Harriet Andersson as Agnes. plot synopsis. pp. and a bibliography. 156 (June 1964). University of Uppsala.. no. 264 . credits. Institute of Literary Science. Scandinavian Studies 45. 496-517. available in stencil. F. Elisabeth and Alma. Birgitta. and no. Cahiers du cinéma. in Persona. Centro S. in The Hero in Scandinvian Literature. pp. Cinéma 64. 20 pp. and the pietà scene in Cries and Whispers when the maid Anna takes the dying Agnes in her lap. the split face of the two women. 45 pp.Chapter IV Filmography Some stills from Ingmar Bergman’s films can serve as emblematic samples of his filmmaking: the shot of the knight playing chess with Death in the Seventh Seal. ‘Bergman’s Movement towards Nihilism’. pp. 155 (May 1964). Olle ‘Kammarspels.

Spel och speglingar. In a flashback. W. pp. though the viewers never see Felix. 11). M. FÖR ATT INTE TALA OM ALLA DESSA KVINNOR. He succeeds. Steene. 1978 (Ø 1317). The women flock around him.. 2. Eastman Color Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman. Apprehensive. He meets Cecilia. but before he can put his threat into action. 61-63 (June-August 1964). Koskinen. he looks up Bumblebee but gets lost and ends up kissing Beatrice. as well as Bumblebee who shows him the master bedroom. pp. He is accosted by Felix’s ‘widows’.. Cornelius jumps out a window. or Abstraction No. 1993. Image et son. Ladiges. 87-105. 61-68. 1968). Motive. The next day. 21). P. (Ø 1552). pp. 80-86. 2 (November 1966). dropping his cigar. Jillker persuades Cornelius to dress up as a woman in order to get close to Felix. Frank. pp. which touches off a spectacular fireworks display. a famous musician. Variety. ‘The Song of the Fish.Synopses.. 25 March (p. which is depicted as a dance to tango music to appease the censors. 1 January 1964 (pp. Prophet and Magician. pp. 137 (Spring) 1978: 59-61. 8 July (p. Gervais. N. and additional notices on 26 February (p. O. Felix is already forgotten.. Cornelius learns that Felix will play his composition. Kosmorama 24. 265 . pp. 18). and Adelaide. Film (München). Playboy. 235. pp. 104-117 & passim. the musician’s young cousin. June 1964. no. 152-54. 1964 [Not to speak about all these women/All These Women]. 1968. Cornelius flees again. in Jordbävningen i Lissabon [Earthquake in Lisbon] (Stockholm: Raben & Sjögren. Penlington. Hamilton. Svensk filmografi. The next morning Cornelius wakes up in Bumblebee’s bed and discovers a woman dressed in black who is about to murder him. pp. Erland Josephson Synopsis The plot catalyst is the death of Felix. 6 (February-March 1964). Cornelius examines his manuscript and is forced to admit that he has not captured Felix’s personality. pp. 30-33. Felix dies. Jillker now threatens to resign. Commentaries and Reception Record Gado. This results in an amorous affair. Hartman. Ingmar Bergman. 239-45. and part of his manuscript disappears. His biographer. Passing by his lit de parade are all the women of importance in his life and his manager Jillker. University College Quarterly (East Lansing). 1999. Cornelius escapes to warn Felix. no. 3 June (p. 133-34. 1967). A young man enters the scene. pp. no. Credits. 3 (1966).M. 1986. Cornelius is seen arriving at Felix’s house to collect material for his biography. but is refused access to the music room by Isolde. in Filme und ihre Regisseure (Bern: Hans Huber. 36-44. and so is his biographer. the chambermaid. 14’. only to encounter Adelaide firing shots at busts that resemble Felix. places a manuscript on Felix’s body. pp. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). The Passion of Ingmar Bergman. As a last resort. 43-44. pp. no. 52). After Felix’s death. 19). Cornelius. no. B. 63-78. 158-67. Positif no. 295-307. Schlappner. M. Marc. The scene is photographed by Jillker. Felix’s accompanist. Felix’s wife. pp. mistaking him for Felix. Motbilder. In the evening. Ingmar Bergman. 226 (March) 1969: 58-59.

Massenet’s ‘Thaïs’. Erland Josephson Sven Nykvist P. Lars-Erik Liedholm Lars-Owe Carlberg Doris Funcke. beginning 21 May 1963 and completed 24 July 1963. Frank Silver (music)-Irving Cohen (text): ‘Yes! We have no bananas’ Charles Redland Mago (Max Goldstein) Börje Lundh.A. selections from J. distribution Running time Released Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. 3 in D minor’. Beethoven’s ‘Adelaide’. 80 minutes 28 May 1964 266 . Axel Düberg.S. Båstad. Britt Falkemo. Bach.O.S. Cecilia Drott Ulla Ryghe Katherina Faragó Jarl Kulle Bibi Andersson Harriet Andersson Eva Dahlbeck Karin Kavli Gertrud Fridh Mona Malm Barbro Hiort af Ornäs Allan Edwall Georg Funkquist Carl Billquist Jan Blomberg Göran Graffman Jan-Olof Strandberg Gösta Prüzelius Ulf Johanson. ‘Suite no. Lars-Erik Liedholm Ingmar Bergman. southern Sweden.Chapter IV Filmography Credits Production Company Production manager Studio manager Director Assistant directors Screenplay Photography Architect Propman Sound Sound effects Music Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Lars-Owe Carlberg Ingmar Bergman Lenn Hjortzberg. Pettersson Evald Andersson Erik Nordgren. Offenbach’s ‘La belle Hélène’. 3 in C major’ and ‘Suite no. and at Råsunda Studios. Lundgren Karl-Arne Bergman P. Distribution U. Yvonne Igell Orchestration Costumes Make-up Editor Continuity Cast Cornelius Bumblebee Isolde Adelaide Madame Tussaud Traviata Cecilia Beatrice Jillker Tristan A Young Man English radio reporter French radio reporter German radio reporter Swedish radio reporter Men in black Chauffeur Waitresses: Filmed on location at Norrviken’s Gardens. Inc.

För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor. no. Bergman held a press conference about the film on 11 July 1963. (För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor is discussed on pp. 19 June. nos. On same occasion he was interviewed by news program ‘Dagens eko’. New York Times. opening 15 June 1964. Filmkritik. and S. 117-18. It was also a kind of ‘test case’ for his lab experimentation with color (ST 13 July 1963. pp. Mario Verdone gave it an extensive review in an article titled ‘Bergman ad Antonioni’. Film a sogetto. October 1964. 32-33 (‘Jag gjorde filmen i hat och förakt’ [I made the film in hatred and disdain]). pp. See F. p. 9 October 1964. Manns. pp. plot synopsis.535 in 1964. För at inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor was shown at the Venice Film Festival in 1964. NYC Commentary The script was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. Milan (7 November 1965). review excerpts.’ For a rare positive review of All These Women. Cinema Village. 4. 267 . 22) that All These Women ‘might sell because of Bergman’s name’ but that ‘there was not much chance of success’. 93 (February 1965). 16 June 1964 Foreign Reviews Bianco e nero. is indicative of the U. 9. Only the French seem to have liked it.. no. 8 (August-September) 1964. Judith Crists’s review in the New York Herald Tribune. 109-10. illustrated with photographs from the film. thus confirming Variety’s prediction (1 July 1964. 26 (1964). 12 July 1963. Centro S. though Cinéma 64.Synopses. Bianco e nero. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. no. Fedelle dello Spettacolo. 1913-1968. no. Chaplin. p. pp. Ingmar Bergman was interviewed about this in Se no. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 5 October 1964. August-September 1964. p. Commentary to entry Ø 227. 7-29. Time. p.S.7 million Swedish crowns).) English and American critics were mostly negative. Credits. pp. Films in Review 15. with his highest budget so far (1. credits. humorous. p. 48 (1964). was a costly enterprise. and a bibliography.S. they were more generous than the daily press and called the film elegant. pp. 3497. who found it artificial. why not Ingmar Bergman? But the trouble is the Swedish master has not only nodded – he has fallen fast asleep. no. 6 October 1964. Björkman) to review the film. 19. 90 (November 1964). Commentaries and Reception Record Premiere U. 458. and boring. asked three critics (L. Krantz. pp. is an Italian fact sheet on Per non parlare di tutte questa donne. cf. In response to this. Film received SFI Quality Subsidy of Skr 153. see Cinéma 65. See also DN. response to the film: ‘If Homer nods. Kovac’s report in Films in Review. 35:1 and NYT Film Reviews. but was no international success. spiteful. Sight and Sound 34. Såsom i en spegel). 109-10. 7-10. 7-10. p. no. pp. see Tom Milne. 10 (1964). Reception För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor did not fare well among Swedish press critics. T. He claimed he had wanted to attack not just the critics but also a type of ‘puffed up’ [uppblåst] artist. 4 min. the first color film directed by Ingmar Bergman. who regarded the film as a complex statement on the function of art and the artist as a genius. 527-28. no. listing openings worldwide. 8 pp. SR (Swedish Public Radio). 10 (December 1964): 637. claimed that the film confirmed Bergman’s total lack of humor. and seductive. 254-58. 1 (Summer 1965): 146-47. 6 October 1964. 25-29/1964. p.

A boy and an older woman. alone in the room. The film now shifts to a hospital. 11-19. pp. both seemingly dead. The credits are displayed. Doneux. Cahiers du cinéma. 228-29 (May-June 1975): 37. Kauffmann in A World on Film. 66 (January 1965). 289-90. Mrs. May 1965. pp. Leirens. 1 July 1964. 91. After having expressed doubts about her suitability as Mrs. She turns on the radio to Bach music. 337-38. Vogler tears to pieces an enclosed picture of her son. pp. no. At home in bed. B/W Screenplay Director Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis Persona opens with a precredit segment of projector noise and an image of an old projector coal lamp. 1966. an animated drawing of a girl rowing upside down. a nail driven into a hand. Filmfacts. pp. suggesting that her silence is just another role she has assumed. Alma introduces herself to her patient. no. 178-80. A newscast shows a monk in Vietnam burning himself to death. M. lie on beds covered with sheets. no. See also Cahiers du cinéma. a snowy parklike setting. p. no. Positif. Alma and Elisabet move to the doctor’s summer place on an island. The doctor talks to Elisabet about her condition. Monthly Film Bulletin. and she has a job she likes. pp. 161-62 (January 1965). Horrified. 145-46. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). 220-23. Films and Filming 12. the boy wakes up and tries in vain to go back to sleep. no. 59-60). Upon the doctor’s advice. a crawling spider. spikes on a railing. 1 January 1965. 1 April 1965. After an evening of drinking. no. While Elisabet remains mute. no. 226 (March 1969). 22. S. and no. and has become mute. 4 (1975). which she will soon discard. Ingmar Bergman. 16-18. 1982. 144-45. 176-177 (September-October 1964). pp. p. APEC – Revue belge du cinéma. Télé-Ciné no. Times (London). who does not respond. Moments later. pp. pp. 44-45. 9 (June 1965): 28. she turns on the TV set. Vogler’s nurse. Image et son. a young nurse. Elisabet covers her face with her hand while the camera gradually darkens and obliterates her features. 13 (Summer 1965): 6-9. Later. interspersed with rapid shots from the precredit sequence and recurring flashes of the face of the boy. 174-76. 12. P. A Critical Biography. pp. he gets up and begins to wipe the transluscent glass on a door. pp. pp. 236. Alma gives herself a pep talk about her own life: she is engaged to be married. Next Alma reads a letter to Elisabet from her husband. Alma. 4 (1975). Later the same day she 268 . 119 (January-February 1965). PERSONA. she tells of a sexual orgy in which she took part. Alma becomes more and more talkative. followed by seemingly disconnected shots in rapid sequence: a shorn lamb.Chapter IV Filmography Variety. 5. 68-69. J. Bergman’s voice-over describes their life as harmonious. a woman’s face emerges slowly. Elisabet retreats into a corner of the room. no. Amis du film et de la télévision. Movie no. A phone rings sharply. is being briefed by a doctor about the case of Elisabet Vogler. Svensk filmografi. Cowie. there are distant sounds of hospital utensils and of dripping water. Next are interior shots of a morgue. 159 (October 1964). an actress who has withdrawn from her profession and her family. pp.

Elisabet seems at peace. Later. Entreating Elisabet to talk to her. At this point of crisis. Alma’s composure breaks down as she begins to deny her likeness to Elisabet. The scene ends with a shot of Alma in a slick raincoat. Bach. and the scene ends with Alma crouching alone among the rocks.Synopses. Alma becomes hysterical. Driving to post some mail. yet also realizes her own histrionic behavior. Drowsy with wine. both dressed in black. Next. Indoors. That night.S. Vibenius Ingmar Bergman Lenn Hjortzberg Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist Bibi Lindström Karl-Arne Bergman P. Mrs. At this point in her story. Excerpts from J. which she has forgotten to seal. The next scene takes place in the hospital room. ‘Violin Concerto in E major’ Mago (Max Goldstein) Börje Lund. Sitting at the kitchen table. But when Alma asks her about it the following day. Alma breaks down crying. embraced by Elisabet. her figure reflected in a pond. Alma comes into the room dressed in a nurse’s uniform. and Elisabet sucks her blood. when the film starts again. Commentaries and Reception Record made love to her fiancé. it shows the two women. Elisabet steps on a piece and cuts herself. Mr. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Sound effects Mixing Music Costumes Make-up Editor Svensk Filmindustri Lars-Owe Carlberg Bo A. Elisabet denies it. the amplifier switched off. the camera projects the same scene from Elisabet’s angle. Vogler’s silence is broken.O. the arc lamp is extinguished. Alma begins to speak about Elisabet’s feelings for her child. Vogler visits the two women. the film strip breaks. Alma deliberately neglects to pick up some broken glass on the patio. Credits. Pettersson Evald Andersson Olle Jakobsson Lars Johan Werle. in the kitchen. Alma hears Elisabet’s voice urging her to go to bed. Alma reads a letter from Elisabet to her doctor. Tina Johansson Ulla Ryghe 269 . In the next scene. seated at a table. A brief shot shows Elisabet in a film studio. The film has ended. Alma slits her arm. Once adjusted. Alma tells Elisabet that they are look-alikes. On the table in front of Elisabet is the torn picture of her son. Alma takes Elisabet’s place in bed. she threatens Elisabet with a pot of boiling water and is triumphant when she elicits a frightened response. Elisabet visits Alma in her bedroom. now focusing on Alma’s face. Sitting opposite her. Back at the house. The same night. she departs alone by bus. Next. At this point. Alma and Elisabet are seen. pursued by the stumbling Alma who asks for her forgiveness. Observed by Alma. Elisabet ignores her. Alma is restless. In it Elisabet talks about her recovery and about Alma’s devotion to her. The scene ends with the merging of the two faces into one. became pregnant. reading on the beach. Elisabet is seen walking fast on the beach. The second half of the film consists of scenes within an obscure narrative context. The scene then shifts back to the summer house where Alma is carrying in garden furniture and locking up the house. The projector lamp dies. it is in slow motion and out of focus. The film screen flickers. Alma asks Elisabet to speak the word nothing. but had an abortion.

Olof Lagercrantz commented in DN (Sunday Sect. ‘Opus 27’. Ingmar Bergman. see W. April 8 2004. not signed) on what he called the ‘Person(a)kult’ among Swedish film critics. He discusses the genesis of the film in Bergman om Bergman/B on B (Ø 788). 26 October 1966 (transcript available. but SCTV apparently ran a whole series of Bergman parodies. 15 July 1964 (‘Dagens Eko’) about his early plans for the film. On 21 April 1965. Liv Ullmann and Bibi Andersson (see Stockholm press. though hard to analyze. 212-21/195-98. My Life in Film). A Critical Biography. beginning 19 July 1965 and completed 15 September 1965. Distribution U. i. as his most successful challenge of the film medium. Bergman introduced ‘the gals’. no.Chapter IV Filmography Continuity Kerstin Berg Liv Ullmann Bibi Andersson Margaretha Krook Gunnar Björnstrand Jörgen Lindström Cast Elisabet Vogler Alma The doctor The husband The boy Filmed on location on the island of Fårö and at Råsunda Studios. Spegeln (Stockholm) 6 March 1967 Commentary Persona had several working titles: ‘Sonat för två kvinnor’ [Sonata for two women]. 366. Bergman was interviewed on Swedish Public Radio. pp. A television spoof on Persona reportedly appeared in the late 1970s on Canadian SCTV. Wiskari. Chaplin. The same news was published by Gerhard Meissel. 20 October 1966. 68 (1966). 16 July 1965). SFI). later issued in paperback in Filmberättelser 2 (1973). no. Bergman was interviewed on Swedish TV by Gunnar Oldin. 228-31. 1-13. labeling the film a new artistic victory for Bergman. Search for details has been unsuccessful. For a resume in English of the Swedish response. ‘Ingmar Bergman Tries New Theme’. and writes about Persona in Bilder (Images. see Peter Cowie. For the Ullmann-Bergman relationship during shooting of Persona. ‘Ett stycke kinematografi’ [A piece of cinematography]. The script to Persona was published in book form in 1966. SVT. On 23 October 1966. ‘Um Ingmar Bergman wird es still. 23 May 1965. contains excerpted reviews from the Swedish press and a presentation of the film in English. stating that he favors Persona. Chapter II. used the same coined word in a 270 .S. 1990. Reception Reviews of Persona in Stockholm press were respectful. See (Ø 153). Almost forty years later he comments on the film in a TV interview by Marie Nyreröd.S. pp. French and German.. 44-65. pp. together with Viskningar och rop/Cries and Whispers. pp. 3 (1966-67). distribution Running time Released Premiere U. p.. At a press conference on Persona on 15 July 1965. Stockholm. 25) reported on Ingmar Bergman’s delay in shooting Persona because of prolonged illness. 52. Film in Sweden. p. 2.’ Tagesspiegel. 1982.e. In connection with the opening of Persona. Two months later. opening Svensk Filmindustri Lopert Pictures 84 minutes 31 August 1966 18 October 1966. ‘Kinematografi’. p. Variety (p. NYT.

In France. Cahiers du cinéma in English no. See Torsten Manns in Chaplin no. no. 25. Nordberg. 104 (Am. no. 40 (22 October) 1966. Vogler] is the language of defeat’ [ropar. termed it Bergman’s ‘most beautiful film’ and Nouvel observateur’s M. Silence [such as the muteness of Mrs. and Alma (Bergman’s persona) can return to work. Franzén. 20 (transl. no. religionen och rollerna’. 119 (September-October 1967): 73-81. Nordberg in Vi. forces us to listen. In marked contrast to the Swedish debate. protesterar. 301. contrasting it to Ansiktet. SvD. Tystnaden är nederlagets språk]. or what medieval theologians termed total indifference to life. have found a promising form. Elisabet disappears from Alma’s reality. pp. now focussed on Elisabet Vogler as an irresponsible artist and vampire and on Alma as an audience representative who learns to revaluate and free herself from a Romantic view of the artist. The film reveals God as an illusion. 1 (1967): 56-60. Village Voice. 10 July 1973. Though some American reviewers of Persona were puzzled by the film and dismissed it as a work about ‘lesbians and lesbianism’ (Films in Review 18. p. In US. argued that Persona was an example of l’art engagé reflecting the anguish of our contemporary world. p. 1971. 188 (March 1967). 271 . 4 (April 1967): 244-246) or as another example of Bergman’s total lack of affinity for the medium (A. p.Synopses. Cournot (5 July 1967. 23 March 1967. 11 [September 1967]. theologian Hans Nystedt responded (‘Ingmar Bergman. On 19 November 1966. Lidman ‘calls out.. Ed. 10 (December 1966): 788-91. Persona was also the subject of a ‘revaluation’ by Lars-Olof Franzén in DN. with Elisabet Vogler representing God or Christ and Alma being our human consciousness. For related discussion. p. see theologian Olof Hartman in Vår lösen 58. Both rejected Persona and other Bergman films as being too hermetic and incapable of exploring the contextual origin of the traumas affecting the characters. 289-92). dictate our perception of the divine. SFI clipping) suggested that in Persona the cinema might. Time. 16 April 2001. Stockholm: Diakonistyrelsen. 63). making a comparison to engagé writer Sara Lidman. p. Demand for social commitment and realism in art also dictated a critical exchange on Persona in literary magazine BLM 36. wrote that unlike Bergman. 10. Cahiers du cinéma. Zern revaluated Persona in his 1993 book Se Bergman. Persona’s pre-credit sequence was shown with cuts (image of erect penis). Ingmar Bergman’s religious background was coded in Persona. A restored copy of the film was released in 2001 with 30% more text.-E. Sarris. p. 4). 30-33). protests. reprinted in Confessions of a Cultist. where God descended on earth in Albert Vogler’s person. Martin saw Persona as a study of the double. tvingar oss att lyssna. New York: Simon & Schuster. n. p. after 60 years of errors. p. and C. Commentaries and Reception Record headline reporting the foreign reception of Persona. no. coded in our brain. no. p. most critics were impressed. Marcel Martin in Cinéma 67. 6. part of the 1960s critique of Bergman. suggesting that Bergman might be influenced by Hjalmar Sundén’s book Religionen och rollerna [Religion and role-playing. 17 March 1967. 1959] according to which our early religious impressions. see Variety.. during which Bergman’s filmmaking was to become a frequent target. between filmmaker Jonas Cornell and critic Leif Zern. pp. Credits. Swedish press discussion of Persona lasted into December 1966 and focussed on two issues: (1) the symbolic meaning of the film and (2) the legitimacy of its subjective premises. Swedish Persona debate among film critics coincided with the political consciousness-raising of the 1960s. 5) theology professor Stig Wikander analyzed Persona as ‘a gnostic quest for divine nothingness’. Persona redeemed Ingmar Bergman to the critics. viewed Persona as a study in accidie. In SvD (28 October 1966. p. no. 67 (1966). expressing itself either as a divided self (the schizophrenic motif) or as a multiple self (the maternity motif). To Nystedt. and Bibi Andersson’s monologue about a sexual encounter was edited in the English translation. The critical implication was that Bergman’s reception had reached the stage of idolatry.

and (3) discussing the film as a tragedy of consciousness. 88 (October 1967). no. p. February 1967. 21 September 1967. 1968). pp. Summer 1974: 88-95). no. pp. pp. Film Comment. New Republic. no. pp. p. 30-31. pp. pp. Positif. 32-33. Times (London). one can discern in both the Swedish and foreign reception of Persona three main areas of interest: (1) the psychological implications of the film. Bergman’s Persona’ (Horizon 16. pp. 67). New Leader. 38-39. 46:2. 12 (July-August 1968). Film Heritage 3. 7 March 1967. 6. Image et son.’ Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. 3. For sample reviews. In general. 8. Stanley Kauffmann proposed three different approaches to Persona: (1) deciphering or mapping out the story. Movie. J. November 1966. 3 (Spring 1967). (2) studying narrative technique and thematic development. no. 59-61. 25 (October 1967). pp. Film Quarterly 20. 4. pp. Carl-Eric Nordberg. pp. p. 40. 63. pp. pp. no. Télé-Ciné. pp. pp. no. 180-181. see M. 2-3 (Fall-Winter 1967). 8 May 1967. 18 March 1967. 301. 272 . pp. 28-32. 30 November 1966. no. 1968). Variety. p. and J. 1966. (2) the self-reflexive nature of Persona. in Persona Bergman uses a dream mode not to make a surrealistic picture ‘but to inflect the meaning of the ordinary physical world. 9 (1967). 15 (Spring 1968). pp. pp. NYT Film Reviews. Chaplin 8 (no. Rinehart & Winston. p. Harris in Take One 1. no. Crist in The Private Eye. 40-41. 26-28. 114-31. no. 169-70. 77-80. Hofsess in Take One 1. pp. 15 April 1967. 234-36. 6 May 1967. no. no. the Cowboy and the Very Naked Girl (New York Holt. 11 March 1967. 10. Psyche etecetera in the Film (New York: Horizon. ‘Ingmar Bergman och det gåtfulla leendet’ [Bergman and the enigmatic smile]. November 1967. New Yorker. 210 (November 1967). p. New York Times. Film (Hannover). 20-21. 3 (December 1967). review also in Film 67/68 and in author’s Kiss Kiss Bang Bang. 63-65. 1913-1968. Saturday Review. pp. pp. 32-33 (Pauline Kael.Chapter IV Filmography Most American discussions focussed on the psychological rather than metaphysical implications of the film. 171-172). ‘Persona’. p. no. no. 8 (December-January 1968). 24-26. 22-24. Filmfacts. 9 (1967): 507-8. Newsweek 20 March 1967. Films and Filming. 4 (Summer 1967): 52-54. and (3) comparative studies. 134-36. In his book Sex. Parker Tyler uses Persona to challenge both Kracauer’s and Susan Langer’s theories of film as either a specific physical mode or a dream mode. In his article ‘Landmarks in Film History. 45-47. Torsten Manns. 135 (November 1967). 3665-3666. pp. Jeune Cinéma no. Foreign Reviews Bianco e nero. Monthly Film Bulletin. 19 October 1966. Vi 49. Filmkritik 11.

1 (Winter 1977): 75-88. ‘Persona: Bergman’s Metaphor for the Artistic Experience’. J-L. 1979. In The Phantom of the Cinema: Character and Modern Film (Albany: State University of New York. A. 273 . N. Film Quarterly 37. Casebier. Filmkritik 11. and “The Use of Two Images from Popular Consciousness in Bergman’s Persona”. ‘Bergman’s Persona and the Artistic Dilemma of the Modern Narrative’. ‘Reflexivity and Character in Persona’. 4 (Autumn 1967): 186-91. ‘Personne. 130 pp. 11. 123-36. 2 (Winter 1983-84). Fredericksen. I: 4. This is the most referenced article on Persona. Houston. pp. reprinted in Excursions: Selected Literary Essays (Port Washington.Spring 1978): 72-86. Paisley in Ingmar Bergman and the Rituals of Art. Bruce in Mindscreen. Kawin. Jordan. Review article on Persona. 180-220. ‘Persona and the Cinema of Interpretation’. Fredericksen. Comparative Studies Boyers. Paul T. Vampire and Victim: The Oral Matrix of Imagery in Bergman’s Persona’. Koskinen. ‘The Reflexive Function of Bergman’s Persona’. Maaret. Michaels. pp. no. 1-40. Livingston. 253-69. no. Salmagundi 2. and reprinted in Styles of Radical Will (New York: Farrar. Lloyd. University of Wisconsin. ‘Self-Exploration and Survival in Persona and The Ritual: The Way In’. 2005. Film Criticism 2. 3 (Summer 1979): 299-320. Commentaries and Reception Record Psychological Motifs Barr. 2 (1987). no. 13-21. pp. 2-3 (Winter. 2003. 123-45. 1982. Manley. Diacritics 4 (1974): 4851. no. Literature/Film Quarterly 15. thesis. Author is film scholar and practicing Jungian psychologist. no. 10-19. ‘Bergman’s Persona: The Metaphysics of Meta-Cinema’. pp. Credits. 1998): 33-46. 62-85. Baudry. David L. Jung and the Classical Notion of Personare. ‘The Unraveling Character in Bergman’s Persona’. 2005. no. and Audiovisual Communication. Robert. and Lloyd Michaels (ed) (Ø 1660). Sontag. Paul N. pp. Lloyd. in Self & Cinema: A Transformalist Perspective (Pleasantville: Redgrave. 1978. 1977). ‘The Imaginary Signifier in Bergman’s Persona’.P. first published in Sight and Sound 36. surface et profondeur’. 2 (Spring 1979): 117-39. 19 July 1967. pp. Quarterly Review of Film Studies 4. See also same author’s monograph Bergman’s Persona. “Notes on Bergman’s Persona. 1 (Winter 1979): 71-85. Film/Psychology Review 4. 1969). Persona’. 1980). no. Literature/ Film Quarterly 5. no. D. Manley. no. Jones. Performing Arts and Audiovisual Communication. A. Psycho-Cultural Review 3. Les lettres françaises. pp. pp. Strauss & Giraux. pp.Y. J. Susan. Beverly and Marsha Kinder. Poznan: Adam Mickiewicz University Classics of Cinema series. no. also published in French under the title ‘Masque. Filmhäftet 57.. pp.: Kennikat. Campbell. in S. no. 1 (November 1967): 607-10. 127-32. ‘Vid spegeln: Lacan och Persona’. J. no. ‘Bergman’s Persona: An Essay in Tragedy’. 4 (Fall 1968): 3-31. Person. ‘Modes of Reflexive Film’. Don. and J. Don. 1 (Winter-Spring 1980): 15-25. Images: The International Journal of European Film. 1987. 104 pp. reprinted in same 11.S. Meta-filmic Aspects Boyd. M. pp. Kaminsky (ed) (Ø 1266). ‘Reductionism without Discontent: The Case of Wild Strawberries and Persona’. I: 1-2 (Poland). 1-2 (Fall-Winter 1986-87). Performing Arts. Vierling.Synopses. C. typescript.” Images: The International Journal of European Film. Michaels. ‘Artist and Audience. Cinema Journal 19. 102-32. p.

ed. one a survey of Bergman’s production.. Fedelle dello Spettocolo. John. xxxix. Göran. ‘En stillbild ur Ingmar Bergmans ‘Persona’. ‘Children of the Paradise’. 1999 (Ø 1660). Die Weltwoche. pp. CineAction 40 (May 1996): 22-3. and plot synopsis. Chaplin. ‘The Actress as Signifier’. in Michaels. Film Comment 26. 13-18. 58 pp. Lloyd. Comparative reference to Göran Sonnevi’s poem ‘Om kriget i Vietnam’. pp. 30-36. Film tradition and Women’s Cinema. and Hamlet. no. 70-90. Kurt. pp. Patera. Tidspegel no. Birgitta. ‘Das Schweigen des Künstlers’. ‘Feminist Theory and the Performance of Lesbian Desire’. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP. Orr. review excerpts. 44-61. Törnqvist. ‘Anaïs Nin’s House of Incest and Ingmar Bergman’s Persona: Two Variations of a Theme’. Ingmar Bergman’s Persona (Cambridge UP. 1977). Christopher. Between Stage and Screen. ‘The Screen as Split Subject 1: Persona’s Legacy’. Nancy. by Lehman-Peter. King Lear. Habernoll. ed. Script. 2 (269). 24-43. Contains script and French reviews. pp. pp. 1999 (Ø 1660). 23-38. pp. Stanley. Marilyn Johns. no. Ingmar Bergman Directs. ‘Alma und Elisabeth/Persona’. Fischer. no. 62-74. 1999 (Ø 1660). Marilyn. Monographs on Persona Blackwell. Wheeler. no. In Michaels. 1972: 208-310. 29 December 1966. Steene. pp. 86-109. 1986). In Close Viewings: An Anthology of New film Criticism. ‘Persona: Facing the Mirror Together’. Comuzio. ‘Persona-grata? nongrata!’. Michaels. and Filmdiktaren Ingmar Bergman. 9 December 1966. credits. Foster. (Princeton UP. pp. 1971. Murphy. 23-70. 199-225. Holmberg. Erwin. 42. Johns. Egil. pp. Cineforum. Paul. pp. pp. ‘Bergman’s Persona through a Native Mindscape’ in Michaels. the other a study of the use of sound in Persona. Smultronstället and Persona’. Ingmar Bergman Directs (Amsterdam UP. (Tallahassee: Florida UP. ‘Bergman’s Persona: Rites of Spring as a Chamber Play’. 38-39. 274 . Compares the film to Strindberg’s play Den starkare (The Stronger). Winston Dixon. Roma (20 April 1968) 22 p. 61 (January 1967). In Shot/Countershot. no. Orr. Kauffmann. Compares film to Strindberg’s dramaturgy. Film a sogetto. 5-6 (1966). 6 (November-December 1990). 1999) (Ø 1660) Special Journal Issues on Persona L’Avant-scène du cinéma. Compares Persona with Angeloupolos’s film Landscape in the Mist. King Oedipus. Scholar.Chapter IV Filmography 47-70. (University of Washington. Unpublished dissertation ‘Strindberg’s Influence on Bergman’s Det sjunde inseglet. 1 (Winter 1979): 47-59. Centro S. Dolores. credits. Additional Studies on Persona Burdock. Figures of Light. The Transcendent Image (Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 1998. 1997: 41. 1999 (Ø 1660). Leiser. listing openings worldwide. 1995). In Michaels. is an Italian fact sheet on Persona. Persona as Brechtian Melodrama’. Literature/Film Quarterly 7. Lucy. Jan. Persson. Boyers compares Alma in Persona to the tragic protagonist in Electra. 1990). Persona. Paillard and two articles by E. Abend. Gwendolyn Audrey. ‘Scenes from the Class Struggle in Sweden. review by J. 1993. New York: Harper & Row. Katheleen. 1989): 70-80. In author’s The Contemporary Cinema. Simon. ‘Persona and the 1960s Art Cinema’. 45. John. 85 (October 1968). 137-48. pp.

Steene. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Svensk Filmindustri Olle Nordemar Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Käbi Laretei plays W. 11 (November) 1968: 760-772. 114-122. 112-15. Best Script (2nd prize). Etudes cinématographiques. 111 (December 1966). 1993): 62-74. p. Gado. no. Koskinen. Filmrutan 9. including a close reading of the film by Maria Bergom-Larsson. 320-344. See for instance: Cohen. ‘Ah.A. STIMULANTIA. 1967 (Segment entitled Daniel). In Filmdiktaren Ingmar Bergman. 185 (January-February 1967): 33-45. S. 80 (July 1967): 222-23 and 24. 81-83) and Dickstein (pp. Madame’ Ulla Ryghe Credits Production company Production manager Director Screenplay Photography Speaker Music Editor 275 . pp. pp. (Stockholm: Bokförlaget Arena. 227-249. 1993. essays by Björkman (pp.Synopses. pp. For additional awards. Birgitta. Best Photo (3rd prize). 4 (1966): 228-29. 290-98. pp. 225-232. Best Direction. no. 327 (1967). The Passion of Ingmar Bergman. 1968. In Michaels. 31-45. 157). 1999 (Ø 1660): pp. Ingmar Bergman. Cinéma 66. Ingmar Bergman. Commentaries and Reception Record Törnqvist. 1976 (Ø 1298). ‘Persona and the Seduction of Performance’. Maaret. 1967: 237. Best Actress (Bibi Andersson). 51. C. Kosmorama 13. Diss. Cinema Nuovo 16. Mozart. 189 (April 1967). Awards National Film Society prize for Best Film. pp. ‘En bilddikt – Persona’. Robin. Film Culture 48-49 (Winter-Spring 1970). Wood. ‘Persona Revisited’. 137 (Spring 1978). no. vous dis-je. ‘The Cracked Lens: The Crisis of the Artist in Bergman’s Films of the Sixties’. Filmkritik 12. 1960-1969 (1314). 1986. Vineberg. Chaplin 215-216. Steve. Art as Confession. pp. Credits. no. Hubert. 672-74. All post-1966 book-length studies of Ingmar Bergman’s filmmaking treat Persona as an important film in the Bergman canon. 62. See also Cahiers du cinéma no. Persona also placed high on numerous ‘Best film of the year’ polls throughout the world. ‘Der Spiegel ist zerschlagen’. Teghrarian. the film has elicited more analyses than any other Bergman work. 1993. no. no. Frieda. Grafe. pp. Spel och speglingar. no. 110-129. 56-60. Egil. p. Svensk filmografi. In fact. 1988 (Ø 1452). Image et son. see Varia. Frank. no. pp. 226 (March) 1969: 60-63. CineAction 34 (June 1994): 59-67.

pastoral family pictures. Later. directed by eight different Swedish filmmakers – was Ingmar Bergman’s. 318-20. Alma and Johan are ill at ease. Sweden. when. 29 March 1967. and references to a film that was never made but which was to deal with human warmth and closeness vs. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Title refers to the hours between 3 and 5 a. according to Swedish folklore. Johan is then pursued by a curator. entitled Daniel. photographed from birth to age 2. Alma stays awake with him until dawn. a judgmental view of life based on a concept of God as a punitive deity. Alma sees an old woman. and most babies are born. The final product. which he draws in his sketchbook. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). Svensk Filmindustri 15 minutes 22 March 1967 28 March 1967. who disappears as quickly as she materialized. The woman tells her about Johan’s diary. 1963-65. and mother-in-law Alma Laretei. Lindhorst. Distribution Running time Released Premiere Never released abroad. Alma reveals to Johan that she has read his diary and is worried about his health. Synopsis After an opening ‘into-the-camera’ monologue by Alma. and with Johan’s former mistress. most people die. VARGTIMMEN. Bergman narrates the film. Johan and Alma are invited by Mrs. pp. Veronica Vogler. pregnant wife of the painter Johan Borg. which leads to a brief exchange about the role of art and the artist. the greater part of the film is a flashback. Johan tells her about a childhood trauma: he was locked in a dark closet. After a walk in the park. which Alma begins to read. Bergman juxtaposes a suite of soft. Later at home.Chapter IV Filmography Filmed in and around Bergman’s home (at the time) in Djursholm.m. the camera captures the artificiality of the guests. See also: Svensk filmografi. A short household scene with Alma going through the budget is followed by a long and central dinner party sequence at the Baron’s estate. In the morning. This episode is followed by a visualized 276 . past the hour of the wolf. He is tense and sleepless. 238. who may be real or a vision. Heerbrand. Bergman’s own contribution. Johan rejects her. including wife. is a 16mm film about his and Käbi Laretei’s son Daniel Sebastian Bergman. an archivist. von Merkens to view Johan’s portrait of Veronica Vogler. son. Spegeln (Stockholm) Commentary The concept behind Stimulantia – eight short films on a common theme. puts on a puppet performance of a scene from Mozart’s The Magic Flute. the film depicts Johan’s encounters with Baron von Merkens. Johan is possessed by images of haunting demons. owner of an estate on the island. and Alma runs away crying. On their way home. In rapidly shifting shots around the table. 1967 [Hour of the Wolf]. does not have much thematic cohesiveness but ranges from a filmatization of Guy de Maupassant’s short story ‘The Necklace’ to a documentary film about Chaplin’s childhood in London. however. Reviews Swedish press. beginning with Alma and Johan arriving on an isolated island.

briefly. Johan is attacked by a young boy. fights him off and kills him. like an olive. von Merkens directs him to Veronica’s room. and Johan is gone. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Sound effects Mixing Music Svensk Filmindustri Lars-Owe Carlberg Bo A.O. But the next moment. Heerbrand comes to visit Johan and Alma. She sees him. von Merkens Ernst von Merkens Lindhorst Heerbrand Old lady in Alma’s ‘vision’/ Old woman with rubber face Boy in fishing sequence 277 . Johan returns to von Merkens. Alma has not seen him since. the place is empty. In the next sequence. Bach’s Saraband in Partita no. Then he packed his knapsack and left. Old Mrs. He aims the gun at her and shoots. deep in the forest. Baron von Merkens tells him of his jealousy. his wife Old Mrs. an old lady pulls off a rubber mask and drops her eyeball in a cocktail glass.S. she comes to life under his caresses while all the grotesque faces of von Merkens’ household are present.A. Credits. Heavily made up and dressed in a silk robe. he leaves them a small gun. an overexposed surreal sequence. 3 in A minor and W. He later returned and wrote for hours in his diary. The film ends with Alma talking to an invisible listener. She now goes in search of him and encounters the demons that have been plaguing her husband. Kjell Gustavsson. Alma’s narrative resumes. like a fly. Pettersson Evald Andersson Olle Jakobsson Lars Johan Werle. Inviting them to a party. She asks if a woman who lives for a long time with a man she loves might not become like him? Or has she lost Johan because she did not love him enough? Her monologue ends in mid-sentence. Vibenius Ingmar Bergman Lenn Hjortzberg Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist Marik Vos-Lundh P. Also: excerpts from J.Synopses. Seemingly dead. laughing in ridicule at Johan. Tina Johansson Ulla Ryghe Liv Ullmann Max von Sydow Erland Josephson Gertrud Fridh Gudrun Brost Bertil Anderberg Georg Rydeberg Ulf Johanson Naima Wifstrand Mikael Rundquist Costumes Make-up Editor and Continuity Cast Alma Borg Johan Borg Baron von Merkens Corinne. Johan ran away from the house. Johan finds Veronica nude on a bier. Johan urges her to leave. attacked by birds. In another surreal scene. then climbs the wall upside down. After shooting her. Mozart’s The Magic Flute Mago (Max Goldstein). Eivor Kullberg Börje Lundh. Alma is anxious. Commentaries and Reception Record account of Johan fishing from a rock. The boy’s head bobs up and down in the water.

Mauritz Edström in DN (20 February. no. 12) and C. 25-38. p. NYC Människoätarna [The Cannibals]. Reception Swedish press reacted to Vargtimmen as to a cinematic déjà vu. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. p. Distribution U. p. At its release on 27 September 1967 Vargtimmen was 2. Cahiers du Cinéma no. Though recognizing Bergman’s virtuosity as a filmmaker. Ingenting är.Chapter IV Filmography Kreisler Veronica Vogler Maid Tamino Corpse in the morgue Lenn Hjortzberg Ingrid Thulin Agda Helin Folke Sundquist Mona Seilitz Filmed on location at Hovs hallar in southwestern Sweden and Råsunda Studios. On 9 February 1968. KvP. He began to write the script in 1964 and planned for a production in 1965. 2001. In it Bergman explains to Max von Sydow and Liv Ullmann about the background of the film: he had received a diary from the widow of an artist on the Frisian Islands. Allting föreställer. Ingmar Bergman writes about the genesis of the film in Bilder/Images. 89 minutes 27 September 1967 19 February 1968.S. 29 August 1964. Cf. wailing in self-pity because someone stepped on its tail as a child. p. but merely crawled into a corner. 29 April 1968. 203 (August 1968): 48-58. In a later TV interview on 18 February 1968. opening Original title Svensk Filmindustri Lopert Pictures Corp.S. 23 April 1965. See report in SvD. while Svenstedt resented Bergman’s pontification of his 278 . Bergman revealed that part of his difficulty in completing the script and starting the shooting of the film had to do with the very personal anchoring of the story. 108. p. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 9 April 1968. see Cineforum 9. 80 (1968). 4. But because of Bergman’s illness in the spring of 1965. Eriksson in BLM 38. Bergman held a press conference in Rome about Vargtimmen on 26 February 1968. To Edström. For texts related to this interview. 10) voiced views also found frequently in American and British responses. note 30. 1990. p. 2 minutes). which was reported on the Swedish Radio (Kvällseko/Evening news). This story is most likely a piece of fiction. 14. likened Bergman to a dangerous mamba in a bourgeois living-room who did not bite the real enemy (the bourgeoisie). Commentary The script to Vargtimmen was published in paperback in Filmberättelser 2 (1973). 29-34. Sandgren ‘Bergman behöver en manusförfattare’ [Bergman needs a scriptwriter].395 meters (a cut of approx. Svenstedt in SvD (same date. an identification with the film was possible only if the viewer let himself be manipulated by Ingmar Bergman’s vision. last shown in public in a new print of the film at the New York Bergman Festival in May-June 1995. found that Bergman overestimated the importance of the artistic self. pp. the day before the opening of Vargtimmen. the film was cut to 2.455 meters long.H. P. beginning 23 May 1966 and completed 23 November 1966. 3 (March 1968): 212-14.O. Ingmar Bergman. no. and Nuevo film (Montevideo). p. Koskinen. This cut was not done by the Censorship Board and corresponds roughly to the length of a prologue. Autumn-Winter 1969. no. Göran O. pp. which was considered an obsolete theme in today’s world. Enquist in Chaplin. at which time its name was Människoätarna [The Cannibals] (see SvD. 34th Street East Theater. the critics had reservations about the portrait of the self-absorbed artist Johan Borg. 77 (September 1968): 449-52. the production was postponed until after the completion of Persona. 207. See also Gunnar E. 10).

16 (1968). René Prédal in Jeune Cinéma viewed L’heure du loup as one more excursion into Bergman’s subjective universe. DN. pp. of all the cinema’s modern visionaries’. who sees Borg’s situation as both a personal and an existential crisis. unrealistic lighting. Bergman’s imagination remains the finest. With the exception of Comolli. 279 . p. John Simon in New Leader. p. See also Stig Ahlgren: ‘Vem är rädd för vargtimmen’[Who is afraid of the hour of the wolf?]. discusses the film with Max von Sydow.. 4. wrote Monthly Film Bulletin. In the largely very positive British reception of Hour of the Wolf. yawning mysticism’. Variety. Films and Filming summed up: ‘Rich and orderly. 28 February 1968. Philip Strick in Sight and Sound emphasized the exaggerated theatricality of the film and pointed to its structure as ‘a succession of deceptive curtain-raisings.. p... Ecran found a superior masochistic temperament nourishing the film but also a Scandinavian filmmaking tradition focusing on the ‘fantastique’. 30-31 (reprinted in Movies into Film. pp.] a yearning. pp. New York: Dell. 30 May 1968.. The somewhat unengaged Swedish newspaper response to Vargtimmen might be juxtaposed to several longer analyses of the film. 94-104. Never before. referred to the film as ‘the selected works of Ingmar Bergman’ and added: ‘Anthologies are almost always disappointments. whereas relatively little attention was paid to his use of a subjective camera with its optically disfigured faces. p. 230-33). 22.]his taste for the flamboyant techniques of expressionism. but pointed out Bergman’s handling of Johan’s hallucinations as a macabre farce suggesting the labyrinthian (though less precisely designed) world of Robbe-Grillet’s Last Year at Marienbad but also an incarnation of Bela Lugosi’s Dracula. ‘has he so displayed [.’ Strick concluded that ‘in the hour of dawn.’ A very different response indeed to the Swedish and American reviews. Hour of the Wolf became a favorite film among psychoanalytical film scholars in the US (see references below). 45. 20 April 1968. 1972. was rebuffed by its coldness: ‘The most we can feel is a hospital visitor’s pity. no. Credits. 10 March. Theologian Hans Nystedt continued his examination of religious symbolism in Ingmar Bergman’s work with an article on Vargtimmen in SvD. 30 (reprinted in Figures of Light. American reviews of Hour of the Wolf were mostly negative. called the film degenerate.5 (May 1968): 306-8. pp. Stig Ahlgren related the film to Mozart’s opera The Magic Flute. Asta Bolin in Teater och moral (Stockholm: Proprius. pp. regarded the film as a failure in its attempts to merge the real and surreal. In Vecko-Journalen. 1968). 62-65). no. and the most disturbing. The British called Hour of the Wolf a return to the old Bergman of chiaroscuro and angst. 45-46. superbly cinematic. this is among the most important films of Bergman. 31 March 1968. which allowed for no intellectual response. Later.Synopses.. Anders Troelsen in Kosmorama saw the film as ‘the extreme expression of an isolated artistic position where the artist does not let himself be distracted by any audience considerations’. bleached flashbacks and dizzily revolving movements. claimed that ‘von Sydow the actor seems to bring out the worst in Bergman the thinker [.’ Andrew Sarris in Village Voice. In Europe the subjectivity of the film dominated the critical commentaries and echoed the Swedish discussion of Ingmar Bergman as a narcissistic Romantic artist. French attention was either film-historically comparative or focussed on Bergman’s creative persona. surrealism and Gothic horror’. until we can conjure demons out of nothing. Stanley Kauffmann in New Republic. Jean-Louis Comolli in Cahiers du cinéma was more intrigued by the film’s structure as subjective dream than by Bergman’s position as an artist. p. Bernard Cohn in Positif felt that with this film Bergman opposed ‘the contradictions of a creator who fights against himself ’. 22 April 1968. however.’ Henry Hart in Films in Review 19. each leading us into deeper darkness. more than compulsive viewing: imperative. Commentaries and Reception Record message. at the same time a resume and a deepening of his developed themes of angst and fear. 4.

80 (March 1968): 108-9. pp. 53-55. no. 98 (October 1968). 16 (Winter 1968-69). Films and Filming 14. pp. Linda and C. New Yorker. n. The Listener. p. Kosmorama. 50:2.A. 50. no. Persona and L’heure du loup form a thematic threesome about the power of art (music. Gyllström. Jeffrey. Times (London). 32-33. T. Corliss.Chapter IV Filmography Swedish Reviews BLM 38. no. Compares the film to Strindberg’s Inferno. no. Psychological Studies Buntzen. no. theater. p. 2 (Spring 1980): 104-15. Hoffmann and Ingmar Bergman’s Vargtimmen’. no. Houston. Ecran. 20 February 1968. painting). Comparative Studies Rosen. that L’ore del lupo forms a trilogy of Nostalgia together with Persona and Daniel. 3 (March 1968): 212-14. pp. Robert. Movie. no. 32 (September 1968). pp. 29 April 1968. 4. Sergio Areceo’s view in Filmcritica. 33-35. 17 (July-August 1973). p. Vargtimmen as part of a Second Trilogy For discussions of Vargtimmen as part of a second Bergman trilogy. 22. Monthly Film Bulletin. 11 July 1948. Chaplin 10. 63-65. Braucourt’s analysis in Cinéma 68 no. pp. 1913-1968. Gantz. 203 (August 1968): 58-59. Filmfacts. 4 (Summer 1968): 33-40. pp. Richard and Jonathan Hoops. see: G. no. Cinema (Beverly Hills) 4. 89-91. Jan in Vrij Nederland. no. 122-24. Hoffmann’. Saturday Review. no. Filmkritik 12. Compares Johan Borg in Vargtimmen to Sarastro in Mozart’s The Magic Flute. p. 18 July 1968. Stockholm press. pp. Blokker. Film Quarterly 21. Jovanovich. pp. 15 May 1968. 4 (April 1968): 277-79. ‘Hour of the Wolf: The Case of Ingmar Bergman’. and NYT Film Reviews. 92-93. pp. Both Rosen and Gantz discuss Hoffmann’s stories ‘Der Sandman’ and ‘Der goldene Topf ’. 20 April 1968. Film Quarterly 30. 137 (1978). Craig. Beverley and Marsha Kinder in Close-up: A Critical Perspective on Film (New York: Harcourt. Positif. 29 June 1968. Literature/Film Quarterly 8. 280 . 11. 13 April 1968. 9 (1968). 4 (Autumn 1968): 203-4. pp. 9-12. 3749. 1 (Spring 1970): 26-31. ‘Mozart. no. New York Times. 163-65. 128 (August-September 1968). no. Cineforum 8 (1968): 417-25. 570-76. Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma. 12 (September 1968). pp. no. August 1968. Jeune cinéma. Kvällsposten. no. 10 April 1968. 10. no. 190 (August 1968). ‘Hour of the Wolf ’. 115-16. no. Vi. 3 (Fall 1968): 40-41. p. pp. p. 1972): 273-79. ‘Enslaved by the Queen of the Night: The relationship of Ingmar Bergman to E.p. Sight and Sound 37. p. suggesting that Toutes ses femmes. no. no. 2 (Winter 1976): 23-34. Brace. Katy in Nya Argus 61 (1968). Film Comment 6. 170-72.

Eva confesses she is glad they have no children. While he goes to fetch a bottle of rare vintage wine. 130-36. where Eva buys fish from Filip. ‘L’heure du loup’. En route across the island they see fires and dead people. no. Hillier). the house is rocked by bombardments. 2 (March-April 1968): 17-18. 1986. Passek. pp. The first sequence depicts Jan and Eva facing another day. somewhat impatient with Jan’s self-absorption. pp. 281 . 203). The film opens with soundtrack transmissions of foreign language voices. and agree to get together soon for a musical evening. Suddenly. 1960-1968 (ed J. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). A parachuter falls from the sky and lands in a tree. Svensk filmografi. their house is surrounded by soldiers. including the corpse of a small child. a friend. SKAMMEN. Jan and Eva argue about his failure to repair the radio. En route to town with a delivery of lingonberries. Next. surrounded by the noise of fighting. Papini. Credits. pp. who has just been drafted. Film Culture. 62 (May) 1988. Awards See Varia C. Having delivered the berries in town. Back home they share a meal of fish and wine. 1968 [Shame]. B/W Screenplay Director Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis Skammen takes place on an island threatened by invasion. Film 68/69 (New York: Simon & Schuster. 1969). review). of Cahiers’s review in no. Image et son. p. Jan takes out his violin and tells the story of its maker. 226 (March) 1969: 63-66. 175-79. and they are being interrogated in a televised interview.Synopses. Jan and Eva collect their few belongings and pack the car. Dossiers du cinéma: films I. who reports rumors of an invasion. Summer 1975. Contains John Simon’s New Leader review and Richard Schickel’s in Life. 313-16 (transl. Jan and Eva Rosenberg. Eva wants to run to his rescue. Klas Viklund in Filmhäftet. Schickel’s review also in his Second Sight (New York: Simon & Schuster. They now live in a farmhouse and try to make a living by selling berries and vegetables. Eva brings up the topic of children and pleads that Jan go and see a doctor. and studio directives. 40-42. two musicians. 366-68. Afterwards. the Rosenbergs visit an antique dealer. On the ferry. no. 117-120 (synopsis/credits. Eva goes over the household budget.L. 1972). 1971. 174. The pastoral scene is suddenly interrupted by shrill sounds of aircraft. pp. pp. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. J. no. Jan is preoccupied with a dream he has had and with a bothersome wisdom tooth. The road is blocked. no. have left the mainland after their orchestra was disbanded because of a civil war. Cinema (Kansas City) 6. In a ludicrous scene. 48-49 (1970). pp. they return home. Commentaries and Reception Record See also Cahiers du cinéma. Jan tries to shoot their chickens. vol 2. 239. Kosmorama (debate) 126. wartime noises. pp. 58-60. but Jan grabs a gun to defend himself. their only contact with the outside world. They stop at a stream. they meet Mayor Jacobi and wife. a contemporary of Beethoven. Jan and Eva listen to the delicate music of Bach on a music box made of Meissen china. When it is over.

4’ Mago (Max Goldstein). Jan gets drunk and falls asleep. which escalates from abusive language to physical fighting. Bach’s ‘Brandenburg concerto no. Later. Lundgren Lennart Engholm Evald Andersson Olle Jakobsson Excerpts: J. and talks to them about ‘the holy freedom of art. The house is surrounded by Filip. Jan is obliging. A sequence depicting them digging potatoes reveals their tension. with Eva’s voice replaced by that of a woman propagandist. but fumbles in his aim. head of a resistance unit. Jan and Eva are arrested with other customers and taken to a schoolhouse for interrogation. Jan buys two seats in the open boat. stumbles into the bedroom. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Sound effects Mixing Music Costumes Make-up Editor Continuity Military advisors Pyrotechnical advisor Svensk Filmindustri Lars-Owe Carlberg Brian Wikström Ingmar Bergman Raymond Lundberg Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist P. The survivors in the boat are quenching their thirst ‘with contaminated water’. who is given food and drink by Eva. Filip gives Jan a pistol to execute Jacobi. A high wall of roses is suddenly set on fire by a roaring aircraft. Cecilia Drott Ulla Ryghe Katherina Faragó Lennart Bergqvist.Chapter IV Filmography Travelling to the country store. the holy gutlessness of art’. The house is searched and destroyed. Jan and Eva are on their way to the sea. Filip commits suicide by slipping silently over the railing. He has joined the invaders and releases them with an apology. Jan’s and Eva’s relationship deteriorates. Eva stumbling behind. Jan is pulling a small cart with their belongings. Jacobi visits them. The soldiers have to finish the killing for him. The boy is later killed by Jan after having revealed the departure of a boat of refugees. After this event. Jan is awake but does not intervene. A long take depicts Jan and Eva standing outside the ruins of their home with expressionless faces. Eivor Kullberg Börje Lundh. They continue to live in the greenhouse. On the seashore they meet Filip.) During the night.A. Jan wakes up. Stig Lindberg Rustan Åberg 282 . but fails to do so. Eva feels she should remember something important that has been said. They are pushed into a room where some people have been tortured. bringing them gifts. (The printed screenplay suggests a nuclear fallout.S. and finds Jacobi’s money on the bed and pockets. The next sequence shows the boat drifting amidst a sea of dead bodies from a torpedoed warship. seeing herself walking down a street with houses on one side and a lovely park on the other. but Jan denies having seen the money. they are picked out from a crowd by Jacobi. While they are in the greenhouse making love. The film ends as Eva tells Jan of a dream she has had. One day they find a young deserter there. Jacobi gives Eva a large sum of money and talks about his mother. Food and drink are running out. The televised interview is shown. while Jan interrogates him. Jacobi wants to buy himself free.

Refractions of this statement may have filtered down to Bergman’s 1968 film Skammen with its portrait of the demoralization of an artist (Jan Rosenberg). 760) that Ingmar Bergman ‘is obviously ashamed of being an artist and his god is the Bergmanian God of Shame’ [Ingmar Bergman skäms tydligen över sitt konstnärsskap och hans gud är den bergmanska Skammens Gud]. Willy Peters Åke Jörnfalk Vilgot Sjöman Per Berglund. no. young deserter People in the boat Liv Ullmann Max von Sydow Gunnar Björnstrand Birgitta Valberg Sigge Fürst Hans Alfredson Ingvar Kjellson Frank Sundström Ulf Johanson Bengt Eklund Gösta Prüzelius Frej Lindqvist Lars Amble.Synopses. 10 September. Commentaries and Reception Record Cast Eva Rosenberg Jan Rosenberg Jacobi Mrs. Löthwall. no. 1. Credits.-O. In Bilder/ Images. opening Original titles Svensk Filmindustri Lopert Pictures 102 minutes 26 June 1968 29 September 1968. Ingmar Bergman held a press conference about Skammen on Fårö for a team of journalists arriving in a chartered plane. victim in schoolhouse Interrogation officer Doctor Peters. no. Lilian Carlsson. Nils Fogeby Karl-Axel Forssberg Brita Öberg Björn Thambert Georg Skarstedt. 1990. On 9 September 1967. pp. see E. pp. Film och Bio. On the same day he was interviewed about the shooting on Swedish Public Radio (Dagens Eko. SvD. Fine Arts. For Bergman’s comments on the genesis of Skammen. pp. Bergman discusses his reaction to the reception of the film and his own critical view of it 20 years later. clerk Man with dislocated shoulder Aide at interrogation Officers Man condemned to death TV interviewer Soldiers Secretary Woman bringing food in schoolhouse Johan. For a report on the press conference. Barbro Hiort af Ornäs. L. pp. Spegeln (Stockholm). Sörenson. Börje Lundh. 23 December 1968. Distribution U. and rest of Stockholm press. 9 September 1967).S. 9. 25-26. 27-30. antique dealer Oswald. 298-301. Karl-Arne Bergman Filmed on location on the island of Fårö and in town of Visby (Gotland).S. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. 2 (1967). Eivor Kullberg. 14. The script of Skammen was published as a paperback in Filmberättelser 2 (1973). p. Skammens drömmar [Dreams of Shame] Commentary In 1961 author Pär Rådström wrote in a review of Såsom i en spegel (BLM 30. 3 (1968). 10 September 1967. An interview billed as an 283 . NYC Kriget [The war]. see Film World. Jacobi Filip Olsson Fredrik Lobelius. beginning 12 September 1967 and completed 23 November 1967.

N. p. p. In retrospect. charged Ingmar Bergman with ‘some sort of constitutional blindness. pp. See AB. 4. 5. 8 (October 1968): 605-6. Skammen served as a catalyst for the politically divisive situation among Swedish intellectuals at the time. and 16 October (p.-P. p. To gain an idea of the range of opinion expressed. He declared himself a non-political person who only belonged ‘to the Party of Scared People’ [de räddas parti] (see Ø 136). Nordberg in Vi. spokesperson for NLF (National Liberation Front) supporters in Sweden during the Vietnam War.Chapter IV Filmography exclusive one by André Prevost in the Canyon Cryer. Strömstedt defended Bergman’s integrity as an artist. 4 respectively). Lars Forssell in BLM 38. Sunday section pp. 24-25. 39 (1968). and 19 October 1968 (pp. 66-7. 1. p. All these critics expressed concern about a film they regarded as obsolete in its theme about the collapse of the artist.-O. no. Bergman discussed his role as a filmmaker in tune with the times in a Swedish TV interview. by failing to take political sides Skammen gave latent support to those pro-American forces who wished to prolong the war and who refused to see it as a Vietnamese war of liberation. On 2 June 1968. 35 (1968). This echoes Sundgren TV interview (29 September 1968). p. no. 60.4). It may be compared to an interview in Les lettres françaises.. Edström in DN. 64. Röster i Radio-TV 46 (1968). Cf. Thorpe called Skammen ‘a dangerous. and no. p. 1. The response to Lidman’s article was lively (same paper.. it might have changed his focus. 4. Report from the shooting of Skammen was published by L. reaktionär film]. and in Chaplin. referred to above. p. Löthwall in Allers.4). M. 2. Schildt in AB. p. pp. Bergman was to claim that had events in Czechoslovakia preceded his making of the film. 8 October 1968. p. 6. 5. 30 September 1968. reactionary film’ [en farlig. See also opinions expressed by some leading Swedish filmmakers and intellectuals in AB. 12. 21 March 1968.-E. 40 (1968). According to Lidman. and too abstract and imprecise in its depiction of the reality of war. But critics saw Skammen as one more portrait of a maladjusted artist. sec. Reception Skammen was shown to the Swedish press on 21 August 1968. 274. pp. 29 October 1968. Sundgren. 30 September 1968. pp. 2 November 1968. 12. 6.5). same date. Ingmar Bergman added further fuel to the debate by publishing a brief interview with himself under the old pseudonym of Ernest Riffe in Expr. one might compare Bo Strömstedt in Expr. 56-57. Gunnar Tannefors in Se. See AB. and E. Beyer in Arbetet. 36. p. 25 September 1968. The Swedish debate about Skammen was ideologically inflamed and culminated with a condemnation of the film by author Sara Lidman. 84 (October 1968). In the Sara Lidman debate.. This may have intensified the political debate about the film. 12. pp. 21. 48. Tannefors spoke up for Bergman’s right to be politically indifferent. and Ulla Thorpe in AB. no. which had its world premiere at Sorrento Film and Theatre Festival in Italy in June 1968. 19. no. 20 October 1968. Leiser in Expr. ‘Ingmar Bergman om Skammen’. 229. 29 September 1968. DN. J. no. published the first pictures and an excerpt from the film. See Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). 8 October 1968. 13. en återspegling av en individualistisk 1800-talssyn på konstnären som började med Werther and slutade med Oscar Wilde]. 12 October (p. 26-27. 62. see N. 10. pp. He insisted that his examination of the artist had broader psychological implications. 10 October (p. 66. 82-84. 7. p. C. 13 March 1968. a reflection of a 19th-century individualistic view of the artist that began with Werther and ended with Oscar Wilde’ [någon slags konstitutionell blindhet. and included brief interviews with Bergman who called the attack on his film irrational and brutal. seems to be largely based on the Skammen press conference. 1-3. who voiced critique of Bergman’s film for avoiding a real political situation 284 . the same day the Russians marched into Czechoslovakia.

pp. no. Credits. p. 14 (November 1969). 1969. p. and Cinema (Beverly Hills) 6. 29 Sept. who claims that La honte is an apolitical. reaction to Shame varied from Pauline Kael’s glowing review in The New Yorker. This article was reprinted in Motbilder (Ø 1317). See (Ø 794). 143-183. Jan’s wife. 1971). 2 (Fall 1970): 32-39. on the other hand. p. March 1969. and James Maxfield: ‘Bergman’s Shame: A Dream of Punishment’. Boston: Little. Film Quarterly 23. pp. n. 56-59 (reprinted in Going Steady. 199 (May-June 1969). 38.). reprinted in M. Farber’s Negative Space (London: Studio Vista. 285 . pp. 28 December 1968. 9 (December 1968). 162 (January 1972). the article claims that Skammen unveiled a new trend in Bergman’s work. pp. 1970.. 2 January 1969. and Film og Kino. Cinema Nuovo. 1982. pp. pp. 6 October 1968. 121 (November 1971): 41-46. Time. 30. pp. existential movie. pp. no. comparing it to Coleridge’s Ancient Mariner and Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress. to Andrew Sarris’s acerbic dismissal of Shame as ‘boom-boom theatrics’ (Village Voice. Several reviewers compared Bergman’s film to Godard’s Weekend: See Los Angeles Times. is a faithless person drawn with a great deal of self-criticism. Filmfacts. 6 February 1969. no. no. 4. 427-28. Vi. 60 (Am. 4 (1969). Wood’s discussion of Shame is the most extensive one in English. 15 January 1969. One of the most thoughtful Swedish essays on Skammen was published by Torsten Bergmark in DN. AB debate was commented on in UNT 26 October 1968. 32. Seguin in ‘Le cinéma dans la politique’. Foreign Reviews Artforum. no. 10.. p. no. Literature/Film Quarterly. no. together with P. 136 (May 1969). pp. 25 January 1969. Esquire. 34-41. 135-36. more socially oriented departure for Bergman. The Brighton Film Review. pp. pp. Positif. pp. 3 (1969). 40 (1968). Jan in Skammen. 39). 3-4. shows Bergman’s ‘new solidarity’. Hollis Alpert in Saturday Review. 1 (Fall 1969): 32-34.. Interview chapter. a pervasive national guilt for having stayed out of World War II. Much of the foreign discussion of Skammen revolved around a genre question: Could Bergman’s film be classified as a war film. no. 3-27. 40 (1968). discussed La honte as a nonpolitical film. 221-31. p. 12. Cinéma 69. 22. seing the film as a new. Livingston. The comparison is developed at some length in Robin Wood. no. contended that Shame’s source was a Swedish neutrality complex. Belmans in Cinéma 72. pp. 11. 22. January 1984. p. Entitled ‘Ingmar Bergman och den kristna baksmällan’ [Bergman and the Christian hangover]. While earlier films revealed the vacuum left by a dying religious faith. 276-77. Bergman responded to this debate and the leftist political climate among younger filmmakers and intellectuals in an interview conducted by Jan Aghed and published in French Positif no. Cf. or was the war it depicted simply a metaphor for the filmmaker’s own brand of existential anguish? L. 246-50. 10 January 1969. p. Film Heritage 5.p. no. longer articles below.S. p. Commentaries and Reception Record (Vietnam War). this view to J. Film (Hannover). pp. ed. Ingmar Bergman and the Ritual of Art. 214-21). 65-85. Eva. Brown and Company. though victim of the same kind of Christian hangover.e. i. 297. see under Roth-Lindberg. pp. 58-9). U. p. no. no. 30 September 1968 (Expr. 113 (February 1968). Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. like Le septième sceau. Ingmar Bergman. p. 222-24. Vecko-Journalen.Synopses. 3 (Spring 1969): 1-5. no. 211-13. Chaplin.

no. 401-6. credits. pp. 60-61. Kosmorama no. review excerpts. Kosmorama. pp. 33-36. Article by Kaare Schmidt who emphasizes the private nature of the film and sees it as an explicit depiction of Bergman’s universe with its dichotomy between life’s meaning (‘faith. 49-51. 16 October 1968. C. Löthwall. pp. Jeune Cinéma. S. See also Varia. has several items on Bergman in connection with the presentation of La honte. pp. pp. pp. Les lettres françaises. Film in Sweden. is an Italian fact sheet on La vergogna.. no. 8 pp. 16-18. 125-28. See also Film 68/69 (New York: Simon & Schuster. Cahiers du cinéma. no.. 177-83) by Örjan Roth-Lindberg. 76. containing reviews by J. no. 20 January 1969. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). pp. 18-19. 3-7. 14.. Sight and Sound 38. and a complete scenario of La vergogna. Alpert in Saturday Review. 2 (Summer 1969): 295-306. also printed in Film och bio. pp. 27 February 1969. NYT Film Reviews. no. Kauffmann in Figures of Light. 15. 7 (April 1969): 38. Variety. in Take One 2. 1981. Best Direction. Positif. 1913-1968. Monthly Film Bulletin. pp. p. H. 288-89. 3 (1968). 84 (October 1968). 24. no. Contains an analysis of the film (pp. 49-58. Hudson Review 22. 110 (September 1972). and a plot synopsis. pp. 4 (April 1969). New Republic. p. Film a sogetto. 88 (December 1968). Issue also includes a survey of Bergman’s work by E. 4 January 1969. Positif. among them an interview article by L. 26. p. 83 (March 1969): 110-296. p. Centro S. Best Actress (Liv Ullmann). pp. 23-32. pp. listing openings worldwide. 137 (Spring) 1978: 65-66. Simon in New Leader. Movie. no. 2 (Spring 1969): 89-92. no. no. pp.Chapter IV Filmography Filmkritik 13. pp. New Leader. pp. 4 (April 1969): 237-43. 1 (1968). Best Photo (2nd place). Svensk filmografi. The Listener. no. 34. 286 . January 1969. Image et son. Awards 1968: National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Film. no. Comuzio. pp. and in Films and Filming 15. 51-52. 89-92 has a review article by Jan Dawson. art and love’) and life’s conditions (undermining of this trinity through institutionalized conventions). no. Sight and Sound 38. 5 (February 1969): 4-6.-O.. 215 (September 1969). 17 (Winter 1969-70). pp. Kosmorama. no. no. Bruce Kawin in Mindscreen.1. 275-77. 32-34. also printed in Swedish in Chaplin. Fedelle dello Spettacolo (Roma). 5 April 1967. and W. no. 24 December 1968. 259-61. Films and Filming 14. pp. New York Times. 1 (September-October 1968). Variety. 1969). 23 April. 40 (June-July 1969). 3812. no. 2 (Spring 1969). pp. no. Review Articles and Special Issues on Shame Cineforum 9. Films in Review. pp. 133-42 (Ø 1372). 121 (November 1970). Best Script (2nd place). 229 (June-July 1969): 109-13. no. 34-40. 108 (September 1969). no. 10-18. Shed in Esquire. no. 27-29. p. pp.

and 35-year-old Sebastian Fisher. Expressing admiration and envy of the troupe. and telling them he is a willing spectator to their act. He is dying. Hans calls it a ritual game and a magic formula. the troupe’s manager. whose task it is to interrogate them about an alleged act of obscenity in their vaudeville show. Abrahamsson makes a series of desperate confessions. while Sebastian has put on big breasts. RITEN. Hans Winkelmann explains the ritual act.Synopses. and Thea is dressed in a transparent frock and a stylized wig. consists of 56-year-old Hans Winkelmann. Taking off his jacket and tie. Berndt Frithiof Nils Skeppstedt Olle Jakobsson 287 . he seems to have a seizure. the judge makes a confession: He really wanted to become a musician.e. eats his family and servants. the Judge gains the upper hand but loses control of the situation in meeting Sebastian and Thea. rolls on the floor. depicts an encounter between three traveling artists and a 60-year-old judge. who is both angry and consoling. and the trio performs it while the judge makes weak statements to the effect that he understans the ritual. Abrahamsson tries to get to the point. the vaudeville number on which he is to rule. i. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Sound Special effects Mixing Cinematograph AB Lars-Owe Carlberg Lennart Blomqvist Ingmar Bergman Christer Dahl Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist Lennart Engholm. 1969 [The Ritual]. and pulls down the judge. he receives the reply that an artist is his own god and keeps his own demons and angels. about a man who is seized by an insatiable appetite. a church. The artistic trio. but under parental pressure he studied law instead. Asking Sebastian about his religious faith. while the rest are set in a hotel room. he calls on Hans Winkelmann. Ernst Abrahamsson. his wife. Thea breaks down. Judge Abrahamsson meets with each artist in turn. Sebastian puts a long knife at her feet. Hit a second time. Sebastian tells the judge of a performance number that he and Hans Winkelmann do together. who arrives and quiets Thea.. five of which take place in Judge Abrahamsson’s office. Credits. 24-year-old Thea Winkelmann. She holds a drum in her lap. begins to undress. the judge receives such a hard blow from Sebastian that he begins to nosebleed. B/W Screenplay Director Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman See also Riten as TV film in Media chapter V (Ø 329) Synopsis Riten. ‘Les riens’. Commentaries and Reception Record 240. The crucial episode is a re-enactment of the number on which the obscenity charge rests. He wears an enormous phallus. In rejecting a bribe from Hans Winkelmann to keep Thea from being interrogated. Before they begin their performance. and a cabaret theater. Thea’s lover. The film is divided into nine scenes. made for Swedish television but also released abroad in the same version as a feature film. Suddenly conscious of his situation. then cuts out a piece of an old man who is God himself. She relates a religious game she plays. Sebastian accuses him of being dirty and smelling bad from excessive perspiration. Thea’s interrogation opens on a polite note.

10 (July 1971): 55-56. pp. Films and Filming 17. pp. no. no. The screen version was submitted to the New York Film Festival in 1969 and had a limited commercial run in the U. p. P. Kinder in Self & Cinema: A Transformalist Perspective (Plesantville: Redgrave. Cecilia Drott Siv Kanälv Birgitta Särnö Ingrid Thulin Gunnar Björnstrand Anders Ek Erik Hell Ingmar Bergman Cast Thea Winkelmann Hans Winkelmann Sebastian Fisher Judge Abrahamsson A priest Though conceived for television Riten was shot in the studios at Filmstaden. Foreign Reception (film version) In the U. no.. 48-9. p. beginning 13 May 1967 and completed 20 June 1967. Monthly Film Bulletin. pp. 18) expressed doubt that ‘Ritorna’ (sic!) would be shown on either American television or in movie houses on account of its explicit language.S. Filmkritik. Distribution U. New York Film Festival. no. Ecran 72. 26. no. no. p. 1980). January-February (1971). Tully Hall. based on his drafts. Ingmar Bergman and the Ritual of Art. pp. Film (Hannover). (21 May 1969. Bergman writes about its genesis. pp. 44. 7 (July 1971). 170 (November 1972). 1982. Judith Gollub in Cinema Journal 10. 56-58. Cinéma 72. Livingston. 72 minutes 25 March 1969 (Swedish TV) 18 September 1969.S. Lincoln Center. no. and. no. pp. Houston and M.S. distribution Running time Premiere U. 21-22. June 1971. 10 July 1972. 124-25. The following English-language discussions of the film deserve attention: P. in particular. 288 . June 1971. Cahiers du cinéma. 173-183. pp. 127-8. p. 35-36. p. Etudes cinématographiques. B. Variety. Available at NYC Museum of Television and Radio. 337 (1972).S. 74. 124-25. no.Chapter IV Filmography Architect/Costumes Props Make-up Editor Continuity Mago (Max Goldstein) Karl-Arne Bergman Börje Lundh. 55:1. opening Cinematograph AB/Sveriges Television Janus Films. 143-67. 244-46. pp. T:37471. Jan Dawson in Monthly Film Bulletin. pp. Monogram. 2 (Summer 1971). 1969-1970. Commentary The script of Riten was published in paperback form in Filmberättelser 3 (1973). pp. 215 (November 1969). no. Stockholm. 1 (Fall 1970): 48-50. Le nouvel observateur. p. 8 (September-October 1969). New York Times. in Bilder/Images (1990). pp. Foreign Reviews Bianco e nero. Inc. 1-70. 1 (1970). 19 September 1969. and NYT Film Reviews. Cowie in Focus on Film 5 (Nov-Dec 1970): 7-13. 51.

Eastmancolor Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Bergman uses the word ‘passion’ in both a secular and a religious sense. See also APEC – Revue belge du cinéma 12. Interviewed by Bergman. he asks Max von Sydow to interpret his role as Andreas Winkelman. In her analysis of Anna. who speaks of the inevitable dissolution of their marriage. 33-5. A Passion. Cinéma 69. 180 (July-August 1973). Elis incorporates Andreas W. Variety. During one of her husband’s business trips. 1969 [A Passion/The Passion of Anna]. the first of a series of similar sadistic acts on the island. 17 May 1969. p. in his collection and makes him reveal his past. Andreas finds a puppy hanging in a tree. in the first of a series of interviews with the actors. Next. 18. Eva stays with Andreas and tells him about Anna’s past: her husband and son were killed. Awards Riten was an entry at the 1970 Mar del Plata Film Festival. The Passion of Anna. p. Credits. Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). but no one believes her. Sight and Sound 41. Johan Andersson. Violence creeps into their everyday life. 28-29. During an overnight visit. Anne Pious) stops by to use the telephone. Hence the literal British title. in it Andreas finds a letter written by Anna’s husband. At night. no. 21 May 1969. but also as a person who falsifies reality when people around her do not respond to her. pp. Commentaries and Reception Record Positif. Anna Fromm (lit. and police assault. p. and Anna was hurt in an auto accident. Synopsis En passion opens with its production nummer. is working on the roof of his house. A bird flies against the window pane and is killed. They watch the execution of a soldier in 289 . 16. 26 September 1969. no. Anna Fromm is staying with Elis and Eva Vergérus. Andreas gets to know his neighbours. no. 3 (Summer 1971): 162-63. no. 57. Here Bergman interrupts the action and. Skoop. 139 (September-October 1969): 142. whose name is also Andreas. p. implying earthly love as well as the passion of Christ. Anna talks about her happy marriage. p. L-138. Télé-Ciné. 241. she is plagued by nightmares. drunken driving. 4 (1975): 5-16. pp. 254-55 (May 1982). 96. 30 April 1971. Elis is an architect whose hobby is portrait photography. pp. Anna Fromm leaves her handbag behind. is made a scapegoat by the islanders. 94. which he files under different categories. 10. Liv Ulmann describes Anna as a fanatic truthseeker. At a Vergérus dinner. The culprit is never found. The first shot is of a herd of sheep grazing peacefully on the island where Andreas Winkelman. which includes check forgery. Anna Fromm and Andreas Winkelman move in together. He collects shots of people taken off guard. introduced by Bergman’s voice-over. Time. Süddeutsche Zeitung (Munich). Times (London). no. and no. 3 (December-January 1970). is preferable to the American title. 237-43. EN PASSION. but a poor old bachelor. 82.Synopses. 110 (November 1969). pp. no. Bibi Andersson sees her as suicidal but believes she will survive the present crisis with a new sense of self.

Annandreas. Original titles Distribution U. the hunt for Johan Andersson accelerates. Cecilia Drott Siv Kanälv Katherina Faragó Ingmar Bergman Max von Sydow Liv Ullmann Bibi Andersson Erland Josephson Erik Hell Sigge Fürst Svea Holst-Widén Annicka Kronberg Hjördis Petterson Lars-Owe Carlberg. girl in daydream Johan’s sister Policemen Women in nightmare Filmed on Fårö. on the way back. does not know which way to turn. A. and a horse has burned to death. ‘Partita no. Lundgren Karl-Arne Bergman. Andreas asks to be free and accuses Anna of telling lies. at the same time revealing that he has read the letter in her purse.S. Full of ambivalence. there are more reports of killed animals. beginning September 1968 and completed at end of December 1968. Jan Söderkvist Lennart Engholm Ulf Nordholm Olle Jakobsson Excerpts from J. and Andreas grabs the wheel. Someone has set fire to a barn on the island. Britta Brunius. accusing her of attempting to kill him as she killed her former husband. In the car. On the island. Svensk Filmindustri United Artists 290 . Brita Öberg. Bergman’s voice declares: ‘This time his name was Andreas Winkelman. Marianne Karlbeck Cast Andreas Winkelman Anna Fromm Eva Vergérus Elis Vergérus Johan Andersson Verner His wife Katarina.S. He sinks down on the road while the camera pulls back until Andreas is no more than a speck in the empty landscape. Bach. 3 in A minor’ and from Allan Gray’s ‘Always Romantic’ Mago (Max Goldstein) Börje Lundh. distribution L-182. Anna replies that she has come to ask for forgiveness. now outside the car. Andreas.Chapter IV Filmography Vietnam on TV. Malin Ek. Anna picks up Andreas at the barn. Anna seems to lose control of the car.’ Credits Production company Production manager Location manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Sound effects Mixing Music Costumes Make-up Editor Continuity Speaker Svensk Filmindustri/Cinematograph Lars-Owe Carlberg Brian Wikström Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist P. Brian Wikström Barbro Hiort af Ornäs. Anna’s and Andreas’s relationship deteriorates until Andreas loses selfcontrol and attacks Anna physically.

) Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. Paisley Livingston. 1 December 1969. p. 61. p. Film and Dreams. opening 101 minutes 10 October 1969 10 November 1969. 1981 (Ø 1378). 167-79. no. Reception In marked contrast to their response to Skammen a year earlier. For a representative of the second group. 4. pp. 321-22. 4 June 1970. Peter Cowie in Petric. see Richard Schickel in Life. p. Vi. 1972]. Frank Gado. and Vernon Young. (A Passion was one of the few Bergman films approved of by Young. 8 (reprinted in Second Sight: Notes on Some Movies. 23 May 1970. 6 June 1970 Commentary The script of En passion was published as a paperback in Filmberättelser 2 (1973). 1972. interpreting Anna Fromm as a negative Christ figure whom Andreas Winkelman must fight off. Chapter II. pp. 24 July 1970. 687): ‘Rather a Vietnam in the Bergmanian soul than in allegorical Sweden. 256-83. Ingmar Bergman. no. The most exhaustive discussions of A Passion in English are Hubert Cohen. and no. 32) argued that Bergman’s island landscape could not be dismissed as uninteresting ‘except possibly by Mao’ [utom möjligen av Mao]. enigmatic and free from the baroque symbolism of Bergman’s earlier work’. 94 (October 1969). Cinema Borealis. 147-53. Ingmar Bergman and the Ritual of Art. pp. Swedish reviewers of En passion defended Bergman’s right to produce films according to his own professionally defined premises. pp. spoke for the first group. Hans Nystedt continued his previous discussion (see commentaries in Ø 233 and 236) of the religious implications in Bergman’s films.’ In America two groups of Bergman critics could now be discerned: (1) those who preferred his more traditional Fifties films and (2) those who liked his more modernist Sixties pictures. pp. See (Ø 153). pp. Most foreign reviewers of En passion preferred it to Skammen. 36-37. 25) wrote that ‘within the narrow framework of the psychological chamber play. In SvD. continued to denounce Bergman: ‘Never before has Bergman seemed to spew forth so much undigested clinical material to so little artistic purpose. It was a complicated production with some politicized activity by a member of the film team and rare tension between Bergman and cinematographer Sven Nykvist. Spegeln (Stockholm). 47 (1969). p. but they were unanimous in praising En passion for its depiction of human suffering. 291 . p. pp. Houston (Spectator. The Art of Confession. 1986. Credits. 97 (January 1970). 11 November 1969. pp. pp. 1 (1970). no. The Passion of Ingmar Bergman. 14. pp. 2 (Fall 1970): 32-39.S. no.’ Others. 16-17. Chaplin. just as Alma did with Elisabet Vogler in Persona. 304-310. 55. Not many critics cared for the Brechtian interviews with the actors. AB (11 November 1969. 1993. (same date. p.Synopses. Commentaries and Reception Record Running time Released Premiere U. 298-316. pp. or in the words of P. deploring Bergman’s renunciation of classical narrative form for the fragmented structure of A Passion. Bergman discusses the genesis of En passion in Bilder/Images (1990). 1982. 376-390. Schickel praised A Passion for being ‘austere. Peter Harcourt in Cinema (Beverly Hills) 6. Expr. like Andrew Sarris in Village Voice. Filmrutan. 314-16). 1965-70 [New York: Simon & Schuster. Bergman demonstrates the only mastery that the Swedish cinema possesses’ [inom det psykologiska kammarspelets smala ram demonstrerar Bergman det enda mästerskap som den svenska filmen äger].

13. 242. Positif. Svensk filmografi. pp. 22. 491-96. no. 103-8. Gilliatt’s New Yorker review and R. New York Times. no. 118 (June 1970). 678-91. p. no. 122. 7-8 (1970). no. Films and Filming 16. 150-53. 4 (Autumn 1970). 62). 1-7. 239-46. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). 48 (June-July 1970). Films in Review. Image et son. 1 (October 1970): 41-42. 507-510 contains synopsis and credits of film. 74 (A. Jeune cinéma. and filmography. 34-40. Simon: Movies into film (New York: Dell. 109 (December 1970). pp. 7 (May 1970): 36-39. 98 (September 1970). 166 (October-November 1970). 171-72. no. United Artists issued a 22-page program with excerpted translations of Swedish reviews in connection with the American opening of The Passion of Anna. no. no. C. 138-9. pp. Sight and Sound 40. p. pp. 13 June 1970. Special Journal Issues and Fact Sheets on En Passion L’Avant-scène du cinéma. 267-71 (his New Republic review). 212 (January 1970). and German. Times (London). 4 (1971): 36-40. New York Times Magazine. 6 August 1970. Variety 6 May 1970. complete script. APEC – Revue belge du cinéma 12. pp. Summer 1970. 130-32. 32. no. pp. pp. pp. pp. Filmcritica. pp. pp. p. Schickel’s in Life). 7 June 1970. 11:1. pp. p. 3 (1969). 9 May 1970. Film og Kino. Time. p. Télé-Ciné. no. 1969/70. 443. p. 13:2. 137 (Spring) 1978: 66-67. Skoop 7. Kauffmann: Figures of Light. pp. 1971). no. no. 228-9. 121 (November 1970). 243 (November 1970). contains a presentation of En passion in English. Sight and Sound. Film 70/71 (New York: Simon & Schuster. Positif. p. See also American Scholar. 150 (November 1970). 1972). p. Listener. p. 45-6. no. 163-72 (with P. Skoop 6. 37 pp. no. NYT Film Reviews. pp. 1969-1970. J. September 1970. no. p. 4 (Autumn 1970): 216-17. Awards See Varia. pp. Filmfacts XIV/20 (15 May) 1972. 7 (August-September 1970). no. French. Kosmorama 24. 181. no. 191. p. S. 31 July 1970. 13. Monthly Film Bulletin.Chapter IV Filmography Foreign Reviews Cinéma 70.E. no. pp. FÅRÖ-DOKUMENT. p. With excerpted reviews. 292 . New Yorker. no. Film in Sweden. 48-54. no. Kosmorama. 8 June 1970. 4 (1975): 11-19. B/W and Eastmancolor See Media chapter (Ø 370).

David is aloof and tells Andreas to exploit Karin’s sense of loyalty to her marriage. Now when the statue has been brought into the light. But Karin feels an obligation to her family. telling her to go back to her smug middle-class life. BERÖRINGEN. Karin agrees to meet him by the church where David is doing archeological excavation. Karin explains to David that he is like a child to her – and a threat. but she declines. Karin pursues him to London and finds out that he lives with his sister. 333). David Kovac. Karin leaves. One day several months later. Its larvae have been dormant in it for 500 years. He has received an appointment to a Danish university and suggests to Karin that they move there together. Karin leaves. Soon thereafter. RESERVATET. six years younger. Though she might be able to live both a married life and that of a mistress. David calls her a coward. when they moved to Switzerland. The night after Andreas’s visit. 332. an archeologist. They live with their two children in a tastefully furnished villa that Andreas has inherited from his parents. Karin is married to Andreas. 1970 [The Sanctuary]. has received medical attention from Andreas and is invited to the Vergerus home for dinner. Color See media chapter (television section) (Ø 331. Karin is out shopping with her 14-year-old daughter when David intercepts them. except for a sister. Their meeting focusses on a wooden statue of the Virgin Mary that has been found. arrives for a viewing of her dead mother. Credits. Eastmancolor Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis Beröringen opens in a Swedish hospital. she begins to cry. 244. 1971 [The Touch]. Several months later. The film ends with their parting. David leaves without saying goodbye. but David pursues her. after a suicide attempt. Commentaries and Reception Record 243. Some time later. David denies that his injury was self-inflicted. she cannot cope with David’s self-hatred. But she cannot fall asleep and returns home. if he can help. David loses control and strikes her while abusing her verbally. A man asks her. All his relatives are dead. David shows up again. a surgeon. When Karin arrives late for a meeting.Synopses. Karin Vergerus. David tells Karin that long before the statue was walled into place in the church. the foreigner who spoke to Karin at the hospital. One day David tells Karin of his past: his parents were Jewish. meeting in David’s almost empty apartment in town. an unknown insect had begun eating at it. On her way out. Andreas comes to talk to David about rumors that have reached him through anonymous letters. Credits Production company Production manager Location manager Director Screenplay Photography Sound Cinematograph/ABC Pictures Lars-Owe Carlberg Lotti Ekberg Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist Lennart Engholm 293 . Karin stays at David’s apartment. Andreas is embarrassed and expresses his sympathy for David. the larvae have awakened and are destroying the statue from within. in English. Karin and David. which he has felt ever since he met David for the first time. begin to see each other. a married woman in her late thirties. they continue their tense relationship. Irritated. and the family lived in Berlin until David was 14. who claims that the two of them are inseparable.

Kenne Fant Architect Props Costumes Make-up Hairdressing Editor Continuity Cast Karin Vergerus Dr. Bengt Ottekil Börje Lundh Siv Kanälv-Lundgren Katherina Faragó Bibi Andersson Max von Sydow Staffan Hallerstam Maria Nolgård Elliot Gould Barbro Hiort af Ornäs Åke Lindström Mimmo Wåhlander Elsa Ebbesen-Thornblad Sheila Reid Fylgia Zadig Karin Nilsson. Chapter II. David’s sister Stewardess Neighbors of Vergerus Pass-control official Dr. See (Ø 153). distribution Running time Released Swedish Premiere U. Spegeln (Stockholm) 14 July 1971. 294 . Also: ‘Allelucia Ave Maria’ (Wm. Bellman’s ‘Liksom en herdinna’ (Like a Sheperdess) is the theme music of the film. and at Film-Teknik Studios. Börje Lundh.S. Andreas Vergerus Anders Vergerus. ‘Miss Hopkins’ (Peter Covent). Vergerus’s secretary Archaeologist Museum curator Beggar Woman on the stairs Museum clerk Bellboy in London Speech maker at dinner Guests at dinner party Filmed on location on island of Gotland. Lundgren Stefan Bäckström Mago (Max Goldstein) Cecilia Drott. ‘Victimae Paschali laudes’ (Latin hymn) P. beginning 14 September 1970 and completed 13 November 1970. Distribution U. daughter David Kovac Karin’s dead mother Holm. a doctor A nurse Matron at hospital Sara. Byrd). Jan-Carl von Rosen. Torsten Ryde. NYC Commentary The script of Beröringen was published in paperback in Filmberättelser 3 (1973). M. Sture Helander. Lars-Owe Carlberg.A. opening Svensk Filmindustri ABC/Cinerama Releasing 114 minutes 18 August 1971 30 August 1971. in London.S. The Baronet. Stockholm. Anna von Rosen Dennis Gotobed Margaretha Byström Erik Nyhlén Alan Simon Per Sjöstrand Aino Taube Ann-Christin Lobråten Bengt Ottekil Harry Schein Alf Montán.Chapter IV Filmography Music Jan Johansson (arrangement) C. son Maria Vergerus.

p. October 1971.Synopses. 261) saw it as emblematic of Karin as the maternal woman who breaks out of the bourgeois family to give her love to a rootless and motherless man. both in Sweden and abroad. enough money to make ten Swedish feature films. Peter Cowie. 6 September 1970. 35. no. 5. 57-59.. 7-8. The film was shown at the Berlin Film Festival in July 1971 to mixed reviews. Bergman allowed fairly extensive press coverage: See ‘Morgoneko’ [Morning news]. Skoop. and that American backing as well as the film’s bilingualism (Swedish and English) was responsible for its failure. there was a feeling that Elliot Gould was a wrong choice for the role as David Kovac. In an interview in Expr. 17 October 1971. In a review in Chaplin. Both Teodor Kallifatides in Chaplin (no. 7-8. A Critical Biography. as well as Björkman’s article in Film in Sweden. referred to the film as ‘probably the most memorable and the most moving portrait of a lady that Bergman has given us’. 5 (February 1972). 112 (January 1972). no. While Beröringen was criticized for its trite plot it was also questioned for breaking out of the soap opera genre by introducing visually significant symbolism. pp. 19 September 1971. 205-6. p. pp. 44. 29 July 1971. 10 January 1971. actor who would play the role. 10 January. 21 August 1971. 15 October 1971. 24 (J. 29 September 1971. Bergman introduced Elliot Gould as the U. most specifically the wormeaten Madonna statue. no. Credits. 1. Sight and Sound 41. 6 July. 19. 60-74.. p. 4. New Yorker. Bergman criticized Swedish press reports from the Berlin festival. pp. p. and 14 March 1971. pp. while Erik Jan Kwakernaak in Kosmorama (no. Sima). while Stanley Kauffmann in New Republic. Jan Dawson in Monthly Film Bulletin. To Brenda Davis in Films and Filming. A majority of reviewers. p. See also Expr. Swedish Public Radio. reports a figure of one million dollars. the American producer of the film. Olsson). For interviews with Bergman at this time. 22-23. and Bibi Andersson’s defense of the film in DN. 12. 7 August 1970. 271. pp. Los Angeles Times. 295 . Widegren suggested that Bergman might be burnt out as an artist and that he was only successful in depicting religious anxieties and not the ordinary problems of a middle-class housewife. no. p. carried pictoral reportage from shooting of The Touch. p. p. Hanserik Hjertén responded in DN. p. 4. Calendar sec. 9-10 (1971). 28-29. 66.S. 47. 11:1.. With time The Touch has been redeemed by critics but only by incorporating it into the religious-existential sphere of Bergman’s other filmmaking. 9. and New York Herald Tribune. During the shooting of Beröringen. 14. See SvD. 22-25. 54-55. Olsson. 6-7. 2 (1971). Sunday Section pp. 6. 1982.. no. p. p. agreed. p. 28 September 1970. Commentaries and Reception Record On 23 August 1970. reports that ABC. Bergman had sold out to an international audience in choosing a ‘trivial’ plot for The Touch. Klynne in Chaplin.. Daily Telegraph Magazine. 107) rejected the statue as an overexplicit sign. pp. p. 110. But on 5 September 1970. had staked 2 million dollars on The Touch. 24 July 1971. Life.. 109) and Poul Einer Hansen in Kosmorama (no. described the film as a story about ‘a lady with a bad taste in lovers’. see Expr. and Scherer under ‘Longer Articles’ below. p. See also interview with Bergman in AB. See New York Times. 4 July 1971. 4 (Autumn 1971): 224. pp. and Expr. Ingmar Bergman. and Stig Björkman’s documentary film on the making of The Touch (Ø 796). 113 (February 1972). There was a considerable range of opinion in the English and American reviews of The Touch. pp. p. charged Bergman with an obsolete view of women. were in fact puzzled by Bergman’s use of a middle-class soap opera plot. 9 July 1971. Among those who wrote positively about Bergman’s portrayal of Karin Vergerus are the reviewers in AB. p. p. no. K. 12 March. p. pp. 18 July 1971. 28 June 1971. Molly Haskell in Village Voice. B.E. Several later articles have explored the religious implications of the film: See Gay. 10 October 1970. An article in Expr. 9 (S. In many of the negative reviews of the film. p. and Arbetet 15 July. AB reported that Dustin Hoffman had been approached for the part of David Kovac.1. Andersson objected to critics who called the film banal and argued that banality of subject was not identical with artistic superficiality. 9.

209 (February 1972). See also Cowie. 9 (Spring-Summer 1973). a Christ figure). 121 (January) 1971: 67-71. ‘Beröringen’. no. Vi. Film Quarterly 25. and by Julien Seymour. Village Voice. first printed in France-Soir. 11. pp. p. October 1971. A Critical Biography. 224. ‘Ingmar Bergman et Le lien. p. no. p. Peter. 130-33. no. pp. 1972. Solomon. New Leader. no. 47. 98-9. 17 November 1971. 7 October 1971. pp. p. (Gay argues that The Touch is a religious film dealing explicitly with a conflict between Judaism and Christianity). 25. 6. Jeune cinéma. L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma. Scandinavian Studies 57. J. Ingmar Bergman. 7 July 1971. no. pp. New York Times. 24 July 1971. 27 June). 1980. Lars. Wood. 32-34. pp. 20 (1971): 507-10. in The Film Ideal. 10-13. Variety. p. no. Issue also includes excerpted reprint from Bergman’s interview article (under pseudonym of Ernest Riffe) in l’Express. p. Kosmorama. no. p. pp. first published in Lui. 27. We’ve been offered enough love stories about young people recently’. Olsson. Filmfacts 14. plus excerpted reviews from leading French press. Films and Filming. Times (London). ‘Cursed be My Tribe: A Second Look at The Touch’. pp.Chapter IV Filmography Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. ‘Character. (Emphasizes the religious context of the film). Vecko-Journalen. 259-61 and 261-63. New Yorker. no. Sight and Sound 42. Robin. 57-59. Virginia. 15 July 1971. no. 1971-1972. no. ‘The Garden of Eden Theme in Bergman’s The Touch’. Kwakernaak. Chaplin. Foreign Reviews Cinéma 71. Sight and Sound. Wexman. no. Longer Studies and Special Journal Issues Gay. no. James. 110 (September 1972). 1 (Winter 1971-72): 42-43. 3 (1971). pp. New Republic. 1 (Winter 1985): 45-58. no. Fabricius. p. 205-6. 39. 5 March 1964. 228-36 (Ø 1219). 124-26. 22:1. 9 August 1971. 37 (1971). written by an adult. statements by cinematographer Sven Nykvist. containing a statement by Bergman about the film (‘It’s a love story between adults. Focus: Chicago’s Film Journal 9 (Spring 1973): 11. 296 . 4 (Autumn 1971). 54-55. 107 (February 1972). September 1971. Monthly Film Bulletin. no. 31 August 1971 (Expr. 35. NYT Film Reviews. pp. 2 (Winter 1971/72): 58-59. 21 August 1971. 37 (1971). 239. 29 July 1971. p. Paul. pp. p. no. 270-75. (Olsson sees David Kovac’s role as that of a divine lover. 48.). 160 (November 1971). p. S. 58 (November 1971). 110-12. Focus. Action and Symbol in Ingmar Bergman’s The Touch’.’ Positif 137 (April) 1972: 27-34 (Relates The Touch to Bergman’s earlier filmmaking). by actress Bibi Andersson. Kosmorama. 109 (1971). Scherer. pp. Filmrutan. and E. no. is a supplement focussed on Le lien (The Touch).

They come from Agnes’s room. pp. Synopsis The setting of Viskningar och rop is an old manor house in central Sweden around the early 1900s. pp. Credits. For a brief moment. Anna hears faint sounds after she has gone to bed. Finally. Maria. with whom she has lived alone for many years. Anna climbs into Agnes’s bed and takes her body in her arms. has fallen asleep in a chair. During the night following Agnes’s death. and she goes to rest. Agnes is waking up to a new day of pain. which is silent except for a few bars on a cello. Maria seeks her out. her two sisters help comb her hair and read to her. Two of the sisters. fully dressed in white. p. It is Anna who comforts her. Karin tries to focus on practical matters. When she is conscious and reasonably at ease. During the meal. 1 November 1972. Agnes’s fear subsides. In the next room. Later Karin tries to resume the rapport she has had with her younger sister. When Anna goes there. Commentaries and Reception Record van der Verg in Skrien. 297 . When her husband enters the room. All the main characters are women: three sisters and a maid. Later in the bedroom. The second flashback depicts Karin and her husband at the dinner table. But when she is ravaged by pain and dying. Karin fumbles with a wineglass and breaks it. The film is composed of scenes depicting the death of Agnes and its aftermath. This scene follows shortly after Maria has had a brief tête-à-tête with the doctor who attends Agnes. 1972 [Cries and Whispers]. After Agnes’s death. but Maria now excuses herself. she will use the splinter of glass to mutilate herself by cutting her vagina. 34-35. Each flashback is signalled by a dissolve to red. She is tended to by her servant Anna. 26. Karin and Maria. Karin smears her face with blood. Awards 1972: Bibi Andersson won Best Actress Award for her role in The Touch in 1972 Belgrade Film Festival. she makes little attempt to help him.Synopses. She summons first Karin and then Maria to the bedside. the third sister. clocks are ticking. no. she discovers that the dead woman has been crying. Inside the house. Variety. 29-30 (Spring 1972). Other flashbacks reveal Agnes’s frustrated love for her mother and Anna’s memories of her dead daughter. Agnes is laid to rest by two old women. Between these scenes are flashbacks revealing the reveries or actual memories of the four women. 245. All the rooms are painted red. eaten in near silence. Her minister prays at her bedside to a hypothetical God and begs her to be a messenger for the living by asking for God’s grace and a meaning to life. In one. saying that her husband is waiting. The two women form a pietà picture. both Karin and Maria shun her. Agnes’s death is slow and painful. and voices are heard whispering. VISKNINGAR OCH ROP. 1970-1979 (Ø 1314). who is dying of cancer at age 37. The opening sequence depicts the manor house at early dawn. but both turn away in disgust and fear. Svensk filmografi. the two sisters caress and touch each other. Maria comes upon her husband after he has tried to stab himself. Eastmancolor Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Bergman got the idea for the film’s title from a Swedish music critic who referred to Mozart’s music as ‘whispers and cries’. have come to visit Agnes. 129-32.

Chopin. Ingrid von Rosen.Chapter IV Filmography After the funeral. Anna reads from Agnes’s diary. The three sisters sit down in a rocker. It is a moment of epiphany. Cecilia Drott. 5 in D minor. 4. played by Pierre Fournier Greta Johansson Börje Lundh. Mazurka in A-minor. the passage is visualized. The film ends with a flashback. Sweden. Bach. Börje Lundh. Maria presses some money into her hands. the pastor Storyteller in Agnes’ flashback Agnes as child Karin as child Maria as child Anna’s daughter Women tending to Agnes’s dead body Spectators at laterna magica showing Filmed on location at Taxinge-Näsby estate. Britt Falkemo Gunilla Hagberg Siv Lundgren Katherina Faragó Harriet Andersson Kari Sylwan Ingrid Thulin Liv Ullmann Linn Ullmann Henning Moritzen Erland Josephson Georg Årlin Anders Ek Inga Gill Rosanna Mariano Monika Priede Lena Bergman Malin Gjörup Karin Johansson. Mariefred. Sarabande no. Anna curtsies silently. beginning 7 September 1971 and completed 29 October 1971. played by Käbi Laretei. 298 . Owe Svensson F. J. This is the only time we see the women outdoors. Lars-Owe Carlberg Costumes Make-up Props Editor Continuity Cast Agnes Anna Karin Maria and the mother Maria’s daughter Maria’s husband The doctor Karin’s husband Isak.S. the sisters and their husbands are ready to leave. They discuss what to do with Anna and decide to let her pick a memento from Agnes’s belongings. no. opus 17. parasols in hand. Greta Johansson. Agnes declares she is grateful that life has given her so much. and Agnes’ voice takes over. Credits Production company Production manager Location manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Mixing Music Cinematograph/Svenska Filminstitutet Lars-Owe Carlberg Hans Rehnberg Ingmar Bergman Arne Carlsson Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist Marik Vos Owe Svensson Sven Fahlén. and Anna swings them gently back and forth. All four women are strolling together in the park. Ann-Christin Lobråten. Anna wants nothing.

10. 65 (A. pp. ‘Bergmans pengar’ [Bergman’s money]. 21 (p. the film had been a bone of contention even in its pre-production stage because of the way it was financed. L-O. Several interviews took place with Bergman during shooting of the film. p. and Cinéma Québec III. no.) It was the SFI support that created controversy. and 22 October (p. pp. p. the same title. Expr. Many felt that Bergman was big enough a name to be able to find financing elsewhere – if necessary outside Sweden – and should not sap the SFI production funds. 4. pp. Stockholm). For a postscript to the 299 . 28. pp. and Harry Schein. see AB. 7 June 1973. no. p. which should go to lesser known filmmakers. SDS (Malmö). Spegeln (Göteborg. and in ‘Kulturbilagan’. 79-80 (A.S. 4. actors’ investment of their salaries in the film. Los Angeles Times. 1. 27 October 1971. 88-89. Viskningar och rop was also shown at Bergen Arts Festival. Commentaries and Reception Record Distribution U. Sunday section. 2 (with glowing assessment of Bergman at age 55). Image et Son. Andersson). 18). no. 12 (October 1973). 83-103. and half a million Swedish kronor from the SFI.. Uppsala. For résumés of the Cannes press conference. Cue. VeckoJournalen no. Expr. Village Voice. 7 September 1971. no. Sörenson). 3. 14 for reportage from Cries and Whispers (contains some errors). 3 (E.Synopses. pp. Filmmakers Newsletter 6. pp. Sellermark). 2. 6 March 1973 (10 minute commentary and interview with Bergman). pp. Bergman’s press agent for Viskningar och rop published ‘Excerpts from a Diary about Ingmar Bergman’s Viskningar och rop outside Stockholm 1971’. 2 (1972). 15 January 1972. where Viskningar och rop premiered on 5 March 1973 (half a year after its American opening). 9 May 1973. Femina. pp. Steene). including his comments on the film. 13-15. Sarris objecting to showing of Cries and Whispers at Cannes). In May 1973 Ingmar Bergman made a rare appearance at Cannes film festival. (See report from press conference. p. 20 May 1973. Löthwall. 4 (B. 4. 14 September 1971. 3-13 (English and French versions). 4 June 1973. 14-18.-P. p. p. pp. 1990. 15 (p. Reception In Sweden. no. for reportage based on interview with Bergman. See (Ø 153). 12 December 1971. p. 38-39 (M. where Viskningar och rop was shown out of competition. 2 July 1973. NYC 5 March 1973. See N. For interviews prior to opening. Actually. 1. SvD. Related material was printed in AB. in Film in Sweden. See AB. Cinema I Theater. p. sec. 20 May. Zetterström). Bohusläningen. Cinéma Quebec 3. SR. Bergman did not want a private producer – in an interview in AB. 18-20. Philadelphia Sunday Bulletin. for good account of mood and work routine of a Bergman production. 19 May 1973). pp. 1 (September 1973): 13-15. See also DN. p. p. 71. 4. he advocates socializing the film industry – but tapped three sources: his own personal funds. Variety.. 17 October 1971. 11 February 1973. Expr. and same news program after presentation of the film at Cannes (SR. Chapter II. 9 July 1972. 278 (November 1973): 102-104. 19). 8-9. 12 December 1972. Ernie Anderson. no. 197 and 30 May 1973. Bergman writes about the genesis of Viskningar och rop in Bilder/Images. Sundgren. distribution Running time Released World premiere Swedish opening Svensk Filmindustri New World Films 90 minutes 5 August 1972 21 December 1972. This article originally appeared in Chaplin. 20). see ‘Eko’ [Echo]. 114 (March 1972). 3 December 1971. 8-9 (J. 43 (1971). pp. See also Joyce Haber. Bergman’s film led to an unusually long press debate. p. 6 September 1972. Camera (Malmö) Commentary The script of Viskningar och rop was published in paperback in Filmberättelser 3 (1973). Swedish Public Radio (SR).. 20 October 1971. p. 12. 1 (September 1973). Credits.

12. 6 (I. pp.] the holy autonomy of the soul’ [ett slags reservat [. Cries and Whispers opened in February 1973 to mostly lukewarm reviews. distribution rights to Cries and Whispers – even though Bergman reportedly asked for only $75.. Chaplin. Skagen in DN.000 in down payment – Roger Corman’s recently formed independent company New World Films acquired the film and released it towards the end of 1972 to a glowing set of reviews. 1 (1973): 26-30 (L. ‘Ingmar Bergman’s Viskningar och rop: Ett drama om ensamhet-gemenskap-trygghet’ [Bergman’s Cries... 10) accepted Bergman as ‘a psychological visionary’ and a bourgeois film poet who depicted ‘a kind of reserve [. no. Eriksson and S. 21 April. most notably in Joan Mellen’s feminist attack in Film Quarterly XXVI. 11:1 for report that Cries and Whispers was the only foreign film in the U. Canadian Séquences (no. p. Sjöstrand). p. 6 March 1973. 1981). no. Catholic Film Newsletter. a fact deplored by Eriksson and Skagen in a closing statement. Foss. see Björn Vinberg. no. ‘Alla tjänar en hacka på Bergmans succéfilm’ [Everyone earns a penny on B’s successful film]. 209 (October 1973). See (Ø 975) for listing and response.. in DN. Lukasstiftelsen. DN. 19 April. 12 May 1973. p. 5. pp. 4 (A-M Narti). Sölve Skagen commented again on the film a year later in Fant. 42-47 for comments on Eriksson and Skagen article. 23. 300 . Bo Landberg published a Swedish essay on Bergman’s film in 1981. 176: ‘[Cries] mooches and slouches through the well-trodden range of obsessions we have come to regard as evocative of Nordic gloom’. 14 March 1973.S. See MacGuffin no. in the previous 14 months to gross a substantial profit. 1. 17 April. DN. 17 February 1973. and Åke Janzon in SvD. Overall. Though some reviewers (see Hanserik Hjertén. 45) and an analysis by O. p. 15 January 1973.] själens heliga autonomi]. p. 8-9. pp. Other critical voices spoke up in Filmrutan 16. p. 84-85. 5 March). See NYT.M. others issued a call for an ideological rather than an aesthetic approach to Bergman’s filmmaking.] den slutna miljön [. pp. no. p. Lundgren and A. 38 pp..Chapter IV Filmography discussion. p. 9. pp. ‘Viskningar och rop: film og samfunn’ [Cries and Whispers: Film and society]. p.: A drama of loneliness-togetherness-security] (Göteborg: St. p. Foreign Reviews Amis du film et de télévision.. The article was reprinted in Motbilder. p. 38-51). calling it Bergman’s best script and a film that would make film history. 1978. 32. DN. Hudson in Spectator. Los Angeles Times ran a report by Wayne Warga on Roger Corman and Cries and Whispers. DN. 5 (Fall 1973): 2-11. Foss refers to the film as ‘a rhapsody of petrified Bergman themes’. Calendar... and Expr. See I. October 1973: 31-34) printed a glowing review of the film. 10 February 1973. 6 March 1973. p. no. no.. 4. On 21 October 1972. 122 (1973). 27 (Spring 1974). 25 February 1973. p. But Philip Strick in Sight and Sound thought the film was Bergman’s and Nykvist’s greatest collaboration. Swedish debate about Bergman’s film focussed once more on his role as an artist. Munkesjö).] the closed milieu [. 26 (Summer 1973). 4.. 6 April 1973. pp. Bodegård). Excerpts also appeared in the special Hvisken og rop issue of the Norwegian journal Fant. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. After every major American studio had turned down U. 46-53. 74.S. it was the psychological implications of Viskningar och rop that came to dominate the discussion. 26-34. In London. Cries and Whispers became a focal film in a critique of Bergman’s portrayal of women. the New Yorker printed the script (pp. p. 26 April. 44. 251-55 (Ø 1317). 4 (G. Wrote C. 6 March 1973 (Expr.. Expr.. though he too (somewhat more tolerantly) recognized the familiar Bergman themes and landscape.. 4 and 27 April 1973. together with a review (p.

pp. Ecran. also in Swedish as ‘Liksom en saga av Bröderna Grimm’. 24. pp. 49. Sight and Sound. 22 January 1974. 117 (December 1973). J. pp. Sketch (Beiruth). p. 110. p. pp. clocks and mirrors. 29 March 1974. 22-24. 55 (May 1973). 15-16 and an 301 . Contains review article by André Leroux. no. Monthly Film Bulletin. 1971-72. Mellen. Time. p. 1973. 61-62. 10 (4 March) 1974. Listener. 241 (1972): 601-06. Chaplin.Synopses. Nation. Film Quarterly. p. pp. August 1977. pp. pp. no. no. review excerpts. Kosmorama 20. color symbolism. 3-55. 3-4. 9-12. 18 May 1973. no. pp. Media C 174. no. credits.B. no. pp. 6 January 1973. 4-5/326-327 (July-October 1990). 55-6. 56. Commentary. pp. as well as its political implication (class structure). pp. Film Criticism XIII. 3-4 (1973). and illustrations. 5 (1974). Variety. no. Japanese Film Journal 19. pp. and XXX/16. a brief Bergman biography and filmography. 3 (222). 20 (8 March 1973). Cinéma Québec XXXIX. 56-7. 56-57. 16-17. no. p. 98-106. ‘Color and Myth in Cries and Whispers’. Credits. 3 (Spring) 1989: 37-41. Commentaries and Reception Record Cinéma 181 (November 1973). p. 50-54. pp. Longer Articles Adams. no. Massachusetts Review 16. pp.). 223. ‘Bergman: the politics of melodrama’. ‘Bergman and Women: Cries and Whispers’. 15 February 1973. Special issue of Cris et chuchottements.E. 81-84. p. formerly The Brighton Film Review. 15 (May 1973). pp. Rice. Concludes with excerpted press voices. 1 (Winter 1975): 147-58. p. Women & Film. New Yorker. 17 January 1973. no. Village Voice. no. 33). 64-65. New York Review of Books. no. 1975. ‘Cries and Whispers’. 3 February. pp. and analysis calling film ‘a Christus film’ with explanation of names. pp. De Telegraaf. le Fanu. Joan. XXXI. 13. 35. 10. 93-94. Los Angeles Herald Examiner. 22 January 1973. New York Times Film Reviews. no. no. Fact Sheets and Journal Issues L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma. 22 December 1972. New York Times. New Leader. 115. 16:1. p. F-Dienst XXVII/2. 20 December 1972. Julian. no. Boesten. Au bout de l’éblouissement’. 10-13. ‘Cris et chuchottements de Bergman. p. 4 (1975): 243-45. 28 December 1972. pp. Image et son. script presentation of characters. 3 (January 1973). D. 350-51. B-1. Dossier includes credits and listing of takes. ‘Cries and Whispers: The Complete Bergman’. XXVI. Der Spiegel. 53 (A. pp. 5 (Fall 1973): 2-11. 35-38. 279 (December 1973). Sitney P. 35. 18. 9 February 1973. 8 January 1973. pp. 142 (December 1973). 1989: 124-125. Filmfacts 15. 4-30. including script. Monogram (G. no. New Republic. 164-166. Mark. pp. Times (London). no. 1 January 1973. New York. XL/470 (March) 1973.

D11 (second review). who is pregnant. ‘Innocence and Panic’. pp.) 302 . had a limited showing abroad. pp. 1975). A four-hour commercial film version. The version with which most filmgoers are familiar is a two and a halfhour (155 minute) screen version. Braad Thomsen. edited for foreign consumption. 1 (Spring 1980): 54-67. p. 70. 1980. no. no. and Pauline Kael’s in New Yorker). 4 (1975). Contains Hollis Alpert review in World Magazine. Film a doba. 246. The release date of the two film versions was 1974. 214 (January 1977). Best Script. 27 May 1973. L’Express. 8 (August 1973). 243-45. passim. 432-34. 13. pp. p. 189-92. seeks an abortion. Marianne’s pregnancy is omitted. a 16 mm blown-up version of the original six TV scenes. no. Japanese Fantasy Film Journal. Village Voice. For additional awards. 1973). no. 42-51. See also Lee Bobker.. Dreamworks 1. i. The scene shifts to a dinner they give for their friends. Oscar for Best Photography. Télé-Ciné. Kosmorama. 137 (178). see Media chapter V (Ø 334) which includes more commentaries and a record of the reception of original TV transmission. Johan and Marianne congratulate themselves on their own marriage. 11 January 1973. ‘Cries and Whispers’. pp. (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Parmentier. 13-15. Afterwards. 65. Jovanovich. Best Director and Best Actress (Liv Ullmann). sec. pp. ‘Bergman har lavet sit livs mesterværk’ [B has made his life’s masterpiece]. C. New York Critics’ Award for Best Film. 8-14 October 1973. p. pp. 79-86. Svensk filmografi. 1974 [Scenes from a Marriage]. (The TV version also includes an episode where Marianne. P. Chr. The TV version was first aired in 1973. Paul D. E. Synopsis First scene.Chapter IV Filmography interview based on Cannes press conference by Jean-Pierre Tadros. 66-67. Elements of Film (New York: Harcourt. Aktuelt (Danish). 31 March 1973. (15 January). Film 72/73. Awards 1972: National Society of Film Critics for Best Script and Best Photography. Brace.e. In the commercial film version. Filmfacts XV/24. 170 minutes. no. For the original TV version. pp. 2. pp. SCENER UR ETT ÄKTENSKAP. Ingmar Bergman. opens with an at-home interview where Johan and Marianne pose as the ideal couple for a ladies journal. A Critical Biography. A Swedish film version. see under film title in Varia. Cowie. ‘Un film pour vous divertir’. The gathering breaks up when the guests begin to insult each other. 275-82. Synopsis and extracts from reviews. Eastmancolor (16 mm) Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Scener ur ett äktenskap was originally conceived as six 50-minute scenes for television. 1970-1979 (Ø 1314). New York Times. 37. had a brief circulation in Sweden. pp. Zimmerman’s in Newsweek. shot in 16 mm. Peter and Katarina. 1974: 601-06.

They start drinking. Later she criticizes a collection of poems that Johan has given her to read. Marianne wakes up after a nightmare. holding hands. Jacobi. begins with a mild but unsuccessful revolt by Marianne: she decides to cancel the weekly Sunday dinner with her parents. ‘Paula’. Marianne is in a good mood and seduces him. He wants to make love to Marianne. only to find out that Johan’s affair has been known among their friends for some time. ‘The Illiterates’. who has wanted to divorce her husband for 15 years on the grounds that her marriage is loveless. He mentions an offer he has had from an American university and reveals that Paula is not going to accompany him. Later. She fails. Several years have gone by when the final scene takes place. they sign the divorce papers. Johan has a cold. They begin a discussion about outspokenness and eroticism in marriage. During the night. in a dark House somewhere in the World’. she sees Mrs. Afterwards. she shows him a letter that Paula has written to her. His collegaue. Marianne and Johan have lunch together. Credits Production company Production manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Mixing Costumes Cinematograph AB Lars-Owe Carlberg Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist (Eastmancolor) Björn Thulin Owe Svensson. They make love but in the morning Johan packs and leaves. she reads him a passage from her diary. but Johan wants to break away from a life filled with middle-class commitments. Johan comes to Marianne’s home for dinner. and Marianne leaves. Eva. takes place in Johan’s and Marianne’s summer house where Johan reveals having an affair with another woman. Marianne calls a couple they know. The third scene. They go back to sleep. She talks to Johan about her sense of confusion and of not being loved.Synopses. takes place in Johan’s office. The verbal insults change into a violent physical attack by Johan. Marianne claims that she is finally free. in her office. Johan receives a call from his mother in his lab. The next to the last scene. occurs a year later. if not happy. titled ‘The Art of Sweeping under the Carpet’. comes in and partakes in an experiment: a TV monitor records her efforts to hit a point of light on a screen in a darkened room. ‘The Valley of Tears’. but Johan falls asleep. They drive to a friend’s cabin and talk about their lives. Commentaries and Reception Record The second ‘scene’. The fourth scene. Johan tells her he loves her in his own unimaginative way. In the meantime. Instead. Distraught. somewhat irritated. Both Johan and Marianne have remarried. Johan is upset because his life seems meaningless. with whom he is leaving for Paris the next day. titled ‘In the middle of the Night. Credits. Paula. The foghorn sounds ouside. which they continue in the evening after a theatre performance of Ibsen’s A Doll’s House. Johan leaves. Marianne pleads with him to stay. Arne Carlsson Owe Svensson Inger Pehrsson 303 . saying that Paula’s epistle is an act of histrionics. Soon they begin to argue and accuse each other of the flaws in their marriage. While Johan talks about his professional difficulties. Marianne appears indifferent and tells about her new sense of freedom. predicting that Johan will go back to his family. but meet on the twentieth anniversary of their own marriage. Later. but she refuses. Marianne comes to present and sign the divorce papers. Marianne suggests that their lack of sexual desire for each other might be the result of too much talk about it.

was a continuation of his ‘bourgeois tragi-comedies’ The Touch and Reservatet. Johan’s colleauge Marianne’s mother Eva. 1973. p. under the title ‘Det var bara roligt’ [It was nothing but fun]. that he did not speak through Johan and Marianne: ‘It surprised me a lot when I wrote about them that they could say things all on their own. See also Expr. In an interview article by Elisabet Sörenson in SvD. 12 years old Her sister Voice-over as a press photographer Filmed on location in Stockholm and at Fårö. 304 . 15. Distribution U. 47-8. beginning 24 July 1972 and completed 3 October 1972. opening Svensk Filmindustri (film version) Donald Rugoff TV version: 282 minutes. NYC Commentary In a reportage in DN (30 August 1972). The main theme in all three works was ‘the certainty with which bourgeois ideology corrupts people’s emotional life’ (den visshet med vilken den borgerliga ideologin korrumperar människors känsloliv). De mest överraskande saker].S. taped by Thorleif Hellbom at Bergman’s Dämba studio on Fårö. American film version: 155 minutes 28 October 1974. no. during which he wrote the script to Scener ur ett äktenskap. however. Swedish film version: 170 minutes. Cinema 1. 39 (1974). Jacobi Arne. 6 April 1973. 42. Palm. pp. Same material appeared in Röster i Radio TV.. In an interview by Göran Sellgren titled ‘Första TV-serien för Bergman’ (DN. p. The most amazing things’ [Det förvånade mig mycket när jag skrev om dem att de kunde säga saker av sig själva. p. Bergman talks about a productive 3-month period [April-June 1972]. 4 May 1972) Bergman revealed that Scenes. See also Bergman’s remarks about the TV series.. Material also appeared in Danish Politiken. Allers. adding. Camera (Västerås) 21 September 1974. no. journalist Peter Katarina Eva Gunnel Lindblom Mrs. 8. 13 May 1973.. 25. listed in Chapter II (Ø 152). Bergman talked about the genesis of his characters as ‘a kind of spring cleaning in a closet in which I had stored other people’s and my own experiences’ [en slags vårstädning i en garderob där jag hade lagrat andra människors och mina egna erfarenheter]. under the headline ‘Et par måneders arbejde men et livs erfaring’ [A couple of months work but the experience of a lifetime]. Bergman said about the genesis of the entire series that ‘It started on my old couch’ [Det började på min gamla soffa].S. distribution Running time Swedish film opening U. 17 May 1973.Chapter IV Filmography Make-up Editor Continuity Cecilia Drott Siv Lundgren Ulla Stattin Liv Ullmann Erland Josephson Anita Wall Jan Malmsjö Bibi Andersson Barbro Hiort af Ornäs Bertil Norström Wenche Foss Rosanna Mariano Lena Bergman Ingmar Bergman Cast Marianne Johan Mrs. In a later interview article by Aino and Arne Sellermark.

3. 2 (August 1974): 60-61. pp. pp. pp. 33 (repr. pp. 115-18. New Republic. 501.. 1 (January 1975). 2. 12. 5 (February 1975): 39-40. 2 (Winter 1974-75): 48-53. 12 October 1974. Kosmorama. 16. January 1975. sec. 24) reported that Bergman had sold a cut-down version of Scener ur ett äktenskap for commercial distribution in the U. no. 22 September 1974. K. Credits. Kay and G. New York Times. no. 162 (October 1975). 66-69). 96-98. 41-46. Swedish film version (170 minutes) of Scener ur ett äktenskap had a selective showing in Sweden on a try-out basis. 18 March 1975. Jeune cinéma. Film Heritage 10. Monthly Film Bulletin.P. no. pp. Films and Filming 21. no. 66-69). Foreign Reviews America. 1977). have never seem them as untouchable’ [Den har inte förlorat något på operationen. no. no. pp. Films in Review. the most drastic difference between the TV and film versions is the omission of an entire episode depicting Marianne’s visit to her mother. 1. ed. F-Dienst XXVIII/6. pp. pp. Bergman said: ‘It hasn’t lost anything in the operation. New Republic. no. 2 (Winter 1975): 43-44. 234 (November 1975). Ortega y Gasset’.S. In France reviewers noted Bergman’s development from the symbolic and metaphysical films of the Fifties and Sixties to the realism of Scenes. 1 (1975). no. respectively. 56 and p. 196 (March 1975). 34). no. Peary (E. 18 November 1974. 22. 85 (March 1975). Los Angeles Times. Film Quarterly 28. 404-5. New York. October 1974. 82. Cineforum. no. 29-32. p. Ms. 16-17. but got only a limited response (see Expr. 5 (January-February 1975). pp. Jag har alltid varit osentimental om mina filmer. in Before my Eyes. Foreign Reception American evaluations of the shorter (155 minute) film version of Scenes from a Marriage echoed the mixed US response to The Touch a few years earlier. pp. pp. 117 (November 1973). 144 (May 1975). Kierkegaard. Jump Cut. p. 25 October 1977. no. pp. They remarked in particular on two things: that Bergman had a talent for simplicity and richness of dialogue and for narrative density. Dutton. 195. p. Molly Haskell interviewed Liv Ullmann for Village Voice. p. (p. 305 . referred to Bergman’s film as ‘a high-class soap opera missing both the mundane and the metaphysical’. 7 (September 1974). 62-63. 1. pp. har aldrig sett dem som oantastliga]. 10-11. Amis du film et de la télévision. 34 (March 1975). compared Scenes ‘to the great literary tracts on love by writers like Stendhal. 115-116 (August 1973). Cinéma 75. pp. and no. 2324. 23 October 1974. 4 (1974). Japanese Fantasy Journal 19. p. Positif. pp. no. 22. 23 September 1974. Marcia Cavell in New Leader. no. pp. Apart from the cut of the abortion segment. 12 October 1974.Synopses. 68-69. no. 117-33. no. 15. pp. and XXX. 33 (repr. and that Scenes marked a peak in his ability to present an ‘invisible mise-en-scène’ (See Jeune Cinéma. reprinted in Women and the Cinema. pp. Partisan Review. pp. 12 a-d. pp. 228-30. 581-85. no. 363-77. 17. New Yorker. Commentaries and Reception Record On 27 August 1974. While John Simon in Esquire. 1-2. 60-62. Ecran. pp. L’Avant-scène du cinéma. in Kauffmann’s Before my Eyes. Cinéma 75 listed below). pp. 22. pp. I’ve always been unsentimental about my films. 21 November 1974. pp. 137-47. 28 October 1974. Expr. 10 August and 12 October 1974.

‘Scenes from a Marriage’. Tamino arrives at Sarastro’s palace. They return to tell their mistress of the incident. 15-18. after a libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder For the reception of the original TV transmission (including controversy over production support). Jr. Bild und Funk Bambi Award for Best Foreign Actress. Sarastro reveals his intention to give his daughter to Tamino. 313-23. The Queen gives Tamino a magic flute and a companion. Eastmancolor Director Text Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman. Birgitta. 64-66. Westerbeck. 19-21 and no. Paul. 264-70. Télé-Ciné. 3 (Summer 1977). David di Donatello Award. Awards 1974: 1975: 1976: Hollywood Foreign Press Association Golden Globe. MA thesis. Librach. p. TROLLFLÖJTEN. p. Sight and Sound 45. During a visit the Queen of Night promises Tamino her daughter in marriage if he returns Pamina from her father. He is aware of Pamina’s and Tamino’s love for each other – Papageno has given Pamina a picture of Tamino and her love for him is instant – and sets a scheme in motion. 306 . Papageno. Monostatos. ‘Scenes from a Marriage. no. Times (London). 300-301. 20 December 1974. 26 September 1974. pp. and while the latter finds Pamina and flees with her from her guardian. 45 typewritten pp. Rhode Island College. C. by some considered a wizard. p. 167 (March 1975). ‘Bergman and the Popular Audience’ in Kaminsky. First. and 13 January 1975. 197 (March 1975). pp. A Special Project in Directing’. 247. Best Actress. 1990. however. Lester. Scandinavian Studies 49. Steene. 40 (April 1975). p. National Society of Filmcritics awards for Best Picture. Ronald S. no. 1975 [The Magic Flute]. no. see media chapter V (Ø 335). 2 October 1974. Soon Tamino and Papageno lose each other. by others a good and wise man. Pamina’s and Papageno’s flight is thwarted by Sarastro as he returns from a hunt. the prince and his companion must endure three trials. 34. pp. 29 November 1974. Product D II/9. 1 (Winter 1974-75): 57-58. pp. pp. Movietone News. 41 (May 1975). During a meeting with his council of priests. Village Voice. Synopsis The story focusses on Prince Tamino and Princess Pamina. 28. the prince falls in love with Pamina. ‘Pillow Talk’ Commonweal. He captures Tamino and sends him away with Papageno. Taormina. who has kidnapped her. daughter of the evil Queen of Night and Sarastro. pp. 84. Keyser. no. ‘Marriage as Metaphor: The Idea of Consciousness in Scener ur ett äktenskap’. to Liv Ullmann. 1975 (Ø 1266). p.Chapter IV Filmography Positif. Film Journalists’ Association Film Festival (Brussels). 283-300. The film opens as Tamino is attacked during a hunt by a bestial dragon and saved at the last moment by three women who are in the Queen of Night’s service. Longer Studies and Review Articles (film version) Buxton. no. and ‘Divorce Swedish Style’. 17. 69. Best Screenplay. 3 January 1975. She sends Tamino a medallion of her daughter. pp. As planned.

Jerker Arvidson Urban Malmberg. Because of his hatred for his wife.Synopses. Tamino is now ready for his last trial: to wander through fire and water. channel 2) Måns Reuterswärd Ann-Marie Jartelius Ingmar Bergman Kerstin Forsmark Sven Nykvist Henny Noremark W. Helena Högberg. Tamino and Papageno are forbidden to talk. Sarastro does not consider himself worthy to reign and gives the rulership insignia to Tamino and Pamina. Together. Henny Noremark Bengt Ottekil. Pamina. Nina Harte. In the Temple of Trials. who has been sent by her mother to kill Sarastro. Commentaries and Reception Record Taken to the Temple of Trials. and with the help of the magic flute. Papageno forgets himself and loses his prospective fiancée. Erland von Heijne Lisbeth Zachrisson. The film ends as Papageno and Papagena (with an instant hoard of offspring) join Tamino and Pamina in celebration of happiness and love. Mozart’s Die Zauberflöte Helmut Mühle (music). Credits Production company Production manager Location manager Director Assistant director Photography Architect Music Sound Mixing Orchestration Choreography Costumes Make-up Editor Continuity Cinematograph/SverigesTelevision (SVT. Tamino forfeits a chance to turn back. They are greeted by Sarastro and his people. Peter Hennix (dialog) Bengt Törnkrantz Eric Ericson and SR/Symphony Choir Donya Feuer Karin Erskine. Jane Darling. Elina Lehto. approaches Tamino but doubts his love for her when he does not answer her. Cecilia Drott Siv Lundgren Katinka (Katherina) Faragó Josef Köstlinger Irma Urrila Håkan Hagegård Elisabeth Erikson Britt-Marie Aruhn Kirsten Vaupel Birgitta Smiding Ulrik Cold Birgit Nordin. Papagena. Ansgar Krook. He persuades Papageno to stay by promising him a beautiful wife.A. Lena Wennergren. Sonja Karlsson Cast Tamino Pamina Papageno Papagena First lady Second lady Third lady Sarastro Queen of Night Monostatos The speaker First priest Second priest Two guards Three boys in the balloon Seven girls 307 . Tamino and Pamina endure the elements and reach their goal. Credits. who have chased away the Queen of Night. Britt Falkemo. assisted by song pedagoque Ulla Blom Ragnar Ulfung Erik Sædén Gösta Prüzelius Ulf Johanson Hans Johansson. She attempts suicide but is saved by three boys who return her in a balloon to Tamino. who has appeared as an old woman.

67. Folke Jonsson. At age 12 he tried using it for his puppet theater but could not afford to buy the records. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 11 November 1975./Carmen F. pp. Röster i Radio-TV. pp. written for a 10-year-old by an adult). så kan man säga att han hämtat dem ur sin genialitet eller ur en samlad djupt mänsklig erfarenhet eller ur en sublimerad dödsfruktan.]. Eller om du vill översätta detta begripligt. Or if you want to translate that into comprehensible language. no. is similar in structure to Theater auf der Weiden outside Vienna. the only intact stage of its kind in Europe. 47: ‘Mozart got those notes from God of course. Sven Nykvist. Distribution US. Bergman writes about the genesis of his filmatization of Mozart’s opera and about episodes in the making of the film. 47 (20 November 1974). no. Donya Feuer. Siegfried Svensson. See Varia. Lisbeth Zachrisson. though diminished reconstruction of the 18th-century Drottningholm Court Theatre outside Stockholm. Janós Herskó. Ingmar Bergman.S. Commentary In interviews. 9-10.. pp. [M. 31 December 1974. Coronet. 59). no. p. Hans Kyhle.Chapter IV Filmography Nine priests Einar Larson. In Bilder/Images. Film und Ton 22 (December 1975): 64. Bergman mentions his lifelong love of Mozart’s opera and refers to it as ‘the world’s best musical’ [världens bästa musikal]. p. LarsOwe Carlberg Girl in the audience Listeners in the audience Bergman’s filmed TV version of Mozart’s opera Die Zauberflöte was shot on a replica of an 18thcentury stage. For Bergman’s views on Mozart. This theatre. Stockholm (Studio 1). and filmed at Filmhuset. Sets and machinery were a faithful.e. Magnus Blomkvist.18. Bergman’s Trollflöjten was recorded at the Circus Theatre in Stockholm. where Bergman had first planned to shoot the film. story and wisdom combined. 10 (same material appears in authors’ interview article in Positif. opening Svensk Filmindustri Surrogate Co. Bergman added in an interview in Vecko-Journalen. Erland Josephson. pp. fick det från Gud naturligtvis. beginning 6 April 1974. 177 (January 1976). in which Bergman compares Mozart’s opera to Winnie the Pooh (i. 1-2 (1974/75). you can say that he got it from his genius or from a collective human experience or from a sublimated fear of death’. 1990. NYC A documentary about the production of Trollflöjten was produced by Katinka Faragó and Måns Reuterswärd. 350-359. Carl Henric Qvarfordt Helene Friberg Daniel Bergman. Arne Hendriksen. distribution Running time Released Television premiere Cinema premiere U. Bergman defines ‘morality of love’ as opera’s main theme and justifies changes he made in the libretto as an attempt to make this theme 308 . 9-23 May 1975. Zollo 135 minutes 26 September 1975 1 January 1975 4 October 1975. Sixten Fark. 2 January 1975. A. beginning 16 April 1974 (not counting extensive preparations over a 3-year period) and completed in July 1974. Ingrid Bergman. Singling out the 12 beats he used in the puppeteer sequence in Vargtimmen (Tamino’s search for Pamina) as ‘one of civilization’s greatest moments’. SvenErik Jacobsson. 4-5. and an article by Jan Aghed and Carlhåkan Larsén in SDS. where Magic Flute was shown out of competition. see also interviews in AB. Gösta Backelin. where Mozart’s opera opened on 30 September 1791. two-page program issued at the Cannes Film Festival.

New York Magazine. no. pp. 17. not artificial ones. 88 (July-August).. as was often stated erroneously in British and American reviews. 234 (November 1975). 113-14 (‘a sugar plum for anyone’). In this context. 210-11.. Ecran. pp. Jeune cinéma. January-February 1977. no. 42 (December 1975). 2 (February 1976). (1976): 213-15. Credits. Genius is served. 4 January 1975. no. John Simon in New York. pp. pp. Bianco e nero. no. 16. 9 November 1975. 50:1. reprinted in Kauffmann: Before my Eyes. 29 November 1975. 17 November 1975. D17. Films and Filming 22. New York Times. 24 November 1975.S in early November 1975. pp. [. p. American critics were soon outdoing each other in laudatory assessments. Commentaries and Reception Record more explicit. 2. Foreign Reception The Magic Flute opened as a commercial film in the U. a lot will be forgiven Sweden for having wanted and produced such a celebration’). inte konstlade. Village Voice. Amis du film et de la télévision. 33-34.. May-June 1977. Bergman’s choice of singers became a bone of contention among reviewers. pp. 5 March 1976. 217-18.] Det finns syntetiska röster som låter underbara men man kan inte se i ansiktena att någon sjunger]. 8 (August 1975): 894-99.. who was asked by many before the filming ‘to defend Mozart’. 69-72 (‘On the Day of Judgement of Nations. p. pp. 102 (‘ A model of a musical ensemble as well as theatrical inspiration’). 108-11. 81-82 was critical. See also an interview with Sven Nykvist discussing the filming of Magic Flute in American Cinematograper 56. Cinema nuovo. p. 9. pp. p. the interview with music director Eric Ericson in SvD. High Fidelity and Musical America. Monthly Film Bulletin. 6 (March 1976). pp. no. 2:1. 82-84 (‘This is an occasion. Film Quarterly 30. p. 16-18.. Helene Friberg. no. 309 . 12 November 1975. felt that there was never any need to do so: ‘Working with Bergman was a new and fine experience for me and the orchestra’ [Att arbeta med Bergman var en ny och fin erfarenhet för mig och orkestern]. 22. 24 November 1975. pp. Costumier Henny Noremark spent eleven months preparing the costumes. National Review. Ericson. no. 48-50.] Mozart is enhanced. See New Republic. discussed this and other musical problems in Magic Flute. pp.Synopses. Kosmorama. the young girl in the audience. 61-62. pp. p. whose face and reactions to the performance form a visual leitmotif in the film. pp. is not Ingmar Bergman and Liv Ullmann’s daughter. Filmkritika 28 (March 1975). 18 argued that Bergman fell between two chairs by picking good-looking singers who were neither professional actors nor first-rate opera performers. 125 (1975). Foreign Reviews America. 27 November 1975. no. 24 November 1975. Dissent 23. Peter Cowie in High Fidelity Magazine 25. 24 November 1975. 35. 6 (June 1976): 66-70. 108-10. no. 24 January 1976. In 1976 she was nominated for an Academy Award. but you can’t see in the faces that anybody is singing’ [Det viktigaste för mig var att sångarna hade naturliga röster. is also of interest. Newsweek. February 1976. 81-82. Bergman is triumphant’). [.] There are synthetic voices that sound wonderful. 2: D15. [. pp. and Robert Craft in New York Review of Books.. 55-56. He also defends his choice of singers: ‘The most important thing for me was that the singers had natural-born voices. p. but the film was not submitted for competition. pp. pp. 1 (Fall 1976): 45-49. no. Time. and 16 November.

Sight and Sound. ‘La flute enchantée’. 121-23 (claims Bergman’s competition is not the opera. Sarris. M. La flute enchantée (ou “La caméra enchanteresse”)’. Schupp. Stuttgarter Zeitung. no. 10 January 1975. shot for the TV screen. The Yale Review 81. Australian Journal of Screen 7. Variety. in her collection of reviews When the Lights Go Down. Donneux. Positif. Stanley. 159. 2003. 1975: 248. M. ‘The Abduction from Theater. no. (Argues that Bergman’s Flute. p. ‘Die Zauberflöte verfilmd door Ingmar Bergman’. no. pp. 162 (October 1975). Longer Studies Carcassonne. 29-35.A. 65-79. Awards French Film Critics Association Special Award Golden Globe Award as Best Film of the Year. pp.Chapter IV Filmography New Yorker. pp. 3 (Summer 1975). 92-104 (comparison with Losey’s Don Giovanni and Sellars’s The Marriage of Figaro). no. pp. 177. p. 84 (April 1976): 28-31 (refers to film as a Bergman-Mozart masterpiece). ANSIKTE MOT ANSIKTE. Andrew. January 1976. Plus. Mozart Opera on Film’. no. Pauline. but a hifi record player). 17 November 1975. its genesis and Swedish response. Varia. XIII. is a television opera rather than an opera film and transforms. Dossier on La flute enchantée with credits and illustrations. an old aristocratic opera genre with its upper-class theatre context into a democratic theatrum mundi). Fact Sheets and Special Journal Issues Avant-Scène du Cinéma. 1 (January 1993). See also Donneux. 310 . ‘A meditation on theatre and love’. R. 15 January 1975. 72-75. Egil. no. 4 (January 1976): 29-35. thesis. pp. pp. Eastmancolor Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman See also Media Chapter (Ø 336) for presentation of Ansikte mot ansikte as TV series. P. 1998. Apec Cinéma. no. pp. Kael. In Fridén. 11-15 (comparison with Losey’s Don Giovanni). see under film title. Cinématographe. 1976 [Face to Face]. Ingmar Bergman and the Arts. through an intricate viewer perspective. Eric. 1 December 1975. Village Voice. 7 (1980). 84-97. no 52 (November 1979). ‘Tombeaux de Mozart’. C. Kauffmann. Patrick. Séquences. 3-5. 169-74. For additional awards. 45. Nordic Theatre Studies 11. Unpublished M. ‘Bergman – Mozart. 4 (January 1975-76). 124-37 (on the theatrical style and the theme of power and love in The Magic Flute). APEC – Revue Belge du Cinéma. ‘Transcending Bounderies: Bergman’s Magic Flute’. ed. Hunter. no. pp. pp. University of Amsterdam. pp. Törnqvist. Ann Carpenter. Also in author’s Bergman’s Muses. 47-50. pp.

Her grandfather has had a stroke and is decrepit and senile. There is also the prospect for her of a trip to the U. totally dependent upon the care of Jenny’s grandmother. In yet another hallucinatory fragment Jenny is confronted by her patients. She relives her fears of a dark closet where she was locked up as a punishment. At a party that the head psychiatrist’s wife is giving for her homosexual friends. Jenny is seen standing behind a curtain watching the two old people communicating silently. with cold staring eyes. Tomas. with some additional scenes taking place in a hospital. an old woman dressed in black. in an empty house. Jenny meets Tomas. In still another nightmare. drooling and caressing her breast. They have dinner together and go to his place. finds her grandfather crouched in a closet. and her teenage daughter at summer camp. Credits Production company Production manager Location manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Cinematograph Lars-Owe Carlberg Katinka (Katherina) Faragó Ingmar Bergman Peder Langenskiöld Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist 311 . who were killed in an automobile accident. pulls a rubber mask off a woman’s face. wandering through the psychic landscape of her childhood. Ansikte mot ansikte/Face to Face depicts the nervous breakdown and recovery of Jenny Isaksson. The corpse is revived. One of Jenny’s patients. Tomas discovers her. Jenny sees a specter. Jenny is watching her own dead self in a nailed white coffin. and recommends aspirin and tranquillizers to her patients but feels uncomfortable with their attempts to touch her. unconscious. a psychiatrist in her late Thirties. Maria. As she begins to recover.S. listens silently to Jenny’s explanations. Her scientist husband is in the U. and takes her to the hospital. a gynecologist. Credits. Jenny has gone to live with her grandparents for the summer while a new house is being finished for her family. The film ends as Jenny makes a phone call to the hospital. She is seen searching for her parents. who has attended to Jenny during her recovery. The woman appears without warning and continues to haunt Jenny until she is driven to a suicide attempt.Synopses. Two men accost Jenny. and at a party. When she returns to her grandparent’s apartment. Jenny dismisses the behavior as playacting. In a last hallucinatory scene Jenny assumes the voice of a reprimanding old woman who lectures her about her duties. Jenny hallucinates and imagines herself dressed in a long red robe and red cap. and leaves. Jenny’s husband comes to visit. and threatens to lock her up in the closet. Jenny returns to her grandparents. going to a house that she and her family have recently vacated. The film is set in the old-fashioned apartment of Jenny’s grandparents in Stockholm. and one of them tries to rape her. confronts her. Later their daughter Anna drops in. Jenny is substituting for the head of the psychiatric clinic at the hospital where she works. she finds Maria drugged on the floor. Later she gets an anonymous phone call. tells her he is leaving for Jamaica. revealing open bleeding sores. As she is being brought back to life. even death. informing the receptionist that she will return to work shortly. Commentaries and Reception Record Synopsis Originally conceived for Swedish television. He has rushed home from America but seems preoccupied with his work.S. Jenny sets the coffin afire while the body inside cries desperately. She comes to the conclusion that love emcompasses all.

the same company that backed The Touch. It was released in the U. Jenny Isaksson Dr. and friendship in his filmmaking. pp. Tomas Jacobi Grandpa Grandma Maria Elisabeth Wankel. beginning in April 1975 and completed 30 June 1975.A. Film version: 135 minutes 5 April 1976 (charity premiere) Commentary Bergman made two versions of Ansikte mot ansikte/Face to Face: the TV-version and a shorter international film version. p. He had met Janov during a brief visit to Los Angeles and mentions his relevance to the film in Bilder/Images. 28 January 1976.S. 9. 51. distribution Running time U. Filmhuset. p. continuity. (Ø 842). 312 .S. Göran Stangertz Rebecka Pawlo.S. At the time of his conception of Ansikte mot ansikte. 2 (December 1976): 34-35. Bergman had become intrigued by Arthur Janov’s psychological theories about ‘the primal scream’.. which he refused to do. though he later re-edited it to run for 135 minutes. A reportage from the shooting of Ansikte mot ansikte appeared in Los Angeles Times Calendar. Jenny’s husband Anna Woman specter Dr. psychiatrist’s wife Erik. nurse Mikael Strömberg. Distribution U. Lena Olin Käbi Laretei Bengt Eklund Cast Dr. Peter Krópenin Owe Svensson W. This shorter version of Ansikte mot ansikte has never been shown in Sweden. actor Jenny’s mother Jenny’s father Rapists Boutique girls Piano player Ludde Filmed at SFI studios. Mozart’s Fantasy in C minor. Helmut Wankel Veronica. 1990. Bergman talks to Charles Champlin of LA Times about the importance of tradition. 15 June 1975. The international film version was originally scheduled to be distributed by ABC Pictures. But ABC wanted Bergman to cut further the copy he had submitted. premiere Cinematograph Dino de Laurentiis. See interview in SvD. no. Same subject appears in Continental Film Review XIV.Chapter IV Filmography Architects Sound/Mixing Music Costumes Props Make-up Editor Continuity Anne Terselius-Hagegård. K 475. 66-82. played by Käbi Laretei Maggie Strindberg Anna Asp Cecilia Drott Siv Lundgren Kerstin Eriksdotter Liv Ullmann Erland Josephson Gunnar Björnstrand Aino Taube Kari Sylwan Sif Ruud Sven Lindberg Helene Friberg Tore Segelcke Ulf Johanson Kristina Adolphson Gösta Ekman Marianne Aminoff Jan-Eric Lindqvist Birger Malmsten. Paramount TV-version: 175 min.

SR/TV issued a five-page program including plot synopsis. Commonweal. New Yorker. A production handbook from the making of Ansikte mot ansikte was published in German: Produktionshandbuch zu Ingmar Bergmans ‘Von Angesicht zo Angesicht’. p. and excerpts from the script was published by Beverly Hills Lion Films Co. 40-41. Foreign Reception and Reviews V. Psychology Today 10. pp. 125 pp. 7 April 1976. no. 4 (September 1976): 15. pp. which is based on the TV manuscript. Films in Review 27. p. 1976).. 2. p. no. 475-76. 5 April 1976. 247. 10. 55-56. 22 October 1976. and J. 45. and became the preface to Swedish and American printed versions of the script. 1. Village Voice. Films and Filming 22. before releasing the film in the US. Hatch. pp. 133-34. no. however. no. sec. Several argued. 3 (May-June 1976): 46-49. 97. It included ‘a rare and private look at a day in Ingmar Bergman’s working world’. New Republic. Time 12 April 1976. Andrew Sarris. 161 (January 1977): 54-61. and 18 April 1976. F-Dienst XXIV/12. 21 May 1976. p. Samuel Raphaelson. films conceived before the Bergman tax debacle – attributed their content to the tax case and Bergman’s reaction to it. C. as in his medieval films. 313 . and Bergman’s letter to the crew.e. ed. 6 April 1976. no. pp. Positif. 24 September 1975. and a year later The Serpent’s Egg – i. no. Ecran no. Brody. Cocks. no. Séquences. Paramount. p. pp. On 24 March 1976. saw the film as a metaphor for Sweden – perfection on the surface. 18 April 1976. New York Times. 570. December 1976. For additional foreign reactions. Film und Ton 22 (December 1976): 64-65.Synopses. 65. biographies of crew and actors. See the following commentators: J. America. D. New Statesman. printed an elaborate 44-page program. the final American distributor. 3 (December 1976): 31. 2:1. 17 April 1976. Canby in NYT. 7 August 1976. Credits. L Westerbeck. 50 (September 1976): 49-51. pp. American reviews of Face to Face were excerpted in SDS. p. this was arranged in order to make the film qualify as an Academy Award entry. p. The letter was also published in New York Times. A glossier 292-page folder presenting the film with credits. pp. 22. p. A number of American reviewers stated that the powerful hallucinatory quality of the Bergman/Ullmann collaboration seduced the audience. see: Cineforum 17. R. film credits. Monthly Film Bulletin. 86 (October 1976): 48-49 (questioned cuts from script). that Bergman was less successful when relying on an actor’s aura than when he made visual use of iconography and ritual enactment to capture audience attention. Nation. 17 April 1976. 14-15. See B. (Hamburg: Hoffman und Campe. 4 (October 1976). 8 June 1976. 1976: 82-83. Filmcritica 28 (March 1977): 123-24. Jacobs. pp. Film Comment 12. 183-184 (July-August). 121-23. Breslin. 333-34. Patrick Schupp. 5 April 1976. by Ernie Anderson. Several American reviews of Face to Face. crisis underneath. no. 5 (May 1876): 314-15. Commentaries and Reception Record prior to the airing of the TV version in Sweden. Take One 5. 28:1.

Bauer releases Abel. Awards 1977: Golden Globe as Best Foreign Film of the Year. where Hans Vergerus has given Abel access to an apartment. Robert. Stanley. When questioned by a fat cigar-smoking policeman. Abel returns to his shabby hotel room in Berlin to find his brother dead. the handwriting is illegible. Trying to escape. March-April 1977. After Manuela goes to her daytime work (as a prostitute). 32. The two brothers are Canadian citizens born of Danish Jews. the other is a suicide. She prays with a minister. Abel searches her room and finds a small bundle of dollar bills. Returning to his former hotel room. 115-17 (interview with Italian psychoanalyst Cesare Musatti about Face to Face). no. Two doctors. Manuela and Abel move to St. Film Comment 12. and gives her a letter that Max has left behind. The badly beaten corpse is that of Grethe Hofer. Variety. another girl and a black man are arguing about his impotence. Bauer asks him to come along to the morgue to indentify a young woman who has been found drowned. See also Finetti. He looks up Manuela. writing off his behavior as excessively neurotic. Abel can provide no clue. The man fails to make love to 314 . He is involved in a fracas with a Jewish couple. Later a prostitute picks him up. 3 (May-June 1976): 44-45. no. Abel is taken to the police station for interrogation. escort Abel to his job and leave him alone. The main characters are the former circus artists Abel and Manuela Rosenberg. unsuccessful attempt to seize political power. Later he turns up drunk at Manuela’s rooming house. Fuchs reveals that horrible experiments take place in the clinic under the surveillance of Hans Vergerus. an apparent suicide. 14 April 1976. pp. ‘Uno psicologo d’inanzi all’imagine sullo specchio’. One has been murdered with painful injections. Abel baits them with money. where Manuela comes to visit. Solterman and Fuchs. Abel witnesses the beating up of an old Jewish couple by young German soldiers. Anna’s Clinic.Chapter IV Filmography Sight and Sound 46. he reveals that he is an alcoholic and not interested in unexplained deaths or the current political chaos. U. ORMENS ÄGG /DAS SCHLANGENEI/THE SERPENT’S EGG. He meets the landlady. p. Frau Holle. 73-76 (New Republic review). except for one phrase: ‘The poisoning goes on all the time. pp. he is beaten and thrown into prison. God is no longer present to offer absolution. Abel works in the archives and Manuela in the laundry room. they ask for mutual forgiveness. Manuela used to be married to Abel’s brother Max. In her apartment. Max’s fiancée. Before my Eyes. The police stage a razzia at the cabaret hall where Manuela worked and beat the proprietor unconscious. C. Commissary Bauer. 1977 Eastmancolor Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis The Serpent’s Egg takes place in Berlin in November 1923 during Hitler’s first. Abel denies the acquintance.’ Outside the cabaret hall. Christian Century 93. Cinema Nuovo. Abel follows Manuela to work and sees her enter a church. Abel finds the police waiting. who works in the cabaret ‘Zum blauen Esel’. Lauder. Michener. Abel leaves the apartment. After an argument with Manuela. 1 (Winter 1976-77): 55. Kauffmann. no. 249. Abel runs into Hans Vergerus. a scientist who claims to recognize him from a summer vacation 26 years ago. Abel recognizes other bodies shown to him but cannot name them. 39 (1976): 936-38.

and Abel is knocked unconscious. Hans Vergerus comes into the booth and explains the film. Escorted to the railroad station he escapes and disappears in the crowd. A shadow follows him. Abel discovers Manuela dead. mostly involving injections with experimental drugs. Vergerus predicts than in ten years time. Knowing. Solterman to accompany him to the archives.) Horst Wendlandt Dino de Laurentiis Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist Rolf Zehetbauer Rolf Wilhelm Karsten Ullrich. where he beats him unconscious and steals his keys. however. Later he finds a movie camera is hidden in the wall. He wakes up in the prison hospital. Returning to the apartment. science will be ready to carry on his work. Abel gets up and acts completely disoriented. Credits. that the police are about to discover his deeds. It is a study of a woman taking care of a brain-damaged child who cries night and day. he commits suicide by swallowing cyanide. The police arrive. Vergerus is dying.Synopses. Back at work. he enters an empty room and takes an elevator to the top floor. Charlotte Flemming Heino Hallhuber Petra von Oelffen Kerstin Eriksdotter Liv Ullmann David Carradine Gert Fröbe Heintz Bennent James Whitmore Glynn Turman Georg Hartmann Edith Heerdegen Kyra Mladeck Fritz Strassner Hans Quest Wolfgang Weiser Paula Braend Walter Schmidinger Lis Mangold Grischa Huber Cast Manuela Rosenberg Abel Rosenberg Commisary Bauer Hans Vergerus Parson Monroe Hollinger Frau Holle Frau Dorst Dr. Bauer tells him that arrangements have been made for his departure to Switzerland. Soltermann Dr. (L.A. Commentaries and Reception Record the girl. Silbermann A civil servant Frau Hemse Solomon Mikaela Stella 315 . Credits Production company Executive producer Producer Director Screenplay Photography Architect Music Sound Costumes Choreography Editor Continuity Rialto Film (Berlin)/Dino de Laurentiis Corp. behaving like one of the victims in Vergerus’s filmed experiments. Abel asks Dr. Pushing a door open. This is followed by other sequences of people under extreme duress and torture. He is attacked and barely survives. He finds a projection booth and turns on the machinery: a picture of a woman sitting against a white wall appears. who collects the money.

Bergman writes about the genesis and progression of the film in Bilder/Images (Ø 188). 1. 20 March. opening Dino de Laurentiis 119 minutes 28 October 1977. it was a complicated undertaking both in terms of the setting (‘a Berlin that nobody knew any more’) and cast (finding a male main actor). 42-3) (better researched than Blume’s). It was shot in the Bavaria Studios but released as an English-speaking film. Janos. Rosenberg Mrs. Hildegard Busse Richard Bohne Emil Feist Heino Hallhuber Irene Steinbeiser Filmed in Bavaria Studios.S. 28 November 1977. ed. Time. L. L’Express. Mary. Distribution Running time Swedish premiere German premiere U. Rosemarie Heinikel. Andrea L’Arronge. 34. Victoria (Göteborg). when he spent a summer with a pro-Nazi German family. The film was co-produced by German and American financiers (see Credits above). Delain. 316 . ‘A Day on the Bergmanstrasse’. 190-208. Bergman dates his personal connection to the film story back to age 17. Grand (Stockholm). in a French interview by M. Rosenberg Max Paramedic Woman with baby Student Experimental person Doctor Prisoner Wife Husband Comforter Woman in street Hostess Prostitutes Police officer Greedy man ‘Bride’ ‘Groom’ Paul Bürks Isolde Barth. Los Angeles Times Calendar. pp. 14 February 1977. Munich. However. West Germany. ‘Bergman et le nazisme’. See: Blume. beginning October 1976 and completed December 1976. 78-9 (Am. pp. ‘The Bergman Mystique at Work’. Beverly McNeely Toni Berger Erna Brunnell Hans Eichler Harry Kalenberg Gaby Dohm Christian Berkel Paul Burian Charles Regnier Günter Meisner Heide Picha Günter Malzacher Hubert Mittendorf Hertha von Walther Ellen Umlauf Renate Grosser. pp. Bergman is quoted as saying that The Serpent’s Egg was written as a strange premonition of his own arrest in early 1976. 18-23. Camera (Malmö) 28 October 1977 February 1978 Commentary Das Schlangenei/The Serpent’s Egg was Bergman’s first film made outside of Sweden and the first film made after his taking up residence in Munich. In some reports. There were a great many reportages from the shooting of The Serpent’s Egg.Chapter IV Filmography Cabaret comedian Girls in uniform Mr. pp. The cinematographer was Sven Nykvist but a number of other crew members were German. pp.

This interview was published in French under title ‘Rencontre avec Bergman’. SVT. and Die Zeit. 5 February 1977. Stockholm press. 60. The Serpent’s Egg was termed ‘a major disaster’ (Molly Haskell. no. ‘Bergmans angst en beklemming’. (Televised interview with Bergman about the background of Ormens ägg. 18-27. Positif. a commercial flop in Sweden. Jacobs. 204 (March 1978). Notes sur l’utilization de l’éstétique et des thèmes expressionistes dans L’Oeuf du serpent’. In Canadian film journal Séquences (listed below). Michel Serceau argued that form and thematic content were given a cohesive and original shape by Bergman. ed. For a sample of the Dutch response. 6 February 1978. 1978: 64-66. Credits. 10 February 1978. however. ‘a baffling film. Reception The Serpent’s Egg received a great deal of critical attention. ‘La métaphore éclatée. L’Oeuf du serpent also had a mixed reception. 28 December 1977. was issued for the showing of The Serpent’s Egg at Berlin Film Festival in summer 1978. no. 73-74). reprinted in Kinozeit (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer. p. It contains an unsigned article on the historical background of the film. and Expr.Synopses. 21-22). 1 December. a manipulative film lacking human warmth and depth (R. no. University of Stockholm undergraduate thesis. pp. See Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. In France. Serceau’s article appeared in a collection titled Ingmar Bergman: La mort. contains a three-part presentation of L’oeuf du serpent by M. Hatch. Bild und Zeit section. On 29 October 1977 (p. pp. 45 (28 October). Frundt.. A program on Ormens ägg was issued by Fox-Stockholm Film (Swedish distributor). ca. pp. 104-09). The Bergman File.S. Röster i Radio-TV. 14). Another program. so obviously wrong-headed’ (Vincent 317 . See also Finland Filmland. Dawson and B. no. a transcript of the Sundgren interview listed above. 20 February 1977. Lasse Bergström published a full-page glowing review of Ormens ägg in Expr. With interviews with Sven Nykvist and Liv Ullmann. Nation. 30 pp. Commentaries and Reception Record Jungstedt.-P.. 28 October 1977. 83-94. and the Swedish distributor allegedly lost one million crowns on the project. Nils Petter ‘Filmkrönika’. first shown on Argentine television. 1983). 49 (1976). Torsten. (typescript). Reviews reveal both curious anticipation of the first film made by Bergman in exile and apprehension about his working in a foreign environment. 12 December 1976. 30 minute reportage from Bavaria Studio. Sundgren. edited by J. The film was. pp. ‘Ormens ägg’. De Tijd. consisting of a review. 2. 6-7. pp. includes a live excerpt from Bergman’s press conference in Berlin on 19 November 1976. Dino de Laurentiis also produced a documentary called ‘Secrets of a Genius’. 41-2. pp. maintaining that Bergman had succeeded in absorbing resources of international filmmaking into his most recent work while guarding his own artistic integrity. The German response to Das Schlangenei was mixed but more critical than reviews in Sweden. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. and information about his crew and leading actors. ‘Svensk press och Ormens ägg’ [Swedish Press and The Serpent’s Egg]. See Åke Hedlund. N. Interviews with Bergman during the production appeared in Vecko-Journalen. 20 November 1976. In the U. ‘Der Magiker und das Schlangenei’. Swedish reviews of Bergman’s films made in exile have been much more respectful and positive than elsewhere. pp. Jörn Donner’s film.. Spring Quarter 1978. Maurice Elia claimed that Bergman should not be blamed for wanting to do something different.. notices about Bergman’s shooting of the film. p. see Harry Hosman. But in a longer article on the film. 28-9. 12 November 1976. 51 (10 December) 1976. Sineux.. no. 26 October 1978. Sundgren and J. 155-56). New York. Swedish Public Radio (SR). synopsis of the script. pp. and Variety. 43. by Michel Estève (Paris: Lettres modernes Minard. 11 February 1978. pp. 10. made by a West German TV team. channel 2. 1. 1980. le masque et l’etre. Positif 204 (March) 1978. pp. and a transcript of a documentary based on the shooting of the film.

October 1978.Chapter IV Filmography Canby. for whom English is also a foreign language. December 1977. (subtitled ‘A real horror story’. NYT. 33-5. no. 35. New Statesman. Time. 27-28. 13 (2 November) 1977. 88. 95-97. 130-33. 70-71. Cahiers du cinéma. 19. 39. and a brutally offensive work (P. 8 November 1977. Séquences. Film og Kino. January-February 1978. no. 73 (March 1978). pp. pp. Reviews Stockholm. (2) using Liv Ullmann. 28-9. pp. pp. 34-36. 29 October 1977. National Review. p. Sight and Sound. 49-52. pp. Cinematograph. no. Illustrated. no. Film et Télévisie. July 1978. May-June 1979. p. Variety. pp. 285 (February 1978). 42-43. pp. pp. 76-79) listed three basic mistakes made by Bergman: (1) making the film in English. pp. 6 March 1978. 34. 34-5. May-June 1980. 17. 55. 29 January 1978.1978. p. 17). no. 1 (February 1978). review deals as much with Bergman’s tax problems as with film). February 1978. 3 March 1978. F-Dienst XXX/23. New Yorker. Atlantic Monthly no. S. 1980. Cinemaction. Cinema Nuovo. 106 (1983): 87-88. 2 (February 1978). 103. 55-56. pp. 318 . Cinéaste 8. New Leader. pp. 27 October 1978. p. pp. February 1979. pp. 190. New Republic. Film Kultura. 59-60. 229 (January 1978). which he did not master. October 1978. Kauffmann. 138-40. 7 February 1978. Films and Filming. 29-30. 65 (January 1978). no. pp. 92 (April 1978). pp. 4 February. Monthly Film Bulletin. Kael. Ecran. 1 (January 1978): 51. p. 11 (January-February 1978). Saturday Review. 26-7 (reprinted in Before my Eyes. Positif 204 (March) 1978: 18-20. Skrien. Cinéma 78. 38-41. 92-94). (3) selecting David Carradine for the lead male part and subordinating Ullmann’s role to his. p. 30 January 1978. pp. 47. pp. p. July 1990. p. p. 45. America. no. Lumière du Cinéma. Skoop 14. 30 January 1978. 65. no. Jeune Cinéma. Malmö press. 8-9. p. March-April 1978. 4 February 1978. February 1978: 7-9. 30 January 1978. Village Voice 6 February. p. Many American reviews compared Bergman’s film unfavorably to Bob Fosse’s Cabaret. pp. 90-91. pp. no. pp. 58-60. no. no. Summer 1978. Cine Cubano. New York Times. 141. 289-90. Amis de la cinéma. p. 108 (February 1978). 5-8. 11 February 1978. Newsweek. pp. p. Bianco e nero. 3 (Winter 1977/78). pp. Filmbulletin. no. p. Films in Review 29. Göteborg. New York: Harper & Row. pp.

Film und Fernsehen. 106 (June 1978). Screen International. and her plain-looking daughter. no. no. 1978 [Autumn Sonata]. pp. 33 (December 1977). pp. Later she visits Helena’s room. (Librach discusses Bergman’s use of dream structure – ‘The oneiric premise’ – and sees male sexual self-knowledge as the film’s principal theme). talks about Leonardo’s death. During dinner. Intellect. and Eva invites her mother to the parsonage for a visit. Filmhäftet. who used to be a journalist but gave up her career. 42-6. (On Bergman’s roots in modernism affecting his view of history and his film style in Ormens ägg). See also Chaplin no. the couple had a son. 327 (April 1978). no. 15-18 (May 1978). pp. she cannot resist. pp. Carl-Johan. 250. where she appears in elegant red. Kosmorama. Charlotte goes to sleep but wakes up screaming from a nightmare in which Helena touched her. 106-16. 29-30. September 1978. Erik. Larson. 137 (Spring 1978). She spends the rest of the night in the living room 319 . p. After doing her accounts in bed. 324 (January 1978). Charlotte. no. Eastmancolor Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis The first Bergman film to feature Ingrid Bergman. Fred. pp. pp. Librach. Eva’s husband opens the film with a narration about his wife. Cineforum. 23-4. 112-14. 3. documentary. 52235. 489. (Larson sees The Serpent’s Egg as ‘an omnius-gatherum of detective thriller. Christian Century. p. ‘Ingmar Bergman. Commentaries and Reception Record Longer Reviews and Studies/Fact sheets Cumozio. Credits. Charlotte is told that her spastic daughter Helena now lives in the house and is cared for by Eva. Shortly after arriving. ‘The Birth of Evil: Genesis According to Bergman’.Synopses. Eva stares in absolute misery at her mother. pp. Höstsonaten depicts the encounter between a successful concert pianist. who drowned at age 4. 25-30. ‘Through the Looking-Glass Darkly: The Serpent’s Egg’. Charlotte’s longtime friend Leonardo has just died. 7-14 June 1978. pp. visibly upset. political tract and psychiatric case study’ presented as a modern version of the Fall and Flood myths). no. pp. 18 March 1978. ‘Bergman ansikte mot ansikte med historien’ [B. pp. Gehler. 92-103. no. 153 (1977). pp. Gothic fiction. It is the first time in seven years that mother and daughter have seen each other. Emilio. Eva who is married to a parson and lives in rural Norway. Literature/Film Quarterly 8. 10. Ronald S. Cinematograph. Cinématographie. After the meal. Later. HERBSTSONATE/HÖSTSONATEN. she persuades her daughter to play Chopin on the piano. Charlotte gets a concert offer from her agent on the phone. no. Janet K. no. After several years of marriage. no. her husband talks confidentially about her. 34 (January 1978). 2 (Spring 1980). Filmfaust. then proceeds to play the same piece while discussing how it should be interpreted. 1980. 44-49 (Dossier on film). and no. Always conscious of money. Malmberg. 253-55. L’uovo del serpente’. ‘Abel und der Kommissar’. 615-19. 6 (December 1977). while Eva is out of the room (but eavesdropping). Charlotte. Image et son. pp. 106-8. face to face with history].

She shows the letter to her husband. But the following day Charlotte decides to leave early. As her husband peruses the letter. Chopin’s Preludium no. concert pianist Eva. Credits Production company Production manager Director Location manager Photography Architect Sound and mixing Music Personafilm Katinka (Katherina) Faragó Ingmar Bergman Lena Hansson Sven Nykvist Anna Asp Owe Svensson Excerpts from F. but grows restless and soon follows Charlotte to Vienna. performed by Frans Bruggen. Händel’s Sonata in F major. Opus 1. One of her memories focusses on Helena during an Easter visit to the island of Bornholm when Leonardo and Charlotte had come to join them. The film ends as Eva’s husband puts the letter back in the envelope to take to the post office. asking her to forgive her. longing and waiting for her mother’s return. Shots of her on a train with her agent Paul alternate with glimpses of Eva walking to the cemetery to visit Erik’s grave. 2 in A minor played by Käbi Laretei. Leonardo stays behind. In flashbacks. who seems to be recovering. the camera shows Eva’s and Charlotte’s faces in turn on the screen. surrounded by all the family members.S. A scene showing Leonardo playing his cello. stating that she doubts her mother will ever read it. 4 in E flat major performed by Claude Genetay. she was 14 years old and unable to cope with her mother’s vitality and willpower. Helena has a relapse. and is the one moment of peacefulness in the film. She feels her son’s presence very strongly.Chapter IV Filmography with Eva. who proceeds to accuse her mother of neglecting her family and egotistically pursuing her career. Charlotte leaves the parsonage. and G. J. her daughter Helena. The film ends with Eva writing a letter to her mother. Charlotte’s agent Charlotte’s secretary Piano teacher Uncle Otto 320 . is bathed in soft warm light.F. This part is told in the present and leads to Eva’s breakdown. Eva now reveals her unhappiness that summer. Anne Bylsmå Inger Pehrsson Cecilia Drott Sylvia Ingemarsson Kerstin Eriksdotter Ingrid Bergman Liv Ullmann Lena Nyman Halvar Björk Georg Lökkeberg Linn Ullmann Erland Josephson Gunnar Björnstrand Marianne Aminoff Mimi Pollak Arne Bang-Hansen Costumes Makeup Editor Continuity Cast Charlotte. Gustav Leonhardt. Charlotte defends herself and refers to a summer when she gave up her music practice to spend time with her family. Bach’s Suite no. A rapport forms between Leonardo and Helena. her daughter Eva’s husband Leonardo Eva as a child Josef Paul. we see Eva as a child.

Reception A few days after the Stockholm opening of Höstsonaten. For interview with Ingrid Bergman and her impressions of working with Bergman during shooting of Autumn Sonata. 20 September 1977. For good coverages of the press conference. In Kino (Sofia) 3. Arbeiderbladet (Oslo). (July) 1993: 44-80 (a special Bergman issue). p. Bergman held a press conference on Höstsonaten in Oslo. this Bergman wanted to explore on the screen. with a reply by M. tried to change the decision and find a loophole in the Academy rules. Filmrutan XXII. see Emma Andrews. ‘Öppet brev till Ingmar Bergman’. The Hjalmar Bergman project was rejected because its portrait of women seemed too obsolete. B. 5 November. which surfaces only in moments of extreme tension. and GP. p. The Baronet. no. 9. See the following: Bergom-Larsson. This interview was reprinted in Russian translation as ‘Kak sozdavalas. two years later he had written the part of Charlotte in Höstsonaten for her. 20 September 1977.S. p. Norway. Produced by Bergman’s own company Personafilm. Boström. Osennjaja sonata’ in Iskusstvo Kino 10 (October) 1988: 141-147. and Kerstin Anér in same paper. same date. SFI is a Foundation. 14 February 1979. 16. Bergman explained his choice of a mother/daughter rather than a father/son relationship. DN. Ingrid Bergman reminded Bergman of this. arguing that the film was de facto a German production. Ingrid Bergman revealed that her role was a fulfillment of an old promise: In 1965 she and Bergman had discussed filming Swedish author Hjalmar Bergman’s novel Chefen fru Ingeborg (Head of the Firm). Asta Bolin responded in DN. Films Illustrated 7 (May 1978): 332-33. Monika. ‘The Bergman Principle’. in traditional sex role patterns women’s relations tend to mask aggression. 1979: 8-9. 4. (Spegeln) Stockholm 8 October 1978. p. defended Bergman’s portrayal of motherhood in ‘Bergmans mödrar’ [Bergman’s mothers]. but note Variety error in claiming that the Swedish government was behind the first decision not to nominate the film. and at Norsk Film Studios. p. But the new head of the SFI. NYC Commentary A documentary from the shooting of Herbstsonate/Höstsonaten is on file at SFI. (objection to portrayal of Charlotte and urging Bergman to make a film about a father’s commitments). 33. ‘Man måste glömma för att rädda sin själ’ [One must forget in order to save one’s soul]. 6. Bergom-Larsson in same paper.S. p. Maria. Commentaries and Reception Record Filmed on location at Molde. Distribution U. p. Oslo. also covered by Swedish SR/TV under the program title ‘Stjärnor mot stjärnor’ (Stars against stars). Tunbäck-Hansson. On 19 September 1977. a feminist debate began in the Swedish and Norwegian press. 17 October. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. [Open Letter to Ingmar Bergman]. 4. p. In 1975 at the Cannes Film Festival. The Swedish Film Institute (SFI) decided first not to nominate Höstsonaten to the American Motion Picture Academy for an Academy Award as ‘Best Foreign Film’. Per Ahlmark. 2. 14 October 1978. 17. see ‘To ganger Bergman-Ullmann i høstlig sonate’ [Two times B-U in autumnal sonata]. Åsa. beginning 20 September 1977 and completed 30 October 1977. 2. 1. p. continued the debate in GP. 26 October. 19 October. opening Svensk Filmindustri New World Films 93 minutes 8 August 1978 8 October 1978.Synopses. 321 . See Variety. Bulgarian theatre director Stavri Karamfilov discusses his stage production of Höstsonaten. DN. Wilson. not a Swedish government agency. Credits. At the same press meeting.

Monthly Film Bulletin XLVI. 6 November 1978. 40. Raymond Lefèvre in Cinéma 78 felt the film bore a strong resemblance to Såsom i en spegel/Comme dans un miroir: four family members in a no exit situation. F-Dienst XXXI/24. no. Commentary. 9 October 1978 America. 295 (December) 1978: 48-9. no. pp. no. pp. Cinéma 78. no. pp. Cinéaste 9. and Edvard Munch in turning an ordinary room into an arena of tragedy. while Pauline Kael. Canadian film journal Séquences (see below) thought the film was the work of ‘an artist who pulls us deeper and deeper into the interior of his hallucinating nightmares’. Cinematograph. 79-86). Filmhäftet. Strindberg. Ecran. 2 December 1978: 619-20. pp. 1 (February) 1979: 48. Outside of Sweden. see Hugo Wortzelius in UNT (20 October 1978. Sight and Sound 48. 2925 (5 September) 1985: 31. no. 48-49. Höstsonaten got a varied response. 8-10. S. Chaplin. 2426 (reprinted in Before my Eyes. 7 (197). Film et Televisie. 7 November 1978. Kauffmann in New Republic. New Yorker. November 1978. Cinema Nuovo. 23 March 1979: 419. no. no. no. 22 October 1978. Wortzelius felt that Bergman camouflaged himself in the mother’s role. Film og Kino. 9 (November) 1978: 569. p. 1 (January) 1979: 60-64. 74 (November) 1978: 57-8. Wiggen. 322 . Filmbulletin. 51-54. p. ‘Nå er virkeligheten blitt reaksjonær!’ [Now reality has become reactionary]. no. (February) 1979: 20-2. Jeune Cinéma. 21-22 (December) 1978: 76-79. 540 (January) 1979: 7-8. p. 24 November 1978: 1490-91. 41 (November) 1978: 72-73. no. 57-59. while Lundkvist focussed on the film as a portrait of an artist’s lack of self-confidence in a mass society where (s)he is an outsider. see C. October-November 1978: R-F. 13). Skoop 14. Nation. p. pp. December 1978. no. The Listener. 115 (December. no. two children with an unresponsive parent. called Sonate s’autonne ‘stupid and obsolete’ while Newsweek. 76. 333 (November) 1978: 139-40. 9 October 1978: 113-14. For two particularly noteworthy reviews. 1. Film og Kino XLVII. and Artur Lundkvist in SvD. 28 October 1978. 1978. no. felt that Bergman had joined company with Ibsen. no. no. (December) 1978. 7 October 1978. New York. 288. 1 (Winter) 1978-79: 56. Reviews Swedish Press. 158 (May) 1978: 184-187. 1979: 8-9. Filmfaust 2.Chapter IV Filmography For Norwegian sample of debate. 16-17. 130-37. called Autumn Sonata ‘a folie à deux by Ullmann and Bergman’. 11 (December) 1978: 64-65. Cahiers du cinéma. no. referred to the film as ‘a master working’. (April) 1979: 39. 16 October 1978. no. December 1978. 165-71. National Review. Cahiers du cinéma. Films and Filming. pp. Films in Review 33. pp. pp. Filmrutan. no. pp.January) 1978: 46-48. 10. Image et son. 9. Film und Fernsehen. November-December 1978. New Statesman. 3 (March) 1979: 43-45.

1988. 16 October 1978: 112-13 (A. André. tracing Peter Egerman’s attempt to come to terms with his marriage and with his sense of emptiness and alienation. Longer Reviews and Studies Benayoun. the murder sequence is repeated. Kosmorama XXV. 1978: 46. 252. ed. no. Törnqvist. no. Vecko-Journalen. pp. no.Synopses. The murderer is an upper middle-class German businessman. 1982. 102 pp. 5 (158) 1978: 184-187. Peter Cowie. Listener. Berliner Morgenpost. le masque et l’etre. The scenes are short and often interrupted. R. G. 13. no. 19-51. Katarina. Credits. In Ingmar Bergman: La mort.E. ‘Pain and Forgiveness: Structural Transformations in Wild Strawberries and Autumn Sonata’. R. Bernd Lubowski. the film has very little action. Michael. Robert. 1. Between Stage and Screen. pp. pp. Egil. FÅRÖDOKUMENT 1979 [Fårö-document 79] 1979. 492-93. In the final part of the film. 15 October 1978. Color (16 mm) See listing in media chapter. New Orleans Review 10. 1980 [From the Life of the Marionettes] B/W & color Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis: Ingmar Bergman’s third film during his exile begins like a TV whodunnit with a murder sequence shot in flaming red. A Critical Biography. 4 (Winter) 1983: 5-15. Diss. 41. Ingmar Bergman. Farago. 1-2 (Spring-Summer) 1987: 267-273. they are like 323 . no. 34. 1995) pp. ‘Autumn Sonata’. Björkman Stig. 5 April 1979. Positif 213 (December) 1978: 51-54. no. pp. Gertner. Ingmar Bergman Directs. VI/9. pp. Motion Picture Product D. as Peter’s life comes full circle. See also Los Angeles Times. Chaplin XX. 251. Jensen. Millar. Simmons. Peter Egerman. Lauder. (Ø 338). Commentaries and Reception Record Time. (Amsterdam: AUP. no. ‘La mort comme propédeutique à la vie’. 9 December 1977. Anne-Marie. ‘Heuresis: The Mother-Daughter Theme in ‘A Jest of God’ and ‘Autumn Sonata’’. Village Voice. 160-173. Variety. 29 (March 1979): 4-13. Keith L. 62). Bird. 4 October 1978. The rest of the film is a flashback examination of his life. by Michel Estève (Paris: Lettres modernes Minard. 319-28. Séquences XXIV. ‘Sonate d’automne’. Nils. The victim is a prostitute. NYT. 33-34. It is constructed as a series of conversations. Kwakernaak. 95 (January) 1979: 33-36. 1. 60. Leroux. 3 December 1978. ‘Fugue sur la futilité somptueuse de l’ art’. France. ‘Høstsonaten og rene linier’ [Autumn Sonata and pure lines]. 16 October 1978: 71. ‘En värld av befriade känslor’ [A world of liberated feelings]. 1983). pp. ‘Herftsonate van Ingmar Bergman: een moeder dochter relatie verfilmd’. New Quarterly: New Directions in Canadian Writing 7. no. Boorsma. UR MARIONETTERNAS LIV/AUS DEM LEBEN DER MARIONETTEN . pp. McGuffin 7. E. again shot in color. a ‘protocol’ in black and white. 141 (Spring) 1979: 9-11. Leiden: Rijksuniversitet Leiden. 6 (13 September) 1978: 21. Apart from the murder.

Tim (Thomas Isidor Mandelbaum). each one implies a possible reason for his collapse and act of violence. One by one. his wife. The psychiatrist has betrayed his confidence and has had an affair with his wife. in disclosing his own despair and lonelineness. who has the same name as the murdered prostitute. Credits Production company Producers Production managers Location manager Director Assistant directors Screeenplay Photography Sound Architect Music Costumes Props Make-up Editor Continuity Personafilm Horst Wendtlandt. Distribution U. suggests Peter’s own latent homosexuality. with a minimum of mise-en-scène and hardly any social frame of reference. and his wife’s homosexual colleague. The final vignette shows him in his cell cuddling his childhood teddy bear. Irmgaard Kelpinski Michael Juncker. His mother reveals herself to be of a possessive nature. There are also indications of childhood traumas still bruising the sensitive Peter. No single character can provide the answer to Peter Egerman’s psychological short-circuit. Munich. the people with whom Peter has been associated step before the camera to have their portraits rather than their stories unveiled. a psychiatrist. his mother. psychiatrist Nurse Secretary Interrogator Guard Filmed in Tobis Film Studios. Peter’s mother Tim Mandelbaum Arthur Brenner. or rather. von Trotha. Franz Achter Ingmar Bergman T. shooting beginning in October 1979. Completion date unavailable. We meet in turn Peter’s friend.S distribution Tobis Film Swank Motion Pictures 324 . The film is virtually all close up. Tim. All of them are indirectly related to Peter’s catastrophe. Ingrid Bergman Paulette Hufnagel. which caused him to become a murderer. Katarina has exposed him to humiliation and taunting love-hatred.Chapter IV Filmography fragments in an incomplete puzzle. Johannes Kaetzler Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist Peter Beil Rolf Zehetbauer Rolf Wilhelm Charlotte Flemming Harry Freude. using actors from Bayerische Staatsschauspiel. Barbara Freude-Schnaase Mathilde Basedow Petra von Oelffen Helma Flachsmeire Robert Atzorn Christine Buchegger Martin Benrath Rita Russek Lola Müthel Walter Schmidinger Heintz Bennent Ruth Olafs Gaby Dohm Karl Heintz Pelser Toni Berger Cast Peter Egerman Katarina Egerman Mogens Jensen Katarina Cordelia Egerman.

Commentaries and Reception Record Running time First public screening TV screening German opening U. 1). 8 October 1980 in Paris. he calls the film one of his favorites. 318 (December 1980). no. Time (17 November 1980. Reviews Swedish press. pp. Torsten Manns in Filmrutan (no.. calling Bergman ‘the world’s best known minority-appeal filmmaker’ and praising Sven Nykvist’s cinemaphotography and Bergman’s ability to make ‘a contrived plot acceptable to viewer’. 109) thought Marionettes. Grand (Stockholm).e..S. ed. François Ramasse in a substantial essay on Marionettes. 6) wrote an appreciative review. 12. Bergman regrets that it was distributed elsewhere as a commercial feature film. 24 January 1981. was more interesting to analyze than to watch. 58) was ready to nominate Bergman for the Nobel Prize. Chaplin... Sandrew (Göteborg... p. see Anne Rose Katz. 95-141. 31) suggested that audiences recognized (and were tired of) Bergman as a tamer of his own demons. focusing on the film’s thematic ambiguity. For a sample of the (West) German reaction. 2 October 1980. Reception Swedish reviews were respectful but not enthusiastic.. financed. p. i. in SvD. Celuloide no. In Assayas-Björkman interview book Tre dagar med Bergman (Ø 919). 262 (October 1980). thinking that their TV sets had malfunctioned. p. Michel Pérez in Le Matin called Marionettes. In an interview published in Cahiers du Cinéma no. p. 328-329. Some French reviewers even spoke of a fiasco.S. 325 . which was originally planned in black and white. pp. praising its cinematic economy and its resistance to easy solutions. no. p. In the U. 3 November 1980. 34. pp. Mann’s Fine Arts. Stuttgarter Zeitung. saw the film as the quintessence of Bergman’s work in the cinema and was fascinated by its ‘deconstructive narrative’. opening Swedish opening 104 minutes July 1980 at a small film festival in Oxford. However. no. le masque et l’être. 7 November 1980. social as well as psychoanalytical. Mentions brilliant imagery but also lack of compassion. 25 January 1981. Cinéma. Bergman calls it his only German film since it was conceived. Neither in the U. 83.S. begins in color: West German TV channel ZDF which had bought transmission rights to the film worried that their viewers might switch TV channels if the film opened in black and white. 33. Commentary Bergman writes about the film in Bilder/Images. 436 (October 1990). See ‘De la vie des marionettes’ in Ingmar Bergman: La mort. November 1981: 14-15.. 20 February 1981. Film was shown on West German TV (ZDF/Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen). 1983). for speculation as to why the public failed the film. by Michel Estève (Paris: Lettres modernes Minard.Synopses. Swedish poet/critic Artur Lundkvist discussed Marionetten. 28 January 1981. Los Angeles. and shot in Germany. p.. 1981. 1990. Ingmar Bergman explains the reason why Aus dem Leben. nor in Europe was the film a box-office success. Malmö. 6 November 1980. Variety (23 July 1980. 208-220.. Peter’s spleen and latent homosexuality. while Newsweek (24 November. 172 (1981. Aus dem Leben der Marionetten was originally made for German television. Cahiers du cinéma. 1.. no. 45-47. ‘Kostumierter Geschlechterkampf ’.. See Expr. p. Credits.. and Uppsala).. p. an admirable film from beginning to end.

Koskinen. no. ‘Si ce meurtre sert mon film’. in addition to François Ramasse’s essay mentioned above. Troyan. Undergraduate thesis exploring the theme of freedom in Marionetterna. no. p. Vi. February 1982: 82. n. ‘Den omöjliga friheten: En tolkning av Ingmar Bergmans film Ur Marionetternas liv’ [Impossible freedom: An interpretation of Bergman’s film From the Life of the Marionettes]. 5-6 (1981). Jeune cinéma. Le Nouvel Obervateur. 19. Revue de cinéma hors series. ‘Plotting Transference and the Drive in “From the Life of the Marionettes”’. pp. 4 (March 1981). no. 25.. no. no. no. 1.Chapter IV Filmography Cineforum. no. Department of Cinema Theatre Studies. sec. D. 355 (November) 1980: 26-28. Le Matin. no. ca. 17 November 1980: 80-82. Film Quarterly 34. 51. 73-77. 203 (April 1981). 14 October 1979. 9 November. 2 (Spring) 1981: 133-134. 62 (November) 1980: 57-58. A good French presentation. 5 (1981). 12 (23 July) 1980: 18. John. Field of View. p. no. the other by Wim Verstappen (p. 66-68 (reprint of New Republic review). 2 (1993): pp. Positif 236 (November) 1980: 63. Sunday Sec. ingenting är’. New York. Village Voice. Los Angeles Herald Examiner. Sight and Sound L. pp. no. 326 . pp. 1981: 100-101. Maaret. 35. Kinder. ‘All Ways Out Are Closed. no. 2. Tobin. New York Times. From the Life of the Marionettes’. 6. 20. Variety. Sight and Sound. pp. Autumn 1981. 6 October 1981. Filmrutan XXIV. S. no. Saturday Review. no. 70-81. 27 September 1980. p.. Ingmar Bergman: ‘Allting föreställer. sec. no. pp. 3-4. 3 (Spring) 1981: 26-37.. Image et son. 55-60. Yann. 2000. Séquences. 31. p. 568 (May) 1981: 88. one by Charles Boost (pp. pp. 8 October 1980. p. Levende billeder. p. 7 November 1980. 28). November 1980: 218-219. Skoop. 23. (April) 1982: 29-30. Films. 12 November 1980. Kauffmann. Hollywood Reporter. Positif. 30-40. Spectator. 210 pp. 130 (November) 1980): 38-39. 236 (November 1980). Pym. 133-134. L’Express. Marsha. 190-191. no. 25 November 1979. March 1981: 40-41. 108. no. 4 (interviews with Christine Buchegger). Film Comment 17. Nation.p. Longer Reviews and Studies Classon. Anders. 2 (March–April) Film og Kino.. Spring 1981. pp. and SvD. Monthly Film Bulletin XLVIII. Film und Ton I. 29 November 1980: 57-58. Skoop (XVI. See also: AB. 1 (1981). no. ‘The murderer motif in Bergman’s filmmaking from The Devil’s Wanton to Life of the Marionettes’. pp. University of Stockholm. 5 January 1981: 84-85. 7 November. 228. pp. Cinématographe. 1819). D. 57. no.65. p. 9 (November) 1980) has two reviews of the film. 63-5.

Oscar Ekdahl. Seated under his grandmother’s diningroom table. his widow Emilie marries Vergerus and moves into his home with the two children. the whole extended Ekdahl family meet for coffee at Helena Ekdahl’s. a leading actress in the company occupy one-half of a huge town house. camouflaged by wallpaper. and (7) Epilogue. The Christmas segment opens with a performance in the theatre of ‘The Play about Christ’s Joyful Birth’. Alexander surveys the room. The house. Oscar Ekdahl collapses and is taken home. Servants mingle with the family members. Alexander protests his father’s death by mumbling obscene words. 253. (4) Breaking up. The film. Credits. Helena Ekdahl and Isak Jacobi. where he dies after a family leavetaking. When all is quiet. 1982-83 [Fanny and Alexander]. A little over a year after Oscar’s death. the atmosphere is joyous and warm. (4) the attempt by Carl and Gustaf Adolf Ekdahl to bargain with the bishop about the future of Emilie and the children is shortened. which follows sequentially the longer five-hour television version but cuts or shortens several scenes: (1) In the Christmas sequence. Oscar’s mother. then travel to church in sleds lit up by torches. The prologue describes the town and its inhabitants. (5) The Events of a Summer. an old Jewish friend. argues with his German-born wife. (3) Death and Funeral. Officiating at the funeral is Bishop Edvard Vergerus. however. During the ensuing funeral. sister. (6) The Demons. talk through the Christmas night. knick-knacks. which they share with the bishop’s mother. Note. live in the university town of Uppsala.. Carl’s and his German-born wife’s nighttime confrontation is shorter and less violent. He is joined by Fanny. it contains several references to earlier Bergman films. née Mandelbaum. Helena Ekdahl. In the meantime. that most response material is included in this entry. Alexander gets up to play with his laterna magica. Alexander joins the procession). and a statue that seems to beckon to him. In the early morning hours. (2) the Christmas pageant performed by the Ekdahl ensemble at the theatre is shortened. FANNY OCH ALEXANDER. (5) the visualized desert walk when Isak reads from a Hebrew bible to the children after their rescue is omitted (actually Bergman made up the passage. Their parents. Oscar’s philandering brother. A connecting door.. visits Maj. connects the two apartments. however. lives in the other half. The evening ends for the Ekdahl children with a pillow fight with Maj. while Gustaf Adolf Ekdahl. a servant girl. maid at the Vergerus. A third brother. begins with 12-year-old Alexander exploring his grandmother’s apartment.Synopses. the actors’ Christmas celebration on stage is omitted. pre-teen siblings. The script is divided into the following segments: (1) Prologue. followed by a Christmas dinner at Helena Ekdahl’s. is a stark contrast 327 . Professor Carl Ekdahl. appears with stigmata on her hands. See also Media chapter (Ø 340) for additional reviews of TV version. a Christmas present. registers its ticking clocks. Justine. such as the flagellant sequence in The Seventh Seal. (3) the Hamlet rehearsal when Oscar Ekdahl collapses is shortened. and bedridden aunt. Commentaries and Reception Record Awards 1980 Tribute at Chicago Film Festival in connection with showing of Marionettes. Synopsis Fanny and Alexander. head of the local resident theater. a widow. Eastmancolor Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Bergman edited a special commercial film version of Fanny and Alexander. The ‘Death and Funeral’ segment begins with a rehearsal of Hamlet’s first meeting with his father’s ghost. (2) Christmas. an invocation of a traditional Swedish Christmas rite of the past. and Emilie. The time is 1907.

Gustaf Adolf Ekdahl delivers an homage to the ‘little world’ of family and friends. In the morning Emilie is informed by the police of her husband’s death. Finnish Cavalry March. and 87. Benjamin Britten. hymns 51. Suites for cello op.Chapter IV Filmography to the cluttered and boisterous Ekdahl home. Piano quintet E major op. 424. ‘Du Ring an meinem Finger’ from ‘Frauen. Ismael articulates Alexander’s wish to kill the bishop. Emilie puts bromides in the bishop’s broth. and later by the pregnant Emilie who tells her that the bishop has refused to grant her a divorce. Justina reports the tale to the bishop who punishes Alexander with the rod and locks him in the attic. Next the story moves to Helena Ekdahl’s summer place. is scared by Aron acting as God. The children hate their stepfather. who is locked up because he can be mad and violent. Aron’s brother. At a family celebration. 80. he introduces them to Aron. The film ends with Helena Ekdahl reading to Emilie from the preface to Strindberg’s A Dreamplay. Isak Jacobi rescues Fanny and Alexander by hiding them in a big chest he buys from Vergerus. Credits Production company Executive producer Production manager Location managers Director Asisstant director Screenplay Photography Sound Music Cinematograph/Svenska Filminstitutet/Sveriges Television 1/Sandrews/Gaumont/Personafilm/Tobis Film Jörn Donner Katinka (Katherine) Faragó Brita Werkmäster. Barbro HolmgrenHaugen Bengt Lundgren Sylvia Ingemarsson Kerstin Eriksdotter Architect Props Costumes Make-up Special effects Editor Continuity 328 . Her fantasy is interrupted by the arrival of Maj. Liebe und Leben’ (sung by Christina Schollin). Helena Ekdahl experiences the presence of her dead son. Oscar. Johan Husberg Kristina Makroff. who is taken to task for telling lies at school. and ends up visiting Ismael. The children are confined to their barren-looking nursery. who has a puppet theater. especially Alexander. Alexander informs Justina. and Ismael. one of Vergerus’s servants. Alexander gets lost in the cluttered apartment. of the death of the bishop’s children from a former marriage. At night. then leaves him when he is almost unconscious. The fire spreads to the bishop’s bedroom. 45 (2nd movement) and. 72. At his home. Sw. March from ‘Aida’. Tony Forsberg (2nd-unit) Owe Svensson Robert Schumann. Gunilla Allard. Maj visits her and expresses her worry about Fanny and Alexander. Anna-Lena Melin. and claims that Vergerus is responsible for their drowning. Eva Ivarsson Ingmar Bergman Peter Schildt Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist. and has a long talk with him about the family. Christer Ekelund. Intercut are shots of Vergerus’s obese aunt catching fire from an overturned kerosene lamp. The following winter both Emilie and Maj give birth to baby daughters. Christmas songs Anna Asp Jan Andersson. Marik Vos (designer) Leif Qviström.

Saleius 329 . cook Theatre staff Karna Philip Landahl Hanna Schwartz Mikael Bergman Mr. Credits. Hanna Schwartz Aunt Emma Aunt Anna Gunn Wållgren Allan Edwall Ewa Fröling Bertil Guve Pernilla Allwin Börje Ahlstedt Christina Schollin Jarl Kulle Mona Malm Pernilla Wallgren (August): Maria Granlund Emilie Werkö Kristian Almgren Angelica Wallgren Majlis Granlund Svea Holst-Widén Siv Ericks Inga Ålenius Kristina Adolphson Eva von Hanno Anna Bergman Sonya Hedenbratt Käbi Laretei Erland Josephson Mats Bergman Stina Ekblad Jan Malmsjö Marianne Aminoff Kerstin Tidelius Hans Erik Lerfeldt Marianne Nielsen Harriet Andersson Marrit Ohlsson Mona Andersson Gunnar Björnstrand Anna Bergman Per Mattsson Nils Brandt Heinz Hopf Lickå Sjöman Åke Lagergren Sune Mangs Jacobi household Isak Jacobi Aron Ismael Vergerus household Bishop Vergerus Blenda Vergerus Henrietta Vergerus Elsa Bergius. cook Miss Ester. his wife Maj Kling Petra. housekeeper Elida Lisen Siri Berta Mrs.Synopses. Commentaries and Reception Record Cast Ekdahl household Helena Ekdahl Oscar Ekdahl Emilie Ekdahl Alexander Ekdahl Fanny Ekdahl Carl Ekdahl Lydia. Gustaf Adolf ’s elder daughter Jenny Putte Eva Miss Vega. his wife Gustaf Adolf Ekdahl Alma. maid Malla Tander. aunt Selma. maid Justina. Morsin Thomas Graal Grete Holm Johan Armfeldt Mr.

for the most extensive Swedish presentation. 30. Stockholm. still talks about a preliminary plan for a 4-hour film. titled ‘Allt groll är glömt’ [All rancunes are forgotten] suggests an old impasse between Bergman and Sydow. 15 November 1980. Folke Eng.. Karl Nilheim Others Young men helping Jacobi with chest: Krister Hell. Preliminary discussions. Two versions were still discussed. ghost Pernilla Wahlgren Pastor at marriage ceremony Hans Strååt Police superintendent Carl Billquist The witness Axel Düberg Office manager Tore Karte Dr. Värmdö-Tynningö and at SFI Studios. p. Stockholm. 20. Evert Hallmarker. Ulf Lagerwall. Gunnar Djerf. and Variety. 23 October 1980. Ebbe Eng. 12 November 1980. Expr. First production talks were held in late 1980. See Stockholm Expr. NYC 17 December 1982 at Grand. See Expr. distribution Running time U. 48. Gerd Andersson. and Variety. p. the new maid Lena Olin Carl’s singing partners Lars-Owe Carlberg. finally about 40 million SEK). Nils Kyndel. More articles appeared in October 1980 where the cost of the film was mentioned (most expensive Swedish film to date. 23. However. The DN article mentions that Liv Ullmann had been approached for the role as Emilie Ekdahl but had declined because of previous commitments. 1. 43. 14 March 1980. including finance: The first mention of the project appeared in SvD. Peter Stormare Priest at christening ceremony Olle Hilding Pauline Linda Krüger Esmeralda. talks with Lord Lew Grade in England fell through when Grade insisted on a much shorter. Ann Louise Bergström Filmed on location in Uppsala. Hugo Hasslo. The latter article. Fürstenberg Gösta Prüzelius A student Patricia Gelin Rosa. mentions only a planned TV series. p. p. A note about the film in SvD. Sven Erik Jacobsson Japanese women Viola Aberlé. 20. same date. pp. Stockholm Commentary In the very extensive publicity around Fanny and Alexander. and DN. p. Cinema 1 and Cinema 2. 15 November 1980. 6. pp. 1.. beginning 7 September 1981 and completed 22 March 1982. 2 January 1980. 15 June 1979. 8. 27 June 1979. one might distinguish the following three subject areas: 1. 32. In the end Bergman edited a 188 min commercial film version. On 6 August 1981 the cast list was published. (Södra Teatern).S. 330 . opening (film version) Swedish opening (film version) Sandrews Embassy Pictures 188 minutes (TV version: 300 minutes at 25 fr/sec) 17 June 1983. See GP. Palmgren Stage manager Theatre Orchestra Maud Hyttenberg-Bartolotti Kerstin Karte Marianne Karlbeck Gus Dahlström Daniel Bell. Sinclair Prompter Mrs. In October 1980 Max von Sydow was contacted for the role as Bishop Vergerus. Distribution U. 135 minute movie house version.S.. one for TV and one for the cinema. p.Chapter IV Filmography Mrs.

‘Ingmar Bergman and the World’. which also contains a report on Kerstin Eriksdotter’s part as scriptgirl. 2. 1982). DN’s På stan. p. 15 January 1982. p. 20 December. p. reports on filming in Uppsala. covers filming at Södra Teatern. Elisabeth Sörenson discussed the ordeal of shooting and editing the film in ‘Sju månaders slit – 16 timmar film’ [Seven months of hard work – 16 hours of film]. Reports on genesis and shooting of Fanny and Alexander: Bergman writes about the making of the film (including its genesis and the shaping of the manuscript) in Bilder. and 3 January 1985. Expr. Summaries of their impressions were published with long intervals in Expr. On December 18 the Eko program also included a brief studio talk with producer Jörn Donner and actress Ewa Fröling. Swedish Films (Stockholm: SFI. 20-25. 38). 11-17). 18 September 1981. Agneta Söderberg and Jacob Forssell followed the shooting of the film for 7 months. 1. and 16 December. Throughout the entire filming until March 1982. pp. SFI published several accounts from the set: 6 October 1981 (fact sheet release no. AB. pp.26-27. pp. See the following: Swedish: DN. 28 December 1984. 2. discusses the role of asssistant director Peter Schildt. pp. pp. 17 September 1981. on 14 May 1983 in a program titled ‘Ingmar Bergman tar farväl av filmen’ [Bergman bids farewell to filmmaking].. Shooting started in early September 1981. 1982. the last of these coverages. no. 20-21. Ulf Sörenson’s ‘Avskedsspektakel med barndomsminnen’ [Farewell party with childhood memories]. 31. 32-33. editor. sec. 32). pp. p. 12. 15. pp 374-381. SvD. 1. Expr. and 31 October 1981. 17. 15 December 1982. p. pp. 1. 22. 6 October 1981. Sec. See also Jörn Donner. Commentaries and Reception Record In September 1981. whereas French Gaumont delayed its decision. pp. plus a resumé of props used for Fanny and Alexander. and in an interview in Variety. channel 2. Donner reported on the financing of Bergman’s film in SvD.. there was frequent press coverage. 4648. 50. no. presents technical personnel. 5-11 (also in French.-O. 24-27 (discusses the autobiographical background of the film). Upsala Nya Tidning. Nils Petter Sundgren interviewed Bergman on SVT. 4 (Winter) 1982: 2-15. 17. Jörn Donner. Stockholm. Löthwall reported on a 9-day visit to the set in Filmrutan 25. Similar material is covered by Ingalill Eriksson under a Bergman title quote: ‘Jag har strävat som en kärlekens ardenner’ [I have striven like a foal of love]. p. pp. 26-27. SVT’s Channel 1 and Sandrews were involved early as co-producers. L. 17 December 1982. 3-9 October 1981. as involved producer discussed the financial risk of F and A in an interview with Stefan Sjöström: ‘Vad har du i fickan Jörn?’ [‘What’s up your sleeve. Cecilia Hagen. 2.. Jörn?’]. 17 December 1982. Expr. 9 October 1981. 29 September 1981. 331 . Credits. pp. p. (1990). SvD 7 dagar. pp. 1982 (sheet no.. Swedish Public Radio’s Eko program on 17 and 18 December 1982 includes a 4-minute telephone interview with Bergman about world release of Fanny and Alexander. 9 January 1982. p. 12 May 1982. 9 December 1982 (sheet no. 1.Synopses. 12 April 1982. as did Agneta Söderberg in an interview article in Expr. and ‘Blåste liv i film-Sverige’ [Blew life into film-Sweden]. 1981).. Donner mentions the reservations expressed by the SFI board and the risk he took in pushing for SFI support of the film. SvD. Sunday section. 379. 39). 6 SvD. and costumier. titled ‘Bergmans största filmäventyr’ [Bergman’s greatest film adventure]. 26-27. 28 March 1982. p. 16. 21 December 1981 (sheet no.

‘God. The documentary is available on video from the Swedish Film Institute. Stig Larsson saw Bergman’s film as ‘a mature master’s ironic pastiche of his own oeuvre’ [en mogen mästares ironiska pastisch av sitt eget verk]. same paper. also in NYT (‘Ingmar Bergman Bids Farewell to Movies’). p. no. which gives a good summary of the difficult financing of the film and its unusually high cost. 41. only as such could one accept the film’s exposure of Bergman’s antiquated themes. 36-40. felt that the melodramatic 332 . no. 3 (Summer 1982): 178.S. and has also had limited circulation abroad. pp. 26 February 1986. Dokument Fanny och Alexander. including India. distributed in the US by Nelson Orion House. p. 1. p. 23. on the other hand. but also felt that Bergman’s idyllic and burlesque story ignored the social consequences of the patriarchal and sexist world portrayed in the film. 4-9. Response was overwhelming. pp. 54. SvD. 10 October 1982: 1.181. SFI advertised for foreign sales in Variety. Arne Carlsson’s 110-minute-long documentary from the shooting. 47). This documentary film was televised (SR/ TV) in connection with a re-run of Fanny and Alexander on Swedish television. p. and ‘Fanny and Alexander’. 1 (1982). no. The film was sold to roughly 30 countries. p. 15. 22 September 1984. Swedish Reception Reception of Fanny and Alexander (film and TV versions) was enthusiastic in Sweden. 3. Sex and Ingmar Bergman’. 7. reviewed a video recording of Fanny and Alexander. and comment by Jörn Donner. pp. Bruce A. Sweden Now. p. Peter Cowie. American Cinematographer LXV. January 1983. Japan. See Elisabeth Sörenson. Frederick and Lise Lone Marker. 7 (May) 1989: 66. no. Now. no. in Films and Filming. 34) noted that the film brought out ‘the magic of this Oscarian world that knew little about equality but all the more about togetherness’ [denna oskariska värld av magi som visste så lite om jämlikhet men desto mer om samvaro]. 51/52 (1982. ‘I trollkarlens verkstad’ [In the magician’s workshop]. It was reviewed in Variety. 5. Foreign Sales: Two weeks before the Swedish release of Fanny and Alexander. August 18 1986. ‘Bergman at Home’. Ted Folke. no. 39) viewed the film as ‘a bourgeois inferno with a touch of panopticon’ [ett borgerligt inferno med drag av panoptikon]. February 1983. was shown at the Swedish Film Institute with comments by Bergman. Block talks with Sven Nykvist about the Academy Awards and the collaboration between him and Bergman in two interviews titled ‘Academy Award Nominees: Sven Nykvist. p. no. ASC’. 197 min. 4 (April) 1984: 50-52. Bergman’s rendering of Sweden in the early 1900s received much praise. the U. Sight and Sound LI. See AB. ‘Return of the Master’. 5) and in Stig Larsson’s critique of the film in ST (20 December 1982. On 16 September 1984. did so on an ‘option agreement’. reprinted in Skoop XXI. American Film 14. and Taiwan. 44-5). CarlEric Nordberg in Vi. About the economic success in Sweden and facts about the export of film. Expr. 56. most European and Latin American countries bought the film unseen. including expenses for close to one thousand costumes. p. while AB’s Jurgen Schildt (same date. ‘Bergman in Close-Up’. for a good resumé of the event. partly because of the rollicking mood of the film and partly because it was seen as Bergman’s farewell to filmmaking and the summation of his career and vision.’s Lasse Bergström (18 December 1982. 7. 1983. p. 27. see Veckans Affärer. 10 December 1982. no.Chapter IV Filmography English: Ann-Sofi Lejefors. The old qualms about Bergman’s lack of social consciousness cropped up in both Jan Aghed’s SDS review (18 December 1982. 4 (June-July) 1985: 21-23. Aghed noted the tone of reconciliation with life in the film. p. 58.

6. p. p. See also Törnqvist under Longer Essays below. to quote Monthly Film Bulletin. compared Fanny and Alexander to Strindberg’s The Ghost Sonata. U. 12 March 1983. Måndagar med Bergman (Ø 1611). allt allvar]. September 28. Björn Nilsson in Expr. Claude Baignères in Le Figaro. away from life’s seriousness and anguish and demands on social consciousness and responsibility’ [den cyniska och fullkomligt desillusionerade trollkarlens flyktförsök in i en skenglädje. 12. p. titled ‘Ingmar apaisé.S. Commentaries and Reception Record aspects of the film were meant to be taken seriously and called F and A a showpiece and ‘a ghost parade of earlier Ingmar Bergman motifs’ [en spökparad av tidigare bergmanmotiv]. n. p. for reader response supporting this view. 21 February. In response to a positive review in Jönköpings-Posten on 7 February 1983. but claimed that the TV version. Stephan Linnér in KvP (1 February 1983. divorced from the rest of the world and traversing the same psychological landscape again and again. SvD. 13 January 1983. questioned Bergman’s so-called ‘hymn to life’ and referred to Fanny and Alexander as ‘the cynical magician’s attempted flight into pseudo-joy. See Kerstin Hallert and Hemming Sten. Variety gave the film version an A-rating. 267 (May) 1983: 20-28. 333 . Fanny and Alexander has remained a favorite Bergman film among Swedish audiences.) praised Fanny and Alexander as a masterpiece. Nordahl questioned the ‘reverential attitude’ among Swedish critics reviewing Fanny and Alexander. p. 18 and 3 January 1985. But despite such critical reservations. Critics noted that Bergman’s obsessions had been turned into a theatrical story. April 1983. The discussion of the social relevance of Bergman’s film appeared also in the Swedish provincial press. an issue that was renewed after the television showing of the five-hour version of the film. p. contains two reviews of the film and a survey essay by Jean-Paul Jeancolas. SvD magazine 7 dagar (no. For a response. 7. Gunlög Järhult. see Kaj Wickbom. See also same paper. printed an article by Gertrud Nordahl objecting to Bergman’s ‘sensationalism’ and ‘the transcendental murder of the bishop in real voodoo style’. 23 February 1983. reviewed earlier on December 22. 21 January 1983. 18. 1983. Smålandsposten. 143 ff.’ Positif. 5. [biskopens transcendentala mord i verklig voodoo-stil]. no. response to the film was largely favorable. unable to change course’. 18 December 1982. was inferior. beginning on 25 December 1984. 29 December 1984. 148. Both referred to what they termed the ‘Dallas’ qualities of Fanny and Alexander and also questioned TV’s advertisement of the film as ‘family entertainment’ [familjeunderhållning]. 23 April 1983. 1982. 8 February 1983. same paper. and François Ramasse.p. 4. with miseries of Puritanism owing more to Dreyerian formalism than to Bergman angst’. who referred to Fanny and Alexander as a manifestation of Bergman’s usual ‘intellectual clichés’ and lack of narrative skill. Credits. La somme d’une nuit’.Synopses. 2. 83-4. New Yorker called the film ‘a learning to live with your craziness movie’ and pointed out that in Ingmar Bergman. Foreign reception Some critics abroad enjoyed the ‘rolicking opulence of mood. bort från livets allvar och ångest och krav på all social medvetenhet. Mosey saw Bergman as suffering from ‘a typical Swedish ailment.. In the Paris press all reviewers except Claire Gallois in Le Figaro (9 March 1983. p. ‘banality is bound to seem deeply satisfying – wholesome’. but is a religion. Borlänge Tidning. See Steene. p. p. 3. p. summed up Bergman’s position as an artist: ‘He is no longer of the cinema. pp. p. Several comparative comments and literaly references about Fanny and Alexander were published in the Swedish press. p. 46) published the negative critique of London Observer correspondent Chris Mosey. 14) juxtaposed the film to Lagerlöf ’s novel Gösta Berling’s Saga. Robert Benayoun. Reviews Stockholm press.

5. Saturday Review. New Statesman. no. 3 (September 1983): 64-67. pp. p. Bianco e nero. October 1988: 138-40. Filmcritica 341 (January-February) 1984: 14-22. no. and La stampa (Rome). same date. Christian Century. Nation. 18 December 1983 (Expr. Inquiry 6. no. pp. 1. May-June 1983: 41-42. Film & Fernsehen. p. p. Levende billder. 1 (Fall 1983). MS. C8. pp. New Yorker. Time. no. 2. and 31 July. Jeune cinéma 151 (June) 1983: 42-44. Kino (September) 1983: 47-48. Sec. 20 June 1983. no. 20-21. 10 March 1983: 48. no. Monthly Film Bulletin. (SFI clipping). (September) 1983: 39-40. p. 1 (1983): 24-26. pp.. 2 July 1983: 27-28. October 1985: 70-74.2. Films in Review 35. Filmrutan. February 1985: 33. 22-27. Hudson Review. June 1986: 346-348. p. New Republic. 10 (September 1983): 45-47. 7 (August-September 1983): 439-40. 22 March 1983. Commentary 76. 3 July. De Filmkrant. 15 February 1983: 4-8. January-March 1984: 131-138. pp. Film og kino. 84. Filmkultura. Sunday Times (London). Cinematograph 88 (April) 1983: 33-35. Kosmorama 163 (March) 1983: 4-9. 24 April 1983. Film et Télévisie 312-313 (May-June) 1983: 11-13. Cahiers du cinéma 346 (April) 1983: 4-11. 1-2 (1984). no. Films and Filming. 20 June 1983: 75. Corriera della Sera. Cineforum 231 (January-February) 1984: 37-46. Filmkritik. Film a Doba. Iskusstvo Kino. Sight and Sound LII. 8-22 August 1983: 20-21. 13 June 1983: 117-21. Stockholm press. no. Revue du Cinéma 382 (April) 1983: 19-22.p. Der Spiegel. 20-27 July 1983: 690. no. 591 (April) 1983: 83-84. no. Le monde. 10 September 1983: 23. Rolling Stone. Skoop XIX. Cinérevue. 2 (Spring) 1983: 141. 1 (Spring 1983). 43. New Leader. Cinéma 292 (April) 1983: 46. p. n. 266-68. 17 June 1983. no. 43-45.Chapter IV Filmography For longer TV version. 17. 44 (1983). 18 August 1983: 32. 20 December). Séquences 114 (October) 1983: 38-42. 51. 10 March 1983. Newsweek. 15-16. 28. Sec. 2 (April) 1983: 29-30. Film Quarterly 37. 27 June 1983: 22-24. Skrien 128 (Summer) 1983: 12-13. 4 (1983): 706-09. no. May 1983: 36-38. 22 April 1983: 28-29. New York Times. 334 .

Bundtzen. pp. Z (Norwegian). 4-8. ‘Bergman’s Fanny and Alexander: Family Romance and Artistic Allegory’. ‘Ingmar Bergmans Fanny og Alexander: To kommentarer’. pp. 1987. Haverty. Bergman’s alter ego as a child. Hafsteinsson below. Timm. Hayes. Michel. 8 (June) 1983: 55-61. Baudrillard. Longer Essays and Studies Aghed. with its emphasis on transcending physical reality). 260-63. no. Milberg-Kaye. Samtiden (Oslo) 6 (1985): 40-46. ‘Haley contra Whitaker: Familjeteoristudier med hypotesanalys av Fanny och Alexander’ [H vs W: Family theory studies with hypothetical analysis of F & A]. (Contrasts ‘theatrical’ and ‘ filmic’ space in the film). Estève’s essay forms a comprehensive review article of Fanny and Alexander. 1986. Per Åke & Monica Engebladh. ‘Knocking on Heaven’s Door’. (Discusses Fanny and Alexander as a narrative film. 1983: 38-39. ‘Strindbergman: The Problem of Filming Autobiography in Bergman’s Fanny and Alexander’. in contrast to Bergman’s earlier style-oriented films). Some aspects of Bergman’s Fanny and Alexander]. Jordan Daasnes. by Maurice Charney and Joseph Reppen. Vinduet (Oslo) 37. 163 (March) 1983: 4-9. no. Maaret. A. Ruth. (Discusses Fanny and Alexander in view of Bergman’s life and earlier production). Kosmorama XXIX. 18 May 1982. no. Linda. Jensen. 1. Together with Michel Sineux’s ‘Fanny et Alexandre: ‘Le petit théâtre d’Ingmar Bergman’ in same issue. 189 (1983). Lund University. Hafsteinsson. 43-46. Etudes cinématogragiques 131/34 (1983): 143-50. Lund University. 4. Saemundur. 22. (Argues that in its problematization of time and space. pp. Rutherford. 1987. 184 (1983). ‘Teatern som metafor’ [The theater as metaphor]. Jarrod. 8 December 1982. 3 (1988): 174-180. 1. one focussing on its use of music. 21 June 1983: 49. Cf. p. no. ‘Fanny and Alexander: A Kleinian Reading’. Camilla and Carlos Wiggen. 1987. Koskinen. In Psychoanalytic Approaches to Literature and Film. Segal. ‘Fanny og Alexander og alle de andre i Bergmans univers’ [F & A and all the others in B’s universe]. American Film VIII. 14-15. Credits. no. ‘Sourires d’un cinéma d’hivers sur Fanny et Alexandre’. ed. no. (Autobiographical references in Fanny and Alexander include not only Alexander. the other on the patriarchal structure of Alexander’s world and the role of dream and fantasy). Chaplin. Positif 289 (March) 1985: 2225. Criticism. 180-191. 51. L. ‘The Seduction of Alexander. pp. (Two comments on Bergman’s film. ‘“I den lilla världen”: Ekdahlerne og teatret. Jostad.K. ‘Trollkarlen’ [The magician]. Estève.Synopses. Department of Applied Psychology. no.: Fairleigh Dickinson UP. Literature/Film Quarterly 16. but also Bergman’s identification with Strindberg via the Alexander-Ishmael connection and via a number of visual metaphors and verbal allusions). pp. ‘Ingmar Bergman: La mort. le masque et l’etre’. 335 . pp. Department of Applied Psychology. no. ‘En familjeterapeutisk studie av Fanny och Alexander’ [A family therapeutic study of F & A].J. discussing both theatrical and metaphysical aspects of the film. and 22 December 1982. Noen aspekter ved Ingmar Bergmans Fanny og Alexander’ [In the little world: the Ekdahls and the theatre. N. Commentaries and Reception Record Variety. Björklund. Fanny and Alexander intersects with the Kabbalah or Jewish mysticism. 1983. Jan. Village Voice. no. Morten. Literature/Film Quarterly 25. Chaplin. 14-15. Nils. 67 pp. (Discussion of artistic and thematic aspect of Bergman’s created world as reflected in F & A). 1 (1987): 89-117. Mikael. 40-48. pp. 113 pp.

concluding that the printed version was ‘Bergman minus the magic’. Hugo. 1984 (After the Rehearsal). Vogler’s thoughts on the theatre are echoes of Bergman’s own statements in interviews over the years. Suddenly. Their conversation is bitter. 1 (March 1985): 75-80. Kring Ingmar Bergmans Fanny och Alexander. Most of the dialogue in the first half of the film is spoken by Vogler who expresses his views on actors. Vogler ‘depicts’ in words his and Anna’s love affair. July 7. 12-20. 174-187.’ Chaplin special 25th anniversary issue. 1984. Rakel leaves as Vogler promises to visit her. (Ø 341).Chapter IV Filmography Törnqvist. pp. 1993 (Ø 1562). later that she has had an abortion and will divorce her husband. 1989. Kauffmann: Field of View. drunk and seductive. 222-28. Review of the book version of Fanny and Alexander. Peter. Vogler also talks about the fleeting borders between dream and reality. 25th Anniversary Issue. no. 1984. the mother has been dead for five years. SFI fact sheet 282/82. Egil. in Dutch as ‘De kleine wereld en de grote: Ingmar Bergmans Fanny en Alexander’. cast as Agnes in Vogler’s current staging of Strindberg’s Ett drömspel/A Dreamplay. See also Extensive microfiche file on Fanny and Alexander. 155 pp. color Script Director Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman See also listing in Media chapter. Varia. Hanif Kureishi in New Statesman & Society. Anna Egerman. (Traces Shakespearean and Strindbergian elements in Fanny and Alexander). Also the father is gone. SFI library. Same author also compares the long and short version of the film in Filmrutan XXVII. When Anna’s and Vogler’s meeting takes place. See als