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Amsterdam University Press

Ingmar Bergman: A Reference Guide

Ingmar Bergman, the Director. From the filming of The Magic Flute, 1975 (Courtesy: SFI/Cinematograph)

Ingmar Bergman
A Reference Guide

Birgitta Steene

Amsterdam University Press

This book has been published with support from the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet). Research assistant: Per Olov Qvist

Cover design: Kok Korpershoek, Amsterdam Lay-out: japes, Amsterdam

isbn 90 5356 406 3 nur 670

© Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam 2005 All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the written permission of both the copyright owner and the author of the book.

Acknowledgements Preface Chapter I Life and Work
The Family Setting Debut and Formative Years Artistic Breakthrough at Home and Abroad Religious Crisis Discovery of Fårö The Critical Sixties: The Artist Syndrome Discovery of Television Exile Return to Sweden and Closure

9 11 23 23 33 37 38 39 41 43 44 45 49 49 58 63 64 66 131 132 133 137 141 155 155 353 369

Chapter II The Writer
Ingmar Bergman: Cinéma d’auteur The Young Playwright The Writer of Prose Fiction Post-filmmaking Prose

List of Bergman’s Written Work Chapter III The Filmmaker
Enter the Magician Swedish Filmmaking during Bergman’s Formative Years Ingmar Bergman: Filmmaking Credo Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production

Chapter IV Filmography Synopses, Credits, Commentaries and Reception Record Foreign Titles of Ingmar Bergman Films Ingmar Bergman as Film Producer


Chapter V Ingmar Bergman and the Media Radio Productions Television Works Chapter VI Ingmar Bergman in the Theatre Part I An Overview Part II Stage Productions by Ingmar Bergman
Mäster Olofsgården, 1938-40 Stockholm Student Theatre, 1940-43 North Latin School, 1941-1942 Civic Centre & Sago Theatre, 1941-42 Open Air Theatre (Folkparksteatern), 1943 The Dramatists Studio (Dramatikerstudion), 1943-44 The Boulevard Theatre, 1944 Hälsingborg City Theatre, 1944-46 Göteborg City Theatre, 1946-50 Intima Theatre, Stockholm, 1950-51 Royal Dramatic Theatre (Dramaten), 1951 Folksparkteatern, 1951 Norrköping-Linköping City Theatre, 1951 Malmö City Theatre, 1952-58 Dramaten, 1961-1976 Head of Dramaten, 1963-1966 Munich Residenztheater, 1977-1984 Return to Dramaten, 1984-2003

371 371 407 455 456 473 473 485 493 495 505 506 511 513 530 549 552 554 555 556 596 599 650 668 763 773

Opera/Ballet Chapter VII Theatre and Media Bibliography, 1940-2004 Chart over Bergman’s Theatre, Opera, TV, and Radio Productions Chapter VIII Interviews with Ingmar Bergman Chapter IX Works on Ingmar Bergman Chapter X Varia Media Documentaries on Ingmar Bergman Stage and Screen Performances by Ingmar Bergman Awards and Tributes
Awards for individual Films

816 827 879 1031 1031 1035 1038 1045


Archival Sources
Ingmar Ingmar Ingmar Ingmar Bergman’s Bergman’s Bergman’s Bergman’s Writings Films Radio Play Productions and TV Work Theatre Productions

1049 1049 1049 1052 1053

Indexes Subject Index Subject Index Supplement: Literature on Bergman Title Index Name Index 1055 1071 1077 1105


The following organizations and institutions, listed in alphabetical order, have helped support this Reference Guide, either financially or by offering research assistance: AFI (American Film Institute); SALB (Statens arkiv för ljud och bild, Stockholm); AMPA (Margaret Herrick Library in Los Angeles); BFI (British Film Institute); Cinecitta Film Library in Rome; Cinématèque Française; Danish Film Museum; Swedish Theatre Museum Library; Dramaten (Royal Dramatic Theatre) Library; Dutch Film Library in Amsterdam; Filmoteca nacional, Montevideo; Holger and Thyra Lauritzen Foundation, Stockholm; Göteborg City Museum (theatre section), HSFR (Humanistiska samhällsvetenskapliga forskningsrådet); Malmö Musikteater Museum; MOMA (Museum of Modern Art in New York); Museum of Television and Radio, New York; Museo de film, Rio de Janeiro/Sao Paolo; Nationaltheatret, Oslo; NEH (National Endowment for the Humanities); NFI (Norwegian Film Institute); New York Library for the Performing Arts; Stiftung Deutsche Kinematek in Berlin; SFI (Swedish Film Institute); Sveriges Radio-TV (SR-SVT) Library and Archives; Theatre Record, London; TIN (Dutch Theatre library); University of Washington Library; Vetenskapsrådet (Swedish Science Council). A very special thanks is due to film scholar Dr. Per Olov Qvist in Uppsala for his research assistance in the film and media sections of the guide and for his unfailing patience in checking and helping locate some of the material for this Reference Guide to Ingmar Bergman. With his knowledgeable background, trustworthy and meticulous scrutiny, and many good suggestions, Per Olov Qvist has been an invaluable resource. The following persons have facilitated my search for specific items in the Guide: Kerstin Alfredsson, SR/SVT; Tatjana Beznik, Humboldt University, Berlin; Magnus Blomqvist and Ursula Schlesser at the Swedish Theatre Library; Margaretha Brundin at the Royal Library in Stockholm; Brita Carlsson at Göteborg City Theatre Library; Else Barratt-Due at NRK (Norsk Rikskringkasting); Lone Erritzöe, Bergman researcher in Copenhagen; Barbro Everfjärd and Elisabeth Helge at the SFI Film Library; Dag Kronlund and Vera Govenius at Dramaten Library; Elzbieta Lejczak and Hans Lind at Malmö Music Theatre Archive; Jens K. Nielsen and Virpi Zuck at the University of Oregon; Henrik Sjögren who has generously exchanged information about Ingmar Bergman’s work in the theatre; Agneta Sjöborg at Statens Arkiv för ljud och bild (SALB); Egil Törnqvist, professor emeritus at the University of Amsterdam and himself a Bergman scholar; Gurli Woods, Carleton University, Canada. In the final stages of the manuscript, Associate Professor and Bergman scholar Maaret Koskinen


shared information about material from Bergman’s Fårö library, now deposited at the Swedish Film Institute. Maria Karlsson, Uppsala University, Tytti Soila, Stockholm University, Kerstin Petterson, Amsterdam, and Adolfas Vecerskis, Vilnius, have helped with some informational and organizational questions and Anna Karin Fredmer with technical assistance. Dag Nordmark’s meticulous reading of the final manuscript helped correct a few discrepancies. Rochelle Wright and Aleksander Kwiatkowski assisted with some translation and linguistic transcription problems. And of course a special thanks to Ingmar Bergman himself for his unique artistic contribution.


This Reference Guide to Ingmar Bergman offers a critical overview and annotated record of the artistic career of a very productive filmmaker, stage director, and author. Born in 1918 and still active in his mid-eighties, Bergman has made some 50 feature films, directed more than 120 theatre presentations, a number of radio and television productions, and has authored numerous scripts, plays, and prose works. Possessing a great visual and narrative talent, combined with musical sensitivity and psychological perspicacity, Bergman has projected a moral vision formed since childhood by the values of his Lutheran family background and by a Swedish bourgeois lifestyle. But his artistic production not only reflects the world he knew during his formative years; it also constitutes a serious examination of it. In addition to its personal roots, Bergman’s art has drawn creative stimulation from a still young and expanding film medium and from a dynamic and challenging period in the Swedish theatre, including opera, television, and radio drama. His deep sense of belonging to a native tradition in film and drama with such names as Victor Sjöström and August Strindberg as portal figures does not preclude an equally strong interest in the classical European theatre and international cinema. Bergman has today achieved a world reputation like few other Swedish artists before him. A sign of this is the vast critical response that his work has elicited both in his native country and abroad, manifesting itself in many hundreds of books, articles, and dissertations. Bergman’s achievement has also been recognized in numerous film and theatre awards and in tributes ranging from honorary doctorates to special symposia and Bergman festivals. There are even poems published that testify to his impact on viewers and audiences. To assemble the critical record pertaining to Ingmar Bergman’s œuvre is no small task and poses several questions. The first but not least is a general question: What is the purpose of a Reference Guide? The immediate answer is simple: to provide existing information to interested readers and scholars in a given field. That is, a reference guide is to serve as a cumulative checkpoint where it becomes possible to search and familiarize oneself with existing material on the subject. The second question follows almost automatically: What should be the selective process behind the presentation of the material? Metaphorically speaking, an editor of a Reference Guide might be assumed to spread out a map of the entire territory covered by the artist and his commentators, with roads that point in many different directions so that all corners of the referenced subject’s territory become visible and accessible. But in order for a map to be legible and useful, it must not only record but also describe and define the objects found within its chosen boundaries. And it must also set up


limits for the amount of information to be provided. This is especially necessary with a prolific artist like Ingmar Bergman whose work (and the critical response to it) spans more than half a century. A Reference Guide like this one is by definition a source book about things already done, and an editor’s task is to track those who have already entered the Bergman territory. But an editor, like a cartographer, must have a vision and must strive to avoid getting caught and ensnared in too much underbrush. A great deal of trivial material exists on Ingmar Bergman. Not all of it has been ignored here, for it too is part of the response that his work has elicited. But serious efforts to examine Bergman’s work have naturally taken precedence over ephemeral treatments. Furthermore, it has also been the editor’s intention to transmit an overview of Ingmar Bergman’s career. For that reason the annotated bibliographical information in the Guide is complemented by surveys of Bergman’s life and work and of his creative activity in different art forms. Much of the published response to Ingmar Bergman’s work, especially his filmmaking, has come from outside his native Sweden. In that material there is often more valuable criticism than Swedish examiners have recognized. But at the same time, foreign studies of Bergman often reveal unfamiliarity with the language and culture that have shaped his work. Both these factors are dealt with indirectly in the Guide. The aim has been to make the volume internationally representative, but there has also been an effort to select and annotate a great deal of Swedish material in order to make non-Swedish students of Bergman aware of the response of his native culture. Ingmar Bergman allegedly grew up with an equally strong interest in puppet theatre and magic lantern experiments, which laid the foundation for a career as a theatre and film director. In his late teens, before engaging in stagecraft in public, he drafted a great many dramatic and prose vignettes, some of which were later developed into film ideas. In the early 1940s he gained a certain reputation as an up-andcoming stage director in Stockholm and in 1944 he experienced a combined debut as a writer, theatre man, and would-be filmmaker: he landed his first contract as a stage director (and administrative head) at the Helsingborg City Theatre in southern Sweden; his film script to ‘Hets’ (Torment, Frenzy) catapulted him into notoriety as an angry young man and social iconoclast; and his first piece of writing was published in the Swedish avant-garde literary magazine 40-tal. Ingmar Bergman was to pursue the areas of theatre, film, and literature throughout his creative life. To these artistic activities he soon added work in radio and television. During specific periods in his life, one or another of these areas may have dominated, but on the whole they have remained interrelated or interdependent and, above all, must be viewed as equally important to Bergman’s artistic persona. However, Bergman’s multifaceted production poses a special organizational challenge to a bibliographer. The standard chronological set-up used in most registrations of an artistic output is maintained in this Guide within the individual chapters, but the chapter division in itself signals Bergman’s different creative fields and prevents an ongoing sequential overview of his total oeuvre. Each individual chapter must start anew with its own consecutive time line. To present Bergman’s entire artistic output as a single continuous production might have had the advantage of suggesting more clearly the interconnection between, for instance, his stage work and his filmmaking. But the approach would make it difficult for a Bergman scholar to follow and assess his


development within a specific medium, especially in view of the sheer volume and long time span behind each of Bergman’s artistic endeavors, be it in film, theatre, television, radio, or writing. To Bergman’s manifold creative activity one must also add the fact that a film, a stage production, or a media transmission by him may have a multi-genre or multimedia aspect to it, so that different versions of a given Bergman work may exist. Thus, several of Bergman’s TV films, for instance, Scener ur ett äktenskap/Scenes from a Marriage and Fanny and Alexander, have also been edited by him for circulation in the commercial cinema, while some of his stage productions have been adapted for television. Another multi-version example is that of Backanterna/The Bachae from the 1990s, which was first presented as an opera, then as a television performance, and finally as a stage production. Furthermore, the dialogue scripts in a film and television production involving Bergman’s name are seldom identical with the published scripts, which are sometimes referred to as novels rather than screenplays by Bergman himself. Thus, a chapter-by-chapter genre or media presentation of Bergman’s oeuvre still carries its own built-in problems, necessitating a system of cross-listings between film, theatre, media, and interview chapters. An item may thus be listed in several different chapters but is usually only annotated in one place. If, for instance, a given work has been produced as a TV film but has also been shown as a feature film in the cinema, it is listed in both the Filmography and Media chapters but with its accompanying reference and reception record selected accordingly. For instance, the media impact in Sweden of Scener ur ett äktenskap/Scenes from a Marriage is only recorded in the Media Chapter, while the reception for the international film version appears in the Filmography. Bergman himself does not seem to regard multi-versions of a given work as a problem (as long as he had control of the procedure). In an interview with Elisabeth Sörenson, he once said apropos of this matter: ‘Thus I have two different manuscripts – but the film version is incorporated into the TV version. It is the very steel pillar. [—] This is no more strange than when a composer makes an orchestra version and a string quartet (of the same composition)’. [Sålunda har jag två olika manuskript – men filmversionen finns inbakad i TV-versionen. Den är själva stålpelaren... Det är inte egendomligare än när en kompositör gör en orkesterversion och en (version för) stråkkvartett]. On another occasion he looks upon his mixing of artistic areas and choice of performance medium as a playful prerogative: ‘I think it is fun to make a real witches’ brew of TV, theatre, film and music’ (Björkman, Cahiers du cinéma, May 1978). Opting for separate chapter divisions for Bergman’s various areas of creative expression raises the issue of their internal placement in the Guide. Since the incentives for Bergman’s film, theatre, and writing activities are rooted in experiences connected with his childhood and youth and since they have more or less run their continuous course throughout his career, it becomes almost a moot point to try to decide which one of these creative outputs should be listed first in a chapter by chapter presentation. However, there is good reason to begin this Guide – after an initial survey of Bergman’s Life and Work – with an annotation of his penmanship, since it includes material to subsequent chapters: Ingmar Bergman as a filmmaker (Chapters III and IV), Ingmar Bergman as a media director (Chapter V), and Ingmar Bergman as a contributor to theatre art (Chapter VI). Bergman established himself early on as an internationally acknowledged auteur du cinéma whose screenplays formed the basis


for the majority of his films. After announcing his retirement from filmmaking with the making of Fanny and Alexander (1982), he was to write several TV plays, screenplays, novels, and memoirs. Both his own scriptwriting and his adaptations of theatre texts testify to a link between his literary penmanship and his visual directorial talent operating in different performative contexts. Since the Guide addresses itself to an international and not just a native Swedish audience, it has seemed logical to present the material dealing with Bergman’s contribution to the cinema before presenting his work as a theatre director. Internationally speaking, his filmmaking forms the basis of his standing abroad, whereas his stagecraft has been less known to foreign audiences and limited to a handful of productions presented during guest performances throughout the world or during his eight years of voluntary exile (1976-1984) when he worked as a director at Munich’s Residenztheater. In terms of his impact on Swedish culture, Bergman’s theatre work might be seen as the most crucial part of his career. After declaring his withdrawal from the world of commercial filmmaking in 1984 (but not from media work), he continued for almost twenty years as a prominent stage director, stating again and again his great love and need for the world of theatre. In fact, almost from the beginning of his career in the theatre, Bergman’s stage productions have elicited a critical enthusiasm at home quite comparable to the jubilant foreign reception of many of his films. The rationale for placing the media chapter (V) right after the Filmography (Chapter IV) is that its television section can be seen as an extension of Bergman’s work in the cinema. At the same time, the radio section in the media chapter may serve as a transition to the subsequent theatre chapter, for it includes many broadcast adaptations of Bergman’s own plays and of productions first directed by him on different theatre stages. The following outline identifies the chapter-by-chapter content of this Reference Guide to Ingmar Bergman: Chapter I: Life and Work. This chapter is designed as a comprehensive juxtaposition of biographical data and professional output. Here it is wise to keep in mind that over the years, the real person bearing the name of Ernst Ingmar Bergman has ‘fabricated’ a legend of his own, where family history and personal experiences have undergone fictional transformations. At the same time, however, in presenting an artist who possesses such a strong personal vision as Ingmar Bergman, it is difficult not to link closely his private and public worlds. Bergman has not always lived the life of a recluse on his island of Fårö but has, in fact, been a highly visible person in Swedish culture from the very beginning of his career. Furthermore, he has, by his own account, drawn his subject-matter both from his own background and from his circle of friends and colleagues, including his close relationships with women, many of whom have been active in his professional work. A Life and Letters account of Ingmar Bergman becomes therefore both a personal life story and the artistic metamorphosis of an individual existence. Chapter II: The Writer. The chapter begins with an overview of Bergman’s penmanship, followed by an annotated chronological listing of all his authored material, from his early unpublished prose works in the late 1930s to his late television plays, novels, and memoirs in the 1980s and on. Also included are scripts and articles that Bergman wrote


under the name of Buntel Eriksson (with Erland Josephson), Ernest Riffe, and other pseudonyms. The annotated material comprises scripts, plays, prose fiction, essays, program notes, and newspaper statements such as open letters (but not cited interview material). Also listed are some items from Bergman’s private Fårö library now deposited at the Swedish Film Institute (SFI), where drafts, notebooks, and the director’s copies of scripts and plays have been organized. All items are annotated under their Swedish title, but wherever applicable each entry also includes a list of published translations. Each item is given an entry number, beginning with number 1. The numbering of entries continues sequentially throughout the Reference Guide. When an entry number is referred to elsewhere in the Guide, it is preceded by the symbol Ø. Chapter III: The Filmmaker. An account of the personal motivations and historical circumstances behind Bergman’s filmmaking is followed by a comprehensive overview of his entire film production. As an organizing principle, Bergman’s films are presented in six major groups following a chronological and thematic outline: (1) early films focussing on the young couple; (2) early family and marriage films, often with women in central roles; (3) religious and existential quest films, often with a male protagonist; (4) films portraying the role of the artist; (5) films focusing on a haunting past, many of them depicting women in crisis; (6) the Bergman family saga. This grouping is to be seen as practical rather than absolute, providing a structural overview of Bergman’s film production but with the implied understanding that many films could in fact be placed in more than one category. Chapter IV: Filmography. Each individual item is presented with a plot synopsis, a detailed credit list, reviews, and commentaries on the film’s reception. The filmography lists all films that were authored and/or directed by Bergman, including some documentaries and a set of soap commercials, as well as works originally made for television but later released in the cinema. The total number of items in the Filmography comprises some 60 entries, or more than one film for every year that Ingmar Bergman was active in the field. At the end of the Filmography is a list of films by other directors which were produced by Ingmar Bergman and his company Cinematograph. Also appearing at the end of the Filmography is a list of foreign distribution titles of Ingmar Bergman’s films. Note that distribution titles are not always identical with titles appearing in foreign translations of his screenplays. Chapter V: The Media Director. Bergman began quite early to direct works for radio, and he became an enthusiastic supporter and contributor to the TV medium soon after its inception in Sweden in the 1950s. The media chapter discusses and annotates his many productions on radio and television, with credits, notes, commentaries, and review references. The chapter comprises: (1) productions of plays by other authors, either originally designed for radio or television or adapted by Bergman for the media; (2) media works authored or adapted by Bergman and originally conceived for radio or television, such as Staden (1950, The City) and Riten (1969, The Ritual); and (3) works authored by Bergman where separate film and TV versions were made, such as Scener ur ett äktenskap/ Scenes from a Marriage and Fanny and Alexander. Chapter VI: The Theatre Director. The theatre chapter consists of two sections. The first provides a chronological survey of Ingmar Bergman’s career as a theatre director; the second gives an annotated listing of his entire work on stage, with credits, commentaries, selective reviews, and guest performances for each item. In-


cluded at the end of the chapter are Bergman’s opera productions. As in the Filmography and media chapters, the commentary sections to the individual productions in the theatre chapter aim at giving background information while the Reception sections report on debates and other responses. Commentaries may vary in length. An early radio production by Ingmar Bergman from the 1940s may not have elicited much critical reaction, while his stage productions at the Royal Dramatic Theatre after his return from exile in 1984 almost invariably resulted in substantial press coverage. Items causing media debates tend to have longer commentaries (and reception segments). Such information may reflect both the aesthetic assessment by reviewers and the cultural impact of a Bergman production. Productions of Bergman’s own plays are included, whether directed by the author himself or by someone else. Note, however, that Bergman’s playwriting is discussed in the introductory part of Chapter II. Chapter VII: Theatre and Media Bibliography. This chapter includes an annotated list of bibliographical material pertaining to Bergman’s contribution to the theatre and to media arts. However, critical items referring to specific stage productions are listed under the individual production entries in Chapter VI, section 2. Note also that interviews that include references to theatre and media work appear in Chapter VIII (Interviews). At the end of Chapter VII is a chart showing Bergman’s stage and media productions in chronological order. Chapter VIII: Interviews. Over the years, Ingmar Bergman has given innumerable interviews and press conferences. A good many of these are referenced in the commentary section of the individual entries in Chapters IV (Filmography), V (Media), VI (Theatre), or theatre/media bibliography (VII). In this chapter the focus is on interviews that cover several creative areas or pertain to Bergman’s lifestyle or thoughts on his craftsmanship and artistic vision. Chapter IX: Writings on Ingmar Bergman. This chapter consists of an annotated bibliography listing in chronological order a major bulk of critical writings on Ingmar Bergman. This material includes books, dissertations, special journal issues, and articles. As in Chapter VII (Theatre and Media Bibliography), some of the bibliographical items are grouped together according to subject matter. Such group items might include frequently considered topics in the critical Bergman canon, such as his portrayal of women (Ø 975), religious approaches to his films (Ø 997), or literary references to his works (Ø 989). In addition, single events in Bergman’s life and career that have elicited extensive press coverage, such as the tax debacle in 1976 and his subsequent voluntary exile, are annotated as group items. All group items appear as the initial entry in the year when an event occurred or when a group subject was first discussed. An alphabetical list of the group items can be found at the beginning of the Title Index. The editorial approach in selecting material for Chapter IX has been to include critical material pertaining to all of Bergman’s various artistic activities but to be comprehensive rather than all-inclusive. In the selection of the critical material, the following general guidelines have been used: 1. Longer informative and analytical essays, book length studies, and dissertations have been given priority over shorter news items or general presentations of Bergman’s oeuvre.


2. A balance has been sought between well-known, oft-quoted articles or books and items that seem representative of a given critic or group of critics; of a particular national assessment of Bergman, or of a specific period in the reception of his works. 3. Special focus has been given to Swedish archival sources, simply because this is where most Bergman material is to be found. At the same time, however, an equally important goal has been to present the student with a fair international sampling of critical writings on Bergman and to indicate how Bergman’s work has been received in different (selective) parts of the world. 4. Critical material pertaining to single works by Ingmar Bergman has been listed in the review or commentary sections following the individual credit listings in Chapters II (The Writer), IV (Filmography), V (Media productions), and VI (Theatre Director). Thus, critical items addressing, for instance, his play Trämålning/Wood Painting, his screenplay Fanny and Alexander, his stage production of Hamlet, or his radio play Staden (The City) will be found under these entry names in the respective chapters. Exceptions are made for longer analytical studies of single works if they include important historical background, comparison with other artists, or discuss inter-arts or inter-media issues. In such cases the items are cross-listed in Chapter IX. Finally, a special effort has been made to include items in the Bibliography that deserve attention but may have appeared in publications with limited circulation and do not always show up in databases. In fact, in scanning such electronic library resources, it becomes clear that a discrepancy often exists between an item’s listing frequency and its actual relevance in the Bergman critical canon. Repeated visibility is not always tantamount to quality or importance; database bibliographical material is unfortunately often the result of authorial self-promotion. Chapter X Varia. This heading covers the following items: A. Media documentaries on Ingmar Bergman. B. Stage and screen performances by Ingmar Bergman (including film voice-overs), most of them from the early part of his career. C. A listing of awards, prizes, and other honors received by Bergman, including items pertaining to his entire contribution to film and theatre or to his overall status as an artist. This list is followed by a list of awards for individual Bergman films. Similar information, including awards to members of Bergman’s film or stage teams, can also be found at the end of film or stage entries in the Filmography (Chapter IV) or Theatre chapter (VI). D. Archival Sources. A list of addresses of archives and libraries holding Bergman material, such as prints of his films, stills, scripts, and clipping files as well as information about his theatre and media productions. All quotations of Swedish origin have been translated into English by the editor (unless a published translation title is noted). The translation is followed in brackets by the original Swedish text. All other quotations regardless of language origin appear only in English.


Preface Newspaper and Magazine Sources
The following Swedish newspapers were checked (abbreviations used in the text are listed in parenthesis and follow normal Swedish praxis): STOCKHOLM PRESS: Aftonbladet (AB), Aftontidningen (AT), Arbetaren,, Dagens Nyheter (DN), Expressen (Expr.), Morgontidningen Social-Demokraten (MT), Ny Tid, Stockholms-Tidningen (ST), Svenska Dagbladet (SvD). GÖTEBORG PRESS: Göteborgs-Posten (GP), Göteborgs-Tidningen (GT), Göteborgs Handels- och Sjöfartstidning (GHT), Göteborgs Morgonpost (GMP). MALMÖ (and vicinity) PRESS: Arbetet (Arb), Hälsingborgs Dagblad (Hbg), KvällsPosten (KvP), Sydsvenska Dagbladet Snällposten (SDS). OTHER (spot-checked): Bohusläningen, Hallandsposten, Hufvudstadsbladet (Helsinki), Lidingö Tidning, Nerikes Allehanda, Skånska Dagbladet, Upsala Nya Tidning (UNT), Wermlands-Tidningen, Östersunds-Posten, Östgöta-Correspondenten. The following Swedish magazines and trade journals were checked: Biografbladet, Bonniers litterära magasin (BLM), Chaplin, Dramat, Entré, Film in Sweden, Filmhäftet, Filmjournalen, Filmnyheter, Film och bio, Filmrutan, Films in Sweden, Idun, Månads-Journalen, Perspektiv, Röster i Radio/TV, Scen och salong, Skådebanan, Teatern, Teaterronden, Vecko-Journalen, Vi. The following non-Swedish newspapers and magazines were checked: AMERICAN and CANADIAN: America, Atlantic, Christian Century, Cinema (Kansas City), Cinema (Toronto), Cinema Journal, Commonweal, Comparative Drama, Drama Review, Film Comment, Film Criticism, Film Heritage, Film Quarterly, Films in Review, Filmfacts, Hollywood Quarterly, Hudson Review, Jump Cut, Literature/ Film Quarterly, Modern Drama, Movietone News (Seattle), Nation, New Leader, New York Magazine, New York Herald Tribune, New York Times (NYT), New Yorker, Newsweek, New Republic, Saturday Review, Take One, Time, Theater, Theatre Quarterly, Tulane Drama Review, Variety, Village Voice, Wide Angle. BELGIAN: Amis du film et de la télévision, Film en Televisie. BRITISH: Films and Filming, Monthly Film Bulletin, Motion, Movie, New Statesman, Sight and Sound, Spectator, Times (London). DANISH: Berlingske Tidende, Information Jyllands-Posten, Kosmorama, MacGuffin, Politiken. DUTCH: Skoop, Skrien. FRENCH: Arts, L’Avant-scène du cinéma, Cahiers du cinéma, Cinéma, Ecran, Etudes cinématographiques, Image et son, Le monde, Positif, Télé-Ciné. GERMAN: Die Deutsche Bühne, Filmkritik, Film, Frankfurter Allgemeine, Der Spiegel, Theater heute, Die Welt, Die Zeit. ITALIAN: Bianco e nero, Cineforum, Cinema nuovo, Dramma, Filmcritica. NORWEGIAN: Aftenposten, Fant, Morgenbladet, Verldens Gang, Z. SPANISH: Cinema novo, Film Ideal. OTHER (spot-checked): Chicago Times, Cine cubano, Cinéaste (Canada), La cinématographie française, Critisch film bulletin (Netherlands), Die Asta (Denmark), Ecran (France), Ekran (Poland), FIB (Folket i Bild, Sweden), Le Figaro, Film a doba (Czechoslovakia), Film Journal (Melbourne), Hollywood Reporter, Horizon (USA), Jeune cinéma, Listener, Los Angeles Herald-Examiner, Los Angeles Times,


Manchester Guardian, Le Monde, Motion Picture Herald (Los Angeles), Observer, Reporter (USA). Clippings and/or printed programs were used from the following archives: American Motion Picture Academy (AMPA), Los Angeles Amsterdam Theatre Museum British Film Institute (BFI) Cinecitta Library, Rome Cinemateca uruguaya (Montevideo) Cinemateco do museo de arte moderna (Rio de Janeiro) Cinemateco do museo de arte moderna (Sao Paolo) Cinématèque française Det danske filmmuseum (Danish Film Museum) Dramaten (Royal Dramatic Theatre, Stockholm) Film Museum Amsterdam Filmmuseum Berlin – Deutsche Kinemathek Museum of Modern Art (Film Section), New York New York Public Library for the Performing Arts Suomen elokuvaarkisto (Helsinki) Svenska Filminstitutet (SFI) Sveriges Teatermuseum (formerly: Drottningholms Teatermuseum) Press reviews or reportages from Bergman’s first decades in film, theatre, and media were occasionally unsigned or reviewers used a signature only. The following signatures have been identified: A. A-l A.Fbg/Fbg. AGE Allegro Armand Corinna Don José E.An. Elle E. T. E.v.Z. E.W.O/Eveo. Fale Bure Gvs. Hjorvard Håge Höken I.H. I. O-e Jerome J.L. Jolanta Alvar Asterdahl Allan Fagerberg Anders Elsberg Olle Halling Olle Olsson Greta Bolin Josef Oliv Elis Andersson Lisa Genell Harrie (?) Ella Taube Eva von Zweigbeck Erik Wilhelm Olsson Henning Olsson Herbert Grevenius Gustav Johansson Herbert Gylling Marianne Höök Ivar Harrie Ingvar Orre Göran Trauung John Landquist Margaretha Sjögren


Kei -ki/Koski Lucia M. S-g O. R-t Pavane Peo Perpetua P.E.W. PGP Pilo S. Btl S. G-d S. S-r. S. T-d Tell. Tom -yer Einar Nilsson Hartvig Kusoffsky Louise Gräslund Martin Strömberg Oscar Rydqvist Gerd Osten Sixten Ahrenberg Barbro Hähnel Per-Erik Wahlund P.G. Pettersson Ragnar Ehrling Sven Barthel Sten Guldbrand Sten Selander Stig Tornehed Thorleif Hellbom Åke Thomson Nils Beyer

Ingmar Bergman’s conception of what it means to be an artist is complex. First, he has always emphasized the creative act as a source of pleasure and joy, an emotional state of mind reminiscent of his childhood nursery games with a puppet theatre and a laterna magica. Second, his artistic approach conveys a strong sense of absolute commitment to his work, and a keen sensitivity to both performers and audiences. Third, he combines an intuitive ‘radar’ feel for what is right and essential in a production with a very conscious sense of craftsmanship, resulting in a firm esthetic control of his material. He has always maintained that his directorial persona can only function under self-discipline, careful preparation of a task and a sense of mutual loyalty between himself and his ensembles. In this way he has been able to ward off the personal chaos in his own psyche. Artistic creativity has then worked for him as a form of self-therapy. Over the years Bergman’s public image has undergone marked changes. In his youth he was seen as a gadfly and iconoclast; in the 1960s he was viewed as an obsolete artist and bourgeois traditionalist; in the 1980s he became an icon and master. Some have termed him ‘demonic’ and dominant; some have talked about him as a ruthless presence. But almost everyone who has worked closely with him has testified to his ability to create a sense of comfort and security. By the same token, Bergman’s artistic work has elicited a very divided response among his commentators. On one hand, there has been a recognition of his indisputable talent and an almost jubilant sense of experiencing a unique artist at work; on the other hand, one can notice a sense of irritation at his ‘excessive’ temperament or a resentful feeling of being ‘manipulated’ by his controlling persona. The critical material on Ingmar Bergman also shows a distinct difference between foreign commentators, who have tended to evaluate his work in terms of its metaphysical and psychological thought content, and Swedish reviewers who have often judged his contribution within a current ideological context but who have also been more sensitive both to his theatre aesthetics and to his filmmaking style.


Relatively few studies of Bergman’s work have focussed on matters of form and structure. There is an explanation for this: A major part of Bergman’s creative material emerges as an example of what Isiah Berlin once termed ‘hedgehog’ authorship; i.e., the work of an artist who is fixed on a relatively limited range of subject matters and who seldom deviates from that personal vision. After half a century of amazing ‘hedgehog’ productivity, Bergman has created a cohesive universe of his own making, a personal mythos where his commentators can ‘feel at home’ and can easily identify such central Bergman subjects as: (1) an existential probing manifesting itself in questioning a silent god figure who seems to have withdrawn from human life; (2) an often ruthless unmasking process that discloses the lies and dead conventions that control human beings and relationships and where language can easily be a deceptive tool; (3) a deterministic portrayal of people as helpless and despondent marionettes, yet so full of vitality that most of Bergman’s works leave some trace of hope behind; (4) a portrayal of Woman as archetype – as the embodiment of strength and survivability; and (5) an exposure of the modern (usually male) artist as a self-centered and destructive individual, often frustrated in his metier and haunted by demons. These themes continued to be explored by Bergman also after he left filmmaking, and they constitute an essential part of his writing legacy. Bergman’s visibility in the film and theatre world during the second half of the 20th century has been considerable from the start. However, what the material collected for this Reference Guide suggests is that Ingmar Bergman has been much more than a media celebrity. He has in fact accomplished a cultural feat that no other Swedish artist before him has realized to quite the same extent: bridging the gap between the forms and expressions of high bourgeois culture and popular art. In the theatre his productions have ranged from operettas like The Merry Widow to Shakespeare’s King Lear or Goethe’s Ur-Faust. In the cinema he has created comedies like Smiles of a Summer Night and The Devil’s Eye as well as somber existential quest dramas like The Seventh Seal and harrowing psychological studies like Persona and Cries and Whispers. And regardless of what Bergman’s own countrymen have thought of his international reputation in the first half of his career, he indisputably came to play an extraordinary role as directeur de conscience for many generations of filmgoers outside of Sweden. Ingmar Bergman has definitely written himself into the annals of film and theatre history. Today there is still a strong interest in his artistic contribution among students of film, theatre, and literature. And despite the large output of Bergman scholarship to date, the subject is rich and much remains to be done. It is hoped that this research guide will help facilitate such future studies about Ingmar Bergman. Stockholm, June 2005 Birgitta Steene


Childhood toys become artistic emblems: the puppet theatre and the laterna magica

In Bergman’s production of Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale at the Royal Dramatic Theatre (Dramaten) in 1994, the boy Mamillius (Anna Björk) carried on stage a miniature puppet theatre as if to reinforce Bergman’s vision of the play – as fantastic make-believe and playacting. (Photo: Bengt Wanselius. Courtesy: Dramaten)

In Bergman’s film Fanny and Alexancer from 1982, the magic lantern plays an important role for the Ekdahl children, especially young Alexander (Bertil Guve). (Photo: Arne Carlsson. Courtesy: Cinematograph/SFI)

23 .. According to Swedish folklore. No astrological prediction could have been more appropriate in Bergman’s case. In youthful defiance he once declared: It entails a great risk [..Chapter I Life and Work The Family Setting Some dates of birth seem auspicious from the start. be shaken by visions.] att stirra sig blind på de gränser som sätts upp av publiken och kritikerna. Ernst Ingmar Bergman was born on Sunday. however.] to stare yourself blind at the limits set up by the public and the critics. a child born on Sunday is gifted with second sight...] I am glad I am not born with equal part reason and guts. The middle child in a bourgeois clerical family. When he burst onto the Swedish theatre and film scene in the early 1940s.. [.. the fact that Ingmar Bergman’s start in life was rather problematic. who showed signs of a nervous condition..’ 1954) [Det medför en stor risk [. which affected family life. [.] Vem säger att man inte kan föra oväsen. he was a sickly boy whose arrival in the world was overshadowed by a crisis in his parents’ marriage. His mother Karin had fallen out of love with her husband. signifying rebellion and protest. tear down barriers. Lutheran pastor Erik Bergman. July 14. he was a rebel spirit who challenged established social and professional conventions. limits I do not recognize and that are not mine. send rockets to the moon. gränser jag inte erkänner och som inte är mina. and he also had a vision aimed at penetrating beneath surface reality to reveal a world of metaphysical and depth-psychological dimensions. skicka raketer till månen. riva ner barriärer. [.. skakas av visioner. 1918.] Who says you can’t make noise. [.... Above all. play with dynamite and cut morsels of flesh out of yourself and others? (‘Det att göra film/What is Filmmaking. leka med dynamit och skära bitar ur en själv och andra?] Such a self-confident outburst belies. whereas July 14 – Bastille Day – is one of those historical dates that have forever taken on symbolic meaning. fight with windmills. two things became immediately clear: He was a remarkably intense and gifted young man drawn both to the stage and the screen.] Jag är glad att jag inte är född med lika delar förnuft och inälvor. slåss mot väderkvarnar..

Their reservations were not based solely on Erik’s modest background. née Åkerblom. In her diary quoted by Ingmar Bergman in his memoirs Laterna magica (1987). Ma [Karin’s mother] has taken him to Våroms [family summer place] where she has found a wet nurse. Ma says that he is play-acting. Ma is upset at Erik’s inability to solve our practical problems. Her parents disapproved. Sometimes when I am alone I cry. Karin was determined to marry Erik. Han fick genast hög feber och svåra diarréer. Han är alldeles överansträngd och har varit klen i nerverna hela våren. Ma är förbittrad över Eriks oförmåga att lösa våra praktiska problem. At the time of their son Ingmar’s birth. 289-90). Om gossen dör. Då blev han nöddöpt här på sjukhuset. the Bergmans had just moved from a small country parish in the province of Gästrikland to the prestigious Östermalm section of Stockholm. It added to the family status that Erik Bergman was sometimes called on to serve as chaplain at the Swedish Royal 24 . He was well liked by his parishioners. where Erik held a position as junior pastor in the Lutheran state church. (The Magic Lantern. där hon funnit en amma. After a few days I had no milk because of my illness. I lie here powerless and miserable. and I should return to my job [nurse]. and Karin Bergman fulfilled her duties as a vicar’s wife so well that she later received a medal for her voluntary work in the community. Erik is upset at Ma’s interference in our private life. but I don’t think so. He was quickly christened here in the hospital. 337). died relatively young and his mother had to make sacrifices and rely on moneyed relatives to give her son a university education. He stubbornly refuses to open his eyes. by tradition respected occupations in Swedish society. [Vår son föddes söndag morgon den fjortonde juli. Jag ligger här maktlös och eländig. Karin Bergman. Jag tror inte jag har rätt att lämna Erik. Efter några dagar hade jag ingen mjölk på grund av sjukdomen. July 14. though once founded on love. was somewhat of a social mismatch. the epidemic that claimed many lives during World War I. p. Ma säger att han gör sig till. Han ser ut som ett litet benrangel med en stor eldröd näsa. His name is Ernst Ingmar. Ma har tagit honom till Våroms. Karin Bergman reveals the unhappy and desperate mood of her family at the time of Ingmar’s birth: Our son was born Sunday morning. Han vägrar envist att öppna ögonen. Hon vill att Erik och jag skall skiljas så snart som möjligt ‘innan han med sitt tokiga hat funnit på någon ny galenskap’. Han heter Ernst Ingmar. an apothecary. men det tror jag inte. The Bergman marriage. Should the boy die. He looks like a little skeleton with a big fiery red nose. Erik är förbittrad över Ma’s ingrepp i vårt privatliv. säger Ma att hon tar hand om Dag och att jag ska ta upp mitt yrke. p. Ma says she will take care of Dag [eldest son]. As such he was both a congregational shepherd and civil servant. Ibland då jag är ensam gråter jag. But despite the social gap between Erik Bergman and the Åkerblom family.] (Laterna magica. they were also worried about the genetic consequences of the fact that Erik Bergman and Karin Åkerblom were distant cousins in families with a record of mental illness. Jag ber till Gud utan förtröstan. Erik Bergman’s origin was far more humble.Chapter I Life and Work Erik was also ill with the Spanish flue.’ I do not believe I have the right to leave Erik. I pray to God without hope. He is totally overworked and has had nervous problems all spring. He had a high fever and severe diarrhea at once. came from a comfortable bourgeois class of engineers and educators. She wants Erik and me to get a divorce as soon as possible ‘before he has hit upon some new madness in his crazy hatred. his father.

and what people said was not unimportant. it was a foregone conclusion that their children would pursue professional careers. read Law at Uppsala and became a diplomat. Miss Julie).The Family Setting Court and as spiritual adviser to the Queen. Huset måste alltid stå öppet. became pregnant out of wedlock and had an abortion. in his famous preface to Fröken Julie (1887. which caused her parents both worry and chagrin. also took a university degree and became a librarian. 1975) [Jag har aldrig så långt tillbaka jag kan minnas tvekat på denna punkt att bli teater och filmregissör. 9) [En prästfamilj lever som på en bricka. Their working day was open-ended. his parents and his siblings were assigned certain preconceived roles by the community in which they lived: A pastor’s family lives as if on a tray. p. But it did not. (See Linton-Malmfors. Such connections were not unimportant to Ingmar Bergman’s parents. complied. Marianne Höök. Både far och mor var perfektionister som helt säkert sviktade under detta orimliga tryck. The eldest son Dag. deras självdisciplin järnhård. once stated that Ingmar Bergman had grown up on a cultural reservation. With this she implied that he carried with him a world whose moral and religious concerns were no longer part of mainstream Swedish society. Three Scenes with Ingmar Bergman. Församlingens kritik och kommentar är konstant. The parsonage must always be open. their marriage difficult. seemed bohemian and disorderly. Men det gjorde det inte. Deras arbetsdag var obegränsad. 15) Bergman’s earliest biographer. deras äktenskap svårmanövrerat. unprotected from other eyes. Maintaining a proper and well-disciplined front became part of the lifestyle. The daughter Margareta. De båda sönerna speglade karaktärsdrag som de oavlåtligt tuktade hos sig själva. though a defiant boy.] (Laterna magica. In later years Ingmar Bergman would compare this situation to a stage performance where he. Hence. Ø 1526. from her point of view. In reading Karin Bergman’s diaries. Ingmar’s younger sister. one perceives a sense of sad resignation at her younger son’s choice of an artistic career and a lifestyle that. Jag tror mina föräldrar upplevde detta med viss oro. p. Both Father and Mother were perfectionists who sagged under this unreasonable pressure. once I started at the university. I början trodde de att det skulle lugna ner sig när jag väl började på universitetet. their self-discipline iron-hard. that mankind had 25 . for both were socially ambitious people. The emerging secularized folkhem (pre-welfare state) had more pressing issues to deal with than questions of faith and doubt. The congregation’s critique and commentary are constant. and already Strindberg had concluded. She too showed signs of a rebellious and high-strung spirit. theirs was a relatively small world. Their two sons reflected characteristics they unremittingly punished in themselves.] The public duties of a clergyman’s household meant that the family was under much scrutiny. At first they thought it would calm down. (Donner.) But Ingmar Bergman had his goal set by the time he finished high school: I have never as far back as I can remember hesitated on this point of becoming a theater and film director. I think my parents experienced this with a certain amount of anxiety. oskyddad för insyn. The middle child Ingmar never completed a university degree or any other formal education beyond the gymnasium. (The Magic Lantern.

To all three of the Bergman children. En av huvudpunkterna är ‘jag fattig.. it has been because Christianity is deeply branded by a very virulent humiliation motif.] If I’ve objected strongly to Christianity. etc. Children on the other hand had to learn to tell the truth. [.] I don’t know what you imagine.. [. He would concoct stories at school about joining a circus. p. 86) Central in such a culture was teaching a child never to lie. The social structure was hierarchic and class-divided. They were taught self-castigation and learned to look upon themselves as guilt-ridden creatures. the use of a lively imagination was reserved by God for great artists. and by God himself. I think. [. it is worth remembering that the last edition of a fundamentalist Swedish explication of Luther’s catechism by Henrik Schartau was printed as late as 1925 and was used as compulsory religious instruction of the young. stories which in a more modern. a gift from God.] (Sw. It’s one of the big basic experiences. a homogeneous society rooted in a Lutheran culture. a miserable sinner. It is held in trust for us by the great artists. Even though the Bergman brood may have received a greater dose of the Lutheran ethos than other Swedish children at the time. who have sinned all my days. Alexander. p.’ Our way of living and behaving under this punishment is completely atavistic. a mighty force. Bergman’s religious background and its moral outlook placed him in an older grandparent generation. When he grew up. Sweden was still a fairly remote and provincial corner of Northern Europe. is a crucial element in our whole social structure. you understand. jämväl i synd född. som i alla mina livsdagar haver syndat’. and musicians. syndig människa. But Ingmar Bergman.. born in sin. writers. but which were punished as lies. Detta straff lever vi under och handlar under rent atavistiskt. government officials. had some difficulty distinguishing between truthfulness and make-believe. teachers. it seemed that life was regulated by a whole set of authoritative rules dictated by parents. One of its main tenets is ‘I. Its rigorous Protestant moralism with its emphasis on obedience before authority is echoed by Ingmar Bergman in his assessment. being an imaginative youngster. psychologically sensitive context would seem like compensatory daydreams. (Bergman on Bergman. ed.Chapter I Life and Work eradicated conscience (guilt) together with the idea of a godhead. as an adult.. silent. It was a world in which most children were still expected to be quiet.. and obedient. Det här med förödmjukelse skulle jag kunna tala om praktiskt talat hur länge som helst.] En stor del av min mycket starka protest emot kristendomen är att där finns ett starkt och inbränt förödmjukelsemotiv.. Höök suggested that to most of his contemporaries. is something splendid. Do you believe that you can lie and shuffle without any consequences and without punishment? 26 . I could go on talking about this humiliation business for ever. 81) [Att förödmjuka och att vara förödmjukad tycker jag är en vital beståndsdel i hela vår samhällskonstruktion. Det är en av de stora grundupplevelserna. of his own upbringing: To humiliate and be humiliated.. Marianne Höök’s assessment of Ingmar Bergman’s obsolete status in Swedish culture was colored however by her own times and failed to acknowledge the social and cultural climate in Sweden during Ingmar Bergman’s childhood. or they sinned against God’s purpose: Imagination. As Bishop Vergerus explains to his stepson Alexander Ekdahl in Bergman’s film Fanny and Alexander.

. [. men inte något stimulerande eller eggande. a private dispensary situated in a park-like setting.] Jag vet inte vad du väntar dig. and saw how everything was the same.. [När jag kom hem till mina föräldrar [. p. It was as if they were from another planet.] (Bergman om Bergman. Den bevakas för oss av de stora konstnärerna. the histrionic and fun-loving Ekdahls and the stern Vergeruses.. where he spent periods of time as a child visiting his maternal grandmother.. The house stood next to the Sofia Hospital.] på Storgatan i Stockholm. It is a story set about ten years before his own birth in the university town of Uppsala. the Lutheran bishop. en gåva från Gud. the film Fanny och Alexander (1982) might be called Bergman’s resurrection of his childhood. 15 (‘Bergman in Exile’): ‘When I was in my 30s I never thought I would ever have any contact [with my parents]. in Mother’s window there was a lamp with a pink lampshade.. The Storgatan apartment became a contrast to the yellow wooden vicarage in the Lilljans Forest where he had spent most of his early childhood. [. everything stood in the same place. headed by his stepfather. In an interview from the 1970s he describes his feelings of estrangement after visits to his parental home: When I used to return to my parents [. 27 . black park’. p. Bergman once told an early biographer.] It was just something dim and infinitely sad. The family dwelt literally in the shadow of its high cupola. som tjänstgjorde som en fyr när vi sprang hem på kvällen genom den blåsiga svarta parken]. but nothing stimulating or challenging. Alexander. [. något som jag inte längre hade någon kontakt med. but he turned it into a metaphor for his own troubled adolescence. i mors fönster fanns en en lampa med en skär lampskärm. We were absolutely strange to each other.The Family Setting [Fantasin förstår du är något storslaget. 17 October 1976. (Höök. 158). mirrors Bergman’s confrontations with his parents’ values and methods of child rearing. ‘the blinds never had to be drawn in the dark winter evenings. which served as a beacon when we ran home in the evenings through the windy. p. (Bergman on Bergman. diktarna.. Tror du att du kan ljuga och vrida dig utan konsekvenser och utan straff?] The 11-year old Alexander’s defiance of his stepfather. We made polite conversation. musikerna.. Alexander’s life oscillates between two families. In his teens Ingmar Bergman came to feel increasingly alienated from this milieu. allting stod på samma ställe. en ofantlig kraft. [Även på bottenvåningen behövde gardinerna aldrig dras för under de mörka vinterkvällarna. Cf this to quote in NYT.] Det var bara något skymmande och någonting oändligt vemodigt. då upplevde jag att det var en stelnad värld. beyond which was the open countryside: ‘Even on the ground floor’. In fact. With its rigid moralism the Vergerus world bears a certain resemblance to the Bergman home at Storgatan in Stockholm. 147). 22) With time Ingmar Bergman was to become more tolerant about his parents and acknowledge that life in the vicarage did also include moments of festivity and joy. facing the imposing Hedvig Eleonora Church. I experienced a petrified world that I no longer had any contact with. där jag hade vuxit upp och allting var på samma sätt. 1962...’ Ingmar Bergman only lived at the Storgatan address in his teens. p..] on Storgatan in Stockholm where I had grown up. These are two contrasting milieus that represent much of the social contours and mindscape of Ingmar Bergman’s own background.

In retrospect Ingmar Bergman would... att Mormor behandlade honom som en jämnårig i många sammanhang. Sweden’s imposing Jugend-style national stage. Allt som hörde samman med de tider då han fick vara hos Mormor i Uppsala har ett skimmer omkring sig. carried with her a cultivated interest in literature and theatre. Elsa Beskow.] Ingmar fick sitta uppe och språka i ro med Mormor. Ingmar Bergman made his debut on stage as a chanterelle mushroom in a children’s pageant based on a popular text by classical Swedish writer and artist of children’s books. associate his happy recollections of the past not with his parental home but with his maternal grandmother’s huge apartment in Uppsala which he often visited as a child. [. And he still accepts her just like that. Torment/Frenzy) and would become his colleague at the Royal Dramatic.Chapter I Life and Work The fact is that neither Erik nor Karin Bergman were fundamentalist in their views on the theatre and the cinema. Jag tror att det betyder oerhört mycket för Ingmar. popularly referred to as the Film City on the outskirts of Stockholm. Another reason for his recollection of the event might be that the production was staged by Alf Sjöberg (1903-1980) who would direct Bergman’s first screenplay. – And he. Still. for many years. in particular. Bergman’s first visit to the real theatre proved a minor disaster. och som han drog sig tillbaka till som till en oas. They went to the movies together. he accepted her as she was. Family gatherings at Christmas time included not only Bible readings but also magic lantern shows and storytelling.. and in some of the things he has written. and they had tea when they came back home.. [. whose head he would one day become. Karin Bergman reminisces in her diary about the special rapport that existed between her son and her mother. such as puppetry.] And pious in an old-fashioned way with morning prayers and evening prayers with Christian principles in all her actions. Watching a dramatization of Little Red Riding Hood and the Wolf on stage frightened him so much that he allegedly had to be carried home screaming. Hets (1944. She let him wander around on his own long before he was let loose in Stockholm. A few years later however he watched with fascination a production at the Royal Dramatic Theatre of Gustaf af Gejerstam’s dramatization of Hans Christian Andersen’s tale ‘Big Claus and Little Claus’. Anna Åkerblom: It seems to me at times as if Grandma’s Uppsala were the only protected world he possesses and one he withdrew to like an oasis. som om Mormors Uppsala vore den enda hägnade värld han äger. Everything connected with the times he could stay with Grandma in Uppsala has a shimmer to it. Karin Bergman. He once arranged a visit for his younger son to the Råsunda Studios. Erik Bergman was somewhat of a pioneer in using visual aids in his religious instruction of the young.. The memory of this event lived on in sharp detail.] Ingmar was allowed to stay up to talk in quiet with Grandma. Grandma or moods from her world crop up. [Det verkar ibland på mig.. and even at an old age Bergman would point out the very seat where he experienced his first visit to the Royal Dramatic. [. old-fashioned strict and in her own way demanding but at the same time childishly playful and humorous. 28 . but actually encouraged their children to engage in dramatic activity. I believe it is immensely important to Ingmar that Grandma treated him like an equal in many respects.

p. and he has just had the measles. and the people in the streets turn to each other and begin to carry on whispering conversations.The Family Setting De gingo på bio tillsammans. så dyker Mormor upp eller tongångar från hennes värld. The pigeons lift from the square. Armfeldt in Sommarnattens leende (1955. Early Ends the Day). Chapter II) To young Bergman his aging grandmother and her housekeeper took on mythic proportions. and finally as the wise and sensitive grandmother Helena Ekdahl and her grumpy old cook and housekeeper Siri in Fanny och Alexander. the water in the canals begins to flow. and the herb-collecting granny in the Vogler entourage in Ansiktet. Duvorna lyfter från torget och människorna på gatan vänder sig mot varandra och börjar föra viskande samtal. (1958. The Magician/The Face) whose rapport with the innocent young Sanna takes on a fairy tale quality.] Och gammaldags from med morgonbön och aftonbön med Kristna principer i allt sitt handlande. pointing most obviously to the granny in the two plays Staden (1950. as well as to the half allegorized figure of Mrs. Ø 1526) Anna Åkerblom was a widow and matriarch who lived alone with her old housekeeper. they can be heard and yet remain silent. and he is sitting under the dining room table at his grandmother’s. och i somliga saker som han skrivit. Hon lät honom göra vandringar på egen hand långt innan han släpptes lös i Stockholm. like extraterrestial machines. She was surrounded by the same furniture as when she moved into her patrician apartment as a young bride. De har till och med ett egendomligt surrande ljud. [Det är en vinterdag tidigt om våren och han sitter under matsalsbordet hos mormor. Han har ett förkläde på sig med en ficka där fram och han har just haft mässlingen. a place where people and objects had never been young and yet never aged. The sunlight is streaming through the high windows. Unto My Fear).] (‘I mormors hus’. Hers was an obsolete world. But they also lent their features to such portraits as the witty old Mrs. Smiles of a Summer Night). han accepterade henne. On the wall there is a painting of Venice. [. Och han accepterar henne ännu just sådan. Isak Borg’s old mother in Smultronstället (1957. Ø 47. Solljuset strömmar genom de höga fönstren och strålarna rör sig hela tiden.] (Karin Bergman. – Och han. som utomjordiska maskiner. Ingmar Bergman used to hide under his grandmother’s huge dining room table to eavesdrop on the adults or simply to follow the traveling sunlight on the walls: It is a wintry day in early spring. 29 . och de drucko té vid hemkomsten. På väggen hänger en tavla av Venedig och när solljuset färdas över bilden börjar vattnet i kanalerna flyta. The City) and Mig till skräck (1948.. They are real and yet unreal. Åldrandets tid. gammaldags sträng och på sitt sätt fordrande men samtidigt barnsligt lekfull och humoristisk. He has on an apron with a pocket in front. They even have a strange buzzing sound. but to Ingmar Bergman it seemed not faded so much as suspended in time. De är verkliga och ändå overkliga. Åström in Dagen slutar tidigt (1948.. Wild Strawberries) who refuses to die. som hon var. Like Alexander in the opening sequence of Fanny and Alexander. See Linton-Malmfors. As such they were to lend their features to many clever and wise old crones in his works. and when the sunlight travels across the picture. and the beams are moving all the time. 81). de kan höras och förblir ändå tysta.

och så går man in i sin barndom. What is projected is a luscious world of images and evocative sounds. Cries and Whispers) and Fanny och Alexander (1982).. Att jag plötsligt bara kunde stiga in i min barndom. which still had its colored glass pattern. [. Glimpses of the past lives of four women – three sisters and a housekeeper – are revealed in flashbacks that are signaled by red fade-outs. and a feeling ran quickly through me: suppose I open it? Suppose old Lalla (our old cook. Illicit/Summer Interlude) and Smultronstället (1957. the aging professor Isak Borg. The very genesis of the film is related by Bergman to an episode (later denied by Bergman) when he stopped at his grandmother’s house long after she was gone. repressed memories and subconscious fantasies are unveiled with both painful and healing consequences. 132-33) [Det var på hösten och det började komma litet sol på domkyrkan och klockan slog just fem.] Then it struck me: Supposing I make a film of someone coming along. childhood memories flooded his mind: It was autumn and a faint sun had begun to fall on the cathedral as the clock was striking five. Then I went up into the house and took hold of the door knob to the kitchen door. breathing 30 . By reliving her youth. These two films begin by letting the camera into rooms breathing with old objets d’art. ticking clocks and faint. a shade that Bergman associates with the color of the soul – and with the realm of childhood. the ballet dancer Mari in Sommarlek can finally come to terms with the loss of her lover many years earlier. using flashbacks as a structural tool. In Cries and Whispers their spell is broken when the characters awaken to a day of pain and are ushered into everyday reality. making porridge for breakfast as she did so many times when I was little.Chapter I Life and Work Childhood memories seem to dictate Bergman’s narrative approach – a form of Proustian journey into the past. she was) is standing inside there in her big apron. alltså den gamla kokerskan.] (Bergman om Bergman. och då gick det en ilande känsla igenom mig – tänk om jag öppnar nu och gamla Lalla. and in Smultronstället. whose initials are the same as Ingmar Bergman’s. Alexander’s wandering through his grandmother’s apartment – opening creaking doors. whispering voices. så som hon hade gjort så många gånger när jag var liten.. Suppose I could suddenly walk into my childhood? [. lever. och sen svänger man om ett gathörn och kommer in i någon annan period av sin tillvaro. som fortfarande hade det där kulörta glasmönstret. and everything still alive and going on as before? (Bergman on Bergman. Så gick jag upp i huset och tog i dörrlåset till köksdörren.] Så slog det mig – tänk om man skulle göra en film om det här att man bara kommer alldeles realistiskt och plötsligt öppnar en dörr. p. In an early script like Eva (1948) and in such films as Sommarlek (1951. och allting pågår. finds both peace of mind and self-recognition through visualized recollections of his youth and unhappy marriage.. står där inne i sitt stora köksförkläde och lagar frukostgröten.. s. I went into the little cobblestone yard. Wild Strawberries). Like ghosts these projections have no clearly spoken language. och så öppnar man en annan dörr och kommer ut i verkligheten. perfectly realistically. In Fanny and Alexander. 139-41) But the sensuous recollections of the past are perhaps captured most fully in later Bergman films like Viskningar och rop (1972. As he opened the gate in the early morning hour. and suddenly opening the door and walking into his childhood? And then opening another door and walking out into reality again? And then walking round the corner of the street and coming into some other period of his life. Jag gick in på den lilla gården som var kullerstensbelagd.

calling out the names of family members. for instance Ansiktet (1958.. Being a rather shy. young Bergman found an outlet for his imagination in puppetry and film projection. [. Hour of the Wolf ).. Drag. The most obvious analogy in Ingmar Bergman’s oeuvre is the film Gycklarnas afton (1953. Childhood may have provided the adult artist Ingmar Bergman with major motifs and a fundamental mindscape.. indestructable and – to us – incomprehensable and inexplicable evil I manufactured a personage possessing the diabolic features of a medieval morality figure. which had been explored earlier by one of Bergman’s admired authors..] As a materialization of this virulent. and willing dead objects to life – becomes an invocation to enter the world of childhood. Aus dem Leben des Marionetten (1980. whose novel Clownen Jack portrays a performer. in contrast to the rather abstracted concept of the demonic director in Jack hos skådespelarna.] The puppeteer/marionette concept. however. which is both distant and absolutely present. harboring one of the central motifs in Ingmar Bergman’s works – the humiliation theme – is closely related to the clown motif. p. Puppetry developed into a serious hobby lasting throughout his teens and became crucial not only in teaching him the first steps in stagecraft but in shaping his earliest notions of the human condition. sharing with Hjalmar Bergman’s novel both the circus setting and a clown’s humiliation. But it also offered him the first rudimentary instruments for his theatre work and filmmaking. [. jerk. Jack Trabac. drag. Jack Among the Actors). Hjalmar Bergman (no kin.] was the existence of a virulent evil. ryck. Call it original sin or whatever you like – anyway an active evil on which man alone. In his plays for the theatre. somewhat stuttering and withdrawn child. suggests his mental collapse as the inevitable result of a lifelong series of human betrayals. The Magician/The Face) and Vargtimmen (1967. Peter Egerman. His experience as an amateur puppeteer whose performers were manipulated marionettes may have served as a metaphor for an early deterministic view of life. (Bergman on Bergman. in which ‘the protocol’ of a murderer. unlike the animals. Ingmar was the director and prime mover. In varying transformations. but the theme survives in different forms in many later works. ryck. using a sheet and a table as props. in no way dependent on environmental or hereditary factors.The Family Setting on the frozen windowpane. Bergman would often cast his characters as doomed creatures governed by forces beyond their control. pull. In Jack hos skådespelarna (1946. thus supporting a statement he made in an interview in 1971: What I believed in [.] His evil was one of the springs in the clockwork. The Naked Night). jerk!’ [Nu sitter jag här och drar i trådarna. which Bergman unsuccessfully submitted as a radio play.. 40) 31 . as a humiliated buffoon until he revolts and turns the tables on the audience (see Forslund. Ø 992). 1883-1931). has the monopoly.. the diabolic puppeteer as well as the humiliated ‘clown’ figure keep returning in Bergman’s artistic vision as an essential force of evil. From the Life of the Marionettes). Pull. Towards the very end of his film career the puppet/humiliation theme even provides the title of his German-produced screen work. Dagen slutar tidigt is structured like a morality play in which all the dramatis personae are predestined to die shortly. The puppet theatre began as a simple play activity together with his sister and two friends. the characters are in the hands of a satanic director who claims he has created a cosmos of his own for a few people who have to obey him: ‘Now I sit here and pull my strings. Here friends and family provide a psychologically motivated form of determinism.

(Bergman om Bergman.] Hans ondska var en fjäder i urverket]. who seemed like a magician in a world next door to heaven.] Som materialisation av denna virulenta. Om jag fortsatte veva. för oss ofattbara ondska tillverkade jag en person som hade den medeltida moralitetens djävulsdrag. The Magic Lantern) Bergman still remembers his excitement of turning on the projector and seeing images beginning to move on the nursery room wall: I turned the lever and the girl awakened.Chapter I Life and Work [Vad jag har trott på [. He went there together with his older brother Dag. fittingly titled Laterna magic (1987.. imagined as a rapist god. It is an invisible and distant god who takes possession of the knight Antonius Block in Det sjunde inseglet (1956.] var att det existerar en virulent ondska som inte på något sätt är beroende av miljö eller arvsfaktorer. p... which had matinee showings on weekends. The Seventh Seal) and turns him into a fanatic quester. Within the same magical aura dwelt the machinist in the projection booth. who separates Karin. her visits to the cinema with her grandson were highlights in Bergman’s childhood. stretched out her arms. moved slowly. the schizophrenic young woman in Såsom i en spegel (1961. 43] Moved to a metaphysical level. låg hon där igen och gjorde sedan om precis samma rörelser. sträckte ut armarna. [. but Ingmar quickly obtained it in exchange for an army of tin soldiers. It was a Christmas present from a rich aunt and actually meant for his older brother. It is the same demonic force that emerges as ‘the spider god’ in the mind of Pastor Tomas in Nattvardsgästerna (1962. Through a Glass Darkly) from her husband. Around the age of ten he became the excited owner of a kerosene-lit projector. 32 . Ingmar Bergman began to frequent the cinema on a regular basis. But also his grandmother in Uppsala proved a faithful companion to the movies. 16) [Jag rörde veven och flickan vaknade. Soon all his pocket money went to the purchase of film strips that were on sale in local stores. The seeds of his future filmmaking were now planted. There were several small movie houses in the vicinity of his home.. swung around and disappeared to the right. Simultaneous with his earliest attempts at constructing film sequences.. Though she had the embarrassing habit of rubbing her boots in screeching disapproval of any love scenes. the representation of an omnipotent puppeteer director finds its counterpart in the silent god figure who gains such a hold over many of Bergman’s characters. satte sig upp. the other important toy in his childhood. p. Winter Light/The Communicants) and leads him to fail his congregation. sat up. (The Magic Lantern. It is a similar power. [. svängde runt och försvann till höger. ständigt existerande och obegripliga. In his memoir book. with young Ingmar totally oblivious to the projectionist’s pedophile leanings.. She moved. The different ramifications of the puppeteer/marionette concept in Bergman’s works might be juxtaposed to the significance of the magic lantern. compelling him to leave his wife to participate in a futile tenyear crusade. she lay there again and went through exactly the same movements again. reste sig långsamt. If I continued to turn the lever. Vi kan kalla den arvsynden eller vad som helst – en aktiv ondska. som människan till skillnad från djuren är alldeles ensam om.

An older classmate. he 33 . Karin Bergman relates in a letter to her mother how she felt compelled to put her older son Dag in the closet because of his defiant disobedience. The most explicit sign came in the late 1930s when Bergman left home under dramatic circumstances. While at Mäster Olofsgården. Soon thereafter – and after completing compulsory military service – Bergman assumed his first assignment as a stage director at the amateur theatre section of Mäster Olofsgården. and his rigorous and long training sessions. Vargtimmen (1967. the fearful darkness was dispelled by the hand that sets the projector in motion and by the mind that designs the images. Gunnar Lindblad. Film projection became in fact an act of exorcism through which the frightening shadows of early childhood could be controlled. He attended a local school run by the Swedish Mission Society and seems to have been a fairly compliant student. The puppet theatre had by then grown from child’s play to an adolescent passion. For Ingmar Bergman as for his alter ego Alexander Ekdahl in Fanny and Alexander. a Christian settlement house in Stockholm’s Old City. The magic machine could transform dark demons into dancing light beams. who chewed off the toes of naughty children. Frenzy). a notorious classroom terror nicknamed ‘Kusken’ (the Coachman). p. He moved in with the newly married manager of the settlement’s youth activities. All the same. his rehearsals on Sundays during morning service. But he was picked on by his English teacher. who became one of his early set designers. a year later. Sven Hansson. Face to Face). Ansikte mot ansikte (1975. The closet trauma appears as a central psychological reference in a number of Bergman films: Fängelse (1949. Ingmar Bergman was also enrolled at Stockholm University as a student of literature.Debut and Formative Years Hon rörde sig. as the most valuable volunteer in the settlement’s youth work. Torment. The Hour of the Wolf ). Debut and Formative Years Ingmar Bergman’s school years were not very happy. at that time a poor section of town. Soon Sven Hansson also had to solve conflicts that arose at the settlement center as Bergman shocked the board members with his foul language. after having knocked down his father and insulted his mother. Prison). Though never completing an academic degree. thanks to his film apparatus. 23) Ingmar Bergman kept his magic lantern in a nursery closet. while the presence of the magic lantern in the same space constitutes a creative way of dealing with that trauma. But a rebellion was brewing. It is no exaggeration to claim that. It came to represent a Bergman childhood trauma. has described Bergman during his high school years as socially rather reticent and more absorbed in finding technical solutions to his puppet theatre than participating in extra-curricular school activities. who was later depicted as the sadistic instructor Caligula in Bergman’s film script to Hets (1944. who in turn kept up a telephone communication with Bergman’s parents and received monetary compensation for son Ingmar’s room and board. Ingmar Bergman was chosen. a space similar to the one where he is said to have been locked up as a form of punishment when he was a child and told that nasty goblins lived there.] (Laterna magica. the frightened child Ingmar was rescued by the creative artist and directorial ‘magician’ Bergman.

which at this time was a lively organization that included a number of future authors and actors. ‘Kaspers död’ (Death of Punch) and ‘Tivolit’ are projections of his metaphysical and eschatological concerns. Karin Lannby was older than Bergman. Only one of these was filmed. Some of his productions were political dramas by contemporary Scandinavian playwrights. 1973. Else Fisher would contribute to Bergman’s work. widow of author Hjalmar Bergman and head of the manuscript department at Svensk Filmindustri (SF). Carl Anders Dymling. The relationship was of short duration. In neutral but hemmed-in Sweden the theatre stage played an important role during World War II as an emotional and intellectual outlet.Chapter I Life and Work attended the lectures of Professor Martin Lamm. Chapter II). a prominent Strindberg scholar. ‘Kaspers död’ attracted the attention of Stina Bergman. Bergman alludes to her in his portrait of Rut in the script to ‘En kvinnas ansikte’ [A woman’s face]. a choreographer whom Bergman married in 1944. the country of Martin Luther. The two collaborated on several productions at the Sago Theatre in the newly built Citizens Hall (Medborgarhuset) in Stockholm. (See ‘Puzzlet föreställer Eros’. For Bergman the early 1940s became a crucial apprenticeship period when he set up plays on a number of different stages in Stockholm. Else had created and staged a successful children’s ballet and was considered very promising in her field. He would always refer to himself as a non-political person and cites his own youthful unawareness of rising Nazism in Germany as a sign of his political ignorance. but his main motivation was artistic. for instance in Det sjunde 34 . Karin Lannby. offered him the opportunity to shoot his first film. Torment/ Frenzy). Had the latter been the case. Feeling snubbed and ridiculed. Ø 42. but it turned the spotlight on Ingmar Bergman. Bergman’s family expressed a sense of cultural affinity with Germany. rather than loyalty to Nazi ideology. Kris (1945). Himmelrikets nycklar (1884. The paper reads like a prompt copy for a production. married to a sheik and active in the Spanish Civil War. Ø 154). Even long after the marriage was dissolved. despite his stay with a German family for a couple of summers in the mid-1930s. Ingmar Bergman had become involved in a stormy liaison with a would-be actress and poet. A year later. She hired him as a reader and ‘manuscript washer’ but also encouraged him to work on scripts of his own. Hets (1944. it is clear that it was the live theatre that attracted Ingmar Bergman more than any academic pursuits. they would hardly have taken in a teenage Jewish refugee as their houseguest. the head of SF. Bergman decided after shooting Kris that he would learn all the technical aspects of filmmaking and master the film medium as a good craftsman. The Keys of Heaven). There is no trace of the contemporary political situation in Bergman’s own plays which were performed at the Student Theatre in 1942 and 1943. At first he tried to cover up his novice status and sense of insecurity with an overconfident attitude that alienated many of the studio workers who had been in the profession for a long time. Bergman felt like ‘a kitten in a ball of yarn’ [en kattunge i ett garnnystan] (Från A till Ö. Soon he became involved with the Student Theatre. a young man who arrived in 1940 at age 17 and stayed with the Bergmans for seven years. While still engaged in the Student Theatre. had published a collection of poetry and was rumored to have lived a fast life. whose modern lifestyle and experiences were light years removed from his own protected bourgeois background. and wrote a seminar paper on Strindberg’s fairy play. and the femme fatale was replaced by waiflike Else Fisher. which he had staged in his puppet theatre at home.

recognized Bergman’s talents.] (Laterna 35 . Torsten Hammarén. After two years with the Hälsingborg City Theatre. Jan and Eva as directors. in fact. Throughout the rest of his career in the theatre. Bergman worked under someone who was more knowledgeable and strong-willed than he was. Mats as an actor. Its City Theatre had achieved a remarkable reputation during the war years as Sweden’s leading political theatre and introducer of modern American drama. among them a set of twins. However. The theatre was administered firmly by an elderly director. Mia and Skat) outside the tavern. Then. 1995. he was offered the post as head of the City Theatre in Hälsingborg in southern Sweden. ranging from Shakespeare and Strindberg to New Year’s cabarets. Soon thereafter he married choreographer Ellen Lundström. within a 2-year period. an eccentric woman by the name of Brita von Horn. Torsten Hammarén and Herbert Grevenius stand like two stern angels not to be bribed. at age 26. ‘Allting föreställer. He designed a repertory of considerable variety. whom he had met in Hälsingborg. or conversely to build his cinematic style on long acting scenes reminiscent of a stage performance. When Ingmar Bergman arrived in Hälsingborg. its theatre was in financial straits. ingenting är’. A study of his professional engagements in the theatre reveals a rich thematic and stylistic interchange between his stage productions and his work for the screen (see Törnqvist. just prior to the arrival of the train of flagellants. the Dramatists Studio. Bergman moved in the fall season of 1946 with his family to Göteborg.’ (Magic Lantern. whose prime mover. Three of them – Jan. where she composed the dance performed by the acting troupe (Jof. His oft-quoted statement that the cinema has been his mistress and the theatre his faithful wife reflects this situation. the marriage was dissolved. But despite his intense work schedule in Hälsingborg. He came to follow an established pattern within Swedish filmmaking by shooting films in the summer time when the theatres were closed. Bergman’s directorial activity continued at an intense pace. a mutually inspiring menage-à-trois. Over the years. and Koskinen. It included several productions at a newly founded professional stage. He assembled a young and energetic ensemble that lived on a shoe-string budget and were totally committed to their theatre work. where the stage became his home base and filmmaking a less regulated form of involvement. This marriage lasted for some five years. Mats and Eva Bergman – were to pursue careers in the theatre. Four children were born. he had turned the tide and had gained considerable local support for his undertaking. and actors and directors could be contracted by the film industry on an ad hoc basis. The symbiotic relationship between theatre and film may have dictated his tendency to concentrate the lighting on an actor on stage as a variation of a filmic close-up. setting up. Bergman now faced a new situation with an already established ensemble that had worked together for many years.Debut and Formative Years inseglet (The Seventh Seal). Hammarén was an incorruptible mentor: ‘When I was green and uninformed. Together with scriptwriter and playwright Herbert Grevenius. Bergman’s ties to Svensk Filmindustri were not severed. 156) [Vid min begynnelse står Torsten Hammarén och Herbert Grevenius som omutligt stränga änglar. Within a year after Bergman’s assumption of his new post. he would refer to the advice and work style of Torsten Hammarén as a model to follow. he was to remain loyal to both his ‘mistress’ and ‘his wife’. 2002). Between Stage and Screen. Else Fisher was now pregnant with daughter Lena but also ill with TB and staying in a sanatorium. p.

major film companies in Sweden shut down their studios in 1950-51 in protest over the high entertainment tax. Clearly. 291-316). gråtande kvinnor och rasande svartsjukescener. (See Sjögren interview with Bergman. It marked his first contact with teenager Bibi Andersson who 36 .) Gun was to report to her magazine editor from the fashion shows. Urval 98. Mig till skräck (Unto My Fear) and Dagen slutar tidigt (Early Ends the Day) Bergman’s Göteborg experience also gave him publicity as a playwright. This ordeal undermined the relationship. Neither was a box office success. drying diapers. he would stop writing stage plays. 185). titled ‘Dialog med Ingmar Bergman’. Bergman’s last production in Göteborg took place in 1948. Neither drama text received much critical acclaim. a deodorant soap manufactured by the Sunlight Corporation. in Ingmar Bergman på teatern 1968. Bergman learned the simple. he had to borrow money from SF against a contract. others are to be asked to leave. She was killed in an automobile accident in Yugoslavia. In Scener ur ett äktenskap (1973. Soon after the birth of a son. Moving back to Stockholm after his sojourn in Paris. 170. He also wrote and produced a series of commercials for Bris. pp. blöjor på tork. and pragmatic. 182/Magic Lantern. [Hemmet kokade av barnskrik. (See Sjöman. This lockout crisis came at a time when Ingmar Bergman was still searching for his footing as a filmmaker. and Stina in Nära livet (1958. whining women and furious scenes of jealousy’. Leaving her children with a Finnish nurse. To help support himself and his sizeable brood. Ingmar. where he had been sent by Svensk Filmindustri to serve as manuscript adviser for would-be filmmaker Vilgot Sjöman. 56-91. English ed. reviewers preferred Bergman as a director of works authored by others. Smiles of a Summer Night). yet difficult basics of working with actors: that some are to be encouraged to stay. and used her as a model for the type of women whom actress Eva Dahlbeck would impersonate as Karin Lobelius in Kvinnors väntan (1952. (See Laterna magica. Secrets of Women/Waiting Women). To Joy).] (Laterna magica. and Till glädje (1950. who was married and had two small sons.Chapter I Life and Work magica. the first film he both scripted and directed. pp. he made two films: Fängelse (1949. Brink of Life/Close to Life).) Memories of their troubled situation and ensuing guilt feelings would live on in Bergman for a long time and resurface in his script to the film Trolösa (2000. the couple separated. intelligent. 154). Their passionate relationship led to two painful divorces. p. stipulating that he would later make five films for the company at two-thirds of his usual pay. To make matters worse. Later Bergman would refer to Gun as strong. p. Gun later took a doctorate degree and became a lecturer in Slavic Languages at Uppsala University. Some time after his move to Göteborg in 1946. A few years later Bergman met a journalist by the name of Gun Hagberg (Grut). 201. and Bergman himself soon became skeptical about his role as an instructor of his own plays. 1998. Faithless). p. p. Scenes from a Marriage) Bergman was to transfer to the screen the awkward moment when he had to reveal his liaison to his wife Ellen (third scene in the film). she joined Bergman in Paris for three months in the spring of 1949. From Hammarén. Bergman’s second marriage was already in trouble: ‘Our home was boiling over with baby cries. Gun’s divorce proceedings were ugly and drawn out in court because of the custody issue over her children. Once he had established himself as a scriptwriter. s. however. in April 1951. Mitt personregister. Through his own staging of two of his morality plays. Desirée Armfeldt in Sommarnattens leende (1955. The Devil’s Wanton/Prison).

it was a provincial stage that would offer him a contract. but their separation was final.e. opened the Intima Theatre. En lektion i kärlek (1954. besides Sommarlek and Sommaren med Monika he wrote and directed Kvinnors väntan (1952. for whom Bergman had made the film Fängelse in 1949. during which time the tide turned for him both in terms of his filmmaking and his stage work. Though the Bris commercials were full of clever humor and wit. Marmstedt was a glamorous figure in the city’s cultural life but also a hardnosed businessman. It was also in Malmö that he solidified his group of actors. Åke Fridell – were actors at the Malmö City Theatre under his tutelage. they project a tone of sophisticated humor and erotic badinage in the tradition of such filmmakers as Mauritz Stiller (1883-1928) and Ernst Lubitsch (1892-1947).. He now lived with actress Harriet Andersson.Artistic Breakthruogh at home and Abroad was to become part of his acting stable both on film and in the theatre. The Rose Tatoo at the Norrköping-Linköping City Theatre and directed a relatively new play by Swedish author Björn-Erik Höijer. this time to assume the artistic directorship at the Malmö City Theatre in southern Sweden. Bergman was invited as a director and his come-back to the Swedish capital was much anticipated after his very successful time as a stage director in Hälsingborg and Göteborg. Lars Levi Læstadius. Artistic Breakthrough at Home and Abroad Bergman was to stay in Malmö for six years. He became one of Sweden’s leading stage directors with productions of Goethe’s Faust. and with whom he was to establish a Higgins-Eliza relationship. Smiles of a Summer Night). Bergman’s Malmö period coincides with his major breakthrough as a filmmaker. A Lesson in Love). welded together by a director who far outpaced the head of the theatre that had hired him. It was a genre that attracted viewers and 37 . and were characterized by a Bergman sense of timing. a Pygmalian liaison that the actress eventually would withdraw from. Molière’s Don Juan and The Misanthrope. Ibsen’s Peer Gynt and Pirandello’s Six Characters in Search of an Author. In vain. The rescue seemed to come in 1950 when producer Lorens Marmstedt. Kronbruden/The Crown Bride and Eric XIV. Strindberg’s Spöksonaten/Ghost Sonata. a private stage in Stockholm (not to be confused with Strindberg’s stage of the same name). Many of these films belong to Bergman’s ‘rose’ period. was no public success. Harriet Andersson. Bibi Andersson. his only Brecht production ever. His marriage to Gun Grut was not dissolved until several years later. Ingrid Thulin. they also signified a very low point in his career. Dreams) and Sommarnattens leende (1955. But his production of Brecht’s Three Penny Opera at the Intima Theatre. whom he had fallen in love with during the shooting of Sommaren med Monika (1952. i. Instead. Kvinnodröm (1955. In Sweden he now gained a reputation as a maker of women’s films. Bergman hoped for a permanent engagement at Dramaten. He also accepted a directorial assignment to stage Tennessee Williams’. In 1952 he left Stockholm again. Summer with Monica). Many of the names to be associated with Bergman’s filmmaking in the mid-Fifties – Max von Sydow. Secrets of Women/Waiting Women). Det lyser i kåken (Light in the Shack) at the Royal Dramatic Theatre. Shakespeare is the only one missing from Bergman’s Malmö repertory among those playwrights who have been central to him as a stage director.

nästan utan toner men liksom buren av tallösa röster. While Strindberg emerged from his ordeal with a newborn religious faith. in which Bergman would dramatize his attempts to free himself from his religious heritage.. Internationally. it was a period when.] The existential and metaphysical questioning reflected in Bergman’s major screen works from The Seventh Seal (1956) to Tystnaden (1962. Vissheten slocknar som om någon blåste ut den. After the international recognition of Sommarnattens leende at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival. though still recognizing the presence of spiritual realities. and The Magician (1958). Bergman’s repeated request to realize Det sjunde inseglet (1956.. By the late 1950s. expresses the intellectual dichotomy in Bergman's vision. and my cry is like a whisper: ‘To your glory. ... receiving prizes at Cannes. an inverted ‘inferno crisis’. The huge bell is silent [. toward God. Den stora klockan tystnar. One can follow the process by juxtaposing the film to his play Trämålning (Wood Painting) from 1954 on which The Seventh Seal is based. Bergman’s financial and creative freedom was secured.Chapter I Life and Work pleased Bergman’s major producer. [. The Squire's cynical humor in the face of death forms a counterpart to the Knight's desperate search for divine certainty. mot Gud. o Gud! Till din ära lever jag... Then I cry out through my darkness. He had become the epitome of an auteur du cinema (see Chapter III) and his films were part of the international circuit.] [Varje morgon och afton sträcker jag mina armar mot Helgonen. Bergman film classics were shown all over the world. Suddenly my emptiness is filled with music. Plötsligt är min tomhet fylld av musik. The Silence) could be called. Då händer det genom alla mina nerver fasansfulla.] Again and again I am shaken with absolute certainty. ‘Bergmania ruled the waves’ (14 March 1960..] Gång på gång skakas jag av en fullständig visshet. Till din ära! Så ropar jag i mörkret. My certainty dies as if someone had blown it out. p. oh God! To your glory I live! To your glory!’ So I cry in the dark. Religious Crisis Sjunde inseglet/The Seventh Seal also signaled an oncoming crisis. [. Los Angeles and elsewhere (see Varia Chapter).. the Knight and his Squire. Wild Strawberries (1957). The Seventh Seal (1956). Through the mists of spiritual listlessness God's nearness strikes me. almost without a key but as if carried by innumerable voices. Då ropar jag genom alla mina mörker och mitt rop är som en viskning: Till din ära. In the play the basic polarity of the two travelling companions.. with a reference to Strindberg’s mental upheaval in the mid-1890s. Then the dreadful thing strikes all my nerves. in the words of Time magazine. Bergman liberated himself from his Lutheran background. films like Smiles of a Summer Night (1955). 60). like the strokes of a huge bell. which was confirmed as late as in a TV interview 38 .. Svensk Filmindustri. The Seventh Seal) was finally granted. Genom dimmor av andlig slöhet drabbar mig Guds närhet likt slag av en väldig klocka. A speech by the latter that was cut from the subsequent screenplay clarifies the Knight's oscillation between faith and doubt: Each morning and evening I stretch my arms toward the Saints. With its success abroad. Berlin.

Nattvardsgästerna (1962. (See Interviews. Today Bergman denies that the films form a trilogy. they depict a spiritual development that he himself experienced during this time in his life. the Knight’s quest seems more modern than medieval. Unlike The Seventh Seal. It was also a process that freed him from his earlier fear of death and God’s punishment. the Knight Antonius Block. The Seventh Seal is structured like a medieval morality play in which an Everyman figure. In both The Seventh Seal and The Virgin Spring. God is a taunting and distant God. Travelling with his skeptical Squire. Ø 950). and Tystnaden (1963. which seems to end in futile prayer as Antonius Block speaks for his entourage while facing the figure of Death who has come to claim them all. Antonius Block’s strong. Death now became associated with the blank moments of unconciousness he had gone through while in a coma during surgery. however. For the next three years he was engaged in filmmaking.Discovery of Fårö with Ingmar Bergman and Erland Josephson on 4 April 2000. yet vows to build a church in His honor on the spot of his daughter’s murder. Bergman returned alone to Stockholm. NATTVARDSGÄSTERNA – genomskådad visshet. The idea never materialized. It was an old dream come true. Swedish TV Channel 4. The three films tell their separate stories. as he moved towards a position of agnosticism. and the central idea is closer to postwar existentialist thinking than to a 14th-century religious crusade. Inspired in part by Strindberg’s historical drama Folkungasagan (1899. [Dessa tre filmer handlar om en reducering. at the Montreal World’s Fair. telling God that he cannot understand His cruelty. The Saga of the Folkungs). The Silence). In interviews Bergman talked about taking a year-long sabbatical leave to study Bach. Winter Light/The Communicants). whose young and beautiful daughter is raped and murdered on her journey to church to offer candles to the Virgin Mary. desperate. Discovery of Fårö In 1958 Bergman turned forty. Bergman suggests that ‘These three films deal with a reduction. THROUGH A GLASS DARKLY – conquered certainty. THE SILENCE – God’s Silence – the negative imprint’. TYSTNADEN –Guds tystnad – det negativa avtrycket.] The setting of each film reflects this movement towards nihilism. The Virgin Spring). Leaving the city and his relationship with actress Harriet Andersson behind. Nevertheless. His six-year contract at Malmö was up. printed in the published screenplays. and defiant figure re-emerges as the medieval farmer Töre in Jungfrukällan (1960. Töre in The Virgin Spring expresses a quia absurdum est. SÅSOM I EN SPEGEL – erövrad visshet. He also turned his attention to the opera and in 1961 presented a much-acclaimed production of Stravinsky’s The Rake’s Progress. but it was nurtured for a while by his new love Käbi Laretei. In a motto. The production was later revived (in 1966-67) and presented abroad. an inter- 39 . this godhead emerges as an usurping ‘spider god’ who spreads anguish among those who seek him and leaves behind a psychological and metaphysical void. returns from the holy crusades to his native Sweden. WINTER LIGHT – disclosed certainty. but what they have in common is the progression of the theme of God’s silence. set in the Middle Ages. Through a Glass Darkly). and the composer himself came to Stockholm and gave his blessing. In the subsequent so-called trilogy Såsom i en spegel (1961.

‘Det att göra film’ (What is Filmmaking?). taking great pride in their craftsmanship. who is not a builder of a cathedral of communal worship but reveals himself to be a constructor of ‘a cultural mausoleum’ for people whom he despises. also inspires.. no religious faith unites the artist and his collective of workers to a common goal. which is often despairing and nihilistic. Fårö is a sparsely populated outpost in a modern welfare state.. They did so motivated by a common desire to honor God and to work together. he made Fårö his permanent home after their divorce in 1965. 40 . both the stark form and stern vision of Bergman’s film work in the Sixties. These ‘island’ films depict haunted characters trapped in various psychological crises. In 1969 Bergman tried to draw political attention to the island with a realistic TV film. The Touch). is reflected in Bergman’s essay from the mid-Sixties. At the edge of the Baltic Sea on an isolated part of the island. But Fårö functions also as the symbolic setting for a number of screen works that could be called Bergman’s ‘island films’. Käbi’s marriage to a music conductor was dissolved and she and Bergman married in 1959. Shame). He dedicated his 1961 film Såsom i en spegel/ Through a Glass Darkly to her. including a private screening room and some technical facilities. now represented by the busy bodyness of thousands of little ants moving about inside the skin of a dead snake. The Hour of the Wolf ).Chapter I Life and Work nationally recognized pianist. No more church spires are being built. through its isolation.] The disillusionment represented by ‘The Snakeskin’ essay is epitomized in the cynical figure of the architect Vergerus in A Passion of Anna. smutsiga jorden under en kall och tom himmel. in which a son.] in a selfish fellowship on the warm and dirty earth. one can see how Bergman’s conception of the function of art changed over a ten-year period.] i självisk gemenskap på den varma. Fårö quickly became both a real and a symbolic place to Ingmar Bergman. Skammen (1968. If one juxtaposes this essay to an earlier one from 1954. under a cold and empty sky’. The mood. It was while looking for a location to shoot Through a Glass Darkly that he was advised by his cinematographer Sven Nykvist to take a look at Fårö (Sheep Island). It is no longer the artist’s function to be a moral voice or uphold the spiritual comfort of the human soul. Fårödokument (Fårö Document). He would only return to Stockholm for professional reasons.. writing the script for it on the island of Torö in the Stockholm archipelago. When the medieval dome at Chartres burned down. In ‘Det att göra film’ he formulates an image of the artist as an anonymous worker sharing in the rebuilding of a great cathedral. Bergman was about to discover his Baltic landscape. and the ants moving inside it have no other raison d’etre than sustaining their own existence. life has become like a hollow snakeskin. ‘Ormskinnet’ (The Snakeskin). In ‘The Snakeskin’ essay Bergman also refers to a collective form of artistic activity. En passion (1969. all the artisans in the neighborhood came together to restore it to its former glory. The Passion of Anna) and Beröringen (1970. he built a compound. In part a military reserve characterized by moorlands and strangely formed limestone rocks called raukar. Daniel Sebastian. was born in 1963. God’s silence means that the artist is placed not among the divinely inspired but ‘in a brotherhood which exists [. while becoming Bergman’s personal retreat and his ‘smultronställe’ in life.. Besides Through a Glass Darkly they comprise Persona (1966). Though he lived in the wealthy Stockholm suburb of Djursholm during his marriage with Käbi. Thus one might suggest that Fårö. Vargtimmen (1967. [i ett brödraskap som existerar [.

so the reasoning went among Swedish intellectuals. Ormens ägg (1977. Vargtimmen. she would direct Bergman’s TV plays Enskilda samtal (1995. an artist whom he admired and respected greatly. En passion. At the premiere of Bergman’s Vargtimmen (Hour of the Wolf ). to the point where he actually left the country to direct a play in Oslo (see Ø 537. Bergman soon found himself embroiled with government officials who failed to meet his demands for increased subsidies. was born to the couple in 1967. As a filmmaker he encountered the same atmosphere. Chapter VII). Liv Ullmann describes the relationship in her book Forændringen (Changing). and by 1971 she and Bergman had separated. What he did not realize at the time. and has more in common with 41 . however. A daughter. Ansikte mot ansikte (1976. one critic asked: ‘Will Ingmar Bergman ever let go of his view of the artist. It was of course a triumph for Bergman to be invited to administer Dramaten. was that Sweden in 1963 was at the beginning of a cultural revolution that was to question various forms of elitist art. In a series of newspaper articles later pushlished as Visionen i svensk film (Vision in the Swedish cinema). some of whom were forced to retire. Face to Face). 231-32). Käbi predicted rightly that his new task would spell the end of their marriage. The politicized cultural climate began to dominate the public media in Sweden and was to involve much more than Bergman’s position at Dramaten (see Laterna magica. Skammen. It resulted in improved conditions for the staff but was marred by infighting. His task was to engage himself in the service of his society and become committed to the political issues of the day. Bergman’s tenure as head of the Royal Dramatic Theatre was brief – only three years. But he became particularly disenchanted with the idealogical thrust of a new generation in the Swedish theatre. pp. which he later referred to as ‘the worst brine bath in my life’ [mitt livs värsta eklut]. Ullmann too would continue her professional relationship with him. the very stage that had been like a sacred place to him in his youth and Sweden’s national theatre forum. and with whom he was to maintain a lifelong friendship and professional contact. Autumn Sonata). among them the directorial icon Olof Molander and the star actor Lars Hanson. an artist could no longer play the exclusive visionary role he once held during the Romantic Age. Scener ur ett äktenskap. which is both martyrlike and aristocratic. Private Conversations/Private Confessions) and Trolösa (2000. filmdirector Bo Widerberg had questioned Bergman’s approach to art. the island of Fårö and the Norwegian actress Liv Ullmann loomed on the horizon. as well as long-term traditionalists. He also faced a new radical cadre of actors and other co-workers. Linn. But his own acceptance of the post as head of Dramaten in 1963 was equally time-absorbing. as opposed to Bergman’s inner-directed and ‘vertical’ filmmaking. Ullmann became Bergman’s leading actress in such films as Persona. among them the role of the prestigious national stage. In the 1990s. he advocated a social-conscious ‘horizontal’ cinema.The Critical Sixties: The Artist Syndrome The Critical Sixties: The Artist Syndrome Bergman’s life with Käbi Laretei. having turned from acting to filmmaking. She disliked the isolation on Fårö. Faithless). The Serpent’s Egg) and Höstsonat (1978. Already in 1962. was nevertheless a life together with a person totally committed to a field – musical performance – where Bergman played second fiddle. the film about the haunted painter Johan Borg who withdraws to a desolate island. As in so many cases with Bergman’s former wives and liaisons. After a few years. In the contemporary world. Viskningar och rop.

but trends in the European cinema. He began to fantasize that he was a small boy ‘who’d died. 20 February 1968). 13 February 1962) Thus. represented foremost by French filmmaker Jean Luc Godard. Eng. had a far more decisive impact on a younger generation of Swedish filmmakers than Bergman’s contribution to the medium. p. where Bergman likens his own role as an artist to that of an insect who captures food from his surroundings. ed. In his native cinema.Chapter I Life and Work Werther or Lord Byron than with our Sixties’. Bergman’s decision to retire as head of Dramaten began to take root in 1964-65 after he fell ill with pneumonia and suffered from an ear infection that affected his sense of balance. While hospitalized at the Sophia dispensary. His screen portrayal of the artist as a defeatist individual racked by inner demons suggests not only a private dilemma but reflects his dislike of the rigid intellectual climate in Sweden at the time. AB. and it only remains for the public to receive them as a kind of postcard greetings from his private study. because he kept on being woken up by telephone signals from the Royal Dramatic Theatre’. as an impressive proof of artistic isolation. Bergman was often viewed as an outdated artist who had lost touch with his public. but for the rest of us it appears. [Ingmar Bergman har uppnått den unika positionen att han gör precis de filmer han vill och det återstår bara för publiken att ta emot dem som ett slags vykortshälsningar från hans privata studerkammare. The psychological tug-of-war between the two women is implied in the ‘Snakeskin’ essay from the same time.) Out of this fantasy grew Persona (1966) or what Bergman has called ‘a film poem’ about a boy who. His international standing was not threatened. Rather typical of the critical reception of him is the following excerpt from a Swedish review of Nattvardsgästerna/Winter Light: Ingmar Bergman has reached the unique position that he can make exactly the films he wants to make. after waking up in what seems to be a hospital morgue. 199. None of the new generation of filmmakers and theatre workers who emerged in Sweden in the 1960s followed in Bergman’s wake. One is the hospitalized actress Elisabet Vogler. 1944) to a filmmaker whose vision was considered passé and irrelevant. to say the least. p. 219. who has withdrawn from the theatre and her family. and the other is her naïve and flattered nurse Alma who by feeding Elisabet her own life story revitalizes and challenges the actress but also runs the risk of becoming an unsuspecting and humiliated prey for having revealed her innermost self. [Skall Ingmar Bergman någonsin släppa sin syn på konstnären. som ett imponerande bevis på konstnärlig isolering. 42 .] (Öhrn. för oss andra framstår den väl. Bergman could look out over the same grounds where he once lived as a child. och har mer gemensamt med Werther och Lord Byron än med sextiotalet. He was a highly visible but isolated phenomenon. Ny Dag. yet wasn’t allowed to be really dead. sets a film narrative in motion about two women. mildast sagt. (See Bergman om Bergman. For those for whom his personal set of problems is of current concern. vilken är både martyrlik och aristokratisk. [som var död och som inte riktigt fick vara död ändå därför att han hela tiden väcktes av telefonsignaler från Dramaten].] (Schildt. För dem som har hans personliga problematik aktuell är kanske Nattvardsgästerna ett ord på vägen. Winter Light is perhaps a word on the way. within twenty years Bergman’s profile as an artist had changed from that of an angry young man who challenged authority (Hets.

] I allt jag gör. Discovery of Television In the mid-Fifties while working at the Malmö City Theatre. Bergman has repeatedly addressed his combined need and fear of the audience: ‘I hate the public. the legal questioning becomes a cruel sacrificial rite during which the judge collapses and dies. 1954). As soon as the new medium established itself in Sweden. Bergman began to adapt play productions for television. p. [Jag hatar publiken. In embittered tenderness I give what I have’. now a couple of hands touching a keyboard. a dramatization of an emotional duel between artist and public. är dessa tusende ögon.. Röster i Radio/TV. What appeared was a mutilated human being – now a head. I bitter ömhet ger jag vad jag har. reviewers hailed him as a remarkable television director and predicted that with his visionary power he was predestined to become Sweden’s foremost contributor to TV drama. hjärnor och kroppar närvarande. that one of his producers had bawled him out for presenting human beings like so many pieces of meat in a butcher shop (Steene.Discovery of Television a parasite who feeds on others for his own amusement. Every time I read a review for example – no matter whether it be a favorable one or not – that feeling is brought out in me’. det är rädslan att bli förödmjukad. The vulnerability of the artist is implied in Bergman’s reaction to the critical response of his work: ‘One of the wounds that has been toughest for me in my adult life has been the fear of being humiliated. these thousands of eyes. In 1969 Bergman presented his first authored television script.) But Bergman’s creativity is founded on an equally strong belief in the artist’s function as a therapeutic stand-in for his public: ‘Thus..] In everything I do. ed. One day Ingmar Bergman passed a store in Malmö where a televised concert program was on display. jag fruktar den och älskar den. [. företeelser och skeenden och vara andra människor till någon sorts stöd eller uppbyggelse eller självprövning eller vad du vill. 43). 81. I fear it and I love it.] (Bergman om Bergman.. Television sets were on display in Malmö. Dealing with a trio of actors who are interrogated by a local judge on charges of indecency. 1968). we [the artists] shall exist to mirror human complications. But what he discovered on that day in Malmö was the intimacy of the television medium and the closeness between viewer and screen figures. p. the first ones being sent live from a studio in Stockholm with actors from Bergman’s Malmö ensemble. brains and bodies are present. in fact. Riten (The Ritual). now a grimacing face. Bergman had used close-ups in his early films. [. behavior and happenings and serve as some sort of support to other people or some kind of enlightenment or self-examination or what have you’. so much so. But what is also mirrored in the film is the mutual vulnerability of an artist and his ‘public’. television had come to nearby Denmark but not yet to Sweden. 12. [Vi (konstnärer) ska alltså vara till för att spegla mänskliga komplikationer. however. 86.] (Sundgren interview. Before long. no. Focus on the Seventh Seal.] (‘Det att göra film’. Eng.. The 43 . since it was possible for Swedes living across the Sound from Copenhagen to watch Danish TV programs. p. Varje gång jag läser en recension till exempel – oavsett om den är berömmande eller inte – lockas den där känslan fram. He could not hear the sound from the TV set but watched a pianist on the screen with great fascination. [Ett av de sår som jag haft svårast med i mitt vuxna liv.

in 1969. (See Commentary. Cries and Whispers became a great critical success in the U. it was felt by some. Visits to family counseling agencies by Swedish married couples are said to have doubled as the series wore on. Despite the Swedish success of Scener från ett äktenskap. and received both the National Society of Film Critics award and the New York Film Critics award as well as an Oscar for best photography. while the actors invested their salaries in the film. In making Viskningar och rop (Cries and Whispers) in 1971. She was his mother’s look-alike. every major studio turned down offers to distribute Cries and Whispers – even though Bergman reportedly asked for only $75. should have been disbursed among several artists and used to produce less exclusive or ‘elitist’ art. he tapped into his own personal funds. 326). He had founded his own film production company. a realistic soap opera. It was this latter source that again created a public controversy. and a very competent administrator.000 in down payment. and marriage handbooks based on Bergman’s television story were written both in Sweden and Germany. to come up with financial support for a film.S. Bergman could not rest on his laurels. who left behind a comfortable bourgeois marriage and a number of children. Ingrid would become the secure center in Bergman’s life. Cinematograph. Scenes from a Marriage). In the end it was Roger Corman’s newly founded independent production company New World Films that came to Bergman’s rescue. She arranged for a reunion between Ingmar Bergman and his many children. Ø 247. one of whom was a daughter conceived by Bergman in 1959. and the SFI provided support money of half a million Swedish kronor. In the U. In the following year Bergman wrote and directed Ansikte mot ansikte (Face to Face) for Swedish public television. Magic Flute. as was the case in the early 1970s. But it was not until 197576 that Bergman secured a co-production contract between an American company and his own Cinematograph. a home-maker. he was publicly criticized for using up too much of SVT’s public service budget. but above all 44 . Ingrid von Rosen. however. and he was soon to marry an earlier love. though it is clear from a reception survey of his entire production that Swedish audiences have always favored his realistic relationship films and have only rarely been flocking to see his more symbolic and metaphysical films. since many commentators felt that Bergman had a big enough name to be able to find financing for his film elsewhere. Ingmar Bergman took Swedish spectators by surprise when he presented Scener ur ett äktenskap (1974. His departure from Sweden in April 1976 put an end to this project. serialized in six Wednesday night episodes on prime time television. For the next 24 years. But The Magic Flute became an international success and its production cost was regained. His plan was to begin production of quality films directed by filmmakers other than himself.Chapter I Life and Work film did not win much public acclaim among Swedish television viewers. In 1971 Bergman’s liaison with Liv Ullmann was over. S. The project threatened to become a financial liability for Bergman. Exile It may seem strange that someone with Ingmar Bergman’s international reputation would have difficulty. When he directed an elaborate TV version of Mozart’s opera The Magic Flute in the following year (1975). Funds. He himself was taken by surprise at the popular response. In 1974.

a sleepwalker dreaming and awake at the same time. When she died of cancer in 1995.) Ingmar Bergman’s arrest was an event that looked like a symbol. he had decided to leave Sweden. The final blow to his equilibrium came when his passport was confiscated. into which money had been channeled from such film productions as Cries and Whispers. (See Chapter IX. 14 July 1998. and he ended up in the psychiatric ward at Stockholm’s Karolinska Hospital. and his production in progress was cancelled. Return to Sweden and Closure All his life Ingmar Bergman was to feel secure only in familiar surroundings. he spent his entire time outside the seminar room cooped 45 . The Dance of Death) at the Royal Dramatic Theatre and was charged with tax evasion. entry Ø 1272. once wrote in a letter during a period of inner turmoil that he felt like a somnambulist in broad daylight. But he departed from both places in a hurry and eventually chose to settle in Munich where his next film. Bergman had to endure virtually libelous attacks by part of the Swedish press (especially from the Social-Democratic paper Aftonbladet) and felt haunted by visions from his authoritarian childhood. The tax authorities were particularly interested in a Swiss holding company. He stayed under contract for another two years. Bergman experienced a similar sense of surreal forces overtaking reality. She became his comfort at home and his shield to the world. Infighting ensued. Ingmar Bergman was eventually acquitted on the initial charges of tax evasion. After publishing an open farewell letter to a Stockholm daily (Ø 163). was going to be shot. In 1981 he was asked to leave. he testified to his lasting sense of loss (Donner. Strindberg. and Bergman was invited back. Channel 1). and it is said that during one of his rare visits abroad. The administrative set-up at the Residenztheater was quite conservative. as if he were in Kafka’s world of unapproachable civil servants. Bergman’s attempt to introduce more democratic procedures and involve the staff in discussions and decision-making backfired. his old mentor in the theatre. Scenes from a Marriage. Das Schlangenei (1978. and The Magic Flute. and Bergman’s relations with the head of the theatre grew tense. A prolonged and complex legal process began. Powerful bureaucrats were goaded by a legal system that tempted them to pursue a well-known cultural figure to the point where public exposure caused him the kind of humiliation he had often depicted in his own works. Personafilm. where he worked as a director at the city’s Residenztheater.Return to Sweden and Closure she handled his practical affairs and his correspondence with great skill and tact. It could have been an episode in one of his own films. SVT. Ingrid was particularly important to Bergman in early 1976 when he was suddenly arraigned by the police during rehearsals of Strindberg’s Dödsdansen (1901. Ormens ägg/The Serpent’s Egg). during an interview on his eightieth birthday. but by that time. it was a grave blow to Ingmar Bergman. His world collapsed. Bergman left for Paris and then for Los Angeles. three years later. During the next several years Munich would remain Bergman’s domicile. He hated to travel. despite the fact that the German critical corps who reviewed his stage productions continued to be rather harsh in their judgment. to Southern Methodist University in Dallas in 1977. But the final outcome of the palaver was that a new head of the theatre was appointed.

reenacts his passion for the cinema. an official governmental apology had been issued. After the Rehearsal). The Best Intentions). In Larmar och gör sig till. Faithless) as a piece that would not deal with his family. and Strindberg (Miss Julie. directed by other directors: Den goda viljan (1992. He was back at Dramaten. Even during his exile. ‘Struts and Frets’ but translated as In the Presence of a Clown). he arranged to return to Fårö in the summer time. and Saraband (2003). the action harks back to Scener ur ett äktenskap. Bergman’s filmmaking days. most notably Efter repetitionen (1984. But he would continue to make several TV films. on the other hand. Nyreröd. p. and even that must be modified since he continued to work with his Swedish cinematographer Sven Nykvist and several other members of his Swedish staff. A number of his Dramaten productions from this time went on an international circuit tour. Images. Again. based on Euripides’ The Bacchae. Oversensitive to sharp sunlight. seemed to be over with the making of Fanny and Alexander (1982). In Efter repetitionen his alter ego. ruminates on his relationship to the stage. Apart from Shakespeare dramas like Hamlet and The Winter’s Tale he returned to such old favorites as Molière (The Misanthrope). Private Conversations). A Dreamplay. greeted him with the words ‘Welcome Home’. His re-entry marked the beginning of a truly remarkable period in his creative life. He was met with standing ovations. one play per year. My Life in Film). an old theatre director. the only area in which he has worked lately is radio. Söndagsbarn (1993. watching television. who played Lear. and in the following year he directed Strindberg’s Pelikanen and Toteninsel (The Isle of the Dead). A production of Ibsen’s John Gabriel Borkman was broadcast in 2001. on an average. in the ‘Father House’ and for the next 20 years would stage. rather it was an exile in professional terms only. 14. during the same period of time. He declared that big studio and on location productions were simply too taxing and cumbersome at his age. including stage designer Gunilla Palmstierna-Weiss. and The Ghost Sonata). In fact. In addition. Each of these can be seen as a dramatization and commentary on his life as a creative artist. But a planned broadcast 46 . and Enskilda samtal (1994. lit. Bergman also wrote his memoirs Laterna magica (1987. his persona. He also directed a new opera (with music by Daniel Börtz). and the actor Jarl Kulle. as well as ‘script novels’ that were made into films or TV productions. The Magic Lantern) and Bilder (1990. Even 20 years later Bergman would remember this moment with gratitude (see Interview Chapter. (See report from press conference. Ibsen (A Doll’s House and Ghosts). SvD. When Bergman returned to the Swedish stage in 1984. Bergman’s career after his exile culminated at the Royal Dramatic Theatre with a cycle of Shakespeare productions. his exile cannot be considered absolute. Ø 948). Larmar och gör sig till (1997. 10 May 1998. his breakthrough on television. On opening night Bergman made one of his rare appearances on stage. Much of his focus in these works was on his own parental background – so much so that he made a special point of announcing his script to Trolösa (2000. who upon his return home in 1898 after many years abroad embarked on his most productive period in life.Chapter I Life and Work up in his hotel. and as late as 2004 he expressed a wish that he could set up an old opera project of his: The Tales of Hoffmann. In Saraband. there is a curious parallel to the career of Strindberg. which he had discussed doing for the Hamburg Opera before his exile. Uncle Carl Åkerblom. Sunday’s Child).) Today. It began with King Lear in 1984. he has preferred the misty climate of Fårö. providing opportunities for non-Swedish audiences to become familiar with Bergman’s stagecraft.

] The statement confirms Ingmar Bergman’s deep attachment to his roots and their central importance in his long creative life. [Jag började forska i mina föräldrars tidiga liv. but also speaks of his greater understanding of his parentage. and deep confusion’. In the novel Söndagsbarn (1991). 47 . constituting a final peace-making with the ghosts of his childhood and. i min fars barndom och uppväxt och jag såg ett återkommande mönster av patetisk ansträngning och förödmjukande motgång. Bergman also arranged to have his private archive transferred to a foundation administered at the Swedish Film Institute (SFI). in Trolösa (Faithless). Jag såg också omtanke. In keeping with such psychological house cleaning. concern. ömhet och djup förvirring. I also saw care.Return to Sweden and Closure of Ibsen’s Rosmersholm was cancelled. About the same time Bergman sold his apartment in Stockholm and today rarely leaves his Fårö domicile. which was made into a film in 1993 by his son Daniel. with a painful episode in his adult life. my father’s childhood and upbringing and I saw a recurring pattern of pathetic efforts and humiliating adversity. Much of Bergman’s creative work after his homecoming forms an artistic and psychological closure. Ingmar Bergman acknowledges a more forgiving view of his parentage: ‘I began to look into my parents’ early life.

But Jack heard and saw everything though not the way Kasper or the Whore or the Manager did but more like a small.Above: Handwritten text by Ingmar Bergman to an early manuscript of a short story titled ‘One of Jack the Ripper ’s early childhood memories’. small child or a flower or something. The somewhat difficult handwriting reads in English translation: One day Jack the Ripper died. Everyone in the theatre thought it was very sad and collected money for a wreath and got ready to go to the funeral in top hat and rented tuxedo. thought that Jack was dead. yet lived such a thing physical life that no one noticed it any longer and everyone. But Jack lay at home in his bed. For his soul had not gone away but lingered at the intractable man. covered with a white sheet and was sour and cold. black shoes and white scarf and black stockings. . including the doctor.

For that reason. says one of his commentators.’ (Mosley. prefaces. where the Ingmar Bergman Foundation. and short pieces of fiction. and a few pieces of short fiction appeared in literary journals – all of it in the 1940s and early 1950s.Chapter II The Writer Bergman’s writing encompasses his entire creative life. i. preserve and convey knowledge about Bergman’s collected artistic work. A Bergman text is only a sketch for another and quite different creation. The Cinema as 49 ... Bergman’s own plays are registered here. Some early stage plays by Bergman were published.e. His earliest pieces were jotted down in notebooks. and open letters. A special database is being developed. Some scripts may require Bergman’s permission to use. ‘Bergman’s scripts should not be judged by criteria appropriate to more explicitly literary works. the concept of authorship has become more tenuous. film scripts. it signified a writer whose texts were autonomous enough to be read and experienced as such. Bergman himself has suggested as much. written works that presuppose a theatrical or cinematic medium to become fully realized. But Ingmar Bergman’s authorship is usually not of this kind. some of them to be developed later into plays. as notes to be played on by a director and by an ‘orchestrated’ ensemble. Traditionally. referring to a dramatic or filmic text as a musical score. while specific stage productions of these plays are recorded in the Theatre chapter (VI). without requiring any other art form in order to appear complete. The original drafts are deposited in a special Bergman archive at the Swedish Film Institute. radio talks. constituted in 2002. will administer. for most of his writing falls within the categories of stage plays and film scripts.. But the main part of his writing consists of published and unpublished screenplays. Copies of scripts (not to be confused with the deposited Fårö material) are kept in SFI’s library (see introduction to Filmography). Ingmar Bergman: Cinéma d’auteur During Ingmar Bergman’s lifetime. Maaret Koskinen has recorded and discussed some of this material in her book I begynnelsen var ordet. Chapter II lists not only Bergman’s fiction but also his program notes. Ingmar Bergman och hans tidiga författarskap (2002). essays.

and suddenly I had written twelve plays in the course of four months. I don't know why. p. It was. Bergman distinguishes this from a later intellectual and cognitive stage when the material is shaped into words. his memoir book about his filmmaking.. p.] (‘Varje film. In Bilder/Images. he describes the birth of a script in both biological and psychological terms: it begins as ‘vague and indefinite fetal movements’ [vaga och obestämda fosterrörelser] or as ‘a brightly colored thread sticking out of the dark sack of consciousness’ [en skarpt färgad tråd som sticker ut ur medvetandets mörka säck]..’.] tonarter och dofter till ord och meningar i ett läsbart eller åtminstone tydbart manuskript. [.] Something opened up for me.. This early stage in the creative process is an emotional state expressing itself in visuals. it may be a particular light illuminating a street scene or a face. atmosphere. In the earlier essay from the 1950s. stämningar.. The moment of inspiration is no more than a visual impression or a bar of notes. So I wrote one more play and still another. [. and it felt immensely encouraging and stimulating. having withdrawn to his grandmother’s summer house in Dalecarlia: As a pure diversion I began to write a play. 2).. That’s how it began.] pitches and smells to words and sentences in a readable or at least decipherable manuscript..] comfort (tröst). p. It was a completely new feeling that I had not experienced before. It is difficult. difficult to control: to transfer rhythms. tensions.. during a sickleave from mandatory military service in 1941 that he began to write. however.. if not impossible. Detta är svårt för att inte säga omöjligt.. atmosfärer.. he outlines the writing process as more complex and difficult: So I have decided to make a certain film. [.. but it was pure pleasure. 19). while the actual shaping of that material into words is a laborious process. he defines it as ‘a matter of arriving at how you should organize the Epilogue’ [Det gäller att komma fram till hur man ska organisera Epilogen]. pp. Det enda som till nöds låter sig materialiseras är dialogen men även en dialog är en känslig tingest.. Acknowledging the subjective basis of his output. Nevertheless. Bergman’s written texts must be seen as a very vital part of an ongoing creative process.] Everything happened very suddenly and was unplanned. som kan erbjuda motstånd. [... My Life in Film. I liked it a lot. spänningar.. It is like a fleeting dream that may evaporate or come back to him ‘as fruitful associations and images’ [som fruktbara associationer och bilder].. The original motif seems to contain its own rhythm which determines the sequential pattern of the film in the making (‘Varje film. this business of just sitting down and writing in longhand and seeing the words emerge. 50 ..] It was just an enormous [. moods. 2-3) In interviews Bergman has dated the beginning of his authorship to 1941 though his first notebook goes back to 1937-38.Chapter II The Writer Mistress 1981.. he has described the process from initial impulse to manuscript writing as originating deep down in his own subconscious. Now begins a complicated work. but even a dialogue is a sensitive matter that can offer resistance. The only thing that can be provisionally materialized is the dialogue. 2) [Jag har alltså beslutat mig för att göra en viss film och nu vidtar ett komplicerat och svårbemästrat arbete: att överföra rytmer. The first phase is characterized by the pleasurable discovery of raw material for a film. (‘Each Film is.. In the 1959 essay ‘Each film is my last’ [‘Varje film är min sista film’] which is Bergman’s most complete statement on his own scriptwriting. [.’.’..

Det var så det började. At the same time.] Det var bara en enorm [. without which he says he probably would have gone mad.] Jag är en filmskapare. [Orden kan ju aldrig uttrycka det den färdiga filmen vill förmedla [. be it as a play. [. for I felt like an outsider in literature and in my own generation’. almost like a playful game. he brought out a couple of short pieces of prose fiction in prestigious literary journals such as BLM and 40-tal. its aspect of a diversion. essäer. Bergman’s statement points to the therapeutic function that the creative act would come to have for him... 1992. Sweden’s leading publishing firm Bonniers accepted a collection of his plays (Moraliteter.] Någonting öppnades för mig [.. essays. His way of dealing with the disappointment was to deny that he had ever had any literary ambitions at all. [Vid skrivbordet är jag [. In his essay ‘Det att göra film’ (1954).] under alla förhållanden är manuskriptet alltid ett halvfabrikat. In the early 1940s. [. in a note to the published script of Beröringen (1970. inte en författare. därför att jag kände mig stå utanför litteraturen och min egen generation] (see Hammer. Soon he stopped writing plays and began to call attention to himself as a filmmaker. I write for my own pleasure... a script. detta att bara sätta mig ner och skriva för hand och se orden komma fram. his quoted remarks above suggest his joy in writing. Ø 699.. a piece for television. Later.] I am a filmmaker. Jag skriver för mitt nöjes skull. [.] tröst. But Bonniers turned down a second volume of plays. Jag vill inte skriva romaner. Bergman had ambitions to be recognized as a literary author. Det var en helt ny känsla som jag inte hade upplevt tidigare. inte under evighetens synvinkel.. other plays were published by Radiotjänst (Swedish Public Radio). the manuscript is always a halfbaked-product.. concurrent with his debut as a stage director and his work as a reader of screenplays at Svensk Filmindustri (SF).12-13). biografier eller ens teaterpjäser. Så skrev jag en pjäs till och ännu en.. Jag tyckte mycket om det. he writes somewhat defensively: ‘I myself have never had any ambition to be an author... Interviews).] Though many of his earliest writing efforts remained incomplete and/or unpublished. och plötsligt hade jag inom loppet av fyra månader skrivit tolv pjäser.] Allt skedde mycket plötsligt och oplanerat. noveller. he says: ‘The words can never express what the finished film wants to convey [. not an author’. My Life in Film he writes (p. or a novel.Ingmar Bergman: Cinéma d’auteur [Som ren förströelse började jag skriva en teaterpjäs och det kändes oerhört uppmuntrande och stimulerande. [det sved ordentligt i skinnet.] More than 15 years later..] pleasantly entertained. not for eternity’.] Bergman’s defensive attitude about his writing also resulted in his refusal for a long time to have his screenplays published in Sweden.. [. he still found it necessary to downplay the importance of the verbal aspect of filmmaking.. claiming that there was no real 51 . pp. [. The transformation of a subjective world into artistic form. Tre dagar med Bergman... was to become a continuing form of psychological purgation. men det var bara ett nöje. short stories.. I only want to make films. 1948).. a pale and diffuse reflection’. en blek och osäker spegelbild. giving as a reason the economic risk in publishing works in this genre. Jag vet inte varför.. [Själv har jag aldrig haft någon ambition att vara författare.] at any rate. Bergman would later recall how this rejection stunned him and put a stop to his attempts to make a name for himself as a literary author: ‘It really bruised me. I do not want to write novels.. The Touch). A lifetime later he would repeat his sense of pleasure at formulating himself in words.. In his memoir book Bilder/Images. biographies. 228/216): ‘At the writing-desk I am [.. or even plays for the theatre.] angenämt förströdd. Jag vill bara göra film.] (Assayas-Björkman.

1948). Interviews) and that the published film texts by his predecessor Hjalmar Bergman (1889-1930) did not read very well.] stirrar rakt in i morgonsolen som väller upp ur det disiga havet som en uppsvälld döende fisk. they used metaphors and similes that give literary significance to the text but were hardly transposable to the screen unless transformed into a piece of visual surrealism. It was becoming ‘a form in which and by which an artist can express his thoughts [. The cinema. Differing a great deal from the standard technical shooting scripts developed by the film industry. like a mantra. 52 . Bergman’s screen authorship was an undertaking whose time had come. argued Astruc. which had lent prestige to the industry in the silent era when Victor Sjöström. These scripts immediately achieved a separate ‘print’ status. an American edition of four of his screenplays from the 1950s was published in 1960. More significantly. [Riddaren [. The sky is gray and immobile. In other words. Hence. First published in Ecran français. that the key to recapturing the international scene was to locate a golden boy with a talent for good scriptwriting. such as references to color (in intended B/ W films) and smell.. pp. they were presented not as prompt copies or shooting scripts but as texts to be read. London: Secker & Warburg. In a concerted effort to find not only good stories to transpose to the screen but also to raise the status of the cinema by aligning it to a literary canon. Alexandre Astruc launched a new concept for filmmaking based on literary features. Himlen är grå och orörlig. JeanPhilippe Comolli. 144. no. en dom av bly. which he called ‘le caméra stylo’. The New Wave. Ø 736.] or translate his obsessions exactly as he does in the contemporary essay or novel. The Seventh Seal): ‘The knight [. by film critic Andrew Sarris. especially in the solid bourgeois circles where he grew up.. Astruc’s ideas form the basis of the concept of the ‘cinéma d’auteur’ as launched in Cahiers du Cinéma in the 1950s under the editorship of such critics and filmmakers as François Truffaut. Mauritz Stiller. ed.’ (See Alexandre Astruc.. a dome of lead’. In 1948. Ingmar Bergman began early on to evolve his own form of screenplays in which he dealt with the subjects and themes that were of personal importance to him. was no longer a fairground attraction or an offshoot of the boulevard theatre. 1968. part drama... In the early 1940s Swedish film producers voiced the view. Swedish film producers nurtured a nostalgic wish to resurrect the native cinema’s old literary penmanship.. Eric Rohmer. and Gustaf Molander had based their most important films on the novels and stories by Selma Lagerlöf. However. in Peter Graham. and constituted what the American film critic Pauline Kael once called ‘a hybrid genre’.Chapter II The Writer tradition in his country for bringing out film scripts in print (see Jungstedt.] Bergman began his career in the cinema at a time when literary authorship had a much higher cultural status in Sweden than filmmaking. dying fish. An example is the opening lines to Det sjunde inseglet (1956. they usually included ‘non-cinematic’ features.] stares directly into the morning sun which wallows up from the misty sea like some bloated. part novel.S. the emergence of Ingmar Bergman as one of the world’s foremost cinéma d’auteurs is the story of a personal talent encountering the right cultural circumstances during his formative years. and Jean-Luc Godard. Also from an international perspective.. Sarris was co-editor of an English edition of Cahiers and was to be instrumental in introducing Bergman’s films to American audiences. Soon ‘auteurism’ became a prominent feature in the British film magazine Movie and was also advocated in the U. ‘The Birth of a New Avant-garde: “le caméra stylo”. 17-23.

tantamount to providing literary scripts to the film industry. however. 53 .’ (Tang. television) and do not mean that the basic theme and personal vision differ when transposed from script to realized performance. Clearly. 137. Bergman would for instance claim that ‘since long I have felt a certain disinclination to tell stories on film. Bergman needed. p. Or as the Danish critic Jesper Tang once noted apropos of Bergman’s screenplays: ‘Ingmar Bergman is – there is no doubt – first and foremost the master of images and visual rhythm. radio. The concept coexisted with the demands by cinema purists to stress the difference between word and image as artistic expressions and to refer to the one as a literary (non-cinematic) instrument and to the other as the essence of filmmaking. combining it with the role of an image maker. 39). What is clear however is that the writing stage for him is not the final stage. (SR. Channel 1. but also in such a fashion that the printed text achieved its own autonomy of being. focused on the inner turmoil of characters close to his own psyche and life experience.] I consider an attachment to epic and drama one of the curses of the cinema. 24. for it is followed by the encounter between text and writer on the one hand and director..Ingmar Bergman: Cinéma d’auteur ‘Auteurship’ was not. performers and cinematographer on the other. ‘Vägen till Hamlet’ [The road to Hamlet]. It is not surprising therefore to find certain discrepancies between Bergman’s screen dialogue and the printed (written) text. p. [. 17 April 1987). suggest a similar process in his theatre work from original directorial interpretation and early blocking of a play to his rehearsal encounter with the actors.] (‘Varje film är min sista film’. however. [jag finner [inte] själva berättandet förkastligt. which may affect details in a production but not his basic conception of the play. at least up to the writing of Persona (1966).. Kosmorama. no. Eventually. these are usually related to the respective medium of expression (cinema.. Ingmar Bergman came to reflect this dichotomous view on filmmaking as both a literary-based tradition and a field whose serious practitioners emphasized the visual hegemony of the medium. to set down his theme and vision not only in a minimal verbal way in order to clarify his cinematic intention. practical moment in the creative process.] jag anser att en av filmens förbannelser är bundenheten till epik och dramatik]. the Bergman script may undergo noticeable changes. Bergman could now be seen as a filmmaker whose personality could be traced in the thematic consistency of his works for the screen. [. By the mid-1950s Bergman had established himself as both the author and director of films possessing an unmistakable personal voice.. Bergman has always been an astute psychological observer and narrator. at the same time he would dismiss the idea that storytelling – usually associated with literary practice – would be detrimental to the film medium: ‘I do not find storytelling itself objectionable’. but on the other hand he makes use of the written word in his filmmaking in a skillful way that is rare among directors. what would be unique about Bergman as a filmmaker was the extent to which he passed on a literary story-telling tradition to the screen. In its last. 1978. Bergman’s screenplays bear little resemblance to dialogue scripts (FIAF-designated Script IV). Yet. 4) In the end and despite his ‘literary disclaimers’. Few of his films after Gycklarnas afton (The Naked Night) in 1953 were to be authored by writers other than himself. his auteurship would also result in a distinct Bergman film style with the close and sensitive registering of the human face as a particular trademark.’ [jag har sedan länge haft en viss olust att berätta historier på film. Bergman’s comments in a 1987 radio program.

Persona from the mid-Sixties is the logical extension of this attempt to tell a story visually rather than verbally. unresolved ending. Therefore. [Jag har inte åstadkommit ett filmmanuskript i vanlig bemärkelse. clouds. and the film Persona confirms. loaded with symbolic references to both film history and Bergman’s earlier screen works. For I discovered that the subject I had chosen was very big and that what I wrote or included in the final film (what a terrible thought!) had to be very arbitrary. som jag tror. in at least one instance. he addresses both readers and viewers (while talking about ‘Kinematografi’ as a musical score to be realized in collaboration with his cast and crew): I have not accomplished a film script in the ordinary sense. of seemingly unrelated visual impressions that impact emotionally on the viewer but ‘make sense’ only when articulated intellectually. What ‘Kinematografi’ clearly suggests. Vad jag har skrivit tycks mig närmast likna en melodistämma. with an increasing emphasis on the human face. att det ämne jag valt var mycket stort och att vad jag skrev eller vad jag tog med i den slutliga filmen (ruskiga tanke!) måste bli ytterligt godtyckligt. som jag ställt till förfogande. thus indicating that he viewed the manuscript as part of a filmic process and not as a selfcontained verbal/literary product. they are not specified in the script. And yet. I know nothing at all. however. These images. moon landscapes. where the images on the film strip are described as mutable nature images of trees. På många punkter är jag osäker och på åtminstone ett ställe vet jag ingenting alls. At any rate. I invite the reader’s or viewer’s imagination to freely use the material that I have placed at their disposal. and mountains.] Bergman’s ‘uncertainty’ about the outcome of the Persona project is built into the script and is still reflected in the final film version with its enigmatic. The words have been handed to him on a piece of paper by his dying aunt who is a translator by profession. an interpreter of words. while murmuring words ‘begin to surface like shadows of fish in steep and deep waters’ [börjar dyka fram likt skuggor av fiskar i ett bråddjupt vatten]. apparently took shape as the film was being shot. But while the camera moves closer and closer to the boy’s face. att jag med mina medarbetares hjälp ska instrumentera under inspelningens gång. The ending of The Silence becomes a clear statement of image superceding word as a communicative tool. A comparison between Persona’s script and the finished screen product conveys in fact an ongoing process of a script being transformed into a motion picture. Därför inbjuder jag läsarens eller åskådarens fantasi. The opening ‘prologue’ to that film consists of a cavalcade of images. Bergman named the original script to Persona ‘Kinematografi’.Chapter II The Writer Soon after his 1959 essay ‘Varje film är min sista film’. in a prefatory note to the script. Bergman’s filmmaking began to proceed much more unequivocally from the visual. Jag upptäckte nämligen. What I have written seems to me more like a melody [melodistämma] that I think I can instrumentalize with the help of my collaborators in the course of the shooting. is Bergman’s abandonment of the traditional narrative of his earlier films in which he would always prepare the reader/viewer for any shift in time or place through the 54 . att fritt förfoga över det material. I am uncertain on several points and. The final scene in Tystnaden/The Silence (1962) can serve as emblematic in this context: The camera registers the face of a child (Johan) whose lips move to test some words in an unknown language. the words on paper remain inaudible when read by Johan.

In Viskningar och rop/Cries and Whispers the script is ‘no more’ than a ‘dear friends’ letter addressed to the film’s actresses. Descriptive passages become increasingly rare in the script. a reversal of sorts takes place in the mid-1970s. The Serpent’s Egg) and Höstsonat (1978. A prime example is Smultronstället/ Wild Strawberries. where the aging protagonist’s nightmares and reminiscences are announced through his own first person narrative. using only a handful of characters.. somewhat punctilious in its fear of seeming imposing. There are also more marked differences between the script and the final film.] (p. a stark island or closed-room setting. This process is analogous to his development of the chamber film concept. 5) This ‘intrusion’ of the author’s persona serves the function of providing the uninitiated reader with information similar to the ‘Dear friends’ letter in Cries and Whispers. etc. beginning with Såsom i en spegel (1960. De har inordnat sig i ett mönster som de är beredda att föra vidare. These ‘chamber film scripts’ are verbally frugal. Scenes from a Marriage). First scene: Johan and Marianne are conventional and set in their ways and believe in material security. above all. etc. Through a Glass Darkly). But the rest of the preface is a synopsis and. De har aldrig upplevt sin borgerliga livsföring som tryckande eller osann. the published screenplay to Scenes is a complete dialogue script but also retains a feature that characterized the scripts to both Persona and Cries and Whispers: Bergman’s own voice and commentary. Den som upplever ett sådant dirigerande som en förolämpning bör hoppa över följande rader. the dialogue more cryptic or modernistic in its structure. The opening passage in the preface to Scenes is formulated like a polite invitation. Here it is as much the presumed response of his cast as Bergman’s sparse presentation in the epistular text that constitutes the ‘script’. Bergman’s development as a screenwriter describes in fact a textual pruning process that culminates with the script for Cries and Whispers (1972). There is a cohesiveness and completeness to Bergman’s written scripts from the 1950s that will change by the time he constructs Persona.. They have never found their middle-class way of life oppressive or false. suggesting that the writer Bergman now worked in closer collusion with the image-maker Bergman who sees the finished film in his mind but also seeks closer collaboration with his performers.Ingmar Bergman: Cinéma d’auteur explicit use of dreams or clearly stated flashbacks. an interpretation of the plot. [För att den nödtvungne läsaren inte ska gå vilse i texten tror jag att jag mot min vana bör ge en kommentar till de sex scenerna. They have conformed to a pattern which they are prepared to pass on . However. Autumn Sonata). I believe – contrary to my habit – I should write a commentary on the six scenes. Like the later scripts to Ormens ägg (1977. Those who are offended by such guidance should skip the following lines. beginning with the script to Scener ur ett äktenskap (1973.. an explanatory message from the author to his readers: To prevent the constrained reader from getting lost in the text. structured as a life journey on both conscious and subconscious levels. and music rather than words as fleeting moments of communication between people.. The published volume of Scenes from a Marriage contains a preface. as if the author 55 . Första scenen: Johan och Marianne är barn av fasta normer och den materiella trygghetens ideologi.

Private Conversations). 56 . Utan detta enda: hur gestaltar sig sanningen eller – hur förskjuts och formeras. hesitant about how to proceed: It is most necessary that I break off at exactly this moment to think over the situation. the reader should at least have access to the guiding voice of the author.. I give you a deadly blow. wide-open look towards a dawn that never comes’ [rak och stilla med knäppta händer och en torr vidöppen blick mot en gryning som aldrig kommer]. deras ångestbenägenhet och så vidare i all oändlighet. feelings. is it not fumbling. The preface might also have been dictated by the fact that Scenes from a Marriage was Bergman’s first venture into a new medium. His artistic output was always to be viewed as part of a communicative process where no creative effort of his would be considered complete until performed and presented to a responsive audience.]? How do I depict the poisoning that imperceptibly fills the home like a nerve gas and that eats away everybody’s mind during a long time. Rather. desperate and confused [. An explicit example occurs in the published version of Enskilda samtal (1996. känslor. det är ointressant. that is uninteresting. perhaps a long time after the collapse? Is an anticipated dispute of this kind particularly verbalized? Rather. souls. a serialized television story.Chapter II The Writer Bergman distrusted his own screenplay as a self-contained story. their anxious disposition shift. and so on ad infinitum. It is probably this anxious desire to reach a reading or viewing audience that resulted in the use of what might be called Bergman’s intercepting voice: The narrator arresting his own narrative is an increasingly self-conscious feature in his writing. form and deform. And communication has always been at the heart of Bergman’s creativity. Jag måste hejda mig och bli varsam: Du tillfogar mig ett dödligt hugg. Var går källådrorna fram? Hur ser sanningen ut? – Inte hur det var i verkligheten. så att alla ska kunna förstå och begripa vad jag menar och kanske fundera på det och på det jag möjligen har att komma med]. deformeras huvudaktörernas tankar. Where do the waters well forth? What does truth look like? – Not the way it was in reality. As a young man he once said in a radio interview (2 January 1947) that he had no interest in ‘closet writing’ produced for a select few. he declared his artistic goal to be ‘to speak simply about simple matters so that everyone will be able to understand and grasp what I mean and perhaps think about it and about what I perhaps have to contribute’ [att få tala enkelt om enkla saker. perhaps the whole life? How do I depict partisan positions that of necessity become blurred and vacillating since the other players never have the possibility of sharing a factual truth? No one knows – everyone sees. where he was still somewhat hesitant about his ability to communicate. and most importantly: is it not the long-term consequences in bodies. Is that at all possible to depict. I must stop and become careful: You give me a deadly blow. The main characters’ mental landscape is exposed to a violent quake – like a natural catastrophe. [Det är i högsta grad nödvändigt att jag hejdar mig just i detta ögonblick och tänker över situationen. At a most critical moment when Anna Bergman sits ‘straight and still with folded hands and a dry. In yet another radio interview (25 February 1950). reasoning that without the screen. minds and facial features that become visible little by little. the fictional story of his mother’s marital crisis and love affair with a young theologian. In that sense it is still a scriptwriter cum filmmaker at work.. this one thing: how is truth shaped or – how do the main actors’ thoughts. the narrator interrupts his own account.

and Scenes from a Marriage becomes in Den goda viljan (1992. it comes as no surprise that Ingmar Bergman begins to look upon his scriptwriting as the work of a modern novelist – he refers for instance to Den goda viljan/Best Intentions as a novel. the filmmaker/writer. See the following items annotated in Chapter IX (Writings on Ingmar Bergman): Alpert. Daniel Bergman.Ingmar Bergman: Cinéma d’auteur Jag tillfogar dig ett dödligt hugg. Benedyktowicz. What was a voice commentary or a direct address to performers and readers in Persona. Bergman’s authorial presence in his scripts begins to take a different turn when he. but this too is part fiction since it is understood that this figure named Ingmar Bergman will be enacted by a professional actor. Tygodnik Powszechny. Private Conversations) the voyeuristic presence of an aging son recreating his parents’ story with far more realism than when he projected himself as Fanny and Alexander’s young title figure in a fantasy of his childhood. the author/narrator questions his (and everybody else’s) ability to formulate a mental and psychological crisis. Hollis. Literature/Film Quarterly 12. Cries and Whispers.. Går detta överhuvudtaget att skildra. Zbigniew. Koskinen. Maaret. both inside and outside of his story. Stockholm: Wahlström & Widstrand. pp. desperat och förvirrad.? Hur beskriver jag den förgiftning som omärkligt fyller hemmet som en nervgas och som fräter allas sinnen under lång tid. Relatively little has been written on Ingmar Bergman as a writer of scripts. It is an approach clearly associated with Bergman’s undertaking to depict his parents’ life. kanske hela livet? Hur skildrar jag ställningstaganden och partiskheter som nödvändigtvis blir suddiga och osäkra eftersom de medspelande i andra planet aldrig har möjlighet att ta del av en faktiskt sanning? Ingen vet – alla ser. In the script he decamouflages his narrative self by calling him Ingmar Bergman. Birgitta. 1974. 4. abdicates his role as director in the cinema (but not on stage or in the media) and turns over to others – Bille August. In the instance just quoted. no. I begynnelsen var ordet. kanske långt efter själva sammanbrottet? Är en uppgörelse av den art som nu förestår så särskilt verbaliserad? Blir den inte snarare fumlig. Saturday Review. ‘Bergman as Writer’. Given these convoluted authorial/narrative positions. based on the memories of a painful event in his own adult life. 1 (1984): 27-33. no. 57 . O scenariuszach Bergmana’. has travelled since his early insistence to have his film scripts recognized as both narrative outlines and musical scores to be completed in the film studio. Liv Ullmann – the task of filming his own scripts. passim. själar. pp. 2002. Bergman is both author and narrator. Erland Josephson. Ingemansson. sinnen och anletsdrag som blir synliga så småningom. on the other hand. ‘Obraz i słowo. 27 August 1960. 61-62) Here ‘the intercepting voice’ is different from the author’s address to the reader/ viewer in ‘Kinematografi’ which was an invitation to participate in the creative process.. after the making of Fanny and Alexander. Faithless). 22-23. In fact. It is a long and yet clearly staked road that Ingmar Bergman. so similar to modernistic meta-experimentations in contemporary fiction. In Trolösa (2000. Best Intentions) and Enskilda samtal (1996. Huvudpersonernas själsliga landskap utsätts för en våldsam skakning – som en naturkatastrof. och viktigast: är det inte de långsiktiga konsekvenserna i kroppar.] (printed text based on Script I. ‘The Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman: Personification and Olefactory Detail’.

Cinema Journal 11. 73-88. ‘Through a Glass Darkly: Figurative Language in Ingmar Bergman’s Script’. above all. 46-64. in his The Screenplay as Literature. D. 179-83. and 211-14. ‘Om en mördare’ (About a Murderer). 2-3 (Spring 1999): 1336. these early plays from Bergman’s Sturm und Drang period adhere to a mindscape in modern Swedish drama which began with Strindberg's post-Inferno production and was revived in 1918 by the playwright and novelist Pär Lagerkvist. though short. ‘De ensamma’ (The Lonely Ones). (See program note titled ‘Möte med Kasper’. Winston. New York: Holt. says Bergman. no. 1975. for that reason. When performed there in 1943. ‘Kaspers död’ was advertised as a play that ‘breaks with all currently acceptable literature and theatre conventions’ [bryter med alla för tillfället vedertagna litteratur. pp. silent god but a kind judge who proclaims the existence of 58 . Jacqueline. Television and Radio. in a series of one-act dramas called Den svåra stunden (The Difficult Hour). Hedberg. 167-68. Egil. 1973. Chapter 3. some critics found the play passé. A program note to one of his stagings from the Forties – a dramatization of contemporary Swedish novelist Olle Hedberg's work Bekänna färg (Show your cards) – suggests that Bergman was well aware of Lagerkvist's metaphysical stance. expressionistic cry for meaning in a world where God remains silent certainly reverberates in Bergman’s early play production. Bergman lets his title figure face not a stern. Cinéma IX. suggested however an affinity with expressionistic Schrei-dramen of the 1920s. 2003. & London. N. 137 (Spring 1978): 39. Peter. Theatre. Scott. pp. titled ‘From Screenplay to Film: Bergman’s The Communicants’. ‘Stationen’ (The Station). Viswanathan. Æsthetic Versatility in Film. Tang. Welsh. ‘Tivolit’ (The Fun Fair). pp. Scandinavian Canadian Studies/Etudes Scandinaves au Canada 3. most of his earliest artistic ventures were those of a would-be playwright. 1 (Fall) 1971: 52-57. Actually. ‘Bergman som scriptforfatter’ [Bergman as scriptwriter].C. but some of them exist in handwritten drafts or typed manuscript form in SFI’s Ingmar Bergman Archive.C. drama. Contemporary reviews. ‘Kaspers död’ (Death of Punch). did not even have ‘the belief in Pär Lagerkvist’s blind and dead God who sits frozen in his heaven’ [tron på Pär Lagerkvists blinde och döde gud som sitter frusen i himlen]. ‘Symposium on Published Scripts: Bergman and Anderson for Sophomores’. Jefferson. Törnqvist.Chapter II The Writer Ohlin. no. Bergman responded by subtitling his next work – ‘Tivolit’ – ‘ett teaterstycke från tjugotalet’ [a theatre piece of the Twenties]. Ingmar Bergman wrote both fiction and. 11-13. Lagerkvist’s desperate.och teaterkonventioner]. London: The Tantivy Press. Andersen). pp. James. The Young Playwright As a young artist in the making. James. no. Of these ‘Tivolit’ and ‘Kaspers död’ were staged by Bergman in the early 1940s at the Stockholm Student Theatre. Rinehart & Winston. an adaptation of a tale by H. 96-115 (on script to Smutronstället/Wild Strawberries). In fact. Jesper. 1988. ‘Dimman’ (The Fog). Ø 13). ‘Fullmånen’ (The Full Moon). Film: The Medium and the Maker. Few of Bergman’s early dramatic efforts were ever published. However. Bergman’s Muses. Kosmorama 24. in a volte face move at the end of ‘Kaspers död’. They have titles like ‘Reskamrater’ (Travel Companions. ‘Ciné-romans: le livre du film’.

Bergman omitted Mia. Rakel och biografvaktmästaren (Rachel and the Cinema Doorman). What is depicted in ‘Kaspers död’ is a split image: ‘a god frozen in his heaven’ and a providential force. Jack Kasparsson. maintains the metaphysical probing of his earlier works for the stage. Åström. Again. Dagen slutar tidigt becomes a dramatic hybrid. maintains a more explicit morality play pattern by using allegorized characters and binary moral opposites typical of the genre. An old woman. part mental thriller. as suggested by the name of its central character. has heard a voice ordering her to tell five different people that they are going to die the following day. Rather. It was refused but later published by Bonniers (1946).The Young Playwright human love. The last of Bergman's three morality plays. The second dramatic work in the same volume. The play also bears a certain resemblance to Sutton Vane’s drama Outward Bound. With its oscillation between worldly decadence. his Moraliteter are modern dramas where conflicts may be unraveled in terms of profane psychology. Dagen slutar tidigt (Early Ends the Day). This has fatal consequences for Paul’s sense of self-respect. the first stage work to be directed by Ingmar Bergman back in 1938 (see Ø 344). part metaphysical fantasy. the main character in Mig till skräck. (1956. still invisible. an absolute and invisible power determines human life. His implied definition of a morality play suggests a work that is a moral fable but not a religious allegory in the medieval sense of the term. a protective wife (Rakel). Eventually the cold. Nattvardsgästerna (Winter Light). clairvoyance. But Mia (Maria) surfaces again as the juggler Jof 's wife in Det sjunde inseglet. Mig till skräck (Unto My Fear) raises a question that was possibly provoked by his increasing involvement in the filmmaking industry in the late Forties: To what a degree can an artist concede to popular demand or production pressure without losing his creative integrity? Paul. Jack joins a provincial theatre group. The plot evolves like a Pirandellean game of identities until the Director. In the mid-1940s Bergman submitted a play titled Jack bland skådespelarna (Jack Among the Actors) to the theatre section at the Swedish Broadcasting Corporation. This is especially true of the first play in the collection. A corporal in the army. satanic god figure would become the dominant one in Bergman's metaphysical probing and emerge as the possessive ‘spider god’ and ‘the god of silence’ in such films as Såsom i en spegel (Through a Glass Darkly). and a childlike woman (Mia) who is shot and killed accidentally. Mrs. Bergman's ‘moralities’ do not have the abstracted juxtaposition of salvation and damnation as do their generic Christian prototypes. led by a director he has never met. a suicidal impotent husband. Bergman's collection of three plays. Jack bland skådespelarna can be seen as a sequel to ‘Kaspers död’. Soon betrayals and lies jeopardize the 59 . published two years later (1948) under the common title Moraliteter (Morality Plays). such as Everyman and The Castle of Perseverance. and metaphysical despair. In a later screen version of Rakel och biografvaktmästaren that appears as one of the episodes in Kvinnors väntan (1952. and Tystnaden (The Silence). a conventional melodrama about a tempting lover. In the end he appears before Jack and reveals his true ‘bergmanian’ nature: he is both god figure and devil. and as such she becomes an early version of the figure of Death in Det sjunde inseglet. She is to accompany them on their journey. decides to dissolve the troupe. The Seventh Seal). is a young writer of metaphysical novels who gives in to his publisher’s wish that he change the religious ending of his book. Secrets of Women).

which can bring about miracles like self-illuminating mummies and inexplicable rescues of imprisoned children. made some 40 years later. Ingmar Bergman was also active in the radio theatre. the same year Pär Lagerkvist received the Nobel Prize in literature. It is a measure of Bergman's growth as a dramatic artist that this rather simplistic moral exhortation in Mig till skräck would. The main character in Staden is a failing artist with the symbolic name of Joakim (Jack) Naked. Wild Strawberries). travels into the surreal landscape of the subconscious. in Fanny and Alexander. old women who perform the roles of evil and good fairies (Mean’s name has no connection to the English word ‘mean’). The figure of Joakim Naken. Writing as therapy functioned as a valid principle for Bergman. by tradition a strong dramatic medium in Sweden. which are structured as explorations of the past. Andra ser det inte. Melodrama in three acts] was submitted to Bonniers for publication but was refused. whose name might be seen as an alternative to Jack Kasparsson (Jack Clownson) appears in a number of unpublished manuscript fragments from the late 1940s. When compared to a later confessional life journey by Bergman. A complete manuscript dated 1949 and titled ‘Joakim Naken eller Självmordet. when Staden was rebroadcast. explains why Paul's artistic compromise was unforgivable: ‘You went into futility with open eyes. Melodram i tre akter’ [Joakim Naked or the Suicide. develop into a complex encounter between the young imaginative child Alexander – a potential artist – and the visionary Isak (and his locked-up relative Ishmael). Mig till skräck is still an apprentice work in which Bergman tries to telescope a lifetime into Paul's conflict with his publisher. In a radio interview in 1966. who is a friend of Paul's grandmother. and his private life was in shambles after a second divorce. Joakim encounters a pastor who insists that life be regarded as a correctional institution. But you chose it in full awareness and in clear possession of your senses’ [Du gick in i meningslösheten med öppna ögon. Staden too is a psychological journey back to the city of childhood and youth. When he finally began to work his way out of his depression.Chapter II The Writer future of his marriage and his relationship with other people. he is confronted with his wife who 60 . Its protagonist. and he himself experiences no inner conflict but only a prolonged sense of self-pity. The contours of the city take on the grotesque features of a painting by Hieronymous Bosch. He had been ‘kicked out’ from Svensk Filmindustri. In 1951 he submitted and published Staden (The City). As in a number of Ingmar Bergman's early works for the stage and the screen. he had left the Göteborg City Theatre. Isak shows his young protégé the profound power of conviction. Bergman told his listeners that the play was written after a crisis in his life. Two of the most colorful ones are Paul's grandmother and her housekeeper. his affiliation with the Intimate Theatre in Stockholm as a guest director was unhappy. See (Ø 61). In a scene anticipating the film Fanny och Alexander. Mean. he felt a need to transform his experiences into a play. Joakim Naken. Others don't see it. From a dramaturgical point of view. Men du valde det i fullt medvetande och i klar besittning av dina sinnen]. Paul’s situation in Mig till skräck seems static. During his formative years as a writer and director. undertaken by the aging Isak Borg in Smultronstället (1957. Bergman’s play shares with Lagerkvist’s works the central concept of ‘utplånande’ or ‘being wiped out/annihilated’. the play contains a storehouse of Bergman role figures that will appear in his later production. However. an old Jew by the name of Isak. he runs into a former mistress who has been through a painful divorce.

. När han klädde av sig och tog bandaget från ansiktet och händerna. p. på dina egna möjligheter]. jag kopierade Strindberg helt enkelt. though his first encounter with them took place in a nightmare. I quite simply copied Strindberg. which is also conceived as a circular confessional journey. Like Peer. Beyond all comparison Strindberg was my idol. There is a certain structural similarity here between Staden and Strindberg’s Till Damaskus.. och jag tror att mina första pjäser. such as Oliver Mortis or ‘Döden i din ande’ [Death in your spirit].] The most obvious literary incentive for Staden is not Ibsen's play. but Strindberg's drama Till Damaskus (1898. Pelikanen (The Pelican) and 61 . Och jag tror att jag skrev en hel del Strindbergsinspirerade pjäser. there was neither body nor face nor hands.. Joakim Naked is a self without integrity. and both are engaged in a spiritual quest that starts at a low point in their lives.] and the same thing happened to me as to a person I saw in a film. which he deliberately copied: The first time I came in contact with Strindberg. I was twelve.] och samma sak hände mig som en person jag såg i en film. Jag försökte skriva som honom. scenes. [Första gången jag kom i kontakt med Strindberg var jag tolv år. Joakim Naked's excessively emotional attitude towards women and his mood swings between strong hate and nostalgic love seem also quite Strindbergian in origin. The second half of Bergman’s play takes place at the house of Joakim Naked's grandmother where he runs into all the people he has met earlier. There was nothing’. allt. A strange old man named ‘The Pump’ makes predictions of a natural calamity that will destroy the city. Där fanns ingenting. and I believe my first plays.. only to be saved by a representative of womankind. scener. who comes to realize the futility of his life. Ø 919. however. everything. dialogues. A comparison with Ibsen's Peer Gynt comes to mind. in your own possibilities’ [Du måste tro på en sorts gemenskap...The Young Playwright is condemned to death for killing three of their children. Spiritually bankrupt. And I believe I wrote quite a few Strindberg-inspired plays. Bergman himself has readily admitted his young dependence on Strindberg’s work. The protagonists in both plays oscillate between self-accusation and reluctant penitence. The two works are station dramas with the dramatic action composed as a series of crucial stops and encounters with people who serve as catalysts in a self-centered conflict. where the peeling of one layer after another only reveals the lack of a core. When he undressed and took the bandages off his face and hands. Det var en enorm upplevelse. But as in Mig till skräck. To Damascus). His vitality.. I tried to write like him. Allegorical figures appear. his anger. Joakim Naked admits: ‘Now I have stripped to the skin [. dialoger. hans vrede.] (Tre dagar med Bergman. In a speech reminiscent of Peer Gynt's famous onion metaphor.. His grandmother provides him with encouragement and hope: ‘You must believe in a sense of fellowship. Hans vitalitet. fanns det varken kropp eller ansikte eller händer. It was an enormous experience. den kände jag inom mig. Staden ends on a note of optimism that is not really motivated by the dramatic context. in the keen expectations of tomorrow. Utan jämförelse var Strindberg min idol. på morgondagens starka förväntningar. I felt it inside me. [Nu har jag klätt av mig in på bara skinnet [. 14) Bergman began his stage career with several remarkable productions of Strindbergian dramas: Lycko-Pers resa (Lucky Per's Journey) in 1939. Joakim learns however that a new city will be built on the ruins of the one to be destroyed.

I am not particularly fond of them. From Strindberg the writer of history plays Bergman borrowed plot elements and took similar liberties with historical events. Here Bergman telescopes history into a 14th-century setting that includes references to the Crusades. Bergman himself has repeatedly announced his own lack of interest in reviving them: I haven't staged my own plays very often. so I am not all that happy about having others stage them either. A few. A key word in the critical assessment of Bergman’s early stage plays is ‘excess’. events which in reality took place over several centuries. så jag ser inte gärna att andra sätter upp dom heller. This becomes particularly apparent in his dark drama Mordet i Barjärna (Murder at Barjärna). the bubonic plague and witch burning. But to stage your own works becomes a kind of unbearable masturbation. Jag är inte särskilt förtjust i dem. an example is the play Trämålning (1954. Fadren (The Father) and Spöksonaten (The Ghost Sonata) in 1941. a rare phenomenon in the Swedish theatre world. They are not very good. 17) 62 . Wood Painting). which he presented at the Malmö City Theatre in 1952. Bergman’s early stage plays have not been part of the theatre repertory since then. tycker jag.Chapter II The Writer Svarta handsken (The Black Glove) in 1940. From Strindberg the expressionist he absorbed both a modernist dramatic form and a revival of the medieval morality play with its abstracted characters and Christian ethos. many of whom felt that Bergman’s grotesque spectacle about a 19th century murderer and priest could not be redeemed by his virtuoso stagecraft. As with Strindberg in his medieval play Folkungasagan (1898. This highly theatrical production provoked a very harsh response from reviewers. Men att sätta upp sina egna verk blir en sorts outhärdlig masturbation. Dom är inte särskilt bra. [Jag har inte särskilt ofta satt upp mina egna pjäser. From Strindberg's naturalistic dramas he learnt the rapid. p. Bergman allowed dramatic expediency to overrule historical fact. Saga of the Folkungs). är inte så dåliga. highstrung repartees in an emotional duel between man and woman. Though sometimes performed in the late 1940s and early 1950s.] (Tre dagar med Bergman. Ett fåtal. två eller tre. two or three are not so bad. Members in the audience reportedly walked out on opening night.

‘Tidiga pjäser låter oss kika in i Bergmans verkstad’ [Early plays let us look into B’s workshop]. Lars. ‘Ingmar Bergman as a Playwright’. 25-37. while revealing its roots in a personal world and functioning as a kind of urtext that embodies familiar Bergman conflicts: eschatological fears and strident parent-child or man-woman relations. ‘Kaspernoveller’ (1942. The rhetorical pitch in this early work is excessive and hysterical. 1952. no. for these. Koskinen. SvD. 157-172. Stockholm: Nya Doxa. Titled ‘En kortare berättelse om ett av Jack Uppskärarens tidigaste barndomsminnen’ [A shorter tale about one of Jack the Ripper’s earliest childhood memories]. 28 (10-16 July) 1949. is often composed as short stories or fictional vignettes. Wallqvist. Himmelstrand. relatively little has been written on young Ingmar Bergman as a playwright. 6 September 1949. 24-29. 6. p. pp. (See Koskinen. 19-36. and Mig till skräck) Kamma noll (1948) Staden (1950) Mordet i Barjärna (1952) Trämålning (1954) Apart from reviews.The Writer of Prose Fiction Bergman’s early stage plays comprise the following titles (not including unpublished drafts. AT. 4. Ingmar Bergman och hans tidiga författarskap 2002). Röster i Radio. in Ingmar Bergman. ingenting är. Many of these fragments and vignettes also suggest that some of his early authorial figures. Lars-Levi. 2-3. the depicted world often nightmarish and expressionistic. ‘Puritanen och Kasperteatern’. Frank. 2000. Læstadius. This is especially the case prior to his international breakthrough as a filmmaker in 1956. In that sense a story like ‘Jack Uppskäraren’ shares the tone of Berg- 63 . check the bibliographical record of Bergman’s writing after this introduction): Kaspers död (1940) Tivolit (1941) Reskamraten (1942) Jack hos skådespelarna (1946) Moraliteter (1948. 249-262. The Writer of Prose Fiction Bergman’s earliest writing. 19-20. p. One work. ‘Ingmar Bergman och döden’ [IB and death]. like much of Bergman’s initial fiction. Birgitta. ‘Kamma noll’. includes Rakel hos biografvaktmästaren. I begynnelsen var ordet. written in a somewhat burlesque style. Kasper and Jack. In fact. (On Dagen slutar tidigt). 1968. The Passion of Ingmar Bergman. Dagen slutar tidigt. p. first emerged in narrative prose form. pp. and I begynnelsen var ordet. 1986. many of his first film ‘scripts’ were subtitled ‘short stories for film’ and were conceived as prose narratives rather than screen dramas. Maaret. p. Durham: Duke UP. Ingmar Bergman: Allting föreställer. both published and unpublished. Ring. Ulf. SvD. New York: Twayne. pp. See the following items: Gado. pp. Örjan. 13 February 1998. the piece is. 2002. Steene. Punch stories) includes a fragment that appeared in the modernistic magazine 40-tal. July 7.

Birgitta Carolina. to an archetypal moment of conception. the painter Johan reenacts Jack’s childhood memory in the drowning of the boy who attacks him on the cliffs. family tensions and ends about the time of the birth of a second son. sexually ambivalent encounter as a 3-year-old with a miniature girl who turns out to be a boy he later murders. Condemned to death for having killed his wife’s lover. Söndagsbarn/Sunday’s Child (1992/93). tells the story of the mother. His last wish is to return to the womb of his mistress. the plot revolves around a sexual conflict between Joachim and two women (wife and mistress). has a nightmare in which her baby is transformed into a fish whose neck is broken. to launch a recurrent motif and set of image clusters that in retrospect can be seen to form a receptacle of Bergman themes. such as his memoirs Laterna magica/The Magic Lantern (1987). Post-filmmaking Prose After declaring his exit from filmmaking with Fanny and Alexander in 1982. In the milk-and-strawberry sequence in The Seventh Seal. Fars för film’. it signals upcoming marital problems. Together with the TV play Larmar och gör sig till/In the Presence of a Clown (1994). in a flashback fishing episode. In this absurd story about Joachim who encounters a fairytale fish that gives him three wishes to be fulfilled. all 64 . approaching middle age and in love with a much younger theology student. in Smultronstället Isak Borg’s mother pulls a rag doll out of a box of childhood mementoes in a scene alluding to emotional atrophy. Ultimately the fish metaphor is connected to a creative process. His ‘novels’ like Den goda viljan/Best Intentions (1991). Bergman uses one of the most famous murderers in history. Den goda viljan depicts the early years in the marriage of a young pastor and his wife. Enskilda samtal. 1 (Spring) 1951. Perhaps this is a humorous reference to Bergman’s novella titled ‘Fisken. Jack the Ripper. Enskilda samtal/Private Conversations (1994/95) move freely between biographical fact and reconstruction of an emotionally charged human story that happens to be his (fictionalized) family’s. Joachim escapes execution because of a malfunctioning guillotine. finally. Ingmar. nicknamed Little Pu. Söndagsbarn centers on the childhood of this second son. in Vargtimmen. in Persona the ‘double take’ of Alma and Elisabeth is related to Alma’s abortion and Elisabeth’s rejection of her boy. But Jack Uppskäraren’s child murder motif also lives on as a recurrent scene in several of Bergman’s later film scripts. no. in ‘Fängelse’ the main character. There seems to be a foreshadowing here of Frost’s concluding lines in Gycklarnas afton (The Naked Night) where he tells of a dream he has had in which he returned to the womb of his wife Alma. originally published in Biografbladet 31. In ‘Eva’ the narrator’s child memory concerns the accidental death of a little blind girl. the Squire Jöns offers to sing a bawdy song about an amorous fish. and focusses a great deal on the relationship between father and son. and the misogynist tensions (as well as grandmother setting) of Paul’s personal drama in the play Mig till skräck (1948). 4 (Winter) 1950-51 and 32. sometimes presented symbolically as a rag doll or a fish. Bergman continued to produce prose works of very conscious literary form. Thus. structured like a Proustian series of personal recollections interspersed with more contemporary events. no. sometimes involving the death of an actual small person.Chapter II The Writer man’s early plays for the stage: there is a strong resemblance between Jack’s adult memory of a nightmarish.

Thus for instance. The urgent spirit at one time that shaped the adolescent outbursts by the writer Bergman has not only mellowed. On the one hand. The later works are written by an old man whose main concerns are to seek understanding and possibly reconciliation with those who gave him life and material to create with. If the original Swedish manuscript has been translated. in several cases he has directed his own late writings for television.’ 1998. Thus. it has returned to using language as a literary tool and recognizes that words employed imaginatively can shape and manifest a universe as much as images in films. presented in an intense and loud expressionistic style. using a cutting technique that forces the reader to fill in the gaps and become a participant in the narrative. Bergman’s late prose works suggest that the further behind he left the film studio. Bergman’s fiction after Fanny and Alexander contains self-conscious notes that cannot be transferred to the screen. 199. a word written must be a word seen. such as Sista skriket (The Last Scream). The Problems of Subtitling. For additional comments. not intellectual understanding is the ultimate purpose. Sunday’s Child. 23 pp. Emotional involvement. This becomes accentuated in the late prose works. In fact. The early works are permeated with the often desperate and definitely rebellious tone of an angry young man. Names have been reshuffled and events telescoped for the sake of dramatic convenience. Larmar och gör sig till (In the Presence of a 65 . there is both a psychological closure and a creative completeness to Ingmar Bergman’s writing. the more he moved towards an acceptance of himself as a writer. and Private Confessions seem built on three ‘filmic’ principles: (1) visualization of a scene through concrete detail. Thus. it is not uncommon to find quoted samples of a Bergman ‘text’ which move back and forth between his published script and the filmed dialogue. 194. (2) making people confront each other in ‘close-ups’. There is a clear difference between Bergman’s early plays and prose works from the late 1940s and his depiction of his family saga after the making of Fanny and Alexander. However. However. this is not to say that he himself has regarded these late printed texts as words in search of a reader only. ‘Ingmar Bergman Abroad. The narrator Bergman supersedes the filmmaker but also closes the creative circle that began with his first literary sketches in his notebooks from his late teens. On the other hand. i. so that reading the text is a little like watching a (Bergman) film. Ø 185. a crucial background incident in Den goda viljan – the Queen hearing Pastor Bergman preach – did not take place until 1924 when young Ingmar was six (Den goda viljan ends in 1918 just prior to his birth). there are often important discrepancies between the script and the finished film. (See Törnqvist. (3) telling a story elliptically.e. All of Ingmar Bergman’s literary works after he left his large-scale filmmaking in 1982 have borne the signs of a writer who can look upon his past with a certain distance but who has also rediscovered the pleasure that lies in story-telling on paper..Post-filmmaking Prose these works form a compressed family history. see reception of Bergman’s post-filmmaking prose. making them face each other in sharp and direct dialogue. Best Intentions. 188. 191. 192. Ø 1650). In the critical canon examining Ingmar Bergman’s filmmaking. which Bergman knew he was not going to film himself. not quite documentary. the refereed ‘text’ takes on an even more nebulous status. being drawn into the magic of a world projected on the screen in a dark cinema. not quite fiction. the very same texts borrow the approach of a former filmmaker. Any student of Bergman’s late prose faces in fact a rich field of variations between the written and the filmed texts.

Haverty. 2002. For discussions of Ingmar Bergman’s prose works. 5 (Autumn 1991): 274-286. Literature/Film Quarterly 16. On Screen. 1988: 174-80. [Bokens texter är skrivna utan tanke på eventuellt medium vid ett framförande ungefär som cembalosonater av Bach (utan jämförelse i övrigt). no. no. I wrote them in the way I have been accustomed to writing for more than fifty years – it looks like drama but could just as easily be film. ‘Strindbergman: The Problem of Filming Autobiography in Bergman’s Fanny and Alexander’. ‘Ingmar Bergmans Bilder och den självbiografiska genren’. contrasting it to Bergman’s early short story ‘En kortare berättelse om en av Jack Uppskärarens tidigaste barndomsminnen’ [A short tale about one of Jack the Ripper’s earliest childhood memories]. television or simply texts for reading. gitarr. Rochelle. organ or piano. using a method something like that of the harpsichord sonatas by Bach – though they are otherwise not comparable. B1-B2. An Artist’s Journey. ‘The Imagined Past in Ingmar Bergman’s The Best Intentions. 290-299 and passim. 3. 1994. Oliver. blåsensemble. 1995 pp. On Stage.’ In Ingmar Bergman. (review of Söndagsbarn. An Artist’s Journey. pp. Caryn. no. pp. by Roger W. 25 January 1993. In Ingmar Bergman. see the following: Ekbom. DN. pp. guitar.Chapter II The Writer Clown) and Saraband. 112-115. Some early unpublished items have been located by the editor. New York: Arcade Publishing. Steene. he suggests that the written word is a flexible tool. They can be played by string quartets. but for the most part such material stems from Ingmar Bergman’s private papers at Fårö. 3. 2-3 (Spring 1988): 78-90. —. Stockholm: Wahlström & Widstrand. recently deposited at the SFI. Maaret. Thorsten. ‘Bergman as Novelist’. Vinge. Finsk Tidskrift. 1995. orgel eller piano. ‘Ingmar Bergmans Laterna magica’. Finsk Tidskrift. no. Norwich: Norvik Press. Jag har skrivit som jag varit van att skriva sedan mer än femtio år – det ser ut som teater men det kan lika gärna vara film. 40-tal. 8). Louise. In A Century of Swedish Narrative: Essays in Honour of Karin Petherick’. p. Though annotated here. 5-9). ed. Koskinen. 1944. Oliver. De kan spelas av stråkkvartett. List of Bergman’s Written Work Listed below in chronological order are both published and unpublished works by Ingmar Bergman. television eller bara läsning. 281-93. by Roger W.] (p. wind ensembles. 116-25. as much an instrument for a performance as a reading experience: I wrote the texts in this book without giving a thought to their possible medium. In the introductory piece ‘Monolog’ in the collection Femte akten (2000. ‘The Director as Writer: Some Observations on Ingmar Bergman’s “Den goda viljan”’. Ingmar Bergman och hans tidiga författarskap. Wright. ‘Ingmar Bergman tillbaka till det skrivna ordet’ [IB back to the written word]. pp. ed. New York: Arcade Publishing. In Print. The Fifth Act) which includes Sista skriket. Linda. I begynnelsen var ordet. Birgitta. James. students are advised to check 66 .

Bergman singles out the following aspects of Selma Lagerlöf ’s authorship: her love of people and of nature. 1935-37 1. ‘Recension av någon bok. which contains translations of the scripts to Smiles of a Summer Night (Sommarnattens leende). Not annotated among Ingmar Bergman’s Fårö papers is his graduation essay at the Palmgrenska school. The Palmgrenska school no longer exists. Ø 1681. dated October 25. The manuscript designation for Bergman’s film scripts that is used here follows the international FIAF formula: Script I Script II Script III Script IV describes action but not in terms of takes describes and divides action into takes but does not list length of takes states length of each take gives dialogue list only Script titles are listed under their original title in Swedish. Translations of individual scripts appear in the Swedish script entry. 98. spring 1937. See Koskinen. de P’s ‘Richard Wagner’]. unpublished scripts are also available in the Swedish Film Institute and. and The Magician (Ansiktet). p. In addition to copies of Bergman’s film scripts included in his recent gift of personal material. p. titled ‘Några huvuddrag i Selma Lagerlöfs författarskap’ [Some main features in Selma Lagerlöf ’s authorship]. ‘Den moderna ungdomen’ [Modern youth]. G. her interest in the supernatural. its student material has been transferred to Stockholms Stadsarkiv. but there are also cross references to this volume of translations in the individual entries to the four original film titles (Ø 91. and her imagination. Bergman’s Fårö papers include some of his school essays on various assigned themes: ‘Hemmet och de olika familjemedlemmarnas uppgifter’ [The home and various family members’ tasks]. major volumes of translations that contain more than one script are listed separately under the translated title and under the year of publication. This item is catalogued there under Palmgrenska. in Uppsala Film Studio’s library. Palmgrenska Samskolan [Student themes. 2002. In addition. The Seventh Seal (Sjunde inseglet). Palmgrenska Lyceum]. at times. Klass L III. dated 19 November 1935. Guy de Pourtales “Richard Wagner”’ [Review of a book I have read recently. For instance. Studentuppsatser. the volume Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman. Wild Strawberries (Smultronstället). is listed as a separate entry (Ø 110) under its year of publication (1960). I begynnelsen var ordet. dated 5 February 1936. 101. 336). jag nyss läst. volume F 1:21. 102). ‘Är det berättigat att tala om den gamla goda tiden?’ [Is it justifiable to talk about the good old days?].List of Bergman’s Written Work Maaret Koskinen’s inventory in her book I begynnelsen var ordet. dated 18 September 1935. Ingmar Bergman och hans tidiga författarskap. 1935. 67 . 321 ff.

no. Material is available at Mäster Olofsgården Archive. titled ‘Till främmande hamn’ [lit. Short presentation by Bergman of theatre and film offerings in Stockholm. Presentation of Strindberg’s play directed by Bergman at Mäster Olofsgården and focusing on the moral content of the play. See introduction. Signed ‘Regissören’ (The Director) this is a brief presentation of an upcoming double bill: Edmond Rostand’s 18th-century play ‘Romantik’ (Romance) and Doris Rönnqvist’s play ‘Höstrapsodi’ [Autumn Rhapsody]. no. Bergman proudly announces that Mäster Olofsgården’s theatre section is now self-supporting with its own volunteer composer. and concerns his thoughts about his first production at MO-gården. 1939. Additional SFP items written by Bergman are listed below in chronological order: * ‘Teatraliskt i stan’ [Theatrics in town]. 338.Chapter II The Writer 1938 2. 8. Bergman worries about the reception of his next production (see next item) since it might be too ‘exclusive’ a repertory. In another column in the same SFP issue. * ‘Lycko-Pers resa’ [Lucky Per’s journey]. raggamuffins and others have our own experience of a hard-to-please audience and a strange. 2 (1939). Introduction and (Ø 344). SFP. a settlement house in Stockholm’s Old City. To a foreign port]. Cf. 1939. 1938-1940 SFP was an abbreviation of ‘Storkyrkoflickorna och Storkyrkopojkarna’ (Great Church girls/ boys). Commentary. 1938. SFP. 1939. Sutton Vane’s Outward Bound. Mäster Olofsgården newsletter. theatre chapter (VI). 8. photographer and PR-man. 5. Announcement signed ‘B-man’ of two performances. 3. 1. Bergman’s Fårö papers contain a small notebook with references to Mäster Olofsgården. trashankar och andra har ju våra erfarenheter av en hårdflirtad publik och en egendomlig. This column is juxtaposed to one expressing Bergman’s worries that the Mäster Olofsgården audience seems reluctant to accept an ‘exclusive repertory’ on its premises. Koskinen. Ø 347. light and art designers. 68 . Group Item: SFP. 1. Bergman’s comments are motivated by a desire to ‘prove that there is much worthwhile to see on stage right now and that Stockholm’s theatre world has stepped out of its mud bath level’ [bevisa att det finns mycket värt att se på scenen just nu och att Stockholms teatervärld har tagit steget ut ur sin gyttjebadsnivå]. något oförstående kritik]. p. * During his two years as director at MO-gården’s amateur theatre section. p. for note on rehearsals of Strindberg’s play. 3. for selective quotes from SFP notices. somewhat unappreciative corps of critics’ [Vi kyrkänglar. he recalls the inappropriate laughter and insensitive response to his presentation of Outward Bound a year earlier: ‘We cherubs. to be presented at Nicolai Elementary School on Ash Wednesday: Danish author Axel Bentzonich’s dramatic short story ‘Guldkarossen’ [The Golden Chariot] and Runar Schildt’s play Galgmannen [The Hangman]. I begynmelsen var ordet. p. recommending Strindberg and several French films. Bergman wrote several notices about his own productions and about film and theatre offerings in Stockholm. p. 2 (1939). His first note. 43-60. 3. no. * ‘Experimentteater!’ [Experimental theater]. appeared in SFP no. See also SFP. no. theatre chapter. no. an organized youth group at Mäster Olofsgården. pp. cf. 2002. See also Henrik Sjögren’s Lek och raseri. SFP. p. Cf. p. 24. * ‘Evenemang’ [Events] SFP.

Among its content is the following material: * ‘En sällsam historia’ [A strange tale]. 1 (1940). 3. ‘Vaxdukshäftet’ is discussed by Maaret Koskinen in her book I begynnelsen var ordet.List of Bergman’s Written Work * ‘Experimentteatern igen’ [Experimental theater once more]. Short story about a young man’s encounter in a florist shop with a woman who turns out to be a prostitute widow supporting her only child. SFP. n. pp. Hamburg: 2002. A personal presentation of Bergman’s forthcoming production at Mäster Olofsgården of Pär Lagerkvist’s drama Mannen som fick leva om sitt liv (The Man Who Lived His Life Over/The Man Who Lived Twice). and suggesting both enthusiasm and frustration in his work. since Bergman left Mäster Olofsgården for other theatre activities. Bergman is anxious to point out the ‘professional’ care behind the production both in terms of stagecraft and character analysis. 14. 6. The article clearly shows his total commitment to his directorial task. In addition to rehearsals of five productions (two of them double bills). Some of this material seems to be early sketches for the film script to ‘Hets’. no. no. and John Masefield’s Good Friday. None of this materialized. 69 . Bergman arranged regular film showings and a course where the goal was to discuss the majority of Strindberg’s plays (!). edited by Renate Bleibtreu. asking them not to be turned away by the high seriousness of the piece. Translated into German as ‘Aus einem Notizbuch vom Sommer 1938’ in Ingmar Bergman. plus a filmmaking project during the summer months. The undated notebook is probably from the summer of 1938. Bergman outlines the work schedule for the theatre group and next year’s program. oscillating between self-defense and irony. see Commentary in (Ø 355). Work book containing handwritten short stories and other prose fragments. Among Bergman’s Fårö papers. 4. * ‘Familjeidyll’ [Family idyl]. * ‘Vår lilla stad’ [Our Town]. 9 (1939). She is later found murdered. no. This is the most telling of Bergman’s SFP notices. where the rehearsals had become ‘moments of spiritual recreation’ [stunder av andlig rekreation]. 23-60. no. 8. 3. p. 4 (1940). SFP. * ‘Ett spelår tilländalupet’ [A year’s repertory has come to an end]. SFP. no. produced at the Royal Dramatic Theatre. Brief review of The Hunchback of Notre Dame. p. 3 (1940). p. SFP. Summing-up of 1939-40 season at Mäster Olofsgården amateur theatre section. SFP. His subsequent analysis of Lagerkvist’s drama is a piece of moral exhortation to his presumed audience. Brief commentary on Thornton Wilder’s Our Town. Presentation of Macbeth. Listing the past season’s repertory. 11 pp. with planned productions of Strindberg’s Oväder (Storm). 2002. pp. Im Bleistift – Ton. ‘Vaxdukshäftet’ [The wax cover notebook]. * ‘En saga’ [A fairy tale]. Seven handwritten pp. scheduled for production in early April 1940. * ‘Ringaren i Notre Dame’ [The Hunchback of Notre Dame]. Entry also includes a critical comment on Ingrid Bergman’s performance in Juninatten (Night of June). now deposited at SFI.p. 5 (1940).

The boy. 70 . 1939 4. Story also deals with Jan-Erik’s divided attraction to two different women: the somewhat vulgar Vanja and the family girl Britt. This handwritten film synopsis consists of 104 short ‘takes’ and lists 15 characters. Film fantasy after Hjalmar Gullberg’s poem with the same name]. a rather ‘pre-bergmanian’ metaphor. Stockholm University. Medverkande: Medlemmar ur Mäster Olofsgårdens teatersektion’ [Direction: IB. A text on the front page reads: ‘Regi: Ingmar Bergman. 6 pp. station drama]. The plot revolves around the schoolboy Jan Erik Widgren and his conflicts at home and in school (with his teacher Caligula). Photo: AB. Gullberg’s ‘tivoli’ is a carousel referred to as an earthly dance of death. Bergman’s analysis of Strindberg’s play reads like a prompt copy for a stage production. ‘Himmelrikets nycklar: Sagospel. drömspel. Among Bergman’s Fårö papers. 22 typed pp. Foto: Axel Bergström. Title suggests Bergman’s early interest in the film medium but also his literary anchoring. The boy hits the father with a chair. Filmfantasi efter Hjalmar Gullbergs dikt med samma namn’ [The Tivoli. * Fragment is of interest in that it suggests two later Bergman themes: Love as sacrifice and lying as a form of self-deception. Institute of Literary History. Andliga övningar [Spiritual exercises]. divided into four short chapters. fall 1940. vandringsdrama’ [The Keys of Heaven: Fairy play. Participants: Members of MO theatre section]. Untitled story about a young boy’s decision to leave his girlfriend. Unpublished undergraduate thesis (3betygsuppsats) for Professor Martin Lamm’s Strindberg seminar.Chapter II The Writer About a high school student’s confrontation with his father who loses control and gets a revolver. dreamplay. Untitled short story in fourteen chapters suggesting the content of ‘Hets’. ‘Tivolit. drifts around in the city and is later reprimanded at school for his absenteeism. whereupon the father locks himself up in a room. * * ‘Judas’. The brief poem ‘Tivoli’ is included in his 1932 collection of poetry. Hjalmar Gullberg was one of Sweden’s leading poets at the time. Story taking place in school. 1940 5. My Life in Film) Bergman talks about revising the script for ‘Hets’ in 1942. 12 pp. In Bilder (Images. Synopsis of a play in five acts. 114 pp. The manuscript was inserted in the notebook but could be of a later date. Names of the main characters – Jan-Erik Widgren and Caligula – are the same as in the film ‘Hets’. after trying to calm his mother. * ‘Fragment’. Vanja may be an early draft for Berta in ‘Hets’.

14 September 1943. the Father. See also Koskinen. 12 August 1942. Among Ingmar Bergman Fårö papers deposited at SFI. ‘Cirkusen’ [The Circus]. (Cf. Mr. 71 . [Written in Sigtuna 17 October 1942 – cont. Stockholm. a blind Mother. Stage adaptation of H. 50 pp. Theatre chapter. 1942 8. herr Bofvén. ‘De ensamma’ [The Lonely Ones]. Miss Alma Karlsson. pp. housekeeper. Camomilla. a Girl and Jack the Ripper. the Lion. Bror Alman. Dated Duvnäs. Dramatikerstudions programblad. 25 pp. Alman commits suicide..C. Ø 367 & 385. Theatre chapter VI. Andersson. Bror (same name as younger son Widgren in ‘Hets’). Beppo. The dramatis personae in ‘Circusen’ are: Regissören. 2002. 10. Alternate title: ‘Adjunkt Alman’ [High School Teacher Alman]. a pantomime play staged in 1941 at the Sago (Fairy Tale) Theatre (a children’s stage) in Stockholm’s Civic Hall. probably identical with ‘Clownen Beppo’. the Devil (Hin). Grandma. their son. Servants and three Soldiers.List of Bergman’s Written Work 1941 6. Dramatis personae: Erik Alman. Lejonet. 15-39. (förlovningsferie). Manuscript not located.] In SFI Special Ingmar Bergman Papers. Lisa. (engagement vacation). Beppo. A type-written undated ms covers only pp. the Hero (‘sneezing and coughing’). Act III is set at the tavern amidst a gloomy Jack the Ripper. typewritten. Andersen’s tale ‘Elddonet’ (The Tinder Box) for the Sago Theatre at Medborgarhuset [Civic Hall]. Play (apparently unfinished) contains Bergman’s first reference to the character of Jack the Ripper (cf. for brief discussion of ‘Cirkusen/Clownen Beppo’. Lisa Didricks. the Girl. 7. Undated handwritten manuscript in three acts. Crook. the Mayor. Vagabonds. Bror’s girlfriend. Dummer-Jöns. Ø 26. Alice Alman. Cf. Clod-Hans. I begynnelsen var ordet. no. 9. father and high school teacher. mother. Handwritten play manuscript. theatre chapter (VI). Else Fisher. Kreutz. Camomilla (The Director. Handwritten play manuscript in three acts with following date notation: Skrivet i Sigtuna 17 oktober 1942 – forts. the Jester. below). Second Act takes place in the palace with the King. the Town Cryer and some Individuals. Voices. There is also a handwritten 8-page dialogue fragment of the same play including the following people: Bror. Ø 379). 157-160. Untitled brief introduction by Bergman to his production of Kaj Munk’s play Niels Ebbesen (cf. Ø 374). 1. yet authoritarian father’s confrontation with his son. choreographed ‘Clownen Beppo’. and Bergman was responsible for the dialogue.) 25 pp. Bergman’s first wife. ‘Fullmånen’ [The Full Moon]. The setting of Act I is an open square filled with a variety of people: Businessmen. Mr. A family drama about a weak.

Child II.Chapter II The Writer 11. the Boys. pp. the huldra (troll woman). Act I. 13. näcken (water sprite). Act II. the Sinner. Manuscript is structured as follows: Prologue. the Other. the One. two Prostitutes (Subba I and II). 25-39. Punch and Judy (Kasper and Kasperina). Im Bleistift – Ton. I begynnelsen var ordet (2002). 24 September 1942. Available in Swedish Radio Archives. ‘Operan’ [The Opera]. Program note to production of ‘Kaspers död’ (Ø 12) at Student Theatre. Unpublished typewritten stage play. September 1942. by Renate Bleibtreu. the Old Gentleman. moving in an expressionistic setting with themes revolving around such subjects as death and womanhood. in Ingmar Bergman. Program note is available at Royal Library in Stockholm and in Swedish Theatre Museum Library. Child I. Punch. based on Hans Christian Andersen’s tale of same name. see Koskinen. the Other. They are dated 1942-43 and consist of three texts: ‘Om varför gangstern skriver vers’ [About why the gangster writes poetry]. 2002. and self-destructive character types. Among Ingmar Bergman Fårö papers deposited at SFI. 14. pp. the Man of the World. Dated August 1942. Handwritten and unpublished opera libretto. ed. pp. 22 pp. 12. the One. pp. 15. 2002. Punch. The play was submitted that year to the Swedish Radio but was refused. the Gangster. Dramatis personae: Sven. ‘Reskamraten’ [The Travel Companion]. 322-23. 2002. Gangstern (the Gangster) and Lebemannen (the Dandy) – are emblematic characters in many of Bergman’s early drafts. Also in Ingmar Bergman Fårö papers deposited at SFI. For other Kasper fragments from same period. 9 August 1942. 49 pp. 40-42. ‘Interiör från familjen Kasper’ [A scene from the Punch family]. the Gangster. bohemian. the Girl. ‘Kaspernoveller’ [Punch Stories] These unpublished stories were long thought to be lost. the Man of the World. For more details. by Renate Bleibtreu. see Koskinen. ‘Begegnung mit Kasper’. the Fiddler. ‘Om varför gangstern skriver vers’ was published in German as ‘Warum der Gangster Verse schreibt’ in Ingmar Bergman. ‘Möte med Kasper’ [Encounter with Punch]. they represent a combination of rebellious. 321-22]. but surfaced recently in Bergman’s Fårö storage and are now deposited at SFI. Play was produced at the Student Theatre. This may be the opera that Bergman makes references to in several interviews and alludes to indirectly in the film Såsom i en spegel/Through a Glass Darkly when the teenage boy Minus relates his creative literary output to his father David. ed. ‘Kaspers död’ [Death of Punch]. dated Duvnäs. 72 . (See Ø 363). the Girls. Play in three acts. Im Bleistift – Ton. Stockholm University. and ‘Berättelsen om när Kasper och Lebemannen foro ut på landet’ [The tale of when Punch and Dandy travelled into the countryside]. ‘Möte med Kasper’ appears in German translation. though in fairly mild terms. a Voice. I begynnelsen var ordet. Karin. Both the Kasper and Jack figures – and their negative alter egos.

The Old Man. The King. The One. Handwritten draft to a play. There is also an expanded fragment. Plot follows a group of tivoli performers during the off-season until the day the fun fair opens its gates again in late spring. 18. See (Ø 366). ‘Tivolit’ [The Tivoli]. In Ingmar Bergman Fårö papers. For more detail. pp. A play about a problematic mother-son relationship. The King of Toads. I begynnelsen var ordet. see Koskinen. The Uncle. 26. 73 . 323. The mother shoots the girl.. dated August 1942. The Gnome. dated October 1942. 18. pp. It was at this time that Bergman set up Strindberg’s Pelikanen (The Pelican) at Stockholm Student Theatre (see Ø 361). Play in five tableaus by IB]. There is also a typed manuscript divided into 20 chapters. see Koskinen. most likely a draft to ‘Dimman’. 39 pp.List of Bergman’s Written Work The cast includes the following characters: Dying Father. unpublished play in three acts. Johannes. untitled and incomplete manuscript to a play. 17. 11 pp. Two versions of same film script. dated at end Duvnäs. Handwritten. In SFI Ingmar Bergman Papers from his private Fårö archive. ‘Stationen’ [The Station]. a young woman by the name of Marianne. Pjäs i fem bilder av Ingmar Bergman’ [Some of them. 93 pp. ‘Dimman’ [The Fog]. 157-181. arrives from Germany. The Troll. I begynnelsen var ordet (2002). 340. Manuscript is typed. 62-64. 1943 19. A play titled ‘Tivolit’ was staged by Bergman at the Stockholm Student Theatre in October 1943. undated version of same. and Koskinen. ‘En bekännelse’ has numbered set descriptions to the left. The son’s cousin. and dated 22 October 1942. There is also a typed manuscript in seven acts. I begynnelsen var ordet. 40 pp. 4 July 1943. and dated Gimo. For discussion. The Princess. Bergström’s assistant and successor. 2002. titled ‘Några av dem. Among Bergman papers deposited at SFI. The Travel Companion. Dramatic conflict revolves around a dysfunctional family consisting of a sick father (Station Master Anders Bergström). 9 August 1942. Also among the dramatis personae is Jon Andersson. but never staged. 71-79. Handwritten. and their children Mary. the son (Edgar) kills himself. The Other. p. a fun-loving mother (Brita). In Ingmar Bergman Fårö papers deposited at SFI. 2002. of which Fragment III is a prologue and Fragment IV is titled ‘Epilog’. 16. The last scene in this draft takes place in a fog where the male protagonist commits suicide. Fragment also includes a Prologue. and Cecilia. ‘Rädd att leva’ [Afraid to live] and ‘En bekännelse’ [A confession]. with the title in Bergman’s handwriting. a play mentioned by Bergman in an early interview done by Jolo (see Ø 688) and in early theatre programs listing titles of Bergman’s works. The Host. The Old Woman. There is also a typed. Consists of four separate fragments. deposited at SFI. dialogue to the right. Head of Council. A play full of Strindbergian elements such as mother/vampire motif and the unmasking theme.

] Expressionistically obscure in places. Uneven characterization. 101 pp. Judging from the cast of characters. dialog list. [. 1946. ‘Dröm i juli’ [Dream in July]. A shooting script with minor notations is among Bergman’s Fårö papers. 4 August 1943. Three typewritten samples among Bergman Fårö papers. religion. 158 pp. Jack Kasparsson takes over the part of lover. undated. or TV play. He declined with these words: ‘It [Hets] is conceived as a film and will not become a novel.] Stark dragning åt det makabra. 25 pp.. 51 (1944) through no.). drama eller television. See also (Ø 24) and (Ø 27) below. London production was reviewed in NYT. [teaching] dead as well as living languages. Massor av stötande saker om fylla och sexualia. The radio reader’s verdict was harsh: ‘Drama about existential anguish. 22 April 1948.. and others can step in and assume their roles..] Expressionistiskt dunkel här och var. Bergman’s synopsis to Hets in its original form. Unsuitable for the radio’. Swedish only. geography and history... ‘Jack hos skådespelarna’ [Jack among the actors]. In SFI Ingmar Bergman Fårö Papers. Source: SR (Sveriges Radio) archives. Serialized as a novella in Filmjournalen. Handwritten play manuscript. opened at St. religion. (Stockholm: Bonniers. See Koskinen. no. On 7 November 1944. At SFI/USF [Swedish Film Institute/Uppsala Student Film Studio] libraries. ‘Hets’ [Frenzy]. Handwritten. GP reported that Bergman had been asked to write a novel based on his film script. one of them marked ‘Bonniers förlag’. an autocratic and diabolic figure. Expressionistic drama in two acts about a troupe of actors who are treated like marionettes by their director.. A great deal of offensive material about drunkenness and sexuality.Chapter II The Writer 20. wife. 8 (1945). this fragment is a draft of Bergman’s 1946 unpublished play of same title (see Ø 38). and incomplete play in a tivoli setting. 22. pp. Frenzy. no. [Drama om livsångest. who joins a theater troupe of three actors – husband.] In 1948 Peter Ustinov adapted the film script to the stage. Script I. Jack Kasparsson. deposited at SFI. Olämplig för radio].. (See Ø 3) above. 21. The play. 323 for more details. Script II. The play was submitted to the Swedish Radio in 1946 but was refused. untitled. written as a narrative with a good deal of dialogue and dated 22 March 1943. short story. p. The title figure is a corporal. geografi och historia]. while the former lover now shoulders 74 . In Pirandellean fashion they perform a triangle drama of soap opera quality and become the parts they enact.’ [Den är tänkt som film och den blir varken roman. As such they are replaceable. mystifying lines. together with ‘Rakel och biografvaktmästaren’. ending with the text: ‘end of first act’.. dated Gränna. Another manuscript in the same collection is a mixture of play and film script. [. Karaktärsteckningen ojämn. the publishing house that published a version of the play in 1946. 34-57. and in Bildjournalen. and lover. 47 pp. I begynnelsen var ordet (2002). later published (1948).’ [Caligula och alla hans gelikar (som undervisar) döda såväl som levande språk. drama. p.. Script IV. [. It was also performed in January 1948 in Oslo under direction of Per Gjersøe (see Ø 967). When a husband in the troupe dies. [. In three parts. 12 through 15 (1959).] Strong inclination towards the macabre. Martin’s Theatre in London 21 April 1948. mystifierande repliker. Front page has a dedication to ‘Caligula and all his likes. 35: 2. Film script. as well as several drafts and/or synopses of ‘Hets’ among them a prose version in fourteen chapters. Koskinen discusses the Hets material in same book.

and self-destructive Jack figure. can go on as before until the Director decides to dissolve the ensemble. by Renate Bleibtreu. pp. n. Short story in which Bergman introduces once more the vulnerable. p. Also translated into Polish by Tadeusz Szczepański in Kino. Mutti. dated Åkeslund 12. Amlie (‘Un souvenir d’enfance de Jack L’Eventreur’) in Cinéma 59. might be identical with an early. SF (Svensk Filmindustri) special program to ‘Hets’. Commentary to (Ø 202) in Filmography. Erik. 9 October 1944. no. rebellious. 1944 24. Untitled handwritten manuscript in seven acts. ed. Civil Servant. 1. pp. 34 (March) 1959: 39-44. ‘Samtal mellan en ekonomichef och en teaterchef’ [Conversation between a head of finances and a theatre head]. Gerd. p. like life.10. Plot revolves around a mystical diabolical character by the name of Matheus Manders [possibly named after Ibsen’s Pastor Manders in Gengangere/Ghosts ]. 25. pp. Krister. 52 pp. apparently lost Bergman work called ‘Om en mördare’ (About a murderer). ‘Matheus Manders fjärde berättelse’ has been translated into German as ‘Matheus Manders vierte Erzählung’ and published in Ingmar Bergman. to render harmless the Caligulas in society.d. 3 October 1944. Bergman’s Manders is described as a civil servant with ‘the face of a dancer of death’ [en döddansares ansikte] who has a devastating impact on a group of young people. 1-7. 26. Program issued in connection with opening of Hets in October 1944 to celebrate SF’s 25th anniversary as a production company. Manfred. he acts out of fear. (See Ø 11) above. The manuscript. 2002. Reply by Bergman. 10.43 (12 October 1943). with Author’s preface. to elicit symphathy for Caligula because. 287. 16. in SFI Ingmar Bergman Fårö Papers. 1944. The play. Cast of characters include Kerstin. Officer. 1991: 7-11. 11. 27. 43-81. ‘“Skoltiden” ett 12-årigt helvete’ [School a 12-year hell]. Im Bleistift – Ton.List of Bergman’s Written Work the cloak of married cuckold. 5-9. Translated into French by A. Cf. Response by his former headmaster Håkansson at Palmgrenska School appeared in same paper (AB) on 5 October 1944. ‘Matheus Manders fjärde berättelse’ [Mathew Manders’s fourth tale]. Also a typewritten version. ‘En kortare berättelse om en av Jack Uppskärarens tidigaste barndomsminnen’ [A short tale about one of Jack the Ripper’s earliest childhood memories]. no. 23. though sadistic. ‘Kaspernoveller’ [Punch stories]). Elna. Bergman contributes with a statement outlining his three ambitions with Hets: to expose a sickness but free the spectator from pain. AB. 3. which formed the background for the film. no. ‘Hets’: Kniv på en varböld’ [Torment: Knife on a boil]. 40-tal. same paper. Bergman promises more than Strindberg and Shakespeare on the repertory. Hälsingborg Theatre Program at end of fall season 1944. 75 . In connection with the premiere of ‘Hets’ Bergman gave an account of his years in school. pp.

Chapter II The Writer
28. ‘Hösttankar’ [Autumnal Thoughts]. In Hälsingborg City Theatre program, Fall 1944.
Tongue in cheek dialogue in which theatre director foresees the dissolution of traditional stages and a return to ambulatory performances on church steps. As director, Bergman wishes three things for the Hälsingborg City Theatre: That it be a platform of serious proclamations; That it be a bulwark against stupidity, indifference, crudeness and dullness; That it be a challenge and a playground for fun.


‘Vi måste ge Macbeth’ [We have to present Macbeth]. Helsingborgs Dagblad, 14 November 1944, p. 7.
Before the opening of his second Macbeth production, Bergman discussed the circumstances around his first presentation of the play in 1940 and his rationale for presenting it again. See Theatre chapter (Ø 401).

30. Group Item: Untitled program notes from Bergman’s tenure at the Helsingborg City Theatre, 1945-46 season. See also titled items (Ø 25, 28).
* Program note to production of Sune Bergström’s comedy ‘Reducera moralen’ [Reduce the morals], 12 April 1945.

Bergman proudly announces that the theatre has got its state subsidies back and promises that it will continue to be ‘the stormy center of our city’ [stadens oroliga hörn]. * Program note to production of Franz Werfel’s play Jacobovski och översten (Jacobowski and the Colonel), 9 September 1945.

At the opening of a new theatre season, Bergman set down a Six-point Declaration concerning the function of the Helsingborg City Theatre and its ensemble. See Theatre/ Media Bibliography (Ø 502, Chapter VII), for fuller listing. * Program note to production of Olle Hedberg’s ‘Rabies/Bekänna färg’ (Rabies/Show your cards), 1 November 1945.

Could be called IB’s modernist manifesto, a defense of Swedish fyrtiotalist literature (see Ø 952), which is said to be a truthful reflection of the disillusioned and desperate post-war generation. * ‘Avskedsintervju’ [Farewell interview], in playbill program to Björn Erik Höijer ’s play Rekviem, at the Helsingborg City Theatre, 6 March 1946.

Tongue-in-cheek interview between a fictional journalist and Ingmar Bergman. For fuller annotation (see Ø 507), Theatre/Media Bibliography, Chapter VII.


‘En slags tillägnan’ [A kind of dedication]. Program note to Bergman’s Malmö production of Strindberg’s Pelikanen (The Pelican), 25 November 1945.
Bergman pays homage to Olof Molander, prominent director of Strindberg’s dramas since the mid-1930s. See Commentary, Ø 392.


List of Bergman’s Written Work
32. ‘Möte’ [Encounter], in printed theatre program to production of Ingmar Bergman’s play Rakel och biografvaktmästaren [Rachel and the cinema doorman], produced at Malmö City Theatre, September 1946, pp. 8-9.
A tongue-in-cheek dialogue between a playwright and the director of his play (Author Bergman directed the production of ‘Rakel’). (Cf. Ø 43) below.


‘Blick in i framtiden’ [Look into the future]. Unpublished manuscript, Swedish Radio Archives, Stockholm, n.p. See Theatre/Media Bibliography (Ø 500). ‘Kris’ [Crisis]. Film Script.
Script II, titled ‘Mitt barn är mitt’ [My child is mine], dated May-June 1945, SFI/USF Archives, Stockholm, 161 pp. Copyright: SF. Script IV (Dialogue list in German, titled ‘Krise’, with a synopsis of content), 18 pp. Bergman’s script is an adaptation of Danish playwright Leck Fischer’s play Moderhjertet [The mother heart]. Original title is sometimes referred to as Moderdyret [The mother animal]. Bergman also uses title Moderskärlek [Mother love]. (See Ø 2) in Filmography. There are some divergencies between Script II and Script IV: in the latter, based on the released film, a voiceover opens and ends the story; in Script II the speaker is only heard in the beginning.



‘Marie’ Unpublished short story, available in SFI Library, and dated 1945. The story was later expanded in collaboration with Herbert Grevenius to form the script for Bergman’s film Sommarlek (1950, Summer Interlude).

36. ‘Antagligen ett geni’ [Probably a genius]. Röster i Radio, 1946:50, p. 14.
Portrait of playwright Björn Erik Höijer whose radio play Sommar had been awarded second prize in a radio contest. Bergman’s brief article is a defense of playwriting as an art form that addresses the broad public and a critique of the modern Swedish poets (fyrtitalisterna), who have at their best a readership of 300 people. (See Ø 952)


‘Det regnar på vår kärlek’ [It rains on our love]. Film Script. SFI/USF Archives. Copyright: Nordisk Tonefilm.
Script II. Unpublished and undated adaptation of Oscar Braathen’s play Bra Mennesker [Good people], 127 p., plus some additional notes. Collaboration with Herbert Grevenius. One SFI Script II copy is scriptgirl’s shooting script. Text indicates that Bergman changed the dialogue at the end by extending the conversation between the young couple and the Man with the Umbrella. Script IV (dialogue lists) in English (36 pp.) and German (39 pp.). Production lists are also available containing time and shooting schedules, plus some idiosyncratic notes complaining about noise from airplanes and the troublesome search for extras: 18 cats!


‘Dröm i juli. Filmmanuskript av I. Bergman.’ [Dream in July. Screenplay by I. Bergman]. Referred to as Version I, January 1946. Date at end of manuscript is 24


Chapter II The Writer
January 1946. Manuscript is among SFI Special Ingmar Bergman Papers. See Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet (2002), p. 324, for further details.
Violent drama in tivoli setting with drunkenness, fights, and involuntary manslaughter. The ‘dreamer’ of this nightmare is Gunnar, a 25-year-old musician. His wife Eva is expecting a child. An old circus artist Folke, married to Alfhilda, may be an early portrait of Frost and his wife Alma in Gycklarnas afton/The Naked Night (1953). Cast also includes the old owner of a variety show, Mr. Kasparsson, who has artistic ambitions. He has a son, Paul, about 40. These names resurface in Bergman’s stage plays from the 1940s.


‘Kannibalen’ [The Cannibal]. Typed, unpublished and undated manuscript. In SFI Special Ingmar Bergman Papers.
An absurdist parody of the holy communion. The dramatis personae are Chief of Police, Mr. Fall, his Wife and a Prisoner named Samuel. Mr. Fall, who has committed 33 cannibalistic murders in one day, asks the Chief of Police to arrest him and have him executed. Mr. Fall has also cut open his own stomach to find his soul, which he keeps attached to a string and plans to cook for dinner. God has walked into his room; Mr. Fall kills him with fire prongs, then drinks his blood and tastes a piece of his flesh. He gives his soul to the prisoner Samuel.


‘Komedien om Jenny’ [The comedy about Jenny]. In SFI’s Ingmar Bergman Fårö Papers.
Unpublished early screenplay never filmed. Despite the comedy designation, the listed set of characters suggests that this may be an early draft for Dagen slutar tidigt (Early Ends the Day), one of three plays in 1948 collection Moraliteter (Ø 56).


‘Om att filmatisera en pjäs’ [About filming a play]. Filmnyheter 1, no. 4, 1946, pp. 1 -4 .
About the genesis of ‘Kris’, the first film directed by Bergman, who reveals that he did not like the original play by Leck Fischer, on which the film is based, until he invented the character of Jack.


‘Puzzlet föreställer Eros. Novell för filmen av Ingmar Bergman’ [The Puzzle Represents Eros. A short story for the screen by IB]. Typed, unpublished manuscript dated Persborg, Monday 7 October 1946, on the front page and on the last page, 9 October 1946. 108 pp. SFI Library, Stockholm. This short story forms the basis of a 201-page ‘Script II’ adaptation by director Gustaf Molander, titled ‘Kvinnan utan ansikte eller puzzlet föreställer Eros’ [The woman without a face or the puzzle represents Eros], written between 9 December 1946 and 15 January 1947. According to notes in Molander’s copy, ‘Script II’ has a 5-page additional dialogue, which Bergman was asked to provide. ‘Script IV’ (dialogue list) in English, 34 pp.
In connection with Molander’s filmatization, Bergman published an interview with himself about the script to ‘Kvinna utan ansikte’. Titled ‘Rut’, the interview reveals that the main character, Rut Köhler, is based on Bergman’s personal experience. See Filmnyheter 2, no. 11, 1947, pp. 1-4. Note that in the original short story, Rut’s last name is König, not Köhler.


List of Bergman’s Written Work
43. ‘Rakel och biografvaktmästaren. Teaterpjäs i tre akter av Ingmar Bergman’ [R and the cinema doorman. Stage play in thee acts by IB]. Sveriges Radio Archive. One handwritten and one typed manuscript among Bergman’s archival Fårö papers.
This play was submitted to the Swedish Radio but was rejected in no uncertain terms: ‘He wallows in crude and hellish aspects of life’ [Han frossar i alltings råhet och djävlighet]. This is an early version of a published play with the same name, printed in Moraliteter, 1948 (Ø 56). There is an unpublished English translation by Michael Meyer in Bergman’s Fårö papers.


‘Svensk film och teater: Ett samgående eller motsatsförhållande’ [Swedish film and theatre: Collaboration or opposition].
Unpublished lecture given 3 February 1946 in Höganäs City Hall. Arranged by Höganäs Föreläsningsanstalt [H. lecture society]. Advertised in Helsingborgs Dagblad, 2 February 1946, p. 13 and announced in a note in same paper, 3 February 1946, p. 14, but no write-up on content.

45. ‘Det förtrollade marknadsnöjet’ [The magic country fair]. Biografbladet 28, no. 3 (Fall) 1947: 1.
This is a Bergman tribute to Méliès and the magic dimension of filmmaking. Published in French as ‘Le plaisir ensorcelé de la fête foraine’. Positif 421, March 1996: 68-71, and in German as ‘Das verzauberte Rummelplatzvergnügen’. Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002), pp. 82-83.


‘Ej för att roa blott’ [Not just to entertain]. Sveriges Radio (SR), 2 January 1947.
Bergman participating in a radio discussion with other young Swedish artists about the serious ambitions of contemporary literature, sculpture, music, and theatre. Bergman’s contribution takes the form of a dialogue with actor Anders Ek about the fyrtiotalism movement. (Cf. Ø 952), Chapter IX.


‘I mormors hus’ [In grandmother’s house]. Program note to Göteborg City Theatre production of Bergman’s play Mig till skräck [Unto my fear], October 16 1947. Available at Göteborg Theatre Museum and Swedish Theatre Museum, Stockholm. Translated into German as ‘In Grossmutters Haus’, Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, pp. 86-91.
Tobias, fictional author of a drama about the writer Paul, depicts Paul’s background, which is reminiscent of the apartment of Bergman’s maternal grandmother in the city of Uppsala.


Script II. Unpublished and undated adaptation of Martin Söderhjelm’s play of the same name. With production lists. Serialized as a film novella in the popular magazine Fickjournalen, beginning in no. 44 (1947). Script IV. Dialogue list in English, titled ‘Land of Desire’, 28 pp.

‘Skepp till India land’ [A ship to India]. A film script. SFI Library, 138 pp.


Chapter II The Writer
Among Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI, are two typed copies of the script with set and character descriptions to the left, dialogue to the right. One copy is unmarked, the other appears to be assistant director’s copy. See Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet (2002), p. 326.


‘Tre tusenfotingfötter’ [Three centipede feet]. Filmjournalen 29, no. 51-52 (December) 1947: 8-9, 53.
Bergman writes about filmmaking as teamwork and presents producer Allan Ekelund, set designer P.A. Lundgren, and cinematographer Göran Strindberg.

50. ‘Brev från Ingmar Bergman’ [Letter from IB]. Terrafilm 10 år. Stockholm: Terrafilm, 1948, p. 20.
Letter from Bergman in booklet celebrating the Swedish production company Terrafilm’s 10th anniversary. Letter is adressed to producer Lorens Marmstedt and likens Terrafilm to ‘a beautiful, capricious, lustful, and witty lady in the prime of her life’ [en vacker, nyckfull, vällustig och kvick dam i sina bästa år].


‘Ett dockhem’ [A doll’s house]. Unpublished screenplay adaptation of Ibsen’s famous play. SFI Library Archives, Stockholm, ca. 105 pp. Spring 1948.
This represents Bergman’s first contact with Hollywood. The script was commissioned in early spring 1948 by David O. Selznick but never filmed. Alf Sjöberg was also contacted for the film project. According to Selznick, plans were dropped later that spring because of difficulty in finding a suitable cast. See GT, 29 January 1948; GHT, 13 March 1948, p. 9; DN, 30 April 1948, p. 3, and SvD, 2 May 1948, p. 9. Ingmar Bergman received $ 6,000 for the job, with which he bought his first real 9.5 mm projector (see Bergman om Bergman [Ø 788], p. 137, Eng. ed. p. 147). Bergman introduces his adaptation of Ibsen’s play as ‘a tale about the little doll wife Nora and her way out of dreams and lies to clarity and liberation’ [en berättelse om den lilla dockhustrun Nora och hennes väg ut ur drömmar och lögner till klarhet och frihet]. The opening scene is reminiscent of the Christmas scene in Fanny and Alexander, with giggling children, a big, tightlipped and sulking old housemaid, and father Torvald Helmer opening the season’s celebration ‘with patriarchal self-satisfaction’ [med patriarkal självtillfredsställelse], then feigning a stomach ache, so that he can disappear and return as Santa Claus. The props include a music box – a familiar Bergman emblem. On a sofa sits ‘Uncle Eyolf Rank’, and at the piano is Aunt Kristin. The entire party dances a Swedish long dance through the apartment, then sits down to listen to the Christmas gospel. The script ends with Torvald crying and being consoled by the old housemaid. A train whistle is heard. Torvald rushes out in his night shirt to the station. Nora is on board the train. As it leaves, Torvald falls to his knees, crying out: ‘But she lives, she lives...’ [Med hon lever, hon lever ...].


‘Fängelset’ [The prison]. Unpublished Film Script. In SFI and USF Library Archives.
Script II for ‘Fängelse’ (The Devils’s Wanton/Prison), dated November 1948 and subtitled ‘En moralitet för filmen’ (A morality for the cinema), ca. 200 pp.


List of Bergman’s Written Work
Script IV (dialogue lists) in English, titled ‘Prison’ (ca. 23 pp), and in German, titled ‘Gefängnis’ (ca. 57 half-size pp.), plus synopsis and Swedish press clippings, 2 pp. Endings of ‘Fängelset’ in Script II and IV vary. Script IV ends with a conversation between Martin, the director and Paul, the teacher about God and the meaning of life. Script II ends with Martin and an actress, Greta, at work together in the film studio. Film title was changed from ‘Fängelset’ [The prison] to ‘Fängelse’ [Prison]. ‘Fängelse’ dialogue was excerpted in Filmrutan 1, no. 2 (March 1958), pp. 12-18. Among Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI, there is an early typewritten short story version of ‘Fängelse’, titled ‘Sann berättelse. Novell för film av Ingmar Bergman’ [True tale. A short story for the cinema] and dated Duvnäs, August 10, 1948. See also Ø 60 and Ø 62 below.


‘Hamnstad’ [Port of call]. Unpublished film script. SFI and USF Library Archives.
Script II at SFI is an adaptation of Olle Länsberg’s voluminous (400 pages) manuscript ‘Guldet och murarna’ [The gold and the walls]. Script II is dated 19 May 1948, 119 pp. Script IV (dialogue list) in German, titled ‘Hafenstadt’, 23 pp. Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI, contain a typed director’s copy with some handwritten notes and sketches by Bergman, as well as a map showing in some detail the interior and exterior scenes from shooting the film in Göteborg and Stockholm.


‘Kamma noll. Komedi i tre akter’ [Come up empty. Comedy in three acts]. Typewritten, unpublished play, produced at Malmö City Theatre, 8 December 1948; directed by Lars-Levi Laestadius. SFI Library, Stockholm, ca. 47 pp. Three typewritten copies, found among Bergman’s Fårö papers, are dated Hälsingborg, 17 April 1948. Play has the following motto on front page: ‘Ger man djävulen rent spel förlorar han. (kammar noll)’ [If you give the devil fair play he loses (comes up empty)].
The play is a three-act triangle comedy, set in the Stockholm archipelago, with a married couple, their daughter and her boyfriend (both 17) and a femme fatale from the city, whose arrival sets off a nasty intrigue. The comedy designation seems somewhat stretched and was probably dictated by the play’s happy end.


‘Kinematograf.’ [Cinematograph] Biografbladet 29, no. 4 (Winter), 1948: 240-41.
Bergman talks about his grandmother’s apartment, his aunt’s Christmas gift of a laterna magica, and his first ventures into filmmaking. This article was published in French, titled ‘Le cinématographe’. Positif 421 (March) 1996: 68-71.


Moraliteter [Morality plays]. Stockholm: Bonniers, 1948. 256 pp.
Three plays published under the common name of Moraliteter. Individual titles are: Dagen slutar tidigt (Early ends the day), Mig till skräck (Unto my fear), and Rakel och biografväktmästaren (Rachel and the cinema doorman). Only the first of these is designed as a morality play with a metaphysical vision. The second is a study of an author who sells his integrity for commercial recognition; the third one is a Strindbergian marriage drama that later became the Rachel episode in the film Kvinnors väntan (Secrets of Women/Waiting Women).

Åke Runnquist, ‘Den demoniska silverpennan’ [The demonic silver pen]. BLM, April 1948, pp. 292-94.


Chapter II The Writer
57. ‘Själva händelsen’ [The event itself]. Filmnyheter 3, no. 20, 1948, pp. 4-7.
Bergman writes about an automobile accident and the new sense of life that this brush with death created in him. Out of this episode came the idea for the script to the film Eva. Translated into German as ‘Das eigentliche Ereignis’ in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, pp. 86-91.


‘Trumpetspelaren och vår herre’ [The trumpet player and our Lord].
Unpublished film synopsis and partly completed scenario, sold in February 1948 to SF. Later completed by Gösta Stevens and Gustaf Molander as script for the film Eva, directed by Molander. Script II, available at SFI, is subtitled ‘Novell för filmen’ (Short story for the screen) and dated 10 May 1948, 153 pp. Two typed script copies titled ‘Eva. Novell för filmen av Ingmar Bergman’ [Eva. Short story for the screen by Ingmar Bergman] are among Bergman’s Fårö papers. With a note that film script is by Gustaf Molander. Cf. Next item.

59. ‘Den lille trumpetaren och Vår Herre. Utdrag ur en prosaberättelse’ [The little trumpeteer and Our Lord. Excerpt from a tale in prose]. Maneten. Litterär kalender, ed. by Claes Hoogland. Stockholm: Albert Bonniers Förlag, 1949, pp. 63-75.
Excerpt from a short story. Episode depicts scene in film Eva where young Bo meets the blind girl Marthe.


‘Filmen om Birgitta-Carolina’ [The film about Birgitta-Carolina]. ST, 18 March 1949, p. 4. Reprinted in part in Röster i Radio/TV, no. 23 (1962), pp. 27-28 before TV showing of film.
On the eve of the opening of ‘Fängelse’ (Prison/The Devil’s Wanton), Bergman published this brief essay in a Stockholm daily, in which he talks about the genesis of the film and his conception of the main character, the prostitute Birgitta Carolina.


‘Joakim Naken eller självmordet. Melodram i tre akter (Sista akten i tre tablåer) av Ingmar Bergman.’ [Joakim Naked or the Suicide. Melodrama in three acts (Last act in three tableaus) by IB].
Handwritten manuscript dated Paris 23 October 1949. With a note reading: ‘This is a tragicomedy about the murderer and self-murderer Joakim Naked who lived and worked in Lyon around the turn of the century’ [Detta är en tragikomedi om mördaren och självmördaren Joakim Naken som levde och verkade i Lyon runt sekelskiftet]. Also in type-written sample, 102 pp. In Fårö papers. See Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet, 2002, p. 325, for listing of other drafts about Joakim Naked. Cf also (Ø 83), ‘Historien om Eiffeltornet’.


‘På förekommen anledning’ [Upon request]. DN, 5 April 1949, p. 11. Reprinted in Filmnyheter 4, no. 8 (1949): 3.
Open letter formulated as an advertisement and response to a department store complaint about main character’s job affiliation. See Commentary to ‘Fängelse/Prison’, in Filmography, (Ø 210).


List of Bergman’s Written Work
63. ‘Till glädje’ [To joy].Unpublished Film Script. In SFI and USF Library Archive.
Script II, dated June 1949, ca. 125 pp. Script II was serialized as film novel in Filmjournalen 32, nos. 12 through 20 (1950). Among Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI, there is a director’s script dated June 1949 with some handwritten dialogue changes.


‘Törst’ [Thirst]. Fårö papers, deposited at SFI.
Typed copy of director’s script with the standard format at the time (set and character descriptions to the left, dialogue to the right). Contains some commentaries by Bergman and detailed notes made before the shooting. See Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet, 2002, p. 327.


‘Vi ser på filmen’ [We look at the movies]. Swedish Public Radio, 1 November 1949.
Contribution to radio discussion about current film fare.

66. ‘Blad ur en obefintlig dagbok’ [Pages from a non-existent diary]. SFI Library, 4 pp.
Unpublished impressionistic thoughts about filmmaking. Bergman talks about his mixed feelings of panic, pleasure, and professional joy in making a film, and his sense of obsession with the film medium. He likens directing to an organist playing on a huge organ with notes instead of a script. What a director needs above all is know-how and a good condition. As for inspiration, that is fine too, but nothing to rely on. ‘Diary’ ends with a pep talk at the end of a week of filmmaking.


‘“Fisken” Fars för film’ [The fish: A farce for film]. Biografbladet 31, no. 4 (Winter) 1950-51: 200-225; 32, no. 1 (Spring) 1951: 18-21, no. 2 (Summer) 1951: 85-88, no. 3 (Fall) 1951: 110-15. Reprinted in Aura IV, no. 4, 1998: 62-88. Translated into German as ‘Der Fisch. Farce für den Film’. In Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, pp. 92-134. Translated into Polish as ‘Ryba. Farsa filmowa’ by T. Szczepański in Kwartalnik Filmowy, no. 14, 1996.
An absurd story about an early Bergman prototype, Joachim (alias Jack, Johan), who encounters a fairytale fish that gives him three wishes to be fulfilled. The plot revolves around a sexual conflict between Joachim and two women (wife and mistress). See introduction to this chapter.


‘Frånskild’ [Divorced]. Film script by Bergman and Herbert Grevenius, dated 9 November 1950 for film directed in 1951 by Gustaf Molander. SFI and USF Library Archives.
Script I (114 pp.) and Script II (169 pp.).


‘Medan staden sover’ [While the city sleeps].
Script I (ca. 140 pp) and Script II (139 pp.). Scripts are dated 29 January 1950. Script II contains location map and director’s (Kjellgren) notes. SFI and USF Archives.


Chapter II The Writer
Adaptation by Ingmar Bergman and Lars-Eric Kjellgren of a short story by Per Anders Fogelström titled ‘Ligister’ (Hoodlums).


‘Sommarlek’ [Summer interlude]. Unpublished film script. Based on a short story by Bergman called ‘Marie’ (see Ø 35) and completed together with Herbert Grevenius. In SFI and USF Library Archives.
Script II, titled ‘Sommarleken’ [The summer interlude] and dated 1 March 1950; 146 pp., plus 14 pp. additional text (takes 558-59) which introduces a ballet master masked as Coppelius, who visits Marie in her dressing-room at the Opera. In the original version, David, Marie’s male friend, appears instead. Script IV (dialogue list) in English, titled ‘Summer interlude’, 29 pp. Among Bergman’s Fårö papers there is a typed copy of the script marked ‘Film 3/50, Annalisa Ericson Sommarleken’. Ericson plays a ballerina in the film. This copy, presumably Ericson’s, also contains some stills from the film and location photographs. See Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet, 2002, p. 327. ‘Sommarlek’ was translated into French (but with Swedish film title retained) in Oeuvres, 1962, pp. 23-101 (Ø 122).


‘Untitled program’ note to Bergman’s production of Bertolt Brecht’s play, The Threepenny Opera, which opened at Stockholm’s Intima Teatern, 17 October 1950.
Bergman points out his use of Brecht’s 1938 London edition of play, which he was introduced to through Lotte Lenya’s record. Reveals strong reservations about the work. Fascinated by the music, but text bothers him for its detachment and cynicism.


‘Untitled manuscript’ in prose about a Monsieur Bazin and his wife, Madame B.
Seems inspired by Bergman’s stay in Paris in 1949. Plot somewhat reminiscent of Trolösa (Faithless). See Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet (2002), p. 325.

73. ‘Bo Dahlins anteckningar angående föräldrars skilsmässa’ [Bo D’s notes re: his parents’ divorce]. (See Ø 97), 1956 (‘Sista paret ut’). ‘Bris’ Commercials.
Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI, contain stenciled manuscripts to three of the Bris commercials (see Filmography, Ø 215); they are titled ‘Operation’, ‘Uppfinnaren’ (The inventor) and ‘Trolleriet’ (Magic act), each 2 pp.



‘Mordet i Barjärna. Ett passionsspel av Ingmar Bergman’ [Murder at Barjärna. A passion play by IB]. Unpublished play produced at Malmö City Theatre in 1952. Directed by Ingmar Bergman. Copy at Malmö City Theatre Archives. Cf. Sjögren, Ingmar Bergman på teatern, 1968), pp. 113-18. Prologue is translated into German as ‘Ich stand auf dem Berg’ in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002), pp. 135-136.


List of Bergman’s Written Work
Historical play about a priest who gets involved in adultery and murder. An early draft, titled ‘Jonas och Mari’ [Jonas and Mari], has recently been located among Bergman’s Fårö papers, now deposited at the SFI. Same source also contains a handwritten copy of the play in a brown envelope marked ‘Obs! Farligt Obs! Detta kuvert får ej röras av någon’ [Note! Dangerous Note! This envelope may not be touched by anyone]. See Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet (2002), pp. 325-326. Cf. Commentary and Reception to Malmö production of play, (Ø 414), Theatre Chapter VI.


‘Leka med pärlor’ [Playing with pearls]. In SF program for ‘Sommarlek’ (Summer Interlude), issued at opening of film, pp. 5-7.
Bergman writes about the source of the script for ‘Sommarlek’, begun at age 18. Repeats that filmmaking is teamwork: ‘A film is indeed like a centipede, and all the feet must keep the same pace. I have figured out that 129 persons have been more or less involved in “Sommarlek”’. [En film är verkligen som en tusenfoting och alla fötterna måste hålla jämna steg. Jag har räknat ut att 129 personer har varit mer eller mindre involverade i Sommarlek.]


‘Ni vill till filmen?’ [So you want to be in the movies?]. Filmjournalen, no. 36 (9 September), 1951, pp. 14, 26. Reprinted in French as ‘Vous voulez être comédien’ Positif, no. 447, (May 1998): 62-64.
Faked ironic telephone conversation between Ingmar Bergman and would-be actor who wants to make it in the movies.


‘Staden’ [The city]. In Svenska radiopjäser [Swedish radio plays]. Stockholm: Sveriges Radios förlag, 1951, pp. 41-95.
Expressionistic drama and/or morality play in three acts about Joakim Naken, whose childhood faith and security collapse during a nightmarish Sturm-und-Drang period while tin soldiers drum a funeral march. The title refers to Joakim’s return to the city of his childhood, where he listens to the wisdom of his grandmother. At the time of the first broadcast of Staden on Sveriges Radio (SR), Bergman published an account of the genesis of the radio play: ‘Anteckningar kring Staden’ [Notes about the City]. Röster i Radio, no. 19, 1951, p. 7. Bergman gives a brief account of how he assumed a protective incognito called Joakim Naken, who was able to sense the present, the past, and the future at the same time. With Joakim as his alter ego, Bergman explores a world without grace, which became the play Staden. The 1951 production was aired again on 20 February 1966 in a radio drama series called ‘Radioteater i 40 år’ [Radio Theatre during 40 years]. At that time Bergman was interviewed about the play by Gunnar Ollén on Swedish Radio (15 minutes). (Cf. Ø 542)

79. ‘Kvinnors väntan’ [Waiting women].Unpublished and undated film script. In SFI and Uppsala Film Studio archives.
Script II, 185 pp. With prop list, credits, location list, and shooting plan, 18 pp. SFI Script II copy is that of head of film inventory (propman) Gustav Roger. His copy includes notes about exterior and studio shooting. Script has a total of 894 takes. Arne Sellermark adapted Script II for serializing in popular magazine Allers, beginning in no. 49 (6 December 1952), p. 45.


Chapter II The Writer
Script IV (dialogue list) in English, 31 pp.


‘Sommaren med Monika’ [Summer with Monica]. Unpublished film script by Ingmar Bergman and Per Anders Fogelström, upon whose novel with the same name the script is based.
Script II, titled ‘En sommar med Monika’ [One summer with Monica] and dated 9 July 1952 (124 pp.) at SFI Archives. Script IV (dialogue list) in English, 15 pp., and in German, 16 pp. SFI and USF Archives.


‘Spela pjäs. Tre lektioner av Ingmar Bergman’ [Performing a play. Three lessons by IB]. Several copies of an undated stencil marked Malmö stadsteater elevskola [Malmö Theatre acting school], 46 pp. Malmö theatre archives; also in Bergman’s Fårö papers.
Dramatic exercise for Malmö City Theatre acting students where a director and playwright (Martin) presents his play about two (twin) characters, Mr. A and Mr. One, who compete for his attention.

82. ‘Gycklarnas afton’ [Eve of the clowns]. Unpublished film script. SFI Library Archives.
Undated Script II but with final shooting date listed as 31 May 1953. Script II is subtitled ‘Ett skillingtryck på film av Ingmar Bergman’ [A penny print on film by IB], 115 pp. One of two SFI copies of script is the copy used by cinematographer Hilding Bladh; the other copy is probably the director’s copy, containing inserted sketches and additional handwritten dialogue. Script II has a different ending from the released film version: Albert, the circus owner, joins Jens, the coachman, at dawn and falls asleep in a scene reminiscent of the opening sequence of the film. In the film Albert joins Anne, and the two walk silently side by side as the circus wagons roll on. In Script II, the last ‘shot’ of Anne has her look out the window at a picture of the Virgin Mary, which appears on an emblematic sign listed as part of the circus inventory. Script II of ‘Gycklarnas afton’ was serialized as a film novella in Filmjournalen 35, no. 25-26 through no. 38 (1953). Script II was used for the translation into French by C.G. Bjurström and Maurice Pons, ‘La nuit des forains’, published in Oeuvres, 1962, pp. 102-60. Also translated into Polish by A. Asłanowicz as ‘Wieczór Kuglarzy’ and published in Ingmar Bergman Scenariusze, 1973, pp. 32-93. Script IV (dialogue list) – two copies in English, one titled ‘The Buffoon’s Evening’, 25 pp., with production notes; the other titled ‘Sawdust and Tinsel’, 25 pp.


‘Historien om Eiffeltornet’ [The tale of the Eiffel tower]. BLM 22, no. 7 (November) 1953: 498-500.
Excerpt from Bergman’s play ‘Joakim Naken’ (see Ø 61), set in Lyon where Joakim is director in an early film studio. Because of a troubled personal and professional life, Joakim has assumed a new personality and has moved into a boardinghouse where he meets the landlady’s young daughter Marthe. He describes a filmatization of the Eiffel Tower, where the tower is perso-


List of Bergman’s Written Work
nalized. An imaginary film producer demands a happy end. Joakim toys with the idea of having the Eiffel Tower cross the Atlantic and marry the Statue of Liberty.


‘Ingmar Bergman intervjuar sig själv inför premiären på Sommaren med Monika’ [IB interviews himself before the opening of ‘Summer with Monica’]. SF program to ‘Sommaren med Monica’. SF Archives, Stockholm. Reprinted in Filmnyheter 8, no. 2 (1953): 4-5.
Tongue-in-cheek interview. Bergman suggests that nude bathing should become obligatory in all Swedish films: ‘In a country where the climate seldom permits anything but tub baths, ice baths and sauna, we should be given the illusion – with the help of the cinema – that there exists some idyllic area where well-shaped girls splash around as God created them, without getting goose pimples all over their bodies’. [I ett land där klimatet sällan tillåter annat än karbad, isbad och bastu borde vi delges illusionen – med filmens hjälp – att det existerar någon idyllisk plats där välformade flickor plaskar runt så som Gud skapade dem utan att få hönshud på hela kroppen.] Bergman ends ‘interview’ with a nature vignette from the shooting of the film, a moment at sea that he calls ‘evighetens sommar’ [eternity’s summer].


‘En lektion i kärlek’ [A lesson in love]. Unpublished Film Script. SFI and USF Library Archives.
Script II, dated 22 July 1953, 161 pp. Script IV (dialogue list) in Swedish only, 33 pp. Dialogue excerpt in Filmrutan 1, no. 2 (March 1958): 12-18. See also Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet, 2002, p. 327, for reference to director’s copy in his Fårö papers, dated 22 July 1953, which contains descriptions of dramatis personae.


‘Vi är cirkus!’ [We are like a circus]. Filmjournalen, no. 4, pp. 7, 31. Translated into German as ‘Wir sind ein Zirkus!’ in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002), pp. 137-39.
Short essay comparing filmmaking to the circus. Both are popular art forms that present entertainment and illusion.

87. ‘Det att göra film’ [Making films]. Filmnyheter 9, no. 19-20 (December): 1-9. SF also brought out an English version. Available at SFI library.
Originally given as a presentation at University of Lund, 25 November 1954, this essay was also presented as a radio talk in a slightly altered form on 17 April 1955, and reprinted under the title ‘Filmskapandets dilemma’ [The dilemma of filmmaking] in Hörde ni?, no. 5 (May 1955), pp. 427-33. It was delivered as a lecture in Copenhagen, 14 November 1959. The essay outlines the practical and ethical aspects of being a serious filmmaker.

Danish: Dutch: ‘Ingmar Bergman om att göra film’ in Kosmorama, no. 44 (April 1959): 182- 183; ‘Bekentenis van een filmmaker’ in Critisch Film Bulletin 12, no. 11 (November 1959): 83-84;


Chapter II The Writer
English: ‘What it Means to Make a Film’ (Stockholm: SF, n.d), tr. by P.E. Burke and Britt Halvorson and reprinted in part in the introduction to Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman (Ø 110), pp. xiii-xxii, and in the September 1960 issue of Horizon. Same version also appeared under title ‘Why I Make Movies’ in The Emergence of Film Art, ed. by Lewis Jacobs (New York: Hopkinson & Blake, 1969), pp. 294-302. Essay appeared in two segments under titles ‘I am a Conjurer’, Films and Filming 2, no. 12 (September 1956): 14-15; and ‘Dreams and Shadows’, Films and Filming 3, no. 1 (October 1956): 15-16. Also reprinted in a translation by Royal S. Brown in Film Makers on Film Making, ed. Harry M. Geduld (Bloom?ington: Indiana University Press, 1967), pp. 177-90. Still another English translation by Alice Turner appeared in Interviews with Film Directors, ed. Andrew Sarris (New York: Avon Books, 1967), pp. 34-45. Also referred to as ‘What Is Filmmaking’; ‘Qu’est-ce que faire des films?’ Cahiers du Cinéma, no. 61, (July 1956): pp. 10-19; SF issued a German translation by Dorothea Tribukeit, titled ‘Film Machen’ (n. d), which also appeared in Filmklub-Cinéclub 5, no. 4 (November-December 1960): pp. 236-46; Published as ‘Fare dei film e per me una necessita di natura’ in Cineforum 5, no. 45 (19 May 1965), pp. 366-72; it was also excerpted as ‘Il nostro lavoro’ in Cinema Nuovo no. 83, (25 May 1956, p. 302). ‘Eso de hacer peliculas’, appeared in Film Ideal, no. 68 (1964), pp. 13-17, and as ‘El Cine segun Bergman’ in Filmoteca, no. 16 (1972/73).

French: German:



There are certain discrepancies between the translated versions of this essay and the original text.


‘Kvinnodröm’ [Women’s Dream]. Unpublished film script.
Script II, 137 pp. At SFI Library Archives. Several copies. One copy is the scriptgirl’s copy and contains ca. 100 pp. bound notes and ca. 10 loose pages, most of them technical and revealing the fast tempo and sequence of shooting the film, as well as notes about disruptions caused by bad weather and airplane noise. Script II was the basis of the serialized novella in the Swedish magazine Allers 85, no. 50 (1961) through 86, no. 1 (1962). Script IV (dialogue list) in English, 21 pp. SFI and Uppsala Film Studio archives. One handwritten and one typed copy titled ‘Kvinnodröm. Novell för filmen av Ingmar Bergman’ [Women’s dream. Short story for the film by IB] are among Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI. The format is not that of a film script.


‘Spöksonaten’ [The Ghost Sonata]. Program note in Malmö City Theatre program to Bergman production of Strindbergs’s drama, 5 March 1954. Available at Malmö Music Theatre library.
Bergman relates his earlier experiences with Strindberg’s play and reminisces about his reaction to Olof Molander’s Dramaten production in 1942.


‘Trämålning. Moralitet av Ingmar Bergman’ [Wood painting. Morality play by IB]. In Svenska radiopjäser. Stockholm: Sveriges Radios förlag and Bonniers Uggleböcker, 1954, pp. 9-61. With a brief prefatory note introducing the author as a director and writer.


List of Bergman’s Written Work
Trämålning is an one-act play originally written by Ingmar Bergman for his acting students at Malmö City Theatre and later expanded into a script for ‘Det sjunde inseglet’/The Seventh Seal. In the original play, the Knight’s role is relatively minor. Death does not appear in person; and the Squire Jöns dominates the action. A narrator is included. Early drafts of the play are among Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI. In one of these, a 41-page typewritten version, the narrator’s name is Martin. See Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet, 2002, p. 326.

Danish: English: ‘Kalkmaleri’, tr. By Aage Henriksen. In Drama. En grundbog, ed. by Sejer Andersen. Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1978; ‘Painting on Wood’, tr. by Randolph Goodman and Leif Sjöberg. Tulane Drama Review 6, no. 2 (November 1961): 140-52, reprinted in Focus on ‘The Seventh Seal’, 1972 (Ø 1220), pp. 150-73. Paul Britten Austin did an English translation for BBC broadcast on 12 February 1962 (not published); ‘Peinture sur bois’, In L’Avant-Scène du Théâtre, no. 199 (June 1959), pp. 36-41; ‘Holzmalerei. Stück in einem Akt von Ingmar Bergman’, tr. by Barbara Meyer & Sibylle Rahm; among Bergman’s Fårö papers and not published. ‘Tafelbild’, in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, (Ø 1678) pp. 140-166; ‘Malowidło na drzewie’, tr. by L. Kałuska. Życie Literackie, no. 39, 1960; An excerpt was published in Cuadernos de Cine Club del Uruguay (Montevideo), 1961, 16 pp. and titled ‘El retablo de madera’, tr. by Michael Bibin.

French: German:

Polish: Spanish:

91. ‘Sommarnattens leende’ [Smiles of a summer night]. Film Script. SFI and USF Library Archives.
Script II, subtitled ‘En romantisk komedi på film av Ingmar Bergman’ [A romantic comedy on film by IB] and dated Rättvik, 27 May 1955, 184 pp. With production notes. Script II was excerpted and published in Folket i Bild (FIB), no. 51 (1956), pp. 20-23. Script was also adapted as a serialized novella in Allers, nos. 14 through 18, 1960. Script II has never been published in its entirety in Swedish but has appeared in several translations, such as: English: ‘Smiles of a Summer Night’, in Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman (Ø 110), pp. 5-94. This text is the basis of Steven Sondheim’s musical ‘A Little Night Music’, 1973. See New York Times, 26 February and 4 March 1973, p. 26:1 and sec. 2, p. 1:4, respectively; ‘Sourires d’une nuit d’été’, Oeuvres, 1962, (Ø 122) pp. 161-246; reprinted in L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma 454, 1996, 102 pp; ‘Das Lächeln einer Sommernacht’. In Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, (Ø 1678) pp. 167-240; ‘Sorrisi di una notte d’estate’, in 4 film di Ingmar Bergman (Ø 110), pp. 56-90.

French: German: Italian:

Script IV (dialogue lists) in English (no title), 23 pp.; in German, titled ‘Das Lächeln einer Sommernacht’, 56 pp.; in French, titled ‘Sourires d’une nuit d’été’, 23 pp. See also Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet (2002), p. 327, for reference to Bergman’s typed script containing his commentaries and sketches, plus a subtitle/note stating: ‘put together by B. with great effort’ [med stor möda sammanskriven av Bergman].


Chapter II The Writer
92. ‘Filmskapandets dilemma’. (See Ø 87).

93. ‘Aforistiskt av Ingmar Bergman’ [Aphoristic by IB]. Bergman program note to ‘Det sjunde inseglet’ in Swedish and German. Did not appear in English and French programs to the film. Reprinted in Swedish in program to ‘Sista paret ut’ [Last couple out], 1956, and Vi på SF (Stockholm: SF, April 1957), n.p. Reprinted in German as ‘Aforistisches’ in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, pp. 241-243.
Aphoristic statement grouped under three headings: ‘The Forbidden, the Permissible, and the Necessary’ [Det förbjudna, det tillåtna och det nödvändiga]. It is forbidden ‘to mourn the gifts that the fairies did not give you. [...] To be tempted by your neighbor’s film and not steal it’ [att sörja över de gåvor som feerna inte gav dig. [...] Att frestas av din grannes film och inte stjäla den]. It is permissible ‘att begå vilket brott, vilket konstnärligt våld, vilka hissnande lögner som helst så länge de är i sanning förföriska’. [to commit any crime, any artistic violence, any dizzying lies you please, as long as they are truly seductive]. It is necessary ‘att vara så upptagen att man inte har tid att tänka på vad som är förbjudet’ [to be so busy that you don’t have time to think about what is forbidden].


‘Anders de Wahl och den sista rollen’ [A. de W. and his last role]. FIB no. 18, 1956, p.11.
Account by Bergman of last role by grand old actor (‘the old lion’) in Swedish theatre, whom Bergman directed in Björn-Erik Höijer’s drama ‘Det lyser i kåken’ [There is light in the shack]. Their work together was marked by arguments, ruthless exchanges, and strong commitment. Having suggested one day that de Wahl quit his (small) part, Bergman discovered an actor who ‘was great, fearful, and inexplicable, a magician practicing his magic’ [var stor, rädd och outgrundlig, en trollkarl som utövade sin trollkraft].


‘Kära Eva och Harriet. Ingmar Bergman skriver brev till två “filmflickor”’ [Dear Eva and Harriet. IB writes a letter to two ‘film girls’]. FIB no. 12, 1956, pp. 12, 39.
Open letter to actresses Eva Dahlbeck and Harriet Andersson, both holding central parts in Bergman’s films at the time (Dreams, Smiles of a Summer Night).


‘Sex frågor till Ingmar Bergman’ [Six questions to IB]. Bildjournalen, no. 38, 1956, pp. 8-9. Appeared in French as ‘Bergman par lui-même’, Cahiers du cinéma, no. 85 (July 1958), p. 15; in German (untitled) in Action 4, no. 7 (October 1968): 36; in Spanish in preface to ‘El septimo sello’, Cuadernos de Cine Club del Uruguay (Monteviseo), 1961, pp. i-ii.
Brief statement in which Bergman talks about himself as a bourgeois person and ‘an actor not born’ [en ofödd skådespelare].


‘Sista paret ut’ [Last couple out]. Unpublished film script. Cf. Ø 73.
Undated Script II, subtitled ‘En film av Ingmar Bergman’ [A film by IB], 138 pp.


List of Bergman’s Written Work
Script IV (dialogue list) in German, titled ‘Junge Herzen im Sturm’, 25 pp. and 37 pp. The longer version has synopsis and production notes. A copy of Script IV is subtitled ‘Ur Bo Dahlins anteckningar angående föräldrarnas skilsmässa, återberättade av Ingmar Bergman’ [From Bo Dahlin’s notes about his parents’ divorce as told by IB]. SFI Library Archives, Stockholm. USF Archives, Uppsala, has a copy with a handwritten addition by Ingmar Bergman. A typed copy of Uppsala version is also among Bergman’s Fårö papers and dated 24 October 1951, with a 7 page addition presumably of later date, probably 1956 in connection with Alf Sjöberg’s filmatization of script. Cf (Ø 224) in Filmography.


‘Sjunde inseglet’ [The Seventh Seal]. Film script. SFI and USF Library Archives.
Unpublished Script II, dated 5 June 1956 and dedicated to Bibi Andersson, 128 pp. There are several copies of Script II at SFI, one of which has 6 pages of loose notes from the shooting of the film, and another which is a director’s copy full of half-legible notes, all of them of a technical nature. Excerpts from Script II appeared in FIB, no. 51 (1956), pp. 20-23. Script II was adapted as a serialized novella in Allers 84, nos. 14 through 18 (1960), but has never been published in its entirety in Swedish. Script II has, however, appeared in numerous translations: Czech: English: ‘Selmá pecet’, in Filmové povídky, 1982, pp. 5-52; ‘The Seventh Seal’ in Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman, 1960, (Ø 110), pp. 95164, reissued as a separate paperback in 1968, 92 pp.; also as Lorrimer paperback, London, 1968, together with last part of Ingmar Bergman’s essay from introduction to Four Screenplays; new edition 1984, 82 pp. Script was excerpted in Focus on The Seventh Seal (Ø 1220), pp. 154-58; ‘Le septième sceau’ in Oeuvres, 1962, pp. 247-308; ‘Das Siebente Siegel’, Cinemathek 7 (Hamburg: M. von Schröder, 1962), 85 pp., tr. by Thabita von Bonin (includes IB’s program note to The Seventh Seal, originally issued by SF in 1956; and foreword by Jacques Siclier; ‘Il settimo sigillo’, in 4 film di Ingmar Bergman (Ø 110), pp. 91-154; ‘Siódma pieczęć’, in Ingmar Bergman Scenariusze, 1973, pp. 96-162; ‘El septimo sello’, Serie Cine, no. 10 (Barcelona: Colección Voz Imagen, 1965), 160 pp., tr. by Julio Acerete; excerpted in Cuadernos de Cine Club del Uruguay (Montevideo), 1961.

French: German:

Italian: Polish: Spanish:

Script IV (dialogue list) in Swedish, 27 pp. Excerpts from Script IV appeared in Filmrutan 1, no. 2 (March 1958), pp. 12-18.


Untitled program note to ‘The Seventh Seal’. Issued by SF (Svensk Filmindustri) in connection with the American opening of the film, n.d. Reprinted in Focus on The Seventh Seal, pp. 70-71. Also printed in French as ‘Ingmar Bergman explique Le septième sceau’, Arts, no. 667 (23-29) April 1958, p. 4, and in Jacques Siclier. Ingmar Bergman. (Paris: 1960), pp. 81-82. Appeared in German in ‘Das Siebente Siegel’, Cinemathek 7 (Hamburg: M. von Schröder, 1962).
Bergman reminisces about mural paintings in Swedish country churches that he visited with his parson father, and states briefly his intention with the film.


Chapter II The Writer

100. ‘Ingmars självporträtt’ [Ingmar’s self-portrait]. Se, no. 9 (3 March) 1957: 33-34. Translated into German as ‘Ingmars Selbstporträtt’ in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, pp. 243-246.
Asked by the tabloid Swedish journal Se to draw his own portrait, IB relates an alleged incident at the Cannes Film Festival in 1956, when a Russian portrait artist drew a picture of him: two faces, one showing an old man, the other a young boy. To these Bergman adds a third one, called figuren [in the sense of ‘a real character’]. The essay is composed as an argument between these three about Bergman’s real identity. As if in a Pirandellian game, the portraits change roles with each other and contradict what they have stated earlier.


‘Smultronstället’ [Wild Strawberries]. Film script. SFI and USF Library Archives.
Script II to ‘Smultronstället’ dated 31 May 1957, 159 pp, plus 8 handwritten pages. There are several copies of Script II, one of which has one page of production notes and a very detailed production chart, made by production manager Gustav Roger. One Script II copy is Bergman’s and contains some additions, most notably an expansion of Alman’s examination of Professor Borg in the second nightmare sequence, including the microscope episode and Borg’s diagnosis of the ‘dead’ woman. In Script II Isak’s wife is called in by Alman and appears as Marianne dressed in black. She accuses Isak of having killed her child. Script IV (dialogue lists) in English, titled ‘Wild Strawberries’, 24 pp.; in German titled ‘Am Ende des Tages’, 20 pp.; and in French ‘À la fin du jour’, 17 pp. ‘Smultronstället’ has never been published in Swedish as a screenplay. It appeared serialized as a novella in Allers, nos. 16 through 20 (1962). It has been published in numerous foreign-language editions: Czech: English: ‘Lesní jahody’, in Filmové povídky, 1982, pp. 53-100; ‘Wild Strawberries’ in Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman (Ø 110), pp. 165-239; reprinted as a separate volume in 1970, 120 pp., and also translated by David Kushner and Lars Malmström as Classic and Modern Filmscripts, no. 18 (London: Lorrimer, 1970), 120 pp. [Lorrimer edition includes part of the introduction to Four Screenplays and Bergman’s homage to Victor Sjöström (Ø 109), plus sample of cutting continuity, pp. 96-120]; ‘Les fraises sauvages’ in Oeuvres, 1962, pp. 310-78; ‘Wilde Erdbeeren’ in Spectaculum 1, 1961, pp. 7-55, tr. Ingrid von Schering; reprinted in 1964 in a separate volume (Frankfurt a.M: Suhrkamp), 100 pp.; and in a new translation by Anne Storm in Wilde Erdbeeren und andere Filmerzählungen, 1977, pp. 7-72. Also tr. by Conrad Maria Färber in Arbeitsgemainschaft der Jungendfilmarbeit und Medienerziehung, Regensburg 1962, and excerpted in ‘Filmmaterialen’ Filmreihen 4, Psychoanalyse und Film. Aachen: 1980, pp. 61-65; 4 Film di Ingmar Bergman (Ø 110), pp. 156-222. Also in Scene di vita conjugale: L’immagine allo specchio; il posto delle fragole (Ø 174) and excerpted in Cinema Nuovo, no. 144 (March-April 1960), pp. 169-78; Title page not transcribed (SFI), tr. Houshang Taheri (Teheran: Ibn Sina, 1969), n.p.; ‘Tam, gdzie rosną posiomki’ in Ingmar Bergman Scenariusze, 1973, pp. 164-234; See Gordonskaja, (Ø 1178), pp. 119-90;

French: German:


Persian: Polish: Russian:


List of Bergman’s Written Work
Spanish: Turkish: Fresas salvajas, tr. E. Ripoli-Freixes (Barcelona: Ayman, S.A Editora, 1968), 140 pp.; Yaban lilekleri, Ankara: Bilgi yayeinever, 1965, 95 pp.

102. ‘Ansiktet’ [The Face/The Magician]. Film script. SFI and USF Library Archives.
Script II, subtitled ‘Komedi av Ingmar Bergman’ [Comedy by IB] and dated 4 June 1958, 161 pp. Script IV (dialogue list) in English, titled ‘The Face: A Screenplay by Ingmar Bergman’, 28 pp., with one page of production notes. ‘Ansiktet’ has never been published in Swedish. It has appeared in several foreign-language editions: English: French: Italian: ‘The Magician’, in Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman, 1960 (Ø 110), pp. 243325; ‘Le visage’ in Oeuvres, 1962 (Ø 122), pp. 380-453; ‘Il volto’ in 4 Film di Ingmar Bergman, 1960 (Ø 110), pp. 203-300.

A typed copy of ‘Ansiktet’ is among Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI. It is annotated in Koskinen, I begynnelsen var ordet (2002), p. 328, with a quote from the front page: ‘Mitt hjärta ängslar sig i sin litenhet för det som borde vara dess största längtan: Tre mäktiga floder vars namn är GUD, KÄRLEK OCH DÖD..’. [My heart is anxious in its smallness for what ought to be its greatest longing: Three mighty rivers whose names are GOD, LOVE AND DEATH...].


‘Dialog.’ Filmnyheter 13, no. 11 (1 September) 1958: 1-3.
Conversation between Bergman and an imaginary writer, in part an early draft of the 1959 essay ‘Varje film är min sista film’ [ ‘Each Film Is My Last’] Main topic is filmmaker’s responsibility to his public. IB expresses his ambivalent feelings towards his audience. This ‘conversation’ has appeared in: Dutch: English: French: German: Spanish: ‘Bekentenis van een filmmaker’ in Critisch Film Bulletin 12, no. 11 (November 1959): 83-84; ‘Conversation Piece’ in Films and Filming 5, no. 8 (May 1959): 31; ‘Dialogue’ in Cahiers du cinéma, no. 93 (March 1959): 24-26; ‘Dialog’ in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, (Ø 1678), pp. 247-249; (untitled) in ‘El septimo sello’, Cuadernos de Cine Club del Uruguay (Montevideo), 1961, pp. xv-xvii.


‘Jag vill vara med i leken’ [I want to be part of the game]. Röster i Radio-TV, no. 7, 1958, pp. 22, 53.
In connection with his early TV work, Bergman writes a brief essay in which he states his ‘readiness to rush in on the arena and do somersaults’ [beredskap att rusa in på scenen och slå kullerbyttor] and hopes he will not be excluded from the TV medium in the future.


Chapter II The Writer

105. ‘Djävulens öga’ [The Devil’s Eye]. Film script. SFI Library Archives, Stockholm.
Script II, subtitled ‘Komedi av Ingmar Bergman’ [Comedy by IB] and dated Rättvik, 28 August 1959, 191 pp. SFI also has a longer copy of Script II with some photo-technical notes and a location list. Script copy also among Bergman’s Fårö papers with some handwritten changes, as well as assistant director Lenn Hjortzberg’s location and shooting list.


‘Kära Allers familjejournal’ [Dear Allers family journal]. Allers, no. 49 (6 December), 1959, p. 45.
Letter to Allers in connection with magazine’s serializing of ‘Kvinnors väntan’ [Waiting women], beginning in no. 49, 1959. Bergman maintains that film and literature are two different matters, but hopes that Arne Sellermark’s adaptation of his film script for Allers’ readers will prove entertaining.


Untitled editorial. Filmrutan 2, no. 1: 1.
Critical comment about high entertainment tax on film. Throughout the 1950s when Swedish film production companies, some of which also owned movie house chains, were in financial straits, a lively debate eventually led to a redistribution of tax revenues and the establishment of SFI (Swedish Film Institute).


‘Varje film är min sista film’ [Each film is my last]. Filmnyheter 14, no. 9-10 (19 May) 1959: 1-8. Also aired on SR, 1 January and 6 January 1960, and issued as a pamphlet by SF in Swedish, English, French, German, and Italian, n.d.
This was originally a speech given at the Student Society at Copenhagen University on 14 March 1959 and printed in Danish film magazine Kosmorama no. 44, 1959, pp. 182-85. It was also serialized under Danish title ‘Stadier på filmens vej’ [Stages on Film’s Way] in the Copenhagen newspaper Politiken, 4 and 8 May 1959 (kronik page). Best known among Bergman’s essays on filmmaking, ‘Varje film är min sista film’ [Each Film Is My Last Film] is divided into three sections that might be subtitled: (1) the script, (2) the studio, and (3) professional ethics. The first section discusses the creative process from impressionistic vignette to completed film script; the second section deals with instruction of actors; and the last section explains Bergman’s three commandments: Thou Shalt Be Entertaining at All Times; Thou Shalt Obey Thy Artistic Conscience at All Times; and Thou Shalt Make Each Film as though It Were Thy Last. The last of IB’s three commandments was reprinted in the English, French, German, and Italian SF programs to ‘Ansiktet’ (The Magician/The Face), 1959. For additional translations of this essay, see: English: ‘My Three Most Powerfully Effective Commandments’, tr. by P.E. Burke and Lennart Svahn. Films and Filming 5, no. 10 (July 1959):8, 28. Also in Film Comment 6, no. 2 (Summer 1970): 9-13; and in Film World (India) 1965/66, pp. 145-47; and excerpted under the title ‘Bergman Tells How He Directs His Actors’ in Making Films in New York 4, no. 5 (October 1970):16, 32-34; and under the heading ‘Film and Creativity’ in American Cinematographer 53, no. 4 (April) 1972: pp. 427-31, 434;


List of Bergman’s Written Work
French: ‘Chacun de mes films est le dernier’, tr. Louis Marcorelles. Cahiers du Cinéma, no. 100 (October 1959): 44-54; and in Cinématographie française no. 266 (1964), n.p., and in Cinéma 59, no. 41 (November- December 1959): 39-49. Reprinted as an introduction to French edition of Oeuvres (Ø 122); ‘Jeder Film ist mein letzter Film’, in Der Film, ed. Theodor Kotulla (Munich: R. Piper & Co., 1966), 2: 239-48; also published in German program to ‘Fängelse’ (Das Gefängnis). Die kleine Filmkunstreihe Hefte no. 22, 1961; ‘Ogni mio film e l’ultimo’ (Stockholm: Svenska Institutet, n.d.); ‘Każdi film jest moim filmem ostatnim’, in Ingmar Bergman. W opinii krytyki zagranicznej. Ed. by Donata Zielińska, Warsaw: Filmoteka Polska, 1987, pp. 130139.


Italian: Polish:

109. ‘Extract in Memory of Victor Sjöström.’ Sight and Sound 29, no. 2 (Spring) 1960: 98. Reprinted in Wild Strawberries (London: Lorrimer, 1970). Also published in Swedish in FIB no. 13 (25 March) 1960, p. 24.
Bergman’s homage to Victor Sjöström, filmmaker and actor.


Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman. Translated from the Swedish by David Kushner and Lars Malmström; New York: Simon & Schuster, 1960. 330 pp; New York: Garland, 1985. 384 pp; New York: Simon & Schuster, 1989. 380 pp.
First publication of Bergman scripts in any language. Volume contains text to ‘Smiles of a Summer Night’, ‘The Seventh Seal’, ‘Wild Strawberries’, and ‘The Magician’. This volume was published in an Italian edition as 4 film di Ingmar Bergman, translated by Bruno Fonzi and Giacomo Oreglia. Turin: Giulio Einaudo, 1961, 310 pp.

Film Quarterly 14, no. 3 (Spring 1961): 61-62; Films and Filming 7, no. 5 (February 1961): 42; Le Soir, 20 April 1962; Manchester Guardian, 1 December 1961, Arts Section; National Review, 22 April 1961, pp. 257-8; New York Times, 21 February 1965, sec. 7, p. 43. Parool, 29 April 1961; Times Literary Supplement (London), 20 January 1961, p. 8. The NYT review listed above is written by Pauline Kael and pertains to the paperback release of Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman. Kael is very appreciative of Bergman as a writer: ‘Just on the basis of the printed page, Bergman is revealed to be a modern dramatist of considerable stature, a man whose theatrical “effectiveness” is comparable to that of Tennessee Williams or Edward Albee.’ Cf however Kael’s critical view of Bergman as a filmmaker (see Ø 1011).


‘Förbön’ [Blessgiving]. Chaplin, no. 8 (November) 1960: 187. Reprinted as ‘Andlig sömngångare och falskspelare’ (Spiritual sleepwalker and counterfeiter). Chaplin 1988, no. 2-3, 76, 157. Translated into German as ‘Fürbitte’ in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, pp. 250-254.


Chapter II The Writer
‘Prayer’ by Ingmar Bergman before his ‘execution’ in special Bergman issue of Swedish film journal Chaplin. The ‘execution’ was part of a hoax carried out by Bergman himself under the pseudonym of Ernest Riffe. See also (Ø 128).


‘Kära skrämmande publik’ [Dear frightening public]. Undated program note issued by SF at premiere of Djävulens öga (The Devil’s Eye), 9 October 1960.
Bergman engages in a dialogue with an imaginery viewer. He is not sure the public will look upon Djävulens öga/The Devil’s Eye as a comedy.


‘A Page from My Diary.’ Program issued by SF in English and French (but not in Swedish) at the opening of Jungfrukällan/The Virgin Spring. SF, Stockholm, 2 pp. Translated together with ‘Why I Make Movies’ in The Emergence of Film Art, ed. by Lewis Jacobs (New York: Hopkinson & Blake, 1969), pp. 294-302. Also appeared in French as ‘Journal d’Ingmar Bergman’ in Cinéma 60, no. 51 (November-December 1960):
Brief account of an episode when Bergman and his crew stop their work to watch some cranes flying above. IB realizes that he belongs in Sweden and decides to turn down an American offer.

114. ‘Away with Improvization—This is Creation.’ Films and Filming 7, no. 12 (September 1961): 13.
Expressing skepticism about improvization in filmmaking, IB discusses the Russian film ‘Lady with the Dog’, based on a Chekhov story. This article was originally published in Swedish in Chaplin, no. 18 (March 1961), 61-63, and is based on an interview with Bergman by Bengt Forslund: ‘Ingmar Bergman ser på film’ [IB looks at film]. See Interviews (Ø 734).


Cuadernos de Cine Club del Uruguay. Montevideo: Cine Club, 116 pp.
Spanish excerpts from scripts to Det sjunde inseglet/The Seventh Seal, and Jungfrakällan/The Virgin Spring, plus play text to Trämålning/Wood Painting.


‘Lustgården’ [Garden of Eden; also listed in English as ‘Pleasure Garden’]. Film script. At SFI Library Archives, Stockholm, and Uppsala Film Studio Archive.
Script II (148 pp) of film comedy written together with Erland Josephson under the joint pseudonym Buntel Ericsson, dated 15 August 1961. A film based on Script II was produced by SF and directed by Alf Kjellin. Script IV (dialogue list) in Swedish only, 28 pp.


4 film di Ingmar Bergman. Tr. by Bruno Fonzi and Giacomo Oreglia. Torino: Giulio Einaudo, 1961, 310 pp. See (Ø 110). ‘Nattvardsgästerna’ [The Communicants]. Film script.
Two undated Script II, SFI and UFS Archives, 134/118 pp. Complete text with notes. Script IV, British version titled ‘The Communicants’. 22 pp. In English at SFI. SFI has costume sketches for the film by Mago.



List of Bergman’s Written Work
Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI, include a director’s copy marked L-136, dated 1961/ 62, with a biblical quote on the title page (Matthew 9:2); some handwritten notes and two maps of location and shooting schedule. ‘Nattvardsgästerna’ was published in Swedish in En filmtrilogi, 1963, pp. 69-118; reissued as PAN paperback in Filmberättelser 1, 1973. A serialized adaptation of ‘Nattvardsgästerna’ appeared in Allers 87, no. 6 through no. 10 (1963). Nattvardsgästerna (Winter Light) has been published in numerous foreign editions: Czech: English: French: German: ‘Hosté vecere páne’, in Filmové povídky, 1982, pp. 151-91; ‘Winter Light’ in A Film Trilogy, 1965, pp. 62-101; ‘Les communiants’ in Une trilogie, 1963, pp. 112-98; ‘Licht im Winter’ in Wilde Erbeeren und andere Filmerzählungen, 1979 pp. 12974; also as ‘Die Abendmahlsgäste’ in Ingmar Bergman. Im Bleistift – Ton, ed. by Renate Bleibtreu, 2002, pp. 255-303; ‘Luci d’inverno’ in Sei film, 1979, pp. 3-58; Excerpt in Gordonskaja (Ø 1178), pp. 191-239.

Italian: Russian:


‘Såsom i en spegel’ [Through a glass darkly]. Film Script. SFI Library Archives.
Script II, 148 typewritten pages, undated and marked ‘L-131: En film av Ingmar Bergman’ [L-131: A film by IB]. There are three copies; one copy is studio manager’s copy (Gustaf Roger) and has sketches and outline of studio and exterior takes. In this copy the script is still titled ‘Tapeten’ (The Wallpaper). This copy includes some minor changes in dialogue (not in IB’s handwriting) and some indicated cuts. No Script IV available, but a synopsis in English is included in SFI archival material to film. Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI, include several manuscripts: a director’s copy with a quote from Corinthians 13:2 and a handwritten note by Bergman: ‘Tålamod. Jag måste ha tålamod. Jag måste stilla mig och ha tålamod. Tålamod. Förutsättningen är tålamod’ [Patience. I must have patience. I must calm down and have patience. Patience. Patience is the prerequisite]. Among the same papers is editor Ulla Ryghe’s copy with a map of locations and shootings. See Koskinen. I begynnelsen var ordet, (2002), p. 328. ‘Såsom i en spegel’ was printed in Swedish in En filmtrilogi, pp. 7-68. PAN paperback ed. in Filmberättelser 1. Excerpt in Chaplin, no. 23 (November 1961), pp. 199-209. The following are translated editions of Såsom i en spegel: Czech: English: French: German: ‘Jako v zicadle’ in Filmové povídky, 1982, pp. 101-149; ‘Through a Glass Darkly’ in A Film Trilogy, 1965, pp. 15-61; ‘Comme dans un miroir’ in Une trilogie, 1963, pp. 3-111; ‘Wie in einem Spiegel’, Cinemathek 1 (Hamburg: Marion von Schröder, 1962), 85 pp., tr. by Thabita von Bonin, with postscript by Reinhold E. Thiel; also published in Wilde Erdbeeren und andere Filmerzählungen 1977, (Ø 167), pp. 73-128; ‘Como en un espejo’ in Sei film, 1979, pp. 59-123; Also in Scene di vita conjugale: L’immagine allo specchio; il posto delle fragole, 1979; Title page not transcribed, tr. Houshang Taheri (Teheran: Ibn Sina, 1967), n.p. ‘Como en un espejo’, Serie cine 12 (Barcelona: Coleccion Voz Imagen, 1965), pp. 7-27, tr. Feliu Formosa, with foreword by Julio Acerete.

Italian: Persian: Spanish:


‘Såsom i en spegel’. Program note issued by SF at opening of the film on 16 October 1961. Bergman claims that the performing artist is a priest and his performance a cult act. The artist is simply an instrument serving his public.


Chapter II The Writer

121. ‘Min pianist’. [My pianist]. Vecko Revyn, no. 11 (pp. 16-18, 79).
Ingmar Bergman writes about his wife Käbi Laretei and the importance of music in his life.


Oeuvres. Translated by C.G. Bjurström and Maurice Pons. With a foreword by René Micha. Paris: Laffont, 1962. 453 pp.
French edition of ‘Sommarlek’, ‘Gycklarnas afton’ (La nuit des forains), ‘Sommarnattens leende’ (Sourires d’une nuit d’été), ‘Sjunde inseglet’ (Le septième sceau), ‘Smultronstället’ (Les fraises sauvages), and ‘Ansiktet’ (Le visage). This edition also includes Bergman’s 1959 essay ‘Varje film är min sista film’ (‘Chaque film est mon dernier’). (See Ø 108).


Script II, subtitled ‘Opus 26: En film av Ingmar Bergman’, dated 18 April 1962, 115 pp. Script IV (dialogue list) in English and French, 10 pp. Bergman’s Fårö papers, deposited at SFI, contain several scripts on ‘Tystnaden’, among them a bound script in grey felt, dated Djursholm, 18 April 1962; a typed script, same date, with some cuts; a possible director’s copy in black binding, same date, with shooting plan, set and cast lists and sequence division; a script titled Opus 26, part handwritten, part typed and with some sketches. See Koskinen. I begynnelsen var ordet, (2002), p. 329. ‘Tystnaden’ was published in Swedish in En filmtrilogi, 1973, pp. 119-65; issued in PAN paperback Filmberättelser 1, 1973 (see Ø 153). It was also serialized in Swedish magazine Allers no. 4 through no. 8 (1967). ‘The Silence’ has been published in numerous translated editions. Samples: Czech: English: ‘Mlcení’, in Filmové povídky, 1982, pp. 193-230; ‘The Silence’ in A Film Trilogy, translated by Paul Britten Austin (London: Calder & Boyars, 1965, pp. 101-43. This edition contains the screenplays ‘Through a Glass Darkly’, ‘Winter Light’, and ‘The Silence’. Also issued in U. S. paperback, Orion Press, 1968; ‘Le silence’ in Une trilogie, translated by J. Robnard (Paris: Laffont, 1963), pp. 199-270; also in L’Avant-scène du cinéma, no. 37 (1964), pp. 1-50, and in a separate volume (Paris: Seghers, 1972); ‘Das Schweigen’, Cinemathek 12 (Hamburg: M. von Schröder, 1965), 61 pp; also in Wilde Erdbeeren und andere Filmerzählungen, 1977, pp. 175-220; ‘Il Silenzio’ in Ingmar Bergman by Tommaso Chiaretti (Rome: Lo Schermo, 1964), pp. 143-201; also in Sei film, 1979, pp. 127-76, and excerpted in Cineforum 4, no. 43 (February 1964): 133-65; Bergman Scenariusze, 1973 (Ø 151), pp. 235-87.

‘Tystnaden’ [The silence]. Film Script. SFI Library Archives, Stockholm.


German: Italian:


124. En filmtrilogi: Såsom i en spegel, Nattvardsgästerna, Tystnaden. Stockholm: Norstedt, 164 pp. Issued in PAN paperback as Filmberättelser 1 (1973). 168 pp.
First Swedish edition of any Bergman screenplays. Contains Swedish text to Through a Glass Darkly, Winter Light and The Silence.


may have led reviewers to focus on two questions: Could the scripts revise the Swedish ambivalence towards Bergman’s filmmaking. 21 October 1963. Janzon. 17 October 1963. Göransson. ‘Bullret kring Tystnaden’ [The noise around The Silence]. At the same time they also pointed out that Bergman’s written dialogue needed his image-making to carry artistic weight. 1966). ‘Ingmar Bergmans kammarspel’ [Ingmar Bergman’s chamber plays]. 7. p. SvD. (Copenhagen: Det Schønbergske Forlag. by C. SFI and USF Library Archives. 4. and what was the relationship of the scripts to the finished films? Though Bergman’s real ‘literary’ breakthrough in Sweden was not to come until 1987 with the publication of Laterna magica. Trans. dated 1963: a handwritten director’s copy with a preliminary shooting schedule. Une trilogie. ST. ‘En bild av Ingmar Bergman’ [A picture of Ingmar Bergman]. (Ø 110). A Film Trilogy. and a separate dialogue list. dated 21 March 1963. Åke. ‘Ingmar Bergman – skrivet och beskrivet’ [Ingmar Bergman – written and described]. DN. p. Edström. This was an important observation in that it paved the way for a greater sympathetic understanding of the film trilogy than had been the case at its initial screen exposure. by Paul Britten Austin (London Calder & Boyars. 4. almost all reviewers of En filmtrilogi found positive ‘literary’ qualities in the published trilogy. ‘En diktare’ [A poet].G. a bound script with the name of the editor (Ulla Ryghe). Reviews (all of which also discuss Vilgot Sjöman’s book L 136. 3. Cornell. 30 October 1963. Bjurström (Paris: Laffont. 16 December 1963. 270 pp. 3. 22 November 1963. 1967). 3. 1963). Expr. p. Four Screenplays. Bo. With Erland Josephson. There was an element of surprise at discovering the asceticism of Bergman’s written language as compared to his early plays with their excessive emotionalism and occasional verbal bombasm. Mauritz. 3. 17 October 1963. 25 through 29. For more detail. ca 100 pp. undated.. KvP. p. 1965. ‘Tre liknelser’ [Three parables]. Trans. Translated editions of this volume include: Danish: English: French: En filmtrilogi. 1965) and (New York: Grove Press. Script II was adapted as a film novella in Allers 88. see Koskinen. AB. p. 99 . 143 pp. Jonas. Several copies of Script II are among Bergman’s Fårö papers. 16 October 1963. ‘För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor’ [Not to speak about all these women]. p. not as a literary writer but a filmmaking poet. a diary from the shooting of Nattvardsgästerna) include: Axelson. p. 2002. Sverker. GHT. I begynnelsen var ordet. Script II. 125. Jurgen. 129.List of Bergman’s Written Work Press Reception This being the first collection of Bergman film scripts published in Sweden (cf. 1964. Bo Strömstedt’s review with the headline ‘En diktare’ [A Poet] and Sverker Göransson’s discussion of ‘Ingmar Bergmans kammarspel’ [IB’s chamber plays] are examples of a new recognition of Ingmar Bergman. p. Sun. Strömstedt. Schildt. ‘Filmdiktaren Ingmar Bergman’ [The auteur Ingmar Bergman]. nos.

Stcokholm. [. responds to Ibsen Criticism]. 6 pp. ‘Seminarium om personinstruktion’ [Seminar about casting]. L’Express. 130. 1 August 1965. See Theatre chapter VI (Ø 440). Bergman’s text gives his reason for declining an invitation to Venice Film Festival: ‘All artists except actors should be invisible. One of three texts written by filmmakers in connection with Venice Film Festival. SvD. no.’ Cahiers du cinéma. 1964 127. ca. Also published as preface to Swedish edition of Persona. 121 (January) 1971. Expr. Unpublished notes from a seminar held by IB at Stockholm Film School. (Cf. p. ‘Trois textes pour Venice. 108) in the 1950s. Ernest [Ingmar Bergman]. ‘Jag tvivlar på Filmhögskolan’ [I doubt the Film School]. He bases his talk on three scenes from his own films: (1) Tystnaden/ The Silence (Ingrid Thulin. skamlösa. Riffe. 129. For Bergman’s full statement. The essay plays the same central role for Bergman’s views on filmmaking in the 1960s as did ‘What is Filmmaking?’ and ‘Each Film Is My Last’ (Ø 87. which Ingmar Bergman did not attend because of illness. 128.. p. irresponsible art – a snakeskin filled with ants]. Ingmar Bergman denies that art can have 100 . under title ‘Bergman parle des femmes’. Article in the form of a self-interview. Plea by Bergman for a Swedish cinemateque and for a film school that would give novice filmmakers more than one chance to make a film. 18 September 1964. (2) Såsom i en spegel/Through a Glass Darkly (Harriet Andersson and Lars Passgård in the attic). p. Response to critique by Olof Lagercrantz of Bergman’s 1964 production of Hedda Gabler at Dramaten. SFI Archives. oansvariga konsten – ett ormskinn. Stockholm: Norstedt. fyllt av myror’ [The free. 42 (December 1963): 304-5. no. 1966. no. ‘Bergman svarar på Ibsenkritik’ [B. Gunnel Lindblom and Birger Malmsten in bedroom sequence).Chapter II The Writer 126. which opened at Dramaten in early December 1964 (not directed by Bergman). This essay was originally written as a speech for the Erasmus Award ceremonies in Amsterdam in Spring 1965.] The artist should not appear at Christmas celebrations or festivals. Bergman begins the seminar by stating one basic premise: the professional actor is the alpha and omega of filmmaking.159 (October) 1964:12-13.. 68. Ø 111).’ 1965 131. Chaplin. 4. 16.. ‘Den fria. Reception. see the program to Ulla Isaksson’s play ‘Våra torsdagar’ [Our Thursdays]. ‘Recueilli’. Reprinted in L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma. (3) Nattvardsgästerna/Winter Light (Ingrid Thulin’s long letter monologue). 5 March 1964. Pour ne pas parler. 4 December 1964. shameless.

pp. pp. ed. no. pp. which instead includes ‘Ormskinnet’ (Ø 131). moon landscape). Also translated in full as ‘Die freie schamlose verantwortungslose Kunst – eine Schlangenhaut voller Ameisen’. ‘The Serpent’s Skin’ in Cahiers du cinéma in English 11 (September 1967): 24-29. no. 89 pp. 29 December 1966. 61 (January 1967): 19-29. Item is also included as a preface to American edition of ‘Persona’ and ‘Shame’ (New York: Grossman. pp. 7 October 1965. pp. 10. and in Cahiers du cinéma 453. Autumn 1965. 2 (Summer 1970): 1415. Also appeared as ‘The Snakeskin’ in Film Comment 6. 89. most notably a fairly long passage in which Elisabeth Vogler talks about her happy and hermetically close relationship to her husband. 176. ‘Kinematografi’ Film Script for Persona. usually referred to as ‘Ormskinnet’ (The Snakeskin) has been published in: Dutch: English: ‘Credo van een Filmer’ in Supplement. p. 4 (April 1972): 378-79. An excerpt titled ‘À propos de Persona’ appeared in Cahiers. p. 16 (1972-73). 6-8. and no doubling of Alma’s and Elisabeth’s face. Baal + Frascati. no. though there is a meta-filmic insert just before Alma and Elisabeth move to the doctor’s summer house (scene 13). ‘La priogione della mia solitudine’ in Cineforum 7. 11-15. There are some notable differences between Script II and the final film. in Arts. Two copies of typewritten ‘Script II’ titled ‘Kinematografi’ at SFI and one copy at USF Archives. no. and as ‘Ingmar Bergman over kunst’. followed by the main ‘story’. 1973. In the script the famous prologue consists of only a short film strip with rapidly shifting images of nature (clouds. 16-17. Nurse Alma’s face emerges. 179 (June 1966). Focus was on Bergman’s view of art as disguise (förställning) and life as role-playing. followed by atmospheric sounds of words. 27 (30 March 1966). p. He sees the artist as a self-absorbed but curious explorer of the world within his reach. titled ‘L’art est pour moi sans importance’. 16-18. ‘Kinematografi’ has a prefatory note by Bergman that is not included in published (1966) version of Persona. Ingmar Bergman. French: German: Italian: Spanish: 132. Sight and Sound. no. Reception (of Persona as book) Reviewers were as intrigued by Bergman’s preface (‘Ormskinnet/The Snakeskin’) as by the script (which some referred to as a novel). The essay. The book version of Persona was published in Sweden in 1966 (Stockholm: Norstedt). 94 pp. dated Ornö 17 June 1965. 188 (March 1967). Im Bleistift – Ton. Nor is there any reference later on in the script that the film breaks during Alma’s and Elisabeth’s confrontation. Excerpt appeared in Kurt Habernoll’s review article on ‘Persona’ in Abend. no. Unlike the film version. 5-46. under the title ‘Je suis un boulinique’. by Renate Bleibtreu. One critic (Ericsson) thought Persona (the book) covered up the fact that Bergman. Algemeen Handelsblad. ‘La piel de serpiente’ in Filmoteca. 375-380.List of Bergman’s Written Work any healing or therapeutic function. and under the heading ‘Film and Creativity’ in American Cinematographer 53. One copy at SFI is copy left by Bergman to be typed up as final shooting script. Excerpt and summary in English. trees. no. 1972). no. there is no boy and no hospital morgue where he wakes up. as a director. pp. Reprinted as Norstedt/Pan paperback in Filmberättelser 2. ‘La peau du serpent’ in Cahiers du cinéma. a weakness according to the reviewer that revealed Bergman’s inability to be 101 . 3 (April) 1986. Script has some additional dialogue. 2002. always gave the impression of being greater than the sum of his actors.

22 pp. complete script to Persona in French printed in ‘Cris et chuchotements’ suivi de ‘Persona’ et ‘Le Lien’ (Ø 169). Erwin. ‘Persona’ in Persona and Shame. Kruskopt. has additions referring to ‘the marsh sequence’ (last sequence. (includes ‘Snakeskin’ essay). 5.Chapter II The Writer affected by his instruments. Plot revolves around a middle-aged couple – an actor and his wife (a dancer) – whose marriage is breaking up. 1967. p. 1971. pp. 9 December 1966. 52 pp. 18 October 1966. no. Im Bleistift-Ton. 1979. 288-321. 340-374. 19 October 1966. Iskusstvo kino. 2002. 1973. ‘Persona’ in Bergman scenarieusze (Ø 151). Script IV (dialogue lists) in English. It replaces pp. En film av Ingmar Bergman. 18 October 1966. Bergman explains that the script was written after the 102 . Åke. Vargtimmen was published in Swedish in Filmberättelser 2. The script has also appeared in numerous foreign-language editions. subtitled ‘L-165’. 7. ST. Gefle Dagblad. This addition is retained in published version of the script. ‘Vargtimmen’ [Hour of the wolf]. p. tr. 2. 62 pp. Erik. various pagination. Die Weltwoche. by Renate Bleibtreu. such as: Danish: English: French: Persona. A narrative film script edited for Allers by Arne Sellermark. no. 1976. August 1964 and April 1966. nos. pp. ‘Den åldrande Ingmar Bergman’ [The aging IB]. used as shooting script. Film script. 1967 134. pp. In Sei film (Ø 173). Göran O. 1973: 49-85. Wejbro. 27 October 1966. 79-87 in other copies of Script II and consists of the grotesque voice of ‘The Mother’ who abuses Johan. Hufvudstadsbladet. 64-132. Script II. ed. In an introductory note. 20-101 (includes ‘Snakeskin’ essay. dated Djursholm. ed. 1967). pp. pp. GP. 46-50. ‘Persona’ in L’Avant scène du cinéma. and in English in Four Stories of Ingmar Bergman. pp. It appeared as Wolfsstunde in Ingmar Bergman. Claes Lembourn (Copenhagen: Det schönbergske. surrounded by various bird figures. Folke. ‘Förkonstlingen och tystnaden’ [Artificiality and silence]. followed by final narrative vignette with Liv Ullmann). 97-168. Perlström. ‘Persona’ in Ingmar Bergman. pp. Im Bleistift-Ton. his actors merely confirmed his already shaped vision. 2002. as well as in English Script II copy. Allers. 8 (1991): 133-49. p. 82 pp. German: Italian: Polish: Russian: 1966 133. 304-342. ‘Das Schweigen des Künstlers’. Setting is in a film studio. 6. One Swedish Script II copy. SFI and USF Archives. 85 (October 1968). Also English copy. 59-60. Reviews Ericsson. 89 pp. ‘Tystnaden ingen utväg’ [Silence no way out]. formed by his personal experience and feelings. pp. by Renate Bleibtreu. p. ‘Ingmar Bergmans “Persona” i bokform’. ‘Falskspelet’ [The fraud]. pp. 11-15). Leiser. (dialogue only). 267-310. 1979.

List of Bergman’s Written Work making of ‘Sommarnattens leende’ (1955). 164 pp. Translations include the following language publications: English: French: ‘The Passion of Anna’ in Four Stories by Ingmar Bergman. Script IV was published in Italian in Cineforum 9. 136. ‘Une passion’ in L’Àvant-scène du cinéma. 1970. Stockholm. SFI Archives. 1977. Script I. 1971 pp. 128 pp. One copy has no translator listed. 138. ca. A Film Trilogy. and The Silence. 147 pp. 4-5. Script II.. Account of genesis of Shame. 46. Winter Light. 1973: 87-140. 83 (March): 177-83. A 90-page unpublished script with same title is among Bergman’s private Fårö papers. 56 pp. ‘Fantastic is the Word. pp. Stockholm. 1973: 7-55. Two copies in English. listed in Script II and in some published editions. Story was originally conceived as a civil war. 1976 pp. ‘En passion’ was published in Filmberättelser 2. dated Grindstugan. 132-68. the other (114 pp. 123 pp. ‘En passion’ [A passion]. TV Film script. Script IV (dialogue list) in Swedish. p. 3. Also issued in U.’ Film World. Title of film refers to humiliation and degradation of human life in war. ‘Skammen’ [The Shame]. 29). Contains translation of screenplays to Through a Glass Darkly. is a quote from the German poet Christoph Martin Wieland (1733-1813): ‘Things Vanish: Become but Dreams. by Paul Britten Austin. 1968. [Annandreas: Suggestions for scenes from a marriage]. pp. 105-91. 135. 141-80. 34 pp. Script IV (dialogue list) in English. Tr. ‘Skammen’s’ motto. 109. no. 221-72. ‘Die Schande’ in Wilde Erdbeeren und andere Filmerzählungen. SR/TV Archives.. Script II in Swedish. 1967. Stockholm. Script II ‘Skammen’ was published in Filmberättelser 2. and 114 pp. 119 pp. now deposited at SFI. Published in Swedish in Filmberättelser 3. 139. titled ‘Annandreas: Förslag till scener ur ett äktenskap’. apparently translated at different times.) lists the name of Alan Tapsell. ‘Riten’ [The rite]. 31 pp. 103 . which was such an ordeal that Bergman tabled the thought of filming ‘Falskspelet’ (see Allers. no. no. pp. dated 10 May 1968. London: Calder & Boyars. titled ‘En passion’. Film script. 1973. The text was based on Script I. dated 11 August 1968. SFI. titled ‘Skammens drömmar’ [Dreams of Shame]. no. with same setting as in The Silence. It has appeared in the following translations: English: German: ‘Shame’ in Persona and Shame. 54 pp. Film script.’ 1968 137. Script II.S. paperback by Orion Publishers. 21 May 1967. variance at length is due to typescript and differences in English usage.

177-228.p. p. pp. in English at SFI. British version. Open letter from Ingmar Bergman to SR/TV Corporation. 7 November 1968. In the U. pp. ‘Reservatet’ was published in Filmberättelser 3. n. 66 pp. 140. stating his indignation at methods used by a team of news reporters to track down a local politician and expose him to TV cameras in a nervous and unprepared state. ‘The Lie’ was produced on 24 April 1973 by CBS Playhouse and directed by Alex Segal. directed by Alan Bridges. 1979. SR/TV2 Archives. p. no. Ernest Riffe.Chapter II The Writer Translations Danish: German: Italian: ‘Ritus’ in 4 Filmmanuskripter. under the heading ‘Utför med Ingmar Bergman’ [IB downhill]. It has appeared in the following translated volumes: Danish: German: ‘Reservatet’ in 4 Filmmanuskripter. 8 June 1969. Stockholm. TV Film script. 273316. ‘Das Reservat’ in Wilde Erdbeeren und andere Filmerzählungen. 104 . 143. Typed manuscript in English titled ‘The Lie’ and translated by Paul Britten Austen is available at SFI Archives. 1975. 1-9 (with pictures from ‘Skammen’) and reprinted in English in Take One 2. (Ø 1678). 1975. Im Bleistift-Ton. by Renate Bleibtreu. pp. (Ø 173). ‘Reservatet’ was planned as a Eurovision play. 4. Cf Media Chapter V (Ø 324). 3 (1969): 11. no. ‘Reservatet’ [The Sanctuary]. ‘Il rito’ in Sei film. ‘Interview’ was printed in English and French in Film in Sweden no. Expr. was aired on BBC 1 on 29 October 1970. Chaplin. 19 pp. no. (Ø 165). 40 pp. ‘Schizofren intervju med nervös regissör’ [Schizophrenic interview with nervous director]. religious. 382-427. 3. ‘Der Ritus’ in Ingmar Bergman. Bergman prints a fictitious interview with himself in which he comments sarcastically on the tendency among critics to define his political. subtitled ‘En banalitetens tragikomedi’ [A tragi-comedy of banality]. and moral values. Under his old pseudonym. 4 (Winter/Autumn) 1969: 35-36.. ‘Fårö-dokument 69’. 1973: 58-99. ‘Skrämd och illamående bevittnar jag TV-jakten’ [Horrified and sick I witness the TV witch-hunt]. ed. 25 September 1968. Swedish TV version was directed by Jan Molander and televised on 28 October 1970 and retransmitted on 9 April 1971. 142. Unpublished typescript. ca. ‘Subtitles’ in English.S. and in Making Films in New York 4. Stockholm. 12. 5-62. pp. Script IV. pp. It also appeared in Spanish in Nuova Film (Montevideo). Several copies at SFI.. and in German under the title ‘Engeln und Dämonen’ in Argus (Munich). 1968. to be produced in a number of different national TV versions in Europe. This is identical with text in film. Script IV. 61-105. 84 (October) 1968: 274. no. 2002. 1979. 3 (June) 1970: 12. pp. First printed in Expr. 1969 141.

no. 148. pp. SFI Archives.List of Bergman’s Written Work 144. supporting removal of a member in a film jury (film critic C. pp. because he had collaborated on a script for one of the films to be judged.. subtitled ‘En film av Ingmar Bergman’. The text to ‘Beröringen’ [The Touch] has appeared in a number of translated editions: Danish: English: French: ‘Berøringen’ in 4 Filmmanuskripter. has IB’s introductory remarks to his crew and a presentation of the characters. 25-27. his literary script. Han stinker.-O. 171 (December 1972). ‘Viskningar och rop’ [Whispers and Cries]. Bergman talks about his discovery of his mother’s diaries after her death and how a more complex portrait of her began to take shape in his mind. 1979. [. 1973: 153-71. 147. 1973). ‘Min mors dagböcker avslöjar vem hon var’ [My mother’s diaries reveal who she was]. 133203. Open letter from Ingmar Bergman. This script was the basis of the version printed in Filmberättelser 3 (Stockholm: PAN/Norstedt. Trans. 105 . 191 pp.] Ta bort honom. 88-89. See also Linton (Ø 1526). ‘Le lien’ in ‘Cris et chuchotements’ suivi de ‘Persona’ et de ‘Le lien’. 69 pp.H. 4. Ingmar Bergman calls Svenstedt ‘a clown and a tail-wagger.. 1971).. pp. Stockholm. Film script. Script II. Husmodern. no.. dated 3 June 1971.. This is the script closest to the film version and contains dialogue. pp. Film script. as part of an article by L. 31 pp. Script I. 11 October 1969. 103-149. ‘Persona’ and ‘Shame’.] Take him away. 65. Swedish published manuscript includes a preface by Ingmar Bergman in which he cautions the reader that a script is a half-baked piece of writing. 39. (London: Calder & Boyars. 114 (1972). pp. pp. ‘Beröringen’ [The Touch]. which contains Bergman’s notes to his actors. Löthwall on ‘Cries and Whispers’. plus 20-page location list. ‘Svenstedt och Korridoren’ [Svenstedt and The Corridor]. ‘The Touch’ in Four Stories of Ingmar Bergman. and Commentary to ‘Viskningar och rop’ in Filmography (entry Ø 255). Swedish publication of script appears in Filmberättelser 3. by Keith Bradfield. no. Most complete published French version of ‘Viskningar och rop’ can be found in L’Avant-scène du cinéma. 1971 146. 1971.. pp. 1975. pp. [. 3-55.] 1970 145. p. Script I. Expr. He stinks’. 86 pp. Excerpt of Script II was published in Chaplin. SFI has English and French translations of Script II. 1976. Same text appeared in French translation in Cinéma 72.. ‘a pale and tentative mirror image’ [en blek och osäker spegelbild] of the finished film. Svenstedt). 18-19. dated September-October 1970. no. 67. [en clown och svansviftare. 142 (December 1973). 107-56. New York: Grossman. 7-56. and the dialogue script.

15 (May 1973): 11-12. by Gunilla M. (Norwich: Norvik Press). 171 (December 1972): 25-27. tr. Tabitha von Bonin. 1974). 21 October 1972. 231-332. (Prague: Odéon. 1975. (Ø 164). and 1992. German: Italian: Polish: 1972 149. 323-55.Chapter II The Writer The following translated editions of ‘Viskningar och rop’ are all based on Script II: Danish: English: French: 4 filmmanuskripter. titled Föreställningar (Ø 199). ‘Cris et chuchotements’. 1979. 199 pp. Published editions of ‘Scener ur ett äktenskap’ follow original Script II format. Swedish script was published as Scener ur ett äktenskap (Stockholm: Norstedt. Also as ‘Une lettre de B à ses collaborateurs de Cris et chuchotements’. no. 1973). (Ø 167). 159-95. Szenen einer Ehe. TV script. 38. Scener fra et aegteskab. T. dated June 1972. 2000. tr. von Schröder. 378 pp. 3-63 (Ø 169). 1992. Copyright 1990. Anderman. tr. ‘Scener ur ett äktenskap’ [Scenes from a Marriage]. 1977. Albertini (Paris: Gallimard. 1977. ‘En själslig angelägenhet’ is a monologue (broadcast in 1990) by a woman on the verge of a breakdown who. Published in English translation by Eivor Martinus in New Swedish Plays. Hortlová.. ‘Schrei und Flüstern’ in Wilde Erdbeeren und andere Filmerzählungen. pp.. 196 pp. pp. Scvenebi cvolkumrul cvxovrebidpn. 216 pp. Scènes de la vie conjugale. Also in Four Stories by Ingmar Bergman. 229-65.G.. 1979. 46. Scenes from a Marriage. 204 pp. ‘Szepty i krzyki’ in Bergman Scenarieusze. J. see introduction to this chapter. pp. (Berlin: Volk und Welt. tr. 1992). 138 pp. Z. 11 August 1972. Script II subtitled ‘Sex dialoger för televisionen av Ingmar Bergman’ [Six dialogues for television by IB]. tr. (Tblisi: Xeloveba. 1974).e. Fílmove povídky. C. Saluläär.. 202 pp. Claus Lembourn (Copenhagen: Det Schønbergske. pp. ed. tr. dated Fårö. and in Ecran 73. Translated editions include the following: Czech: Danish: Dutch: English: Estonian: French: Georgian: German: ‘Scény z manzelského zivota’. pp. 1975). no. (Utrecht: Bruna. 230 pp. The play was later included in a volume of three pieces. 106 . 172 pp. Stseenid hest abielust. and in volume titled ‘Cris et chuchotements’ suivi de ‘Persona’ et de ‘Le lien’. (Tallinn: Peridoodika. 1982). in which he addressed his prospective reader. 363-400. i. having plunged a knife in her doctor’s throat. New Yorker. speaks in many different voices about the emotional control she has experienced with her father and her lover. 1974). no.. ‘Sussuri e grida’ in Sei film. 1976: 57-94. Stockholm. D. SFI Archives. 144 pp. L’Àvant-Scène du Cinéma. and 1983). Scenes uit een huwelijk. plus a 4-page preface. Alan Blair (New York: Pantheon Books. pp. Cinéma 72. Cora Polet. tr. Osvald. pp. 33-64 and in French as Une affaire d’âme (see (Ø 199). except that Ingmar Bergman added a preface to the printed script. For a commentary. 142 (December 1973): 55 pp. (Hamburg: M. 150. 1978). 378 pp. 1976. 1975). Swedish television format. ‘En själslig angelägenhet’ [A Matter of the Soul]. Bjurström and L.. pp. Cerník.

15 (1973). (Torino: Einaudi. Bergman. ‘Milczenie’ [Tystnaden]. Scripts to ‘Wieczir kuylarzy’ [Gycklarnas afton]. 1974). 1979). This in turn confirmed that the Swedish response to Bergman’s filmmaking was not very different from the gloom-and-doom image of him among many foreign viewers. Monaci. Röster i Radio-TV. tr. 187 pp.F. Stockholm: PAN/Norstedt. Såsom i en spegel. (Barcelona: Fernando Torres. tr. P. What surprised the reviewers in particular was how readerfriendly Bergman’s published scripts were with a simple syntax and word choice. (Moscow: Progress. no. 1973. Nattvardsgästerna. J. Escenas de un matrimonio. K. In line with this. 1981). and 1996). Vega. Reception Critics remarked on Bergman’s development from a tentative literary writer in the 1940s to greater artistic self-assurance. and as Cenas de um casamento sueco (Lisboa: Sécula. Scenariusze. 246 pp. ‘Persona’. pp 4-6. Sceny iz supruzjeskoj zjizni. 191 pp. (Tokyo: Herarudo-entëapuraizu. L’immagine allo specchio. 167 pp. reprinted in part in Röster i Radio-TV. (Warszawa: Wydawnictwa artystyczne i filmowe.. 191 pp. p. 1974). Maria Olszańska and Karol Sawicki. 180 pp. J. 190 pp. Kazuo. tr. 1977. Vols. Prytz. Cenas da vida conjugal. 202 pp. Riten. Sceny z życia małżénskiego. Aru kekkon no feukei. Reservatet. no. il posto delle fragole (Ø 174). (Rio de Janeiro: Nirdica. Filmberättelser [Film stories]. p. 1974). Japanese: Norwegian: Polish: Portuguese: Russian: Spanish: 1973 151. Bernardes. (Poznań: Wydawictwo Poznańiskie. are virtually unillustrated. Paperback editions of the following Bergman scripts in Swedish: Vol 1. Viskningar och rop. ‘Scener ur ett äktenskap’. Scener fra et ekteskap. 16. the implication being that his films based on these scripts had been viewed as difficult and complex. ‘Siodma pieczęć’ [Sjunde inseglet]. Beröringen.List of Bergman’s Written Work Hungarian: Italian: Jelenetek egy hça zassfagbil. 1975). geziearosna poziomli’ [Wild Strawberries]. Bergman writes about the pleasure of making his first TV series.. 161 pp. Also in Scene di vita conjugale. 195 pp. Skammen. 13 May 1973. 288 pp. 1975). (Oslo: Gyldendahl. En passion.P. 1979. 152. Persona. 1-3. tr. 1987.. 107 .. tr. 1973). 1975). 42.. tr. (Budapest: Europa könyvhiadi. Politiken. C. 155 pp. 35 (1974). These texts. which contain not only the descriptions and dialogue of the films but also Bergman’s comments. 153. Vol 2. ‘Det var bara roligt’ [It was nothing but fun]. ‘Tam. the texts contain no production information about the films. Scene di vita coniguale. Vol 3. Article appeared in Danish (‘Et par måneders arbejd men et livs erfaring’)... possibly in an effort to present them as autonomous texts and allow the reader to visualize the text for himself. Vargtimmen. Tystnaden.

Inc. 108 . For anyone interested in his filmatization of Mozart’s opera. 2. where the original ‘Magic Flute’ was performed. 21 pp. Script II. 1 (September) 1973: pp. Joel. no. DN. SFI Archive material for ‘Trollflöjten’ also includes a typed sheet outlining the production schedule. n. ‘Läsa filmmanus torr upplevelse’ [Reading film manuscripts a dry experience]. p. ‘Trollflöjten’ [The Magic Flute]. Mads. ‘Bergman i bokform’ [B in book form]. Reprint of Bergman’s statements during press conference at Cannes Film Festival in 1973 when ‘Cries and Whispers’ was shown out of competition. 3 December 1973.. Bergman offered brief comments on nine of his films. ‘Jag skulle vilja slå ihjäl er’ [I’d like to kill you]. 1973. p. from Kris to The Devil’s Eye. dated November 1973. p. In connection with a retrospective showing of his films (3 September to 1 October 1973) at SFI Cinematheque in Stockholm. Mandrup-Nielsen. 154. The so-called interview consists of a long analysis of Scenes from a Marriage. translated by Michael Meyer.d. 158. ‘Un film pour vous divertir. politically conscious younger critics.. 140). 2. GP. 23 April 1974. Svensson. SFI Archive. Kommentar till serie ö. which is a consortium of progressive. 111 pp. p. Script I. Strindberg. 6. Bergman’s response consists of three no’s and an expressed desire to kill the critic. 156. 4. 58 pp. 157. SFI. Helsingborgs Dagblad. 13-15. p. Monika. 1973). (Stockholm: Norstedt. 175 pp. Bergman’s adaptation of Strindberg’s play for his 1970 Dramaten production. TV Film script. no. 15 (7-13 April 1973]. 8 December 1973. They appeared in a press folder presentation of the film in French as ‘Comment j’ai découvert La Flute enchantée’. Ohlsson. ‘Berättelser som förklarar’ [Stories that explain]. Lars-Olof. 155. With additional 28 pp. is a music score to ‘Trollflöjten’ (The Magic Flute) referred to as ‘the Ingmar Bergman version’. Tunbäck-Hanson. dated 1974. One can assume that this interview is a hoax in the same spirit as his earlier Ernest Riffe essays (Ø 111. Röster i Radio/TV. [Commentary to Ö series]. 21.]. A Dream Play. 128. Mads Mandrup-Nielsen is introduced as a 28-year-old film scholar who has just started a new company named Dansk Sandheds AS [Danish Truth. Stockholm. of Bergman’s commentaries that range from a presentation of Schikaneder’s old Vienna theatre.Chapter II The Writer Reviews Franzén. these commentaries are very valuable source material. ‘Bergmans filmer i bokform’. to an analysis of the characters and an explanation of the changes made by Bergman. Adapted by Ingmar Bergman. Arb.’ Cinéma Québec 3. 23 November 1973. Lars.

Ganyeva. Ansikt mot ansikt.’ Goethepreis 1976: Ingmar Bergman. (Frankfurt a. dated 7 December 1974. 1976). 147 pp. Törnqvist-Verschuur. Ansikte mot ansikte was published in Swedish in 1975 (Stockholm: PAN/Norstedt). Reissued as Anchor paperback. Alan Blair. and Cries and Whispers. 1984).. Maalboe. The Lie (Reservatet). (New York: Pantheon Books. C.. ‘Jeder Mensch hat Träume. Reprinted under the title ‘Der wahre Künstler spricht mit seinem 109 . Four Stories of Ingmar Bergman. Translations include the following Bulgarian: Danish: Dutch: English: Lice sieíy’l lice. Longer script reverses the opening sequences in the film but is otherwise identical with film version. R. 131 pp.List of Bergman’s Written Work 1974 159. Shorter script is the one used as basis for printed editions of Script II. (Hamburg: M. Bergman’s speech (ca. 162. 30 pp. V. (Paris: Gallimard. pp. which is also printed in numerous foreign editions of the screenplay. Albertini.: Doubleday). Van aangezicht tot aangezicht. (Sofia: Narodna kultura. 8 (April 1976). also excerpted in Mademoiselle. the other 182 pp. 80 pp. 116 pp. Two copies are available: one 148 pp. no. Garden City. Łanofski (Warszawa: no publisher listed). Von Angesicht zu Angesicht.. SFI Archives. 172 pp. Cries and Whispers. 2 pp. tr. tr. (Oslo: Aschehough. 189-99. 89 pp.. Hour of the Wolf. Danish editions of The Ritual. 106 pp. Face à face. 1976 161. 1978). A. 130 pp.. 220 pp. tr. (München: Heyne. 1978). Scripts to The Touch.. Wünsche. Hans-Joachim Maass. 1976). 119 pp. 1976). Valiente. tr. and (London: Marion Boyars. 168 pp. (Utrecht: Bruna. tr. French: German: Norwegian: Polish: Spanish: 1975 160. (Copenhagen: Schønberg.) delivered at Goethe Award ceremonies in Frankfurt an Main. Both versions include Bergman’s address to his fellow workers. (London: M. tr. Maaløe. tr. Twarza w twarz. 1977). The Passion of Anna. Trans. C.. (including all speeches at the ceremony). Face to Face.. (Copenhagen: Det Schönberske 1975). 28 August 1976. by C.Y.. The Touch. 98 pp. tr. Editora. Ansigt til ansigt. Script II. 1976). tr. G. 1976). 1976).A. von Schröder. by Z. 195 pp. 1976). by Alan Blair. N. 1977.: Dezernat Kultur und Freizeit). Boyars. Bedürfnisse.M. ‘Ansikte mot ansikte’ [Face to face].G. 110 pp. Cara a cara. Film script. Angel Comas Puente and Enrico Ripoll-Freixes (Barcelona: Ayma S. Bjurström and L.. 4 filmmanuskripter Trans. Nyqvist. Stockholm. West Germany.

1977). 172 pp. (Utrecht: Bruna. and maybe write a farce about the whole affair. by Z. Ø 151). pp. Bantam Books. ‘Den förstenade prinsen’ was planned as Bergman’s contribution to a projected Fellini and Bergman film on the theme of love. Polish edition of Gycklarnas afton. 1973. Långström (Barcelona: Aymae. Ingmar Bergman Scenariusze [Ingmar Bergman screenplays]. 3 (March) 1988: pp. Italian: Polish: Portugese: Spanish: 166. A résumé in English of this letter appeared in Screen International. L’uvo del serpente. (German script excerpt was also published in Fern und Fernsehen VIII. Jajo weza. Also appears under entry title in Ingmar Bergman. This text is the basis of following translations: Czech: Dutch: English: French: German: ‘Hadí vejce’. in typescript in an English translation by Alan Blair. produced by Warners. Johns (Rio de Janeiro. ed by Renate Bleibtreu. (Torino: Einaudi). Heiner Gimmler (Hamburg: Hoffman und Campe Verlag. tr. The Serpent’s Egg. tr. sell his property.Chapter II The Writer Herzen’ in Filmkunst 74 (1976): 1-3. R. See (Ø 1174). p. Asłanowicz. L’Oeuf du serpent. He feels compelled to depart because his sense of security at work has been shattered. in Fílmove povídky. and professional bases of artistic activity. 1977). tr.. dissolve his film company. (2002). Persona. 163. Het slangeei. 315 pp.G. 111 pp. 1977). 137 pp. Alan Blair (New York: Pantheon Books. Expr. Smultronstället. Pavese. P. Łanofski. 464-468. 129 pp. ‘Nu lämnar jag Sverige’ [Now I leave Sweden]. 22 April.. Sjunde inseglet. (Czytelnik. 1978. tr. 1977 164. C. Film script. 4. 4-5. 138 pp. He ends his letter with a quote from Strindberg: ‘Look out. and states that he will leave his Swedish assets behind. In an open letter to the Stockholm tabloid Expr. 1977). 1982. Published in Swedish in paperback. Currently at SFI Bergman archive but also circulating in U.. Ingmar Bergman announces his immediate intention of leaving Sweden in the aftermath of his arrest by tax authorities earlier in the year (see Ø 1272). 1978. 44-49). tr. 1980). so I don’t put you in my next play!’ [Se upp din djävel så du inte hamnar i min nästa pjäs!]. no. tr. 165.. (Warsaw: Wydawnitctwa Artystyczne i Filmowe). and 1997). tr. 23. Im Bleistift-Ton. Das Schlangenei. 150 pp. El huevo de la serpiente. Trans. no. by A. 152 pp. 1980). you devil. (Warsaw: Dialog. (Stockholm: PAN/Norstedt. Unpublished script. ‘Den förstenade prinsen’ [The Petrified Prince]. Script IV in English available at SFI. Undated. 8 May 1976. Tystnaden. Bjurström and L. 333-99. Bergman discusses briefly the humanistic.. and Viskningar och rop (cf. 1978. psychological. pp. L. O ovo da serpente. 110 . ‘Ormens ägg’ [The Serpent’s Egg]. pp.S. 1980). 1978). Paperback ed. 355 pp. Albertini (Paris: Gallimard.

List of Bergman’s Written Work ‘The Petrified Prince’ is a ‘pornographic’ fantasy. no. Amlie. (Paris: Gallimard. tr. This text is the basis of following translations: Bulgarian: Esenna sonata. by Jan Ogærts. Also in Kino Izkustvo XXXIV. Gimmler. dated Fårö. 101 pp. ‘Höstsonat’ [Autumn Sonata]. no. 86 pp. and as PAN paperback edition. who is enslaved by his queen mother. Sonate d’autonne. 1980). (New York: Pantheon Books.. Sonata jesienna. H. 253 pp. Through a Glass Darkly. 170. tr. ‘Cris et chuchotements’.. (Paris: Gallimard. by J.. Albertini. The Silence. Ganyeva. Høstsonaten. by Anne Storm. Samson runs away with a young mother/whore to establish his own neurotic family. Herbstsonate. The script was published in Swedish as Höstsonaten by Norstedt. 1980). The Touch. tr. Persona. 444 pp. (Copenhagen: Schönbergske. 1978. de Seynes. 1978.’ Tr. 1979). (Sofia: Narodna kultura. 1978). There are several manuscripts in Bergman’s Fårö papers. Bjurström and L. 1980). C. 1978 168. 1980). (Moscow: Iskusstvo. Film script. (Munich: Hanser. and The Touch. Danish: Dutch: English: French: German: Norwegian: Polish: Portuguese: Russian: 1979 169. Shame. and The Lie. 1979).. 1980. Winter Light. p. Wilde Erdbeeren und andere Filmerzählungen. Sonata do Outtono. 8 July 1979. 127 pp. tr. no date). tr. Herftsonate. ‘Fanny och Alexander’ [Fanny and Alexander]. and 1997). 1978). Film script Script IV in Swedish at SFI library. an aggressive whore who repeatedly rapes her son.. 231 pp.. 332.G. Høstsonaten. 203 pp and 1994. Kinopovesti. Cries and Whispers. Samson makes an unsuccessful attempt to murder his mother but is threatened by a newly arrived father figure who tries to castrate him. Łanowski. 400 pp. Osennjaja sonata. tr. (Warsaw. 1988). 84 pp. a grotesque variation of ‘The Magic Flute’. French editions of Cries and Whispers. Bernardes. 224 pp. 5 (May) 1979: 83-112. See Koskinen. German edition of Wild Strawberries. (Hamburg: Hoffman und Campe). tr. Asta Hoff-Jörgensen. Robnard and C. tr. (Rio de Janeiro: Nordica. I begynnelsen var ordet. Autumn Sonata. suivi de ‘Persona’ et de ‘Le Lien. 167. 12 (December) 1978: 668-679. (Utrecht: Bruna. and (Munich: Heyne. Script I. 95 pp. 98 pp. A. 73 pp.. V. 1981). 111 pp. 1979). 1977. (Oslo: Cappelen. (Munich: Heine. This was the basis of published Swedish edition from 1982 (Stockholm: Norstedt). 95 pp. Trans. It tells the story of a mute and paralyzed prince named Samson. 73 pp. and in Film a Doba XXIV. 111 . Alan Blair. by Z.. tr.

The paper had published an article on Ingmar Bergman by Björn Nilsson. Script IV. (Milano: Ubulibri. P. Ingmar Bergman. il posto delle fragole.. 1979). 216 pp. 388 pp. 1983). Pavese. Fanny und Alexander: Roman im sieben Bildern.. Z. The Silence. Bergman’s letter depicts the theatre life in Munich and refers to himself as a somewhat suspect person in a foreign context. 174. Italian edition of The Ritual. Sei film. and Wild Strawberries. ‘Fårö-dokument 79’.K. 32 pp. 142 pp. tr. R. SFI also has a cut version of the script. C. L’immagine allo specchio. 1982).. 145 pp. and (Harmondsworth: Penguin. Fanny és Alexander. Hans-Joachim Maass. 1982). 1984). Hungarian: Italian: Norwegian: Polish: Portugese: Hanif Kureishi in New Statesman & Society. by P. J. of additional text that is also inserted in the far left column of the script page. C. (Munich: Carl Hanser Verlag. Letter ends with an homage to Fassbinder.. Documento de Fårö 1979. ‘Jag trivs nästan varje dag’ [I like it almost every day]. (New York: Pantheon. p. tr.. Fanny en Alexander. tr. 1982). Fanny e Alexander. 31 March 1979. 294 pp. Fanny ja Alexander. 1984). tr. 3 February 1979. Fanny et Alexandre. 237 pp. Tr. by Giacomo Oreglia. 166 pp. Cerncik. Dialogue list. Malmström. Fanny og Alexander. Italian translations of Scenes from a Marriage.. plus 5 pp. not as a filmmaker but as ‘the clown of German bourgeois life’ [det tyska borgerliga livets clown].. 1985). 1988). 39. Tr. Persona. 4. TV film script.. tr. which was used for an international distribution copy of the dialogue. (Warszawa: Czytelnik. July 7. 1987). Bjurström and L. and (Berlin: Volk und Welt.. tr. Expr. Through a Glass Darkly. Through a Glass Darkly.. 226 pp. Alan Blair. Letter from Ingmar Bergman to Stockholm evening paper Expr. Monaci. 235 pp. A.) and one in Spanish: Lista de dialogos. 4. 203 pp. (Paris: Gallimard. 199 pp. Aaloe. 29 pp. and 47 pp. 1991). 1989. 172. 1987). p. tr. (Tallinn: Periodiodika. 1983). SFI Archive has several Script IV copies in English (38. Fanny and Alexander. Törnqvist-Verschuur. concluding that the printed version was ‘Bergman minus the magic’. (Praha: Mladça fronta. Bernardes. (Oslo: Aschehoug. G. asking him to return home after what was termed a highly critical reception of his theatre productions in Munich by West German press. R.. reviewed the book version of Fanny and Alexander.G. 1979). 171.. Scene di vita conjugale. West Germans had difficulty understanding his need for privacy. 216 pp. Albertini. 269 pp. 320 pp. See also group entry (Ø 1272) in Chapter IX. and Cries and Whispers. (Turin: Guilio Einaudi. Fanny i Aleksander. tr. tr. Fanny e Alexandre.Chapter II The Writer Among translations of this script are the following: Czech: Dutch: English: Estonian: French: German: Fanny a Alexander. Winter Light. tr. (Rio de Janeiro: Nordica. Lazli. 1985). Muscarello. (Budapest: Çarçadia. 112 . (Milano: Club degli editori. 216 pp. 173. (Amsterdam: Manteau.

pp 642-677.. 98 pp. tr. the latter publication was richly illustrated. no. Through a Glass Darkly. German: Polish: ‘Efter repetitionen’ was televised on SVT. 1982 178. with a preface by Ingmar Bergman (Paris: Gallimard. 107 pp. pp. (Hamburg: Hoffman Campe. Dutch edition of The Serpent’s Egg. (see Ø 332). A. Manuscripts in Bergman’s Fårö papers with notes. ed. Łanowski in Dialog. The Touch. pp.G. D. 1980). Aus dem Leben der Marionetten. 1980). 79 pp. no. Script IV in German titled ‘Nach der Probe’ available at SFI. A Passion. copyright in summer 1980. Media chapter V.List of Bergman’s Written Work 1980 175. 1994). ‘Après la répétition’ in Théatre en Europe (Paris). 1980). tr. by Renate Bleibtreu. 1997. and in L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma. tr. Amlie. 1981). TV-play. in Ingmar Bergman. in 1983. C. tr. 1761. Fra marionettenes liv. dated 1979. Translations Dutch: English: French: German: Norwegian: Dans van de marionetten. (see Ø 195). Published in Swedish in Femte akten. (Stockholm: Norstedt. 1980). Alan Blair (New York: Pantheon Books. Winter Light. 112 pp. Prague: Odéon. New ed. 1982. no. 2002. 1980). ‘Po próbie’. Albertini. Cerník. Filmové povídky. Czech edition of The Seventh Seal. Tr. Im Bleistift – Ton.. J. From the Life of the Marionettes. With an afterword by J. The Silence. Cieslar. De la vie des marionettes. 113 . 5 (January 1985). Ur marionetternas liv [From the Life of the Marionettes]. (Stockholm: Norstedt. Femte akten was also published in French as Le cinquième acte in 1997 and in English as The Fifth Act in 2001. Bjurström and L. 177. by Z. 3 (July) 1993. dated 1981. Cries and Whispers. A German version of Script IV is in SFI library. 56 pp. 176. tr. (Oslo: Cappelen. channel 1. Hour of the Wolf. 1986. Jan Bogaerts (Utrecht: Bruna. 9. Osvald. Het uur van de wolf.. 171 pp. Manuscript dated ‘Fårö. Other translations of ‘Efter repetitionen’ include: Bulgarian: French: Kino (Sofia). 1980). ‘Efter repetitionen’ (After the Rehearsal). The Serpent’s Egg. 5 August 1980’. 315 pp. Hortlová. 127 pp. Slangeei (Het). Een passie. by Z. Schreeuw zonder antwoord. Scenes from a Marriage. (Utrecht: Bruna. 1-80. 139 pp. ‘Nach der Probe’. Wild Strawberries. Beroering. 394 (July 1990).

(Stockholm: Norstedt). New edition 1988. 1984. pp. A collage of statements made by Bergman at a press conference in Venice on 9 September 1983. Bergman’s memoirs. 327 (30 October 1885): 3. theatre work. Also in published play text. the cinema. There are several different versions of manuscript among Bergman’s Fårö papers with alternate titles such as ‘Peeling onions’ (Skala lök) – a reference to Peer Gynt – and ‘Tim Konfusenfej’. Laterna Magica. Ingmar Bergman Seminar. Cf. 184. 1984 180. Stockholm: Ordfront. ‘Karins ansikte’ [Karin’s face]. Compilation of published quotes by Bergman on himself. ‘Förord till en översättning’ [Preface to a translation]. and women. Visual text consists of photographs of Karin Bergman. 183. Dept of Cinema Arts. 337 pp. Unpublished text is basis of a film about Ingmar Bergman’s mother. Brief commentary by Bergman to Britt G. filmmaking versus filming for television. 1985 182.’ Positif 289 (March 1985): 17-19. 180. See Koskinen. Video recording from a seminar with Bergman in the Department of Cinema Arts at Stockholm University in December 1983. p. the 114 . Manuscript to TV play adapted from Ulla Isaksson’s novel with the same name. taken shortly before her death in 1967. Book has a non-chronological structure. Video Recording dated 2 December 1983. and impact of Strindberg. Subjects deal with ‘Fanny and Alexander’. Manuscript in SFI Bergman (Fårö) archive includes director’s copy with shooting plan and group photograph.Chapter II The Writer 1983 179. ‘Propos. Cinéma. 335. Hallqvist’s new translation of Shakespeare’s play. ‘De två saliga’ [The Blessed Ones]. with alternating chapters on childhood. 2 December 1983. Stockholm University. 181. Dramaten’s program to Bergman’s production of King Lear. in English-speaking world usually referred to as his autobiography. no. 1987 185. the last one being a passport picture. Sweden. dated 1985. (Ø 1681). 5-6.

1-4. Friedrich. Regine. p. 7 November 1987. konsten. ‘Hals über Kopf durch den Abgrund des Lebens’. a form that most commentators referred to as cinematic but that actor Erland Josephson termed ‘theatrical’. SvD. no. art. no. marriage crises. Mark. Erland. encounters with artists like Laurence Olivier. Schildt. What fascinated many Swedish reviewers. Anton. Donner. and his ability to set the scene for an event in short. ‘Ur kaos och mörker’ [Out of chaos and darkness]. who mentioned his drastic humor. Leif. Hugo. teenage summers in Nazi Germany. Specialarbete. 21 September 1987. Reception Swedish reception was enthusiastic. p. ‘Bergmans brutala uppriktighet’ [Bergman’s brutal honesty]. 20 September 1987. 38.. Borås: 1992. most commentators abroad expected the book to focus on an account of Bergman’s experiences in the film trade. ‘Kärleken. whose interest in Bergman stemmed mostly from his filmmaking. ‘Bergman juge d’Ingmar’. Vrij Nederland. 21 September 1987. Horowitz. Der Spiegel. 4.’ Bibliotekshögskolan. Despite the English subtitle ‘An Autobiography’. 55-58. Bergman’s stylistic talent seems to have come as a surprise to many. Palmqvist. XIV. the book contains relatively little information on Bergman’s filmmaking. Josephson. Elsevier. ‘De autobiografie van Oedipus zelf ’. DN. Urs. p. Wortzelius. 26 pp. American Film. and Herbert von Karajan. moving back and forth between past and present. 4-5. ‘Ingmar Bergman mellan änglar och avgrund’ [Ingmar Bergman between angels and abyss].. Magnus. p. Expr. his keen observations. p. Foreign reception was by and large more ambivalent than the Swedish. 324 (February 1988): 28-30. Reviews (Swedish) Brohult. no. 4.List of Bergman’s Written Work tax affair in 1976. a mea culpa moral voice that made reviewers question the book’s purpose and sometimes its authenticity. (2) its often ruthless self-revelation. Note: Thomas Svensson at the Library School in Borås did a special study of the Swedish reception of Laterna magica: ‘Mottagandet av Ingmar Bergmans självbiografi Laterna Magica. Frankfurter Rundschau. precise descriptions. 14 September 1987. ‘Scenes from a Life’. ‘Livet som skådespel’ [Life as a play]. pp. Holmqvist. painting its author in a rather negative light. 14. p. 10 October 1987. Ciment. namely the book’s place in the Swedish literary canon with roots in Strindberg’s autobiography Tjänstekvinnans son (The Son of a Servant). which several critics related to Bergman’s directing method – one that never rested on theoretical reasoning but on very concrete physical details. p. Positif. 29 March 1988. 6 (Nov/Dec 1988): 77-79. Reviews (Foreign) Bresser. Jörn. SDS. was of little interest to critics abroad. ‘Kroppen mobiliserar själen’ [The body mobilizes the soul]. the difficulty of aging]. 1. Jean Paul. Michel. 4. ‘Books’. Jurgen. (3) its emphasis on bodily functions. Despite the title. 21 September 1987. 20 September 1987. no. Greta Garbo. Three aspects of the book dominated in the reviews: (1) Its narrative structure. Haakman. 4. Expr. UNT. 4. 21 September 1987. ‘Prosten Bergmans son har talat’ [Parson Bergman’s son has spoken]. Film Comment XXIV. det svåra åldrandet’ [Love. 20 September 1987. Richard. Bengt. October 1988. Jenny. ‘Auf der Suche nach Beschädigungen’. Bertil. 115 . p. ‘Vrees doet het gevreesde werkelijkheid worden’. Corliss. AB. 21 September 1987. ‘Bergman kastar masken’ [Bergman discards the mask]. Arb. Zern.

1989). (Amsterdam: Meulenhoff. (Copenhagen: Lindhardt og Ringhof. Albertini. 12 February 1988. Kosubek. Olle Svenning used the autobiography to bring up the 1976 tax case again: ‘Ingmar Bergman väcker minnen’ [IB evokes memories]. KvP. no. 1988: 3435 and no. Poul. 17 Jan 1988. 1. 1 (January 1989). ‘Tvånget att göra upp’ [The need to settle accounts]. Laterna magica. and 1997). (Praha: Odeon. Meyer. 1988). ‘Ingmar Bergman en het theater. 18 September 1988. Nelson Entertainment Inc. issued a video release of nine of Bergman’s early films: Torment. Strunz. tr. no. tr.. 1989). Birgitta. 1988). 2/3.Chapter II The Writer Kousbroek. Behrendt. 23 December 1987. Bjurström. and (London: Penguin. ‘Ingmar Bergmans Laterna magica’. 254 pp. 10. 1988: 21-26.E. ‘La magia misteriosa della lanterna bergmania’. Woody. A Lesson in Love. 1 (Fall 1992): 5457. Cinema Nuovo XXXVII. (See Ø 1456). 8. G. Finsk tidskrift. ‘Apropå årets bästsäljare’ [Apropos of the year’s bestseller]. Arb. pp. 1994). ‘Ingmar Bergman ist der Philosoph unter den Leinwand Meistern’. 30-44. 1987. (Paris: Gallimard. 7. NRC Handelsblad. 30-34. Originally published in Danish Magazine Kritik. The Independent. Ganyeva. Cernciu. De monoloog van een orakel’. Bergman’s brother-in-law. Note: In connection with American edition of The Magic Lantern. Sawdust and Tinsel. (Presentation of Laterna magica with excerpts from book). 29. (See Ø 1454). Freunde und Feinde’. Rudi. 308 pp. p. 283 pp. Laterna magica. 2 January 1988. 287 pp. 313 (MayJune 1988): 10-12. sec 7. Z. Film Criticism XVII. published in Series ‘Grote Cineasten’. 1995). no. 15 May 1988. V. tr. Michael. Karst Woudstra.. tr. SvD. The Magic Lantern.. (Taipei: Yuanliu chuban gongsi. Translations Bulgarian: Chinese: Czech: Danish: Laterna magica. 310 pp. tr. 19 May 1988. See also reply by Harry Schein in same paper. The Magic Lantern’. S. Secrets of Women. expressed concern that the subjective dimension of Laterna magica as a memoir book would be viewed as truthful facts.. and 252 pp. 312 pp. ‘Bergman sucht Bergman. Dutch: English: Estonian: French: 116 . Laterna magica. 1988: 78-90. 268. Lane. Anthony. Li Senayo. 308 pp. Joan Tate. tr. ‘The Demonic Charm of a Complex Mind’. ‘Through a Life Darkly’. Steene.. Film und Fernsehen no. Dreams. Second edition: (Valby: Borgen. 253 pp. Mosley. also excerpts in Bulgarian Film journal Kinoizkustvo XLIV. L. I. ‘The Guts of Greatness’. Laterna magica. (London: Hamish Hamilton.G. and (New York: Viking. 1987). 1987). Articles Allen. Paul Britten Austen. tr. Dieter. 1991). 25 October 1987. p. NYT. (Tallinn: Eesti Ramat. Philip. Sunday section. Hammar. Port of Call. To Joy. no. (Sofia: Chemus. Baigeman zichuan. and Smiles of a Summer Night. Laterna magica. 270 pp. 15 January 1988. See also Jan Myrdal response to Bergman’s account of his political ignorance in Laterna magica (see group entry Ø 1439). Berliner Morgenpost. The Sunday Times. Summer Interlude. C. Fara. 1990) (2 vol). ‘Ingmar Bergman.

1987). by Henrik Egede) by Bergman at his reception of Danish Sonning Price for 1990 (see Chapter IX.’ [My Danish angels]. 1992). 269 pp. Latvian: Laterna magica. I. Shafran. (Tel Aviv: Am oved. which ‘seemed to be administered by heaven’ [verkade administreras av himlen]. tr. (Warszawa: Czytelnik. Lazli. Tauskein. Japanese: Bergman jiden. tr. German: 1988 186. 1991). 1991). D. (Berlin: Volk und Welt. (Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara. 1988). His three Danish angels (= literary/critical influences) were (1) Søren Kierkegaard’s Sickness unto Death. 350 pp. Polish: Laterna magica. Icelandic: Töfralampin: sjalsvisaga.. 1994). 292 pp. 1989). (Zagreb: Grafyki zavod Hrvatske. 1988). and (New York: Pantheon. (Hamburg: Hoffman und Campe. romantiska kärlek till starka individer]. 1992). Maleikaitele. 349 pp. G. 1991). Portuguese: Lanterna magica. (Vilnius: Alma Littera. tr. 1987. 407 pp. 347 pp. and (3) Kaj Munk’s play Ordet.. Morgenavisen (Danish). a book that fascinated him at age 16 for its dark streak and humor. (2) Georg Brandes’ book about Shakespeare. tr. K. Autumn Sonata. 286 pp. Z. Serbo-Croatian: Moj livot: laterna magica. 117 . (Istanbul: AFA. (Tokyo: Shinchëo-sha. tr. K. tr. F. (Moskva: ‘Iskusstvo’. Italian: Lanterna magica.. (Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. Turkish: B y l fenar. M. his intellectual confusion. Rumac. Ferrari. which he read some 40 years later and which opened a way for him into Shakespeare’s texts.. S. 18 November 1989. 1989 187. E. 274 pp. 1990). 1989). Russian: Laterna magika. 1988). 1994).. hans farliga. Greek: Hëe magikëe kamera: mia autobiografia. 232 pp. 1988). Baneiu. 1987).List of Bergman’s Written Work Mein Leben. 232 pp. (Bucuresti: Editura Meridiane. 1989). 1988). Pastor. C. 350 pp. (Reykvavik: Gjölvi. 259 pp. (Oslo: Aschehoug. which Bergman’s father took him to see in a small private theatre in Stockholm. A.. F. Spanish: Linterna magica. Lanterna magica: una autobiografia.. 316 pp. 350 pp. M. (Budapest: Europa. 1989). Łanowski. tr.. Uriz. Bergman also talks about his visits (during his Malmö period in the 1950s) to the Danish Film Museum in Copenhagen. Pastor. (Lisboa: Caravela. tr.. Ø 1477). Hebrew: Laterna magikah. tr.. Kagevska. tr. whom he felt close to for ‘his emotional strength. 319 pp.. Kallifatides. 11 January 1990. Later he read and staged other works by Munk. 14 February 1988. 285 pp. The Marriage Scenarios: Scenes from a Marriage. 312 pp.. (Milano: Garzanti. Roumanian: Lanterna magicela. excerpts in El Pais. Hans-Joachim Maass. 1993). tr. 303 pp. tr. (Bratislava: Slovenskij spiso valelij.. Torres.. tr. 1990). Face to Face.. Ness. hans intellektuella förvirring. tr. Speech (tr. (Athen: Kaktos. 284 pp. 319 pp. 285 pp. 335 pp. Hungarian: Laterna magica. (London: Aurum). (Barcelona and Buenos Aires: Tusquets.. 222 pp. Slovakian: Laterna magica. T. A. tr. Florea. and his dangerous romantic love of strong individuals’ [hans känslostyrka. (Riga: Liesma. Also in Universitetsavisen. (Frankfurt am Main: Gutenberg. 524 pp. and 1990). ‘Mine danske engle. 1988). Z. Lithuanian: Laterna magica. Norwegian: Laterna magica. tr. Buich. A. Blair. Bergman was a teenager and much moved by the play.

‘Ingmar Bergmans filmer’. Stegelmann. no. 350 pp. (Stockholm: Norstedt. 442 pp. Ellingsen. p. (Taipei: Yuanliu chuban gongsi. and honest. 81 (Spring 1996): 62. ‘Ingmar Bergmans bilder. Woudstra. Billeder. Ingmar Bergman analyzes a number of his own films. Dominique. See article by Harry Schein. Koskinen. Kaj. ‘Images’. to celebrate publication of Images – My Life in Film. no.. Joel. SDS. ‘Images’. 22 October 1990. Olsson. 17. 1992: 84-88 (review article). Translations Chinese: Danish: Dutch: English: Baigeman lun dianyin. 22 October 1990. The book project started as a series of conversations with Bergman’s editor. unusually engaging. Nasta. p. Nasta. (Amsterdam: Meulenhoff. almost like works in progress. ‘Bergmans “jævla spasertur”’. K. Thor. M. Variety. no.. 442 pp. Roy.) National Film Theatre (NTF) published a program (February 1994): 22-23. Dagens Nyheter. Arbetet. Self-exposing and genuine]. 1994). 4. 110. 16. (New York: Arcade Publishers. tr. grouped into thematic units. The consensus was that the two works complemented each other (sometimes to the point of repeating the same statements verbatim) and gave the impression of a filmmaker for whom his films were still alive. ‘Bilder’. ‘Vägen till mellangärdet’ [The road to the diaphragm]. 5. arguing that Bilder [Images] exposes the gap between critical interpretors and the filmmaker. Arrhenius. tr. Revue Belge du Cinéma. ‘Images’. Images: My life in film. 118 . 1994). Lasse Bergström. Revue du Cinéma. 4-5. 22 October 1990. gave an unusual vitality to a book that offered both remembered vignettes of the films’ genesis and an account of a lifelong artistic process. ‘Det blev en djävla promenad’ [It turned into a hell of a walk]. p. 1990). André. Reception Bergman’s negative reference to Bergman om Bergman (Ø 787) prompted many reviewers to juxtapose it to Bilder. Expr. p. p. Magny. ‘Bilder med hygglig skärpa’ [Images with adequate focus]. 22 October 1990. Dagbladet (Norwegian). 435 pp. Dominique. Ruuth. 22 October 1990. it was argued. Reviews Aghed. Beelden: een leven in films. 4. J. p. 33-35 (1993): 194. no. 1991). 1992). Barometern.Chapter II The Writer 1990 188. p. p. Leif. 25 March 1991. AB.. 1994). Zern. (Copenhagen: Lindhardt og Ringhof. Using his work books and filmmaking diaries. Hugo. and (London: Bloomsbury. also in (Copenhagen: Bogklubben 12 bøger. Zern) The book was termed self-exposing. Självutlämnande och äkta’ [IB’s images. 1990). 22 October 1990. Jan. 453. (See Aghed. 435 pp. Cahiers du Cinéma. 24 Images. 7 January 1991. ‘Bergman naket uppriktig’ (B nakedly outspoken). tr. Wortzelius. 435 pp.. ‘Med dämonerna som medarbetare’ [With the demons as collaborators]. 433 pp. UNT. [B’s hell of a walk]. Bilder. Sven E. Sara.. It was in part prompted by Bergman’s dissatisfaction with the earlier interview book Bergman om Bergman (1971) in which he felt he had been manipulated by the interviewers. This. Kell (Keith Keller). (See Wortzelius. 18 November 1990. A2. 33-35 (1993): 194. Wickbom. ‘Bergman à la lettre’.

338 pp.. Pastor. Spanish: Imagenes. (Tallinn: Eesti Raamat. Polish: Obrazy. Among Fårö papers.. (Warszawa: Wydawnictwa artystyczne i filmove. 1992).. (Stockholm: Norstedt. 371 pp. smell. Many critics read the book as Bergman’s search to understand himself through his parents in a portrait of them that was part fact. 1996). K. 394 pp. no. Albertini. but reviewers preferred to see it as a script or a play of epic and dramatic dimensions. Pavese. Bergman calls Den goda viljan a novel. ‘Ingmar Bergman’s prose is seeing’. directed by Bille August. (Oslo: Aschehoug. 406 pp. Norwegian: Bilder. Szczepański. Scherzer. German: Bilder. J. typed version 1990 (2 February). 441 pp. J.G.. Reception (of the book) ‘The yet unborn child Ingmar Bergman is swishing about in the narrative’s fetal water. (Novi Sad: Promety. Portugese: Imagens. Stockholm. (Paris: Gallimard. Hungarian: Képek. Zern) The book was seen as Bergman’s attempt to understand and become reconciled with his parentage. and Kartiny. Seminar at Svenska Filmklipparförbundet [Swedish Film Editors Association]. Eskelinen. Serbo-Croatian: Slike. Their story takes place during ten years prior to Ingmar Bergman’s birth in 1918. 439 pp. New edition: MånPocket. Sverker Andréason’s (GP) imaginative description of Ingmar Bergman’s narrative position in his novel Den goda viljan sums up the focus among reviewers: the author was both an astute observer and an empathetic participant in the drama about his parents up to the time of his own birth. tr. L. F. T. 1991). 191. Russian: Bilder was excerpted under title ‘Kartiny’ in seven issues of Iskusstvo Kino. as if he saw the whole thing from within the womb’ [Det ännu ofödda barnet Ingmar Bergman ligger och skvalpar i berättelsens fostervatten. (Milano: Garzanti.. and physical presence or as a form of visualizing fiction. L. ‘Backanterna’. 1996). som såg han alltsammans inifrån livmodern]. (Barcelona: Tusquets. 407 pp. Rajic. 1991). 378 pp. tr. R. 17 (January-July 1993). 390 pp. 399 pp. a process that had started with Laterna magica. 1991). (See Kollberg. tr. 1992). Text adaptation by Ingmar Bergman for his staging of Euripides’s play as an opera. tr. 1997). A. part fable. 1993).. Ingmar Bergman. 1991 190. tr. tr. 1992).. 437 pp. Italian: Immagini. Uriz. C. ‘It comes quite 119 . (Budapest: Europa. 1995). First handwritten version of ‘Den goda viljan’ is dated 1988. Typewritten manuscript available at SFI. wrote Leif Zern. Bergman discusses his editing experiences. last. Den goda viljan (Best Intentions) is a narrative of Bergman’s parents as young adults.. with subtitle ‘Fyra Akter av Ingmar Bergman’ [Four Acts by Ingmar Bergman].Uriz Torres. tr. Lcaszli. Text is available as special program. 16 December 1990. Estonian: 189. It was made into a film. 367 pp. 1992). (Sao Paolo: Martin Fontes. (Köln: Kiepenheuer & Witsch. 1992). Finnish: Kuvasta kuuvan. tr. they pointed to the predominance of dialogue and referred to descriptive passages as stage directions filled with color.List of Bergman’s Written Work Pildid. (Helsinki: Otava. H. tr. A. (Tallinn: Alexandra. Westling. French: Images. Royal Opera. tr. Amlie. Den goda viljan. Bjurström.

Bjurström. Ingmar Bergman was recognized as a major writer in Swedish literature: ‘Best Intentions is a new artistic conquest for Ingmar Bergman. 4. DN. Les meilleures intentions. Den goda viljan confirmed the critical reception of Laterna magica. Feilberg. 1992).. Bo-Ingvar. 1992). Expr. Jan. Swedish Aghed. 1991). Westling. 415 pp.. tagning kärleksroman’ [Silence. SvD). M. ‘Den goda viljans genuine arvtagare’ [The real inheritor of good intentions]. 228 pp. Den kommer helt nära personerna och beskriver – inte själva känslan men dess bakgrund. p.] Leif Zern. UNT. 377 pp. SvD. and London: Harvill. [Ingmar Bergmans prosa är seende. 1992). K. A. 1992). Albertini. 1993). p. take. (New York: Arcade Publ. Leif. AB. tr... (Helsinki: Otava. 4 December 1991. ‘Tystnad. SDS) concluded that ‘as a literary creation. Zern. (Paris: Gallimard. p. 24 December 1991. Groene Amsterdammer. Woudstra. Magnus. 288 pp. Kollberg. the result is both very clear and inexplicable’. 12. Sverker. 2 December 1991. Barbro. 2 December 1991. p. ‘Drömmen om att äntligen bli sedd’ [The dream of being seen at last]. Another reviewer (Aghed. L. 4. SDS. Lars-Olof. 482 pp. 1994). A 4. 120 . the book ‘Den goda viljan’ stands securely and extremely convincingly on its own’ [Som litterär skapelse står boken ‘Den goda viljan’ stabilt och ytterst övertygande på egna ben]. ‘Bergman berättarglad men ofarlig’ [B a happy narrator but harmless]. Kyrö. Reviews. Som en nydanande kärleksroman kommer den att införlivas med den svenska litteraturhistorien] (Magnus Brohult. Franzén.G. As an innovative love novel it will become incorporated in Swedish literary history’ [Den goda viljan är en ny konstnärlig landvinning för IB. (Praha: Argo-Panda. 4-5.Chapter II The Writer close to the characters. 6 January 1993. 2 December 1991. The Best intentions. Den gode vilje. 2. Lars Olof Franzén – somewhat more lukewarm to the work but intrigued by its narrative method – suggested that Bergman forced the reader to participate as an ‘actor’ by using a technique characteristic of Bergman’s manipulative filmmaking. ‘Släktkrönika om starka viljor och självutgivande kärlek’ [Family chronicle about strong wills and self-exposing love]. sec. (Copenhagen: Lindhardt og Ringhof. B1. love novel]. Brohult. Goede bedoelingen: roman. ‘Ljuset som förvandlar’ [The light that transforms]. December 1991. Joan Tate. Translations Czech: Danish: Dutch: English: Finnish: French: Dobrca veáule. resultatet är både mycket tydligt och oförklarligt.. depicting – not the emotion itself but its background. p. Hyvö tato. 295 pp. 2 December 1991. tr. Reviews. (Amsterdam: Meulenhoff.. also in (Copenhagen: Bogklubben 12 bøger. C. tr. p. who referred to Den goda viljan as ‘one of the most moving love stories in Swedish literature’ [en av de mest rörande kärleksberättelserna i svensk litteratur]. Events were described for the readers by an involved observer who retained a unique objectivity ‘as if we were face to face with facts that openly reveal their secret’ [som om vi var ansikte mot ansikte med fakta som öppet avslöjar sin hemlighet]. ‘Förnämligt verk om de stora livsfrågorna’ [Superb work about the big questions in life]. tr. GP. 2. p. described Bergman’s approach as that of a director instructing his actors. Foreign ‘Goede bedoelingen’. Andreasson. tr.

1992). 361 pp. 1993). (Tokyo: Sekaibunka-sha.. Söndagsbarn is both a novella and a piece of autobiography. 1996). (Köln: Kiepenheuer & Witsch. The first Script II above is the text used for publication of Söndagsbarn (Stockholm: Norstedt. 1994). ‘that one could again be fascinated by the rounds in the Bergman family?’ [Vem kunde tro att man åter skulle kunna fängslas av turerna i den bergmanska familjen?] Once more. H. Gimler. 1993). 123 pp. Copyright: Cinematograph AB. probably adenoids’ [Uppsynen är något sömnig. (Athens: Synchronaëe epochëe. In a note Bergman called Söndagsbarn ‘an exactly retold memory. något alkoholiserad pråmskeppare på Eufrat]. wrote one reviewer (Ström). Ai no feukei. 1995). 430 pp. 1996. 1991). Three acts for the cinema]. tr. 1993). tr.] 121 . 1992 192. Pu’s story is interwoven with flashforwards to an adult Ingmar Bergman visiting his aging and dying father. Shinji.. Cima. Hoi kalyteres protheseis. Con le migliori intenzioni... (Milano: Garzanti. the closest to anything I have ever dared to come’ [ett exakt återberättat minne. as when comparing the pastor who built the Bergman family’s rented summer house to Noah and his Ark.G. Fårö. (Oslo: Aschehoug. ‘Söndagsbarn... tr. det närmaste jag vågat komma någonting någon gång]. new ed. 373 pp. Thylwe. [.. klart och genomlyst.List of Bergman’s Written Work German: Greek: Hungarian: Italian: Japanese: Korean: Norwegian: Polish: Russian: Slovakian: Spanish: Die besten Absichten. at SFI. with an author who interrupts the narrative to comment on it. sometimes kept in a humorous ‘literary’ style. kinderna barnsligt fylliga och munnen halvöppen. Den gode viljen.. (1992). N. troligen polyper]. Ingmar Bergman’s text is a novelistic narrative rather than shooting script. tr. (Budapest: Europa. H. tr. 3 akter för bio’ [Sunday’s Child. 123 pp.. Malmström.] reflected in an unmistakable desire to tell stories’ [Här föds ett språk som alltmer bär författarskapets äkta kännetecen. tr. 326 pp. Dobrca vueëla (Bratislava: Vydavat eelstvo. A.. Torres. Script II. somewhat alcoholic tugboat skipper on the Euphrates’ [Noa var inte heller någon byggare utan strängt taget en godmodig. Bergman’s stylistic and narrative skills amazed Swedish critics: ‘Here a language is born that more and more bears the genuine signs of authorship. 332 pp. Choeseon-eui-e kido (Soeul: Hang gyeror. 436 pp. 413 pp. 300 pp. 1993). C. Blagie namerenija. A legjobb szçandekok. 317 pp.. (Moskva: Chudozjestvennaja literatura. Script II at SFI. 435 pp. Dobre chęci. tr. Script includes one comment by director (Daniel Bergman) that he plans to include shots of mural paintings from Det sjunde inseglet/The Seventh Seal (church sequence) in young boy Pu’s visit to an old church where his father is to preach. O. (Warszawa: Czytelnik. Söndagsbarn (Sunday’s Child) is a portrait of the boy Pu (Ingmar Bergman’s nickname) at age eight. Film script. 1995). 1993). 394 pp. ‘Noah was not a builder either but strictly speaking a good-natured... Afinogenova. Las mejores intenciones. (Barcelona: Tusquets. This longer version is a breakdown of original script (above) into 679 takes... 331 pp. his cheeks childishly full and his mouth half open. Serbetas.. 1993).. Konidarëe. with titles.. Pu is described in ways that bring to mind the boy in Persona: ‘His look is somewhat sleepy. G.. and (Barcelona: Circulo de lectores. 326 pp. 1993). 216 pp. tr. M.. clear and lucid and [. A. Reception (of book) ‘Who would have thought’.

Z. 78 pp. A. Kollberg. tr. p. Arb. 1994). 1994). 1995). 4. A4. 25 January 1993. Expr. no. Ekbom. p. ‘Den faderlöse fadern’ [The fatherless father]. Arb). 157 pp. (Copenhagen: Lindhardt og Ringhof. Sunday’s Children. 39-41. Cernçik. SDS.. Hansell. Bo. tr. and (London: Harvill.. pp. p. ‘Ingmar Bergman tillbaka till det skrivna ordet’ [IB back to the written word]. Axelsson. Expr. ‘Flodens sång: Dalälven från Selma Lagerlöf till Ingmar Bergman’ [The song of the river: The Dala River from Selma Lagerlöf to IB]. Sonntagskinder. Palmqvist.. (Helsinki: Otava. Brohult. ‘Skimrande barndomsskildring’ [Shimmering childhood tale]. Torsten. 138 pp. 1994). ‘Långt farväl till pappa’ [Long farewell to daddy]. which is both unusual and refreshing today’ [Bs styrka som författare är den självklara trygghet han har i förvissningen att han skall kunna trollbinda och förföra ett auditorium med sina ord. Reichel. ‘Söndagsbarn’. Tidningen Boken... wrote Asta Bolin in Vår lösen. no.. Sven. pp. 1997). P hapäevalapsed. See also review article by Magnus Bergh. 25 January 1993. GT/KvP. 153 pp. p. 25 January 1993. (Praha: Volvox Globator. B1-B2. (Amsterdam: Meulenhoff. (New York: Arcade Publ. Ström. Joan Tate. p. M. 1993). Asta. Elam. 1996). 4. (Tallinn: Perioodika. 7-8. 4.Chapter II The Writer speglad i en omisskännlig lust att fabulera]. ‘Metmask och högmässa’ [Fishing worm and Sunday sermon]. tr. 1995).. Bertil. also (Den Haag: Stichting Kitgeverij. Some even felt that Söndagsbarn was superior to Den goda viljan. his story feels like it was brought to the reader orally. 107 pp. p. Sverker. Gunder. 140 pp. filled with color and smell.. 25 January 1993. BLM. ‘Berättelse från ett oändligt avstånd’ [Story from an immense distance]. Reviews (of book) Andersson. tr. Kyrö. 8 February 1993. 122 . 4. and Palmqvist. UNT. 25 January 1993. Zondagskinderen. knowing that he will be able to spellbind and seduce an audience with his words. She was seconded by Eva Ström in SDS: ‘Bergman’s strength as an author lies in his self-evident confidence. ‘Självbilden hos ett söndagsbarn’ [The self-portrait of a Sunday child]. Vår lösen. ‘Uppfriskande Bergman’ [Refreshing Bergman]. GP. national ed. 155 pp. Bjurström. 1993). more stringent and less wordy. Translations Czech: Danish: Dutch: English: Estonian: Finnish: French: German: Nedelnaatka. Woudstra.. 1993. 160 pp. son of Ingmar Bergman and Käbi Laretei) premiered prior to the publication of the book.. p. 2. Feilberg. 10. pp. C. 25 January 1993. p. p. Søndagsbarn. 22. K. tr. Ingrid. 25 January 1993. 99-100. 2. Andréason. (Köln: Kiepenheuer & Witsch. 101 pp. 4. 1993. både ovanligt och uppfriskande i dag]. The film version of Söndagsbarn (directed by Daniel Bergman. SvD. Critics who compared the two usually preferred the elder Bergman’s literary work (see Hansell. Mer än som en litterär text känns hans berättelse som muntligt framförd till läsaren. and to write dramatic dialogues signalling the dark forces at work underneath an idyllic summer landscape. no. 1993.. ‘Dödens oupphörliga närvaro’ [Death’s constant presence]. Sunnuntailapsi. G. Eva. Bolin. (Paris: Gallimard. More than a literary text. tr. Enfants du dimanche. 1996). What was emphasized in particular was Bergman’s ability to juxtapose very concrete and evocative vignettes. tr. Bo Ingvar. Magnus. 5. V. ‘En färd som försonar’ [A journey that reconciles]. AB. 25 January 1993. DN.

1993. no. 173 pp. En lätt tintad moralitet’ [The Last Scream/The Last Gasp... 1994). 165 pp. 166 pp.19-26. see Christina Rosenqvist. dated 5 May 1997. 1993 193. and Dramaten. (Oslo: Aschehoug. ‘Sista skriket’ is also included in 1994 volume titled Femte akten (Ø 195). It was also performed a few times in Göteborg. Malmö. Nati di domenica. plus 1 p. G.’ Script I is the text used for published version of Enskilda samtal (Stockholm: Norstedt. I. Play depicts the encounter between Swedish filmmaker from the silent era. (Milano: Garzanti). Vi. Bergman på Lilla scenen avsedd för säsongen 1996/97’ [Dramaten production plan. A Slightly Tinted Morality Play]. 114 pp. 1994 194.List of Bergman’s Written Work Hungarian: Italian: Norwegian: Polish: Portugese: Slovakian: Spanish: Vascarnapi gyerekek (Budapest: Europa könyvkichi. Script II at SFI. Media chapter. Includes pasted stills from the silent cinema and a note referring to ‘Dramatens produktionsplan. 3. The script was made into a television film. vol. 1995). It was also televised (see Media Chapter. pp. Anna Bergman. Cima. (See Theatre Chapter. The play premiered at the Swedish Film Institute’s Cinema Victor in connection with the showing of the SFI restoration of two silent films by Klercker. A. 100 pp. Søndagsbarn. Nedeliatko. no.. (Bratislava: H & H. here called Anna Bergman. Sunday 24 January 1993.. whom she has known since her first communion. The occasion is a marital crisis in her life: she has fallen in love with a young theologian. marked ‘Konfidentiellt’ in SFI Archive. Amlie. Dated at the beginning of script ‘Fårö 1 juni 1994’ and at end ‘8 juni 1994. 1995). Niedzielne dziecko. SFI Archives. pp. H. xxxv. Ø 474). His empathy with his subject.. Niños del domingo. 1994 and 1996). tr.. Georg af Klercker. 144 pp. Filhos de domingo. (Barcelona: Tusquets. 131 pp. söndagen den 24 januari 1993. Script I. The book’s title refers to the Lutheran alternative to Catholic confession: Anna Bergman has five private conversations with her pastor Jacob. 1994). M. Thylwe. Undated manuscript of one-act play.’ [Private Confessions/Conversations] Reception (of book) Like all of Ingmar Bergman’s films and books rooted in his childhood. tr. Torres. (Warszawa: Prószyński i Ska. For genesis of novel. Bergman on the Small Stage intended for the 1996/97 season]. 1993). Enskilda samtal was seen by the critics as circling around two essential questions: Bergman’s relationship with his parents and his questions of faith and doubt. (See Ø 340). Play by I. ‘Sista skriket. ‘Karin Bergman & kärleken’ [Karin Bergman and love]. and her unhappy life was felt to be so close to self-identification that one reviewer suggested a para- 123 . directed by Liv Ullmann. Ribero. Ø 338) and published in special Bergman insert in Chaplin. 1996. See introduction to this chapter. 1993. tr. 142 pp. This is basically a dialogue manuscript and marked as the final TV script. At one point the narrator intercepts the conversations with hesitant questions to himself. 59-62. 134 pp. 47-48. Enskilda samtal (Private Conversations/Private Confessions) is a novel about Ingmar Bergman’s mother. tr. New Månpocket edition in 1997. ‘Enskilda samtal. Pjäs av I. and film producer Charles Magnuson. (Lisboa: Difel. 1996). tr. 41 pp.

p. (Paris: Gallimard. Rudvall. 1994. ‘Fånge i sitt eget hem’ [Prisoner in his own home]. 188 pp. Öt vallompas. 48. 159 pp. Entretiens privés. Translations Danish: Dutch: English: Finnish: French: German: Hungarian: Norwegian: Polish: Personlige samtaler. SvD.. 167 pp. Agneta. is visible. (Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Warszawskie. Maria. p. Lutz. 152 pp. 12. (Elensky) With a language that one critic (Enander) called ‘brilliantly suggestive’ [briljant suggestivt].. 161 pp. Palmqvist. 1996). 1997. ‘Ein Seitensprung macht die Ehe zur Hölle’. Fortrolige samtaler. Tunbäck-Hansson. DN. tr. Rozmowy poufne. (Copenhagen: Lindhardt og Ringhof. Jonsson. Stockholm: Norstedt. There was also a sense that Bergman had become his own prisoner. tr. Monika. 3.. Berliner Morgenpost. 26. Karst Woudstra. Private confessions. (Budapest: Europa. 1996. Alain Gnaedig. Reichel. no. ‘Den sanna kärleken överlever inte sanningen’ [True love does not survive truth].. 11 November 1996. p. (Amsterdam: Meulenhoff. (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. ‘Mamma än en gång’ [Mom once more]. Book Reviews Elensky. ‘Sista skriket’ [The Last Gasp/The Last Scream]. Yksitysiä keskusteljuja. Bertil. tr. Kajsa.) called Enskilda samtal ‘autobiographical grains of sand that take on a pearly glow in new mussel shells’ [självbiografiska sandkorn som får en pärleglans i nya musselskal]. 25 April 1997. 1997). 162 pp. 1996. Volke. The reviewer in SvD (Elensky) likened him to a snake in a new skin that had not completely shed its old. Tidningen Boken. new ed. cues and stage directions. 11 November 1996. Jensen.. tr. Bergman revealed his filmmaking basis in his literary works: ‘All that is. B2. 11 November 1997.O. 1996 and New York: Arcade Publ. forever returning to his childhood past (Jonsson).... Expr. tr. p. no. 1996). c’est moi’. (Oslo: Aschehoug. 5. 4. Femina månadsmagasin. Enander. ‘Enskilda samtal’. Femte akten. Madame Bovary: ‘Anna. tr. 11 November 1996. Arbetet Nyheterna. ‘Lögn och bikt’ [Lies and confession].Chapter II The Writer phrase of Flaubert’s famous phrase about his creation. 1996). national ed. K. In fact a number of reviewers had a hard time separating Bergman’s literary text from their own memories of his films. Feilberg. Christer. 1997). Torbjörn. ‘Larmar och gör sig till’ [In the Presence of a Clown]. 147 pp.. 122. 1996). 11 November 1996. 1996). p. 175 pp. Westling. p. ‘Efter repetitionen’ [After the Rehearsal]. V. (München: Hanser. 11 November 1996. tr. Barbro. 135 pp. 1996). Joan Tate (London: Harvill. 37. tr. ‘Regissören vinner över författaren’ [The director wins over the author]. Svenska kyrkans tidning. AB. 3. GP. Schottenius. ‘Bergmans hemlighet’ [Bergman’s secret]. ‘Återigen nya masker för nya taskspelare’ [Once more new masks for new entertainers].. p. p. Vertrouwelijke Gesprekken. A. All that is said is spoken’ [Allt som är är synligt. p. Contains the following works: ‘Monolog’ [Monologue]. Expr. 124 . Bergman emerged as ‘one of our country’s really great authors’ [en av vårt lands verkligt stora författare]. Einzelgespräche. Lasszlo. 2001). Allt som sägs är talat] (Schottenius). Haryson. Thylwe (Helsinki: Otava. 151 pp. ‘Enskilda samtal’. Another reviewer (Schottenius. Like a mantra. 4. K. 1997). reviewers repeated that in his focus on images. H. 195. no. Stefan. 1-3.

Expr. no. tr. pp. p.. Westling. AB. (Paris: Gallimard. Az ötödik felvongas. B2. Lars. Le cinquième acte. 35-36. tr. p. Larsson. see (Ø 332). E. 171 pp. K Lasszlo. 1951. 1995). ‘Fredsfördrag med levandet’ [Peace treaty with life]. Enskilda samtal.List of Bergman’s Written Work ‘Monolog’ is a personal preface in which Bergman talks about his approach to the written word. 152 pp. ‘Femte akten’. German: Hungarian: Polish: 1998 196. (Stockholm: Norstedt. (New York: The New Press. 31 October 1994. Translations include English: French: The Fifth Act. Sverker.’ All of the works included in Bergman’s Femte akten have in common that they deal with emotional and professional finales: an aging director summing up his views of his profession. and ‘Larmar och gör sig till’ a TV film (see Ø 340). ‘Larmar och gör sig till’ is translated as ‘In Gegenwart eines Clowns’ in Ingmar Bergman. 1995. Sunday’s Child. The remaining three works are written in dialogue form. 1998). Media Chapter V. Palmqvist. tr. ‘En demon har blivit ödmjuk’ [A demon has humbled]. fear of death and vulgarities].G. 31 October 1994. SvD. Munkhammar. Reception Almost all reviews consisted of plot and theme summaries of the works in the volume and had few comments about Bergman as an author. p. DN. 754-830. ‘Det luktar och knarrar teater’ [It smells and creaks of theatre]. ‘Konsten trotsar döden’ [Art defies death]. C. ‘Fem akter är fler än fyra dramer’ [Five acts are more than four dramas]. p. ‘Vous voulez être comédien?’ Positif. ‘Sista skriket’ a theatre and TV play see (Ø 474) and (Ø 338). a has-been filmmaker dismissed by his producer. Bjurström. 2002. Ring. 4. Swedish paperback volume of Best Intentions.. (Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Warszawskie. 5. (Budapest: Europa. by Linda Rugg and Joan Tate. 24. dödsrädsla och tarvligheter’ [Philosophy. 394 (July 1990): 3-75 (with an analysis by Alain Bergala and a filmography). p. 197. GP. (See Ø 77). Book Reviews Andréason. 125 . 24 October 1994. 1997). 76. Davidsson.. by Renate Bleibtreu. national ed. tr. p. Also published in L’Avant Scène du Cinéma. Bertil. 40. 2001).. Birgit. 1997). 31 October 1994. 4. Katarina. except for references to his skills as a writer of dialogue. and Private Conversations. Piekąty akt. 10 February 1995. ed. a would-be cinematographic inventor whose grand performance ends in a short circuit explosion. Den goda viljan. Arbetet Nyheterna. no. Im Bleistift – Ton. 26 November 1995. Söndagsbarn. The book title is a reference to Ibsen’s Peer Gynt where death (‘The Passenger’) in the last act jokes with Peer: ‘One does not die in the middle of the fifth act. Barbro. Niewiarowska. p. 3 för en. Lisbeth. 447 (May 1998): 62-64. ‘Efter Repetitionen’ became a TV film. ‘Filosofi. no. Montage.

a quote from playwright Bobo Strauss: ‘No form of common failure. With a single stroke a divorce penetrates as deeply as life itself will reach. Almost all reviewers regretted that Kärlek utan älskare had been rejected by film producers (though Bergman used part of the story in From the Life of the Marionettes) and suggested that this work in particular might have led him to pursue a new track in his filmmaking rather than the classical route of bourgeois drama. and is himself shot by Wolfgang. The first one (Trolösa/Faithless) was made into a film directed by Liv Ullmann (see Filmography. Printed text is dated Stockholm. (Also listed in Ø 149) The third text. is a monologue (broadcast in 1990) by a woman on the verge of a breakdown. The second one (En själslig angelägenhet/A Matter of the Soul) became a radio play. Philemon and Baucis. According to Bergman’s prefatory note it was refused by several film production companies. The focus was on Bergman’s fictional world. 199. gets involved in business machinations. buys out a newspaper editor. Föreställningar. and on his dramaturgical structure. The three pieces in the volume were seen as a progression: From ‘faithless’ role-playing to the madhouse and the world of creative chaos. (Ø 259). This volume contains three ‘performances’ [föreställningar] by Bergman. från Victor Sjöström till Lukas Moodysson. no pag. 5-126). three ‘scores’ for films. Marco returns and puts a match to the reels. 126 . dated Fårö 11 August 1972. gives such a cruel and deep echo in the subconscious as a divorce. a police chief. En själslig angelägenhet. Trolösa. and from a conventionally constructed realistic relationship drama in Trolösa to a surreal inner-directed conflict in En själslig angelägenhet and a grotesque political caricature in Kärlek utan älskare. With a preface by Gunnar Bergdahl. 159-296) was written in Munich and dated 4 March 1978. A projection room displays sixteen undressing girls. 2000). English edition titled Twentieth Century of Bergman (!). ‘Kärlek utan älskare’ (pp. En hyllning till svensk film. Bauer’s 12-year-old son. Kärlek utan älskare (Stockholm: Norstedt. Peter Egerman visits one of them. excerpts from Shakespeare’s The Tempest are performed.’ ‘En själslig angelägenhet’ (pp.Chapter II The Writer 2000 198. Peter works in Ludwigswerke. The next scene shows a court theatre. neither illness nor ruin nor professional adversity. and the third one (Kärlek utan älskare/Love without Lovers) was never produced at all. Bergmans 1900-tal. the closed bourgeois room. Ka. 127-58). ‘Trolösa’ (pp. leaving behind some fragments for a film. also produced by Göteborg Film Festival. Reception Reviews were more critical but also more perceptive than in the reception of Bergman’s previous collection of prose works. The editor Anna Bergman tries to make a cohesive feature out of the material (the manuscript is gone). At a party he shoots Bauer. The story tells of film director Marco Hoffmann who has disappeared. Back in the projection room. The ‘film’ goes up in smoke. 296 pp. Bergman selects and comments on 35 Swedish films made in the 1900s. an old married couple who don’t want to be separated in death and are turned into a tree. dedicated to ‘Lena och Liv’ [actress Lena Endre and director Liv Ullmann]. is dated Fårö 10 September 1997 and is preceded by a motto. An interim vignette presents a variation of a classical love myth. 20 December 1999. Spectators buy time in a slot machine to watch them. Femte akten. (Göteborg: Göteborg Film Fesival). It touches directly at the roots of all anguish and revives it.

Includes. (Copenhagen: Lindhardt og Ringhof. Ulf. 127 . 11 September 2000. by Ib Lindberg & Lise Skafte Jensen. theatre chapter VI. 107 pp. East Anglia: Norvik Press. Original title – ‘Saraband’ – refers to Bach’s fugue. 4. Televised on 1 December. Saraband was published by Norstedt (Stockholm: 2003). Working title was also ‘Anna’. French: German: 2001 200. 42-43. 11 September 2000. and Enskilda samtal. p. ‘Saraband’. Tjäder. appeared in New Swedish Plays. DN 11 September 2000. ‘Kött och blod bland boksidorna’ [Flesh and blood on the book pages]. 11 September 2000. Eva. 2003. where reviewers often stressed the autonomy of the literary text. Westling. 2002. p.List of Bergman’s Written Work Several reviewers pointed out that a reader’s reaction to such works as Femte akten and Föreställningar was inevitably influenced by the faces of Bergman’s actors in his earlier film and theatre productions. Translations Danish: English: Forestillinger. Expr. media chapter (V). 1992). Ström. B1. SDS. p. Adaptation and Translation by Ingmar Bergman. Book Reviews Lindblom. ‘Hur bryter man sig ur det Bergmanska mörkret?’ [How does one break out of Bergmanian darkness?]. GP. 2000. 5. Sisela. Im Bleistift-Ton. Bergman presented the story as a free-standing continuation of Scener ur ett äktenskap (Scenes from a Marriage). In a press interview on 28 January 2002. 7. Stockholm: Dramaten. 2000). ‘I det sammanpressade rummet’ [In the compressed room]. (Norwich. With an afterword by Ingmar Bergman. 4. ‘Bordellens bilder’ [Images of the brothel]. Bertil. ed. tr. Ett familjedrama av Henrik Ibsen. 11 September 2000. ‘Kunde ha inlett en ny epok’ [Could have inaugurated a new epoch]. Arb. using the same actors – Erland Josephson and Liv Ullmann – as in the 1973 TV version (see Ø 343). by Renate Bleibtreu. p. ‘Försoning? Aldrig i livet’ [Reconciliation? Never in your life]. p. This implies a critical change from the response to such earlier Bergman publications as Den goda viljan. Olsson. Script for TV feature film. 2002. (Ø 487). Une affaire d’âme. pp. no. 320 pp. Printed in Dramaten Program 10 for 2001-2002. by Vincent Fournier. a translation of Trolösa (Infidèles) and Kärlek utan älskare (Amour sans amants). A4. 36. See Commentary to 2002 production of Gengångare (Ghosts). 2002). by Gunilla Anderman. Söndagsbarn. Filmrutan. tr. pp. Translation of ‘En själslig angelägenhet’ by Eivor Martinus titled ‘A Matter of the Soul’. directed by Ingmar Bergman. 224 pp. 2003 201. Barbro. besides title text. p. (Paris: Cahiers du Cinéma. 33-64. ed. pp. AB. Dated Fårö in May 2001. Kaj. Wickbom.. Gengångare. ‘Föreställningar’ [Performances].. 16 September 2000. Palmqvist. 754-830. Translation of Trolösa was published under title ‘Treulose’ in Ingmar Bergman. Per Arne.

SR. Three diaries kept separately by Bergman. Available for purchase on CD from SR. With a preface by Jacques Aumont. With Marie von Rosen. Bergman talks about his musical taste and the importance of music in his life and work.Chapter II The Writer Translations French: Sarabande. Paris: Edition des Cahiers du Cinéma. Stockholm: Norstedt. tr. and their daughter Maria during Ingrid’s terminal illness in 1995. Tre dagböcker [Three diaries]. 2004-2005. 18 July 2004. by Vincent Fournier. his wife Ingrid. 2004. Radio talk. 2004 201a. ‘Sommarprataren’ [Summer speaker]. 112 p. 128 . 201b. The diaries were edited by Bergman and Maria.


Bergman’s real international breakthrough as a filmmaker came with The Seventh Seal (1956) and established him as a screen director whose personal vision focused on metaphysical and religious issues. The still photo is taken during the shooting of the film. as Bergman is seen talking with the figure of Death (Bengt Ekerot). Photo: Gunnar Fischer. Courtesy: Svensk Filmindustri (SF) .

which may undergo different metamorphoses over the years. when I have the small frame in front of me and the film strip running through my fingers. so do the esthetic and cultural interpretations of such personalities. [. Det kan komma över mig i ateljén eller i klipprummets skymning. or during the fantastic birth process of mixing and the finished film slowly unveils its face. his own childhood games as an entryway into an imaginary landscape.] To Bergman his childhood projector came to signify a number of important aspects of the film medium. [Det blev min första trollerilåda. [. Och vad det är som fortfarande fängslar mig på exakt samma sätt. First and foremost his ‘rickety’ toy suggested the magic of movement. For just as personalities change and develop over the years. In his essay from 1954 ‘Det att göra film’. or in the darkness of the editing room.] I have often wondered what fascinated me and still fascinates me in the same way. då jag har den lilla bilden framför mig och filmbandet löpande mellan mina fingrar. There was something miraculous just in his being able to initiate movement with 131 .. in the case of Ingmar Bergman.Chapter III The Filmmaker To follow a highly visible and prolific artist’s production is to partake in the making of a creative persona. One expressive aspect of his self-created persona lies in the way Bergman has used... motion became associated with the life process itself. eller under mixningens fantastiska födelseprocess. again and again. depending upon the kind and degree of mythmaking that particular cultural contexts help formulate.] Jag har ofta undrat över vad som fängslade mig så restlöst. As in classical philosophy. Something can occur to me in the film studio. The public image of a young Ingmar Bergman in the emerging Swedish folkhem of the 1940s differs from the critical view of him in the politicized 1960s or the portrait of him as an aging artistic giant in the early 21st century. To the filmmaker Ingmar Bergman. a toy projector in the nursery closet harbored features that would become important to him as a screen artist. Yet. då den färdiga filmen långsamt avtäcker sitt ansikte.. the object himself has helped solidify his image through his own ability to shape his life into a legend. he writes about the lifelong spell of his ‘little rickety projector’and about his sensuous recollection of his first encounter with it: It was my first magic box.

who. fake and reality. 149). a clown and conjuring act. Kanske skulle vi till och med finna en springa att tränga oss ut i öververklighetens skymningsland. ‘Det att göra film’ [What is Filmmaking?]. had challenged the use of the camera as a documentary recorder of reality. cover new realms of reality of which we are still ignorant.. Méliès was a practicing magician turned filmmaker. of shaping his own world. Finally. no. imprint and representation. Bergman’s somewhat defensive tone might be juxtaposed to the role of the cinema at the time. [Det är inte fel och förnedrande för filmen att den ursprungligen varit ett marknadsnöje. [Det är en tanke jag inte kan värja mig för att jag sysslar med ett medium som är så raffinerat att vi skulle kunna belysa människosjälen oändligt mycket skarpare. Bergman’s exposure to the magic ‘box’ was analogous to his role as a young puppeteer: it gave him the satisfaction of exerting the rudimentary control of a director. the projected image was both copy and mimesis. avslöja ännu hänsynslösare. men det är fel och förnedrande att den förnekar detta sitt ursprung. in a bold and naïve way. He formulated his views as an homage to Georges Méliès. when Bergman was at the very beginning of his film career. Maybe we should even be able to find a crack through which to penetrate the twilight land of suprareality. which are so stimulating to our imagination. Biografbladet 28. Att den håller på att förlora sin magi och sina fantasieggande gycklaregenskaper. ‘the first imaginative artist in the cinema’ [den första fantasifulla konstnären inom filmen]. the overriding importance of the magic lantern lay in its potential to help him portray and at the same time transcend his own subjective world.] (‘Det förtrollade marknadsnöjet’. Second. p. 3. Ingmar Bergman’s earliest attempts at defining his position as a filmmaker centered on the role of fantasy in the cinema. Third.Chapter III the Filmmaker mechanical means and thus simulate life. 1947. to reveal more ruthlessly. It is an approach defended by Bergman: There is nothing shameful or degrading about the cinema having been at one time a form of peep show entertainment. he attacked the new realism in the American cinema and advocated a return to ‘magic’ and ‘illusionism’. inmuta helt nya domäner i verkligheten åt vår kännedom. In the essay from 1954. his apparatus embodied the essence of filmmaking as a popular rather than sophisticated art... Though technically primitive compared to modern film projection facilities..] Filmmaking: Enter the Magician In keeping with his assessment of the magic potential of the film medium. Bergman came to realize quite early that to him the essence of filmmaking lay in its potential to go beyond the spatial and temporal limits of physical reality and depict an inner mindscape. But it is wrong and denigrating to deny its origin and make it lose its sense of magic and its clowning qualities. he speculates about the special power of the film medium: I cannot help thinking that the medium at my disposal is so fine and complicated that it should be able to illuminate the human soul more strongly. Whether viewed as an escapist medium or valued for its potential as a 132 . ett gyckel och taskspeleri. In a 1946 talk in a film club at Uppsala University.

. the leading film company in Sweden at the time: ‘A good film is a film that sells. Filmen kan inte tävla med teatern som dröm. a form of ‘self-combustion and self-effusion. become indignant. le. But Bergman’s description of the filmmaking situation also refers to the structure of the film industry in Sweden when he entered the field. 1947). chockeras. charmed.. the cinema dwelt in a more commercial sphere that seemed to follow the same box office guidelines as Hollywood.] (‘Det att göra film’. Bergman presented a talk at Lund University in the early 1950s (later to be developed into the essay ‘Det att göra film’). viewers had been drawn like curious and excited children to the laterna’s magic world. on the other hand.] Practically all movies we see are filmed naturalistic theatre. bedåras. In the past. which has almost always been a form of personal statement. It could also be a painful undertaking. scream with fright. 5) The seductive power of the camera would later be made into a motif in a number of Bergman films. the celluloid and the projector. or poetry. Fanny och Alexander (1982). [. This observation refers both to the taxing filmmaking process itself and to his own involvement in the script. [. in which he referred to the industry as a ‘brutal’ enterprise system and likened his own role in the cinema to that of an acrobat 133 . Bergman. To Bergman an ideal audience was one that preserved such a childlike willingness to let themselves be ‘duped’. Swedish Filmmaking during Bergman’s Formative Years To Ingmar Bergman. a tapeworm 2. and Larmar och gör sig till (1993. possessed the capacity to spellbind the viewer and provide a spectacle of enchantment. The Swedish film industry was in the hands of private companies that relied on profit for their survival.] The cinema cannot compete with the theatre as dream. liked to point out from the start that the laterna magica.. p. skrika av skräck. filmmaking was not only a playful and magical game. Prison).’.500 meters long that sucks the life and spirit out of me’ (quoted in Time. tro på sagor. In the Presence of a Clown). The Magician/The Face). 62). It serves as an important signifier in Fängelse (1949. Ansiktet (1959.] Praktiskt taget alla filmer vi ser är filmad naturalistisk teater. the cinema was deemed to be an inferior form of cultural expression that could not compete with the theatre in terms of elegance.] (En bok om film. [få den att skratta. believe in fairy stories. as a precursor to the film camera. He viewed himself as a magician whose success was based on an ability to use his apparatus to put the viewers in an emotionally intense state of mind and ‘make them laugh.’ Seemingly well aware of the commercial backbone of Swedish filmmaking at the time.. feel shocked. smile.. celluloiden och projektorn. lekfullhet eller fantasifull vision. 14 March 1962. Unlike the various subsidized city theatres where he was contracted to work as a stage director. indigneras. depth. playfulness or imaginative vision. As one of the leading film and theatre critics in Sweden at the time (and one of Bergman’s early supporters).Swedish Filmmaking during Bergman’s Formative Years serious social and psychological medium.. one-time head of Svensk Filmindustri.. Nils Beyer once wrote: There is no romantic glow about the camera. 1954. in the alleged words of Olof Andersson. p. [.. Their final goal was clearly expressed. [Det finns ingen romantisk glöd kring kameran..

he said. Therefore. Without bringing profits to the film industry coffers.. the producer rightly claims that he no longer dares invest his money in my talent. and entertainment seekers. Trollkarlen är berövad sin apparatur.] Varför skall man inte skrämma filmproducenter? Det hör till deras yrke att vara rädda. a Swedish filmmaker on the 134 . [.. p. I find myself a suspect figure. [.] two or three films that are economic flops. though at the same time I know that this would be the end and totally meaningless..] Men filmproducenterna har bara förtroende för ingenjörer och inbillar sig med stupid vördnad att industrins räddning går genom tekniska uppfinningar.. Sista skriket (‘The Last Gasp/Sream’). anser producenten med rätta att han inte längre vågar satsa sitt guld på mina talanger.] två eller tre filmer som innebär ekonomisk förlust. [Om jag således gör [.] But film producers have only faith in engineers and imagine. 57). Därför är jag ändå glad att jag inte är född med lika delar förnuft och inälvor. [. Eng. rädsla. p. samtidigt som jag vet att detta vore slutet och den fullständiga likgiltigheten. Jag finner mig då helt plötsligt vara en misstänkt figur. conventional attitudes. [.Chapter III the Filmmaker performing a rope dance. critics.. 8) Some 40 years later Bergman would depict the somewhat cynical commercial attitude of the film industry in his one-act stage play.] I sometimes get a tired desire to accommodate myself and make myself into what they want me to be. 4) Bergman later acknowledged that during his early years in filmmaking he ‘went on sawing away very furiously at the very branch I was sitting on’ [sågade väldigt häftigt i den gren jag satt på] (Bergman om Bergman. Suddenly.. konventionalism. as well as other captains of industry. The magician is robbed of his apparatus. och får god tid att tänka på vad mina så kallade konstnärliga ambitioner egentligen hade för nytta med sig. a marshland of economic troubles.. p.. that the salvation of the industry comes about through technical inventions... dumhet. in their stupid reverence. The filmmaker carried with him his personal skill and vision. [.] Jag får en trött lust att anpassa mig och göra mig sådan man vill ha mig. a filmmaker’s magic touch might be dispelled overnight: If I make [. would provide laboratories for the creative artist. left a filmmaker ‘trampling in a marshland with his nose above the water.. en penningförskingrare. He did not hesitate to rile the production companies for curtailing artistic freedom to safeguard a lucrative success: It would be desirable if film producers. a balancing act prompted by popular demand and by production company expectations.. Ed. osäkerhet och virrighet]. they get paid for their ulcers! [Det vore önskvärt att filmproducenterna såväl som andra fabriksledare ställde laboratorier till de skapande krafternas förfogande.] Why shouldn’t we scare the film producers? It’s part of their profession to be scared. but he also had to appease a whole complex of investors. [. fear. insecurity and confusion’ [står och trampar i ett träsk med näsan ovanför vattnet. an embezzler who will have plenty of time to contemplate the usefulness of his so-called artistic ambitions.. I am glad that I am not born with equal part reason and guts. De har betalt för sina magsår!] (‘Det att göra film’ p.] (‘Det att göra film’. stupidity. Bergman imagines a meeting between Georg af Klercker. ett träsk av ekonomiska bekymmer.... 63. He certainly did not mince his words about the film production industry which.

I really understand how af Klercker must have felt’ [Eftersom jag själv vid ett flertal tillfällen nästan hade blivit utsparkad och avskedad. Interviews). ville alltid bolagsherrarna. The war years. ville alltid Dymling. Magnusson. Magnusson is not insensitive to the artistic potential of the medium. Gone were the golden years of Swedish filmmaking when the silent Swedish cinema had established an international reputation with directorial names like Victor Sjöström and Mauritz Stiller and cinematographer Julius Jaenzon (Mr. Jaenzon’s fate is indicative of the decline that took place in the 1930s. himself dismissed from his post in the late Twenties. a company that reconstituted itself in 1919 as Svensk Filmindustri (SF). Jaenzon had become an embittered alcoholic whose talent had gone to waste as the talkies took over and Swedish filmmaking turned to a formula production of mostly popular so-called ‘pilsner farces’ and elegant ‘champagne’ comedies and melodramas. Magnusson can afford to ignore him. One of them was Alf Sjöberg.S. all of whom had been active in the U. As a matter of fact. förstår jag verkligen hur af Klercker måste ha känt det] (see Åhlund. God always wanted it’ [Vad Ingmar ville. By the early 1950s Bergman had created a name for himself in the film studio as a determined young film artist whose will was not easily ignored. a highly professional and disciplined training. dating back to the silent era. Therefore. Kris (1946). Stockholm: Tiden. 144). Bergman’s assessment of his own situation in the 1940s and 1950s is incorporated into Sista skriket. The Swedish cinema also witnessed the emergence of a new generation of producers who were on the lookout for young talents. and Rune Waldekranz at Sandrews all recognized Bergman’s potential. Ø 926. Filmmakers who had been ostracized in the 1930s were now invited back. also supported Bergman. the producers always wanted it. especially during the shooting of the first film he directed. Inte bara applåder. who was to direct Bergman’s first script. ‘Hets’ (1944. 1975. Af Klercker is really not much to stake his money on at this point. They did not constitute a film repertory company but were nevertheless a team he knew well from his years as a theater director in Hälsingborg. 1992. but he is an entrepreneur who views a filmmaker’s contribution as an investment. for the most part. Julius). Over the years he came to surround himself with a ‘stable’ of actors. there was a saying among those who dwelt within the radius of Bergman’s studio work that ‘what Ingmar wanted. p. since the influx of foreign movies diminished. Bergman’s artistic career was also helped by the close connection between stage and screen in the Swedish cinema. Malmö and Göteborg. was long gone when Ingmar Bergman was hired in 1941 in the manuscript department at Svensk Filmindustri. The stage-cum-screen tradition provided the filmmaker with an important asset – working with stage actors who had. offered a different perspective for Swedish film production companies. however.Swedish Filmmaking during Bergman’s Formative Years skid. Chaplin. Victor Sjöström. and the mogul Charles Magnusson. ville alltid Gud] (Lillie Björnstrand. and whose capacities and extraordinary skills he had 135 . the founder of Svenska Bio (1909). This suited the rather rigid work morale of Ingmar Bergman. while the box office demand for new features increased. the grand old man of the Swedish silent cinema who had returned from Hollywood and become one of the artistic advisers at SF. a fact that he confirmed in a program interview: ‘Since I myself had several times been almost kicked out and dismissed. Torment/Frenzy). In the play. When Ingmar Bergman entered the scene. Carl Anders Dymling at SF. Dymling always wanted. Lorens Marmstedt at Terrafilm.

He had tried his luck at three different production companies: Svensk Filmindustri. for panning above cutting. The sector narrowed. With his passionate commitment to the medium and his intense determination. His first five years as a filmmaker can be seen as a trial-and-error period when he worked with different production companies. It was a very uncomfortable feeling. [lika primitiv och elementär som hunger och törst] (‘Det att göra film’. The very timing of Bergman’s arrival in the film studio was perfect. In an excessive response. But he shared the film studios with a very talented group of filmmakers of his own generation. A studio lockout in 1950-51 aggravated his situation. and only a few film companies had survived the industry’s financial crisis. He once stated that he would have been willing to make movies about anything. and Terrafilm. Ø 87). ‘even the telephone directory’ [till och med telefonkatalogen] (Kommentar till serie från A till Ö. I knew that for each time things went to pot my subsequent chances to make film became more limited. p. s. Filmmaking was a craving ‘as primitive and elemental as hunger and thirst’. so common in traditional Swedish filmmaking. Ø 1689). Bergman says in retrospect: Of course I experienced both the public and critical fiasco as something catastrophic. Och det var en mycket obehaglig känsla]. his preference for continuity editing. Without doubt these ties between stage and screen contributed to the professional quality of Ingmar Bergman’s filmmaking and also helped establish certain specific aspects of his film style. Bergman had come to fear that his filmmaking days were numbered. As Törnqvist remarks in his book Bergman’s Muses (see Chapter IX. Ø 154). 218). Had he shown up ten years later. ‘Bergman’s interest in pictorial composition rather than camera movement. Sektorn blev trängre. Sandrews. To this one might add his increasing focus on the actor’s dominant space above that of panoramic nature scenes. (Bergman om Bergman. Ten years later the number had diminished to less than half. The Swedish film industry produced some 40 films a year in the 1940s. who seemed to take much more naturally to the medium. (Bergman on Bergman. but it is unlikely that he would have been given the same opportunity to learn the trade and use the existing production facilities. and for long takes may all be seen as theatrical characteristics’ (p. Jag visste att för varje gång blev det osäkrare och riskablare. cinematographers and actors while absorbing a variety of film styles. Jag visste att varje gång det gick åt pipan så var mina fortsatta möjligheter att få göra film begränsade. Ingmar Bergman might eventually have succeeded at any time. 87) 136 . he would have found a cinema in growing economic difficulties. among them Hasse Ekman and Lars-Erik Kjellgren. 82) [Det är klart att jag upplevde både publikfiaskot och kritikerfiaskot som något katastrofalt. one reviewer opened and closed his column with the following oft-quoted line: ‘I refuse to dissect any further Ingmar Bergman’s latest throw-up’ [Jag vägrar att ockulärbesiktiga Ingmar Bergmans senaste spya].Chapter III the Filmmaker been able to assess on stage. by the end of the 1940s. In fact. I knew that for each time my situation became more insecure and risky. The final blow seemed to come in 1953 when Gycklarnas afton (The Naked Night) – today considered one of Ingmar Bergman’s early master-pieces – got a lukewarm reception. from French film noir to Italian neo-realism.

Ingmar Bergman directed thirteen feature films. SF finally let him make Det sjunde inseglet (1956-57. however. and I have to steal if I don’t have anything of my own to present. True to form. I ought to murder my nearest ones or myself or anyone else if it helps my film. Film Culture. since it implies all kinds of moral transgressions in the name of poetic license: . On the contrary. it did not imply a laissez-faire approach to filmmaking. 7) Yet. During the 1950s Bergman also formulated certain fundamental principles that would guide him as a filmmaker and keep him from undermining his artistic integrity in a profit-oriented industry. After his Cannes recognition in 1956. based on his own recognition of the precarious economic basis of filmmaking which meant that each new film he made might very well be his last. Smiles of a Summer Night). as ‘the first truly existential work for the cinema’ (Andrew Sarris. of which he had written the script to eight. behind the second commandment lies an absolute demand on the creative self to submit to whatever rigorous discipline and humiliating circumstances necessary to maintain artistic integrity. a rather tenuous and tricky dictum.000) and 35 shooting days to complete the project. I may prostitute myself if it is beneficial to the cause. is one of caution.Ingmar Bergman: His Filmmaking Credo Ingmar Bergman: His Filmmaking Credo Between 1945 and 1956. the year of his international breakthrough with Sommarnattens leende (1955.. This did not mean however that the filmmaker had to give in to audience pressure: In his second commandment Bergman chooses loyalty to his artistic vision as his number one priority. om det hjälper min film. giving him the modest sum of 75.000 kronor (at the time about $15. [Var alltid underhållande] – Thou Must Follow Thy Artistic Conscience. for he knew that only he and his team could influence the way a 137 .. The film cemented his filmmaking reputation abroad. Bergman’s third commandment. jag får också ljuga om det är en attraktiv lögn. gave Bergman a sense of artistic comfort. (p. such a focus on the work at hand.. jag bör mörda mina närmaste eller mig själv eller vem som helst. 1959). jag får också lov att prostituera mig om det gynnar saken och jag måste stjäla om jag inte har något eget att komma med]. [Varje film är min sista film] The first exhortation – to be entertaining – was dictated by the viewing and paying public who had the right to demand a vital and enjoyable experience. The Seventh Seal).I am permitted to falsify if it is artistically defensible. [. For this reason he decided that his only loyalty had to be to the film in the making. and The Seventh Seal was hailed in the U. But in return. His artistic credo.. eventually published in the 1959 essay ‘Varje film är min sista film’ [Each Film is My Last] (Ø 108). he disciplined himself to finish the takes in 34 days and within the allotted budget. [Du skall följa ditt konstnärliga samvete] – Every Film Is My Last Film. finally. This is. though all means were permissible as long as they served an artistic goal. I may also lie if it is an attractive lie. one that seeks the easiest way out to reach the end product. precluding any looking back or looking forward.S.jag tillåts förfalska om det är konstnärligt försvarligt. was set down as three ‘commandments’ which were presented under the following headings: – Always Be Entertaining.

But it created a certain tension in him between an artistic desire to experiment with a new visual language and his equally strong desire to be understood and communicate with an audience: The result is a tug-of-war between my need to search for a filmically associative form to express a complicated situation and my demand for absolute clarity. By following his third commandment and relying on his own creative strength and not worrying about future filmmaking opportunities or about the day when the public might be indifferent to his art. [Det blir slitningar mellan mitt behov att söka ett filmiskt associativt uttryck för en komplicerad situation och mina krav på absolut klarhet. in the realistic and formulaic American approach to scriptwriting: This technique was extremely obvious. In fact. he had been trained by his boss. 118) [Denna filmdramaturgi var ytterst påtaglig. s. Eftersom jag inte skapar mitt verk till min egen eller fåtalets uppbyggelse utan till miljonpublikens underhållning segrar för det 138 . the latter imperative usually wins out.Chapter III the Filmmaker given film would take shape. p. almost rigid: The audience must never have the slightest doubt where they were in the story. Höjdpunkter skulle fördelas och placeras på bestämda därför avsedda ställen i manuskriptet. which can be distilled as follows from several short essays. My Life in Film. Kulminationen skulle sparas till slutet]. As a young script reader at SF. Bergman retained as guiding principles some fundamental aspects of his first exposure to American-style scriptwriting: a clear plot development and a sense of climactic timing. Ingmar Bergman could also maintain his sense of professional pride and his vitality as a film artist. and interviews: 1. High points should be allotted and placed at specific places in the script. I sometimes try the riskier alternative. Since I do not create my work for the edification of myself or a few people but for the entertainment of the masses. Nevertheless. But he also developed certain fundamental concepts about the film medium. was too linear for Bergman’s purposes. (Bilder. But the transition from a dramaturgy with roots in 19th-century realism to a modernistic structure that attempted to depict the associative and fragmented pattern of the subconscious or nocturnal psyche was not without problems. Filmmaking required of Bergman that he develop a narrative approach and a visual style that could accommodate what he called ‘the dramaturgy of the juicy dream’ [den smaskiga drömmens dramaturgi]. and the culmination had to be saved for the end. and it turns out that the public also absorbs an advanced irrational style with a keen sense. närmast rigid: publiken skulle aldrig behöva sväva i tvivelsmål om var man befann sig. Bergman’s three commandments form his artistic catechism. and the transitions between various points of the story were to be treated with care. Ingen tvekan skulle råda om vem som var vem. (Images. och berättelsens transportsträckor skulle behandlas med omsorg. 118) American film dramaturgy. Stina Bergman. clarity in presentation was to remain a self-imposed demand by Bergman throughout his filmmaking career. To him the film medium should attempt to ‘penetrate into hitherto unseen worlds’ [tränga in i hittils osedda världar]. program notes. which had gained international acceptance. Nor could there be any doubt about who was who.

in a variety of different ways. Ingmar Bergman’s control of a film production was to become legendary. 58/Bergman om Bergman. Filmmaking is teamwork. My pride is that of a craftsman’ [Jag säger att mina filmer är ett gott hantverk. Actor Anders Ek. I am diligent. often filled with laughter and small talk. Min stolthet är en hantverkares] (‘Det att göra film’/‘What is Filmmaking?’ 1954. the sense of security and trust they have felt in his leadership. p. These preparations must not take too long. 3. Yet. p. conscientious and extremely careful. the hard reality is that without a craftsman’s competence. Swedish film production had had a wellestablished crew of skilled craftsmen. 4-5) Bergman refers to his modernistic approach to film narration as walking ‘the dangerous roads’ [de farliga vägarna]. 63). 1954: 4-6. I make my work for daily use and not for eternity. but so would his sense of loyalty to his staff of co-workers. yet it should not be so strenuous as to cause fatigue: Every limb in the big collective must know what is to be done. omsorgsfull och ytterst noggrann. still towards the end of his career. While the impulse to create for the screen might spring from an inner drive and a desire to convey a personal vision. my films are good craftsmanship. a man of strong will and conviction. Ever since the silent era of filmmaking. 64). so that he could better control a production: ‘I was all the time declared an idiot until I stubbornly and step by step learnt everything that had to do with my profession. admired Bergman for his ability ‘to guide him towards profound depths’ [att leda fram mot de stora djupen]. Filmmaking is based on good craftsmanship. (‘Varje film är min sista film’ Each Film Is My Last. Ø 87). Jag är flitig. The filming itself had to proceed with careful planning. a precise and punctual tempo. many of whom reacted negatively to Bergman as a temperamental novice. Jag skapar mitt arbete för dagligt bruk och inte för evigheten. the result will be disappointing. Ø 919. he suspects that his filmmaking approach ‘might not have been clear enough and simple enough’ [har kanske inte varit tillräckligt tydlig och tillräckligt enkel] (Tre dagar med Bergman. Instead. As a director he seems to have functioned like an old-fashioned company leader who demanded an absolute work morale from his employees but also shielded them in moments of crisis. His actors have expressed. I dag är det ingen på det tekniska planet som kan slå mig på fingrarna] (Bergman on Bergman. The whole mechanical apparatus must be freed from all uncertainty. p. no. Today there is no one who can rap me over the knuckles in technical matters’ [Jag blev oavbrutet idiotförklarad tills jag benhårt steg för steg lärde mig allt som hade med mitt yrke att göra. p. He knew that the medium had to be challenged and the public tested. 21. Ibland prövar jag likväl det riskablaste alternativet och det har visat sig att publiken förvånansvärt lyhört absorberar även en avancerad irrationell linjeföring]. 139 . (See interviews in Filmnyheter 9. 12. Bergman became convinced that some of them helped sabotage his early filmmaking efforts. 2. around which the director built a secure fence that prevented any disturbing visitors from entering the area. This challenged him to learn all the technical aspects of the trade. he evolved a directorial approach where moments of concentrated and controlled takes would alternate with relaxed pauses. To achieve professional skill as a filmmaker became a matter of great pride to Ingmar Bergman: ‘I say. Actress Eva Dahlbeck once claimed that working with Bergman was like being placed in a garden.Ingmar Bergman: His Filmmaking Credo mesta det senare imperativet.) Bergman’s creative vision could never bear too much impulsive improvization.

spänningar. Hela mekaniken måste vara självklart befriad från all osäkerhet. For instance. p. bildernas inbördes relation. and now begins a complicated work that is hard to master: To transfer rhythms. I have often asked for a kind of musical score that would give me the chance of translating all the shades and notes of my vision. p. As a result. atmosfärer. I mean the montage itself. there are numerous references to audiovisual impressions that used to fascinate him as a child: A swishing light beam. tensions. [. To him this was part of his own childhood experience. [.] readible manuscript. Film Comment 1970. tonarter.. ed.] I don’t have the slightest chance of suggesting the breathing and pulse of the work. ex. sekvenser. ‘an added value’ to the optical illusion of the image. atmospheres. Repetitionerna till tagningen måste ske under klar medvetenhet och teknisk precision. an enrichment brought about by a synchronic use of sound and image. a few bars on a cello seem to guide the camera’s caressing pendulum between the women’s faces: the music suppresses the sound of their voices and assumes the role of an invisible conductor. Sound and image came to share equal space in his imagination. rytmen. for it is built into the very montage and rhythm of a sequence.. the rhythm.] (‘Varje film är min sista film’. [Jag har alltså beslutat mig för att göra en viss film och nu vidtar ett komplicerat och svårbemästrat arbete: Att överföra rytmer. as Michel Chion has remarked. ... in Chion’s wording. in a brief and fleeting reconciliation scene between the two sisters Karin and Maria in Viskningar och rop/Cries and Whispers. the inner relationship of the images.] Men så kommer jag till det essentiella. p...Chapter III the Filmmaker however. What he calls for is a score that could transform his vision into notes: So I have decided to make a particular film. 11) [Jag vet t. musical scores to words and sentences in a [. att allt i en scen måste vara noga förberett..] And then I come to the essential matter. by Claudia Gorbman. . jag menar själva montaget. In Laterna magica. Such recollections of sounds and images find their way into his filmmaking. a creaky cart drawn by a horse on a cobblestone street. a scratching ink pen. The rehearsals before a take must occur in full awareness [of what needs to be done] and with technical precision. Ø 108. 5). de får inte tråka ut eller trötta de inblandade. 1994. Bergman’s creation of audiovisual illusion is.] manuskript.. Likewise his use of music in his filmmaking goes far beyond serving as an emotional complement. Audio-Vision.. (‘My Three Powerfully Effective Commandments’. [. At times it seems to dictate the very movement of a scene and determine the camera’s approach to the photographed image. moods. the whole vital third dimension without which the finished film will be a dead mechanical product. hela den livsviktiga tredje dimension utan vilken den färdiga filmen är en död fabrikationsartikel. 5) Bergman once speculated on how valuable it would be for him to have at his disposal a musical method whereby to realize a film script. New York: Columbia UP. varje lem i det stora kollektivet måste veta vad som ska göras. stämningar. there is. they must not tire or bore those involved. (Michel Chion. till ord och meningar i ett läsbart [.. I cannot specify distinct musical keys. Sound and Screen. In his adolescence Bergman experienced the important transition from silent cinema to the talkies. Dessa förberedelser får inte ta för lång tid. & transl. from visual images accompanied by captions to sound tracks. a tremendous difference in experiencing a Bergman film with or without sound. Jag kan 140 .

so that his characters are seldom either absolute winners or losers.Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production inte ange tydliga tonarter [. 3) Ultimately.] (Interview in Mikael Timm. the voyeuristic or parasitical motif. so that the public is given an opportunity to breathe along – well.] (‘Varje film är min sista’/Each Film is my Last. då fungerar det inte. återhållet. the confessional motif. then it does not function. Filmmaking to Bergman is related to music as an art built on creating a flow of harmony and balance. both on the social and personal level. restrained. man upprätthåller hela tiden en spänning.] jag har inte minsta möjlighet att antyda verkets andhämtning eller puls.. Därför att hela vårt liv består av rytmer med dag och natt. inandning och utandning – och i detta lever vi. breathing in and breathing out – and in this we live. långsamt. Within the framework of such ‘constant themes’ as the quest motif. Sometimes a shift in theme also signals a shift in style and milieu. every recreation – swiftly. Ögats glädje. His prolific production demands some kind of organized classification even though it is important to bear in mind that almost any categorization of such a large and rich material will imply certain intellectual shortcuts. you maintain the whole time a tension. intercepted by moments of dramatic climaxes or crescendos. and a given actor can serve as inspiration for a film narrative. [All konst har med in.. man släpper lös.. between control and humiliation. Jag har ofta efterlyst en sorts notskrift som skulle ge mig en chans att översätta visionens alla dagrar och toner. the scapegoat or humiliation motif. If we don’t inscribe rhythm in every interpretation. Bergman develops conflicts and situations that de- 141 . you make a pause. Yet. you let loose. man gör paus. one might divide Bergman’s films into different groups where the selected approach is both chronological and thematic. despite the risk of oversimplifying. varje återskapande – snabbt. there is a continuous awareness of the interplay. Because our whole life consists of rhythms of day and night. what Bergman implies in his reference to musical analogies is something that lies beyond mere notes and technicalities.. svart och vitt. p. often presented as a series of shifting positions. så att publiken hela tiden får en möjlighet att andas med – ja. light and darkness. Om vi inte skriver in rytmen i varje interpretation. 129) Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production Ingmar Bergman’s filmmaking spans more than half a century or half the history of the film medium.och utandning att göra. All great art in fact is to Bergman like capturing a sense of rhythm. slowly. black and white. a strong moral viewpoint determines both his metaphysical and psychological motifs. The classification used here should not obscure the fact that there are in Bergman’s entire filmmaking what one might call certain primordial tensions and conflicts that permeate his production from beginning to end. p. 1994. Other organizing principles such as a focus on stylistic features or on clusters of actors and actresses/male and female parts would be equally feasible. a mood and a movement that tries to emulate breathing itself: All art has to do with breathing in and breathing out. ljus och mörker.

he used the medium as a realistic form of screen projection. check individual films in the filmography chapter (IV) and in media chapter (V). Torment/Frenzy) Kris (1946. Color. The Virgin Spring). The first occurs after his international breakthrough in the mid-Fifties. For more details. Films originally conceived for television have script references marked TV. which played such a vital part in Viskningar och rop. Port of Call) Eva (1948) Fängelse (1949. Film titles are indicated as follows: Scripts revised by Bergman but based on literary works by others are marked rev. In the charts below. followed by English distribution titles. Focus: The Young Couple Hets (1944. beginning with Såsom i en spegel (1961. finally. It is now he begins to explore his family history. Fogelström 142 . Though he had explored television since the 1950s.Chapter III the Filmmaker monstrate an emotional tug-of-war between human beings. from play by Martin Söderhjelm Director & Script rev. But with the documentary TV film Fårö-dokument (1969) and the television series Scener ur ett äktenskap (1973. Through a Glass Darkly) and culminating with Viskningar och rop (1972. Land of Desire/Ship to India) Musik i mörker (1948. Illicit Interlude/Summer Interlude) Sommaren med Monika (1953. A number of important turning-points in Bergman’s filmmaking may be noted. it was at first reserved for adaptations of some of his play productions. from novel by Dagmar Edqvist Director & Script rev. It Rains on Our Love) Skepp till India land (1947. Crisis) Det regnar på vår kärlek (1946. Summer with Monica) Script Director & Script rev. plus author’s name. Cries and Whispers). from novel by Olle Länsberg Script Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script with P. The Devil’s Wanton/Prison) Sommarlek (1950. Night is My Future/Music in Darkness) Hamnstad (1948. from play by Oscar Braathen Director & Script rev. Bergman’s next turning-point.-A. which enabled him to dictate his own terms and create his major auteur films of that decade: Sjunde inseglet (1956. and between individuals and their gods and demons. seems conditioned by his homecoming in the early 1980s after several years in exile. from play by Leck Fischer Director & Script rev. Titles listed are original Swedish titles. Wild Strawberries). The Story of a Bad Girl/Monica. A second turning-point takes place in the early Sixties when he moves from the epic journey format and/or ‘historical’ films of the preceding decade to the chamber films. Ansiktet (1958. is now explored to the fullest in Fanny och Alexander (1982). Films from the Forties and early Fifties. The Magician/The Face). Group I. Scenes from a Mariage). Bergman’s role as either director or scriptwriter is divided into six different group headings. which brings a new psychological intensity to his films (including his TV films and his scripts). The Seventh Seal). Yet another shift has to do with his recognition of the intimate potential of the TV medium. Smultronstället (1957. This shift coincides with Bergman’s discovery of the stark Fårö landscape and with the definite establishment of Sven Nykvist as his cinematographer. and Jungfrukällan (1960.

where the 143 . Secrets of Women/ Waiting Women) En lektion i kärlek (1954. Marianne Höök. By the mid-Fifties Ingmar Bergman had become known as a connoisseur of women. and order: policemen. the first of Bergman’s films exploring a native Swedish genre.Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production In this first group of films. In contrast to the crudely cliche-like depictions of women in the Swedish cinema. Stepping out of his adolescent spleen. we find a variety of visual styles. The young couples are seldom integrated in a middleclass lifestyle. and script excerpts were published in popular women’s magazines. In a whole series of films. morality. Mari’s bittersweet young love in Sommarlek is played out against the cynicism of her lascivious uncle Erland. His films were often advertised in the Swedish trade journals as particularly appealing to the female public. Dreams) Sommarnattens leende (1955. Three Strange Loves/Thirst) Frånskild (1951. The mood of these early films is often melancholy and escapist. Bergman explored the loneliness of housewives and forlorn young girls. school teachers. often with Women as Central Characters Törst (1949. Script Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script w. though frequently erupting into rebelliousness. the poetic summer film. from story by Birgit Tengroth. he concluded that the world of women was his universe. which could also be referred to as Bergman’s apprentice works. Bergman’s first biographer. In Kvinnodröm and Sommarnattens leende the erotic desires of older men for young women remain unfulfilled: The young are only in love with youth. becomes more inner-directed in the films in the second group and often involves painful erotic tensions between young and old. members of the clergy. A Lesson in Love) Kvinnodröm (1955. states in her book Ingmar Bergman (1962): The women in Ingmar Bergman’s films are usually more interesting than the men. Herbert Grevenius. but bourgeois authority casts its long shadow. from the neo-realistic study of lower class urban life in Hamnstad to the Carné-inspired lyricism and film noir imagery of Det regnar på vår kärlek. The plots include a number of minor characters who represent law. rev. Smiles of a Summer Night Nära livet (1957. Their function is to stall and frustrate the young couples in their search for freedom and love. they stand for repression. The summer landscape is also the setting of Sommaren med Monika. Group II. But the period also includes the nostalgic though tragic Sommarlek. Divorced) Kvinnors väntan (1952. sometimes with the blessing of a providential figure like the Man with the Umbrella in Det regnar på vår kärlek but sometimes with tragic outcomes as in Fängelse. Brink of Life/So Close to Life) Director/Script w. and stern parents. Ulla Isaksson The generation gap that operated on both a family and social level in Bergman’s earliest films. The couples bond together. Early Family or Marriage Films. with an older generation seeking control over the young. Skepp till India land and Fängelse.

84) Nära livet (1957. Bergman’s subtle view of women came as a liberation. The Virgin Spring) Såsom i en spegel ( 1961 . 1962. But while the women in that film formed a cohesive unit of mutual strength and confidentiality. often with Male Protagonists Det sjunde inseglet (1956. Religious or Existential Quest Films of the Fifties and early Sixties. Group III. Bergman had depicted a female collective in an earlier film. As an alternative to the ‘historical’ setting. he poses some basic questions about the nature of the divine and the purpose of living. Three women meet in the maternity ward – Cecilia. Stina. with the exception of Sommarnattens leende. Both milieus are removed from today’s urban reality and provide a distancing effect. 20). Cecilia desperately wants her baby but miscarries. Young Hjördis tries to abort a pregnancy she did not want. healthy housewife. emerges as a Bergman prototype. p. [Kvinnorna i Ingmar Bergmans filmer är vanligtvis mer intressanta än männen. It is now that Antonius Block. dominated by male protagonists. The setting ranges in time from the early Middle Ages in Det sjunde inseglet and Jungfrukällan to the turn of the last century in the flashbacks in Smultronstället. In the disguise of a 14thcentury homebound crusader. or part of the action. no.Chapter III the Filmmaker vamp and the rosy peasant girl are amply represented. Secrets of Women). Wild Strawberries) Jungfrukällan (1960. 12. the brooding Knight in Det sjunde inseglet. The Seventh Seal) Smultronstället (1957. Nära livet projects three different destinies threatened by forces beyond the women’s control. to the past. gives birth to a stillborn baby. and Hjördis. där vampen och den rödkindade bondflickan finns väl representerade. Through a Glass Darkly) Nattvardsgästerna (1963. Winter Light/The Communicants) Director & Script Director & Script Director Director & Script Director & Script All of the films in the first and second groups. The bureaucratic authorities of the earlier films are 144 . Stina. kom Bergmans subtila syn på kvinnor som en befrielse. I motsats till de grovt schablonlika porträtten av kvinnor i den svenska filmen. p. To give birth is a phenomenon rather than a biological function and becomes part of the same puzzling existential situation as that facing Antonius Block in Det sjunde inseglet. The focus in the third group of films is on a religious or existentialist quest. The philosophical mood is in some ways the same in both films: Death stalks nearby and strikes inexplicably: ‘Chance becomes the deciding factor for the weal and woe of mankind’ [Slumpen blir den avgörande faktorn i människors väl och ve] (Ulla Isaksson (author of script) in Vi magazine. although she is a glowing.] (Höök. But in several of the films in the third group Bergman shifts the action. 1958. Brink of Life) is in some ways the epitome of Bergman’s portrayal of women in the Fifties. Kvinnors väntan (1952. are set in contemporary Swedish society. Bergman introduces the stark and abstracted winter landscape in Nattvardsgästerna (1962) and the isolated island setting in Såsom i en spegel (1961).

i. using a great deal more greyish tones than the earlier black and white contrasts. But a definite change becomes noticeable in the early 1960s. what one could call ‘the film of the confined space’. One might compare such a structure to the soul-searching of the medieval morality play. a serene. where different ‘stations’. the old waiter in the foreign hotel where the action takes place. the use of flashbacks. It is as though many of the films of the Sixties emanate from the state of mind of Isak Borg during his night- 145 . and contrasts this to dark foreboding shadows in murky interiors. Nattvardsgästerna and Tystnaden) depicts the eventual demise of the providential god of Bergman’s religious heritage but also exposes the failure of the earthly father. fails to be the father of his flock that his congregation has a right to expect. Even such a seemingly non-religious film as Smultronstället can be placed within a similar framework. In Tystnaden. Its main character.. The lyrical nature poet Gunnar Fischer was then replaced by the more robust though uniquely talented Sven Nykvist. Professor Isak Borg in Smultronstället sets out on a journey of social recognition after a long life in the medical profession. Travelling. Like a morality play protagonist. is really engaged in a struggle for his own soul and peace of mind. Töre’s daughter in Jungfrukällan travels to church with offerings to the Virgin Mary. Bergman now discards the historical milieu of the central films of the Fifties. Bergman furthered the tradition of the socalled Swedish style of cinematography that dated back to the silent cinema: a high contrast photography with frequent use of back-lighting. if it occurs at all.e. In the films that date from the 1950s. David in Såsom i en spegel is so absorbed in his own frustrated efforts to write that he is tempted to use his own daughter’s mental illness as an object of study. Her journey. he encounters a series of events and characters that signify different options to pursue. the physical journeys. One can see the shift very clearly in Såsom i en spegel (1961). encounters between the protagonist and other characters. alternately named the silent God or the spider God. Tomas. the pastor in Nattvardsgästerna. The Crusader Antonius Block in Det sjunde inseglet is in fact an Everyman figure looking for a sign from God. Bergman’s so-called trilogy (Såsom i en spegel. But as Bergman develops a new kind of cinematic structure. becomes more confined and reflects the characters’ stymied situation. good or evil. the father of the child Johan is conspicuously absent and the substitute father figure.Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production replaced by an elusive divinity. but he too becomes a quester in search of a deeper personal commitment to life. silhouette shots. In Jungfrukällan (1960) Nykvist still seems to be following in Fischer’s tracks as he photographs a legendary Swedish landscape with glittering waterways and sunlight filtering through birch trees. Gunnar Fischer. Nykvist’s camera work becomes more subtle. as if participating in a Christian penitence drama. somewhat theatrical scenography and rather slow pacing. which coincides with Bergman’s switch of cinematographers. represent a choice of virtue or vice. trained in this school of cinematography was the perfect instrument for that time. Det sjunde inseglet and Smultronstället are road movies or station dramas in the sense that much of the action is structured as a journey where different stops along the way become moments of reflection and inner testing. abruptly terminated by her murder. is completed by Töre in a defiant and absurdist act of faith as he promises to build a church on the very spot where his only daughter was cruelly ravished and killed. Isak Borg. is a kind but doddering fool.

At the same time. by the neurotic painter Johan Borg in Vargtimmen (1967). vi kan göra naturstudier av häpnadsväckande skönhet. he expressed his reservations of the beautifying imagery of his earlier films: Our work in films must begin with the human face. He coined the term ‘chamber film’ for this new type of cinema focusing on few characters and building up an intense and intimate atmosphere. we can make nature studies of astounding beauty. the forlorn islander Andreas Winkelman in En passion (1969). 1961). yet absolute in its envelopment by the sea. is now replaced by the frustrated and insecure pastor Tomas in Nattvardsgästerna (1962). The term ‘chamber film’ is a direct reference to the chamber plays of August Strindberg (1849-1912). In similar fashion. Såsom i en spegel. as bleak and confining as a sickroom. that he declared the importance of the human face to his filmmaking. This focus on interior psyches rather than external action is noticeable in Bergman’s increasing use of the close-up. which seem to emanate from verbalized crucial moments in the protagonists’ life: Antonius Block in Det sjunde inseglet speaks with Death in a confessional dialogue and addresses a Christ figure in church in defiant words. (Hollis Alpert. male-oriented films of the Fifties. The only music heard in his chamber films are a few bars of a Bach or Brahms composition. p. as variations of a leitmotif leading up to a concluding coda. The Baltic setting of many of Bergman’s films from the 1960s is realistic in the sense that it is geographically identifiable. 40) [Det mänskliga ansiktet är utgångspunkten för vårt arbete. 5) With Såsom i en spegel Ingmar Bergman claimed to have found a new direction for himself by concentrating on only four people (see Forslund. It was in fact during the shooting of the first of his ‘Baltic’ films. Though he relives his life in visual dreams. Saturday Review. The reductive process in terms of film acoustics in the chamber films marks their contrast to the much more rhetorical. We can certainly become absorbed in the esthetics of montage. men närheten till det mänskliga ansiktet är utan tvivel filmens adelsmärke och särtecken. Chaplin no. Strindberg’s chamber plays were dramatic attempts to convey.Chapter III the Filmmaker marish dreams in Smultronstället. In these films the road is no longer the main setting or spatial metaphor but is replaced by the circumscribed island landscape. 23 December 1961. he is 146 . who challenges Death to a game of chess. but the approach to the human face is without doubt the hallmark and distinguishable feature of the film medium. almost always played on a single instrument. Isak Borg in Smultronstället is quite analytical about his journey into the past. yet it serves a symbolic function as an extension of the troubled state of mind of the characters. The defiant quester Antonius Block in Det sjunde inseglet.] (‘Varje film är min sista film’. the disintegrating artist Jan Rosenberg in Skammen (1968). ‘Style is the Director’. we can bring objects and still life into a wonderful rhythm. vi kan sammanföra föremål och stilleben till underbara rytmer. Bergman abandoned the larger orchestration of his earlier films and discarded conventional film music. 18. the Swedish playwright whose strong influence Bergman has frequently acknowledged. p. a set of associative relationships structured like a musical composition. through the portrayal and interaction of a small group of people confined to a single locale. Even the inclusion of a fragment from Mozart’s Trollflöjten/The Magic Flute in a puppet scene in Vargtimmen is toned down to the chamber music level. Vi kan visserligen fördjupa oss i bildmontagets estetik. Written in 1907-08.

Films Exploring the Role of the Artist and/or Directorial Persona Till glädje (1949. But with Såsom i en spegel. still in touch with the living. Elisabet Vogler. The first two words learned by Ester in the unknown language in Tystnaden are naigo and kasi. The Hour of the Wolf) Skammen (1968. Höstsonaten/Autumn Sonata) Ur marionetternas liv (1979. The Magician/The Face) För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor (1964. The relatively sparse dialogue of the chamber films is not only a manifestation of Bergman’s attempt as a filmmaker to free himself from verbal dominance. All These Women) Persona (1966. The reduction of the spoken element in Bergman’s films culminates in such works as Persona (1966). Erland Josephson Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script (TV) Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script Script Bergman’s artist is the central character in the fourth group of films. The Ritual) Herbstsonate (1978. of the trustworthiness of the spoken word. dialogue becomes subservient to imagery and gesture. To Joy) Gycklarnas afton (1953. Persona) Vargtimmen (1967. Aus dem Leben der Marionetten/From the Life of the Marionettes) Efter Repetitionen (1984. Gone now is a naive visionary like the juggler Jof in Det sjunde inseglet. whose second sight enabled him to see the holy Virgin. Faithless) Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script w. In the Presence of a Clown) Trolösa (2000. where one of the characters. Finally. it is also his questioning. Language then is an important vehicle in Bergman’s male universe. Group IV. The Naked Night/ Sawdust and Tinsel) Ansiktet (1958. acts mute. There are in fact vestiges in Bergman’s portrayal of the artist of a Platonic pharmakos myth: Plato banished the artist 147 . Shame) Riten (1969. After the Rehearsal) Larmar och gör sig till (1997. There is both a consciousness of the visual medium and a philosophical aspect to this reduction of speech.Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production presumably writing down the events of the day in his diary and retelling them to us. His role ranges from the vulnerable circus director Albert Johansson in Gycklarnas afton to the potential mesmerizer Albert Vogler in Ansiktet or the neurotic wreck Johan Borg in Vargtimmen and the moral coward Jan Rosenberg in Skammen. a scapegoat figure forced to perform a table dance in the tavern to the jeers of an onlooking crowd. Silence also signifies the Christian deity’s withdrawal from human destinies. face and hand. What Bergman develops instead is the other aspect of Jof ’s destiny: to be exposed to ridicule. Rapport comes not through verbal communication – words in fact are often like missiles announcing warfare – but through touch and look. silence can be interpreted as an absence of life – the whisperings in Viskningar och rop are like the faint echoes of the dead. and Viskningar och rop (1972) where the conversations are sparse and punctuated with long moments of silence or faint whisperings from voices that never fully materialize. through the cinema.

Vargtimmen. half bear. as he is forced to dance on the table in the tavern scene. Jof. It is part of Bergman’s conception of the relationship between artist and audience that performer and spectator take part in a ritual. he ‘acted’ mute before a 19th century upper-class group of Pontius Pilates and performed ‘miracles’ before both susceptible and skeptical people. Bergman’s depiction of the artist and his audience maintains a more precarious balance: at times the artist is destroyed. barefoot and humiliated as he struggles to carry his wife on his back like a cross. from organized society. In the TV film Riten this conflict is the very fabric of the film. where his troupe has stopped to perform a seance. Frost. of meaningful ritual. performs his own Golgotha walk. an artist like the hypnotist Albert Emanuel Vogler in Ansiktet was both prophet and charlatan. Albert Vogler in Ansiktet attracts the mistress of the house but is insulted by the Egerman household.Chapter III the Filmmaker from his utopian society for fear that his visionary power might excite the citizens and bring chaos and madness. breaks down in anguish in front of the window. the pedestrian owner of Circus Alberti in Gycklarnas afton and his clown Frost face in turn jeering crowds: Frost in the flashback beach sequence where soldiers become cruel voyeurs of his ordeal as he tries to rescue his wife Alma. Vogler in Ansiktet brings the rational doctor Vergerus to the verge of madness by playing macabre tricks on him in an attic. The actress feeds on Alma’s life story vicariously. half figure on a cross. His audiences counter either by being mesmerized by his performance or by exposing the artist as a fake and liar and ostracizing him from their midst. Like participants in old religious rites. Alma’s identification with Elisabeth is so strong that she momentarily replaces her in a meeting with Elisabeth’s husband. the visionary juggler and actor ‘Det sjunde inseglet’. Such Christ references in Bergman’s portrayal of artists are not uncommon in his films from the 1950s. a cult act in which worship and symbolic sacrifice constitute the essential elements. and Albert during a performance in the circus round. at other times the onlooker becomes the scapegoat. the clown in Gycklarnas afton. the father and writer in Såsom i en spegel. The self-absorption of the artist is a dominant motif in such Bergman films as Persona. so that window frame and body form the pattern of a cross. his namesake Elisabet Vogler in Persona takes possession of the nurse Alma until Alma’s self-identity is threatened. separateness of self and fusion of self. Bergman’s artists can take possession of their audiences. Bergman’s artist may create illusions that provide pleasure and entertainment but also cause irritation and anger. whose neurotic or egotistical protagonists confirm what Bergman suggests in his essay ‘The Snakeskin’ from 1965: that artistic activity in a godless world is self-focussed and has lost its element of worship. A distinct element of eroticism becomes part of such encounters. The same pose is used to define Tomas’s anguish in Nattvardsgästerna. In earlier films. A figure like the self-centered pianist mother in Höstsonaten has lost all spirituality and can only fantasize about money and her next performance. Albert Johansson. The acting trio in Riten drives to death a Judge who has been sent to question them on a charge of obscenity. wearing a Christ mask. The humiliation motif is built into such an encounter between artist and spectator. But in Persona the sacrificial implications of the artist’s role shift from Christian metaphors 148 . David. Elisabet Vogler and Alma take turns in representing the two sides in a symbiotic relationship of would-be lovers exhibiting attraction and repulsion. and Höstsonaten. assumes a tortuous pose. Skammen. exposed to a taunting public.

the artist is thrown back upon himself. may be juxtaposed to the title figure in Fanny and Alexander (1982). Elisabeth Vogler.Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production to old classical references. But the artist is himself a ‘cannibal’. In Persona Bergman’s alter ego is a young boy who wakes up in a morgue as if from a deep sleep. potential material for a film. which is at the same time his dream or his reminiscing. we have been introduced to a collage of images. Passion of Anna) Beröringen (1970. like Henrik invents an affair with his young actress in Efter repetionen or ‘Bergman’ invents Marianne in Trolösa. parasitical bird demons who cannibalize the painter Johan Borg. In probing deeper and deeper into Peter’s psyche. who opens the film story by taking the spectator through his grandmother’s apartment. In 1965-66 he had left his position at the Royal Dramatic Theatre and was physically ill. Just before this scene. who serves more as a vehicle than actual participant in the film narrative. Group V: The Haunting Past: Memories and Nightmares En passion (1969. The director in Efter repetitionen and the ‘Bergman’ coach in Trolösa both resist the intrusion of personal matters and old memories and are fascinated and revitalized by them. depicts a world in which a sensitive individual is driven to despair by people who abuse him or fail him. The Touch) Viskningar och rop (1972. The artistic persona appears much more camouflaged in the story of Peter Egerman than in Bergman’s other films in this group. he was still looking for a footing in exile and felt he had failed to convey his sense of pain and frustration in his first foreign-made film Das Schlangenei. In Vargtimmen. Peter’s story revolves around deception and self-deception and maintains a narrow distinction between reality and fantasy or nightmare. he also provided him with a desperate aggressiveness and vulnerability that makes him a kin to many of Bergman’s artist figures. Persona’s boy figure may also be juxtaposed to the male protagonist Peter Egerman in Ur marionetternas liv/Aus dem Leben des Marionetten. a detached observer who feeds on other human beings. Though Bergman chose to make Peter a German businessman.. the boy is a creative consciousness who leads us into the fictional story. not smoothly and painlessly but as a complicated mixture of personal tensions and professional selfawareness. the silent actress with ‘the cold eyes’ who feeds on her nurse to regain vitality is clearly a pythia figure. and as in Ansiktet and Persona. Das Schlangenei. where the narrative develops. Cries and Whispers) Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script 149 . The boy’s awakening and subsequent movements culminating with his wiping a glass screen with his hand until a woman’s face becomes visible set the ‘plot’ in motion. the communal aspect of art is transformed into a ludicrous dinner party whose participants literally turn into the artist’s ‘consumers’.. Aus dem Leben. The rather abstracted nameless boy in Persona.. he may invent his own muse. Both these films grew out of a painful period in Bergman’s life when he was trying to ‘relocate’ himself as an artist.. is much closer to a film like Persona than to the work preceding it. In 1978-79. What is depicted in these instances is actually the creative process itself: an artist’s material beginning to take shape in his mind. When the ‘director’ has no subject at hand. When art loses its aspect of ritual and cult act. Aus dem Leben. Like Johan Borg in Vargtimmen he is haunted by ‘demons’ from his past.

who threatens to never let go of him. The women’s attempt to deal with the present crisis of Agnes’ death takes the form of a series of flashbacks into their past. Even young Alexander in Fanny och Alexander is pursued to the bitter end by his stepfather’s evil ghost. impending divorce or break-up. if ever. Far from socially maladjusted like their younger predecessors in the films of the 1940s. Hamnstad and Fängelse could dream of. almost succeeds in committing suicide when the ghosts of her childhood begin to haunt her. The puppeteer director of his youth continues to pull the strings of his human marionettes. seem able to free themselves from the traumas of their past or from some mysterious force of the mind that takes possession of them. Scenes from a Marriage) Ansikte mot ansikte (1975. in a voice-over reading from her diary. the eternally young sweetheart. Nevertheless. Bergman portrays women who dwell in the same anguished world as some of his leading male characters in the quest films of the Fifties. reminiscences as painful as Isak Borg’s reexamination of his life. together with her sisters in the luscious 150 . At the end of Scener ur ett äktenskap Marianne awakens from a nightmare that has thrown her into a state of fright. Their relationships start where those of the young couples ended: in marriage. they are seldom able to bond together but instead face loneliness and anxiety. The men and women of Bergman’s films from the 1970s have little in common with the young couples in the very first films he made. Isak is led by young Sara. More and more men and women share the dubious pleasure of inhabiting the same angst-ridden bergmanian universe. En passion and Viskningar och rop. Both films end on a similar note of nostalgia and reconciliation. pictures herself. the dying woman in Viskningar och rop. In Bergman’s world no one escapes his or her destiny. Thus. Agnes. the psychiatrist Jenny in Ansikte mot ansikte. The episode seems in a way to signal the exploration of the troubled mind of Jenny. or unhappy but insoluble marriages. but they seldom. the psychiatrist in Ansikte mot ansikte. In two preceding films. but now the manipulator dwells inside them like an internalized psychological demon.Chapter III the Filmmaker Scener ur ett äktenskap (1974. be it illness. rigid conventions and role playing. they have achieved an economic status beyond what the working-class youngsters of such films as Det regnar på vår kärlek. Autumn Sonata) Trolösa (2000. But this is followed by ennui. Sophisticated and comfortable in their middle-class lifestyle. Faithless) Saraband (2003) Director & Script TV Director & Script TV Director & Script Director & Script Director & Script TV In his works from the 1970s onwards. the sisters in Viskningar och rop all have their lives shaped by past circumstances beyond their control. Face to Face) Höstsonat/Herbstsonate (1978. a drifting apart. a film like Viskningar och rop could in some ways be seen as the female counterpart to Isak Borg’s encounter with his impending death in Smultronstället. Bergman’s mature couples of the seventies hark back to such marriage films as Kvinnors väntan and En lektion i kärlek. through a verdant landscape where he discovers his long since dead parents on a summer outing. Anna in En passion (1969) wreaks havoc on her lover Andreas Winkelman and herself by her fixation on a marriage and an accident in the past that may or may not be self-styled. Bergman’s characters have left their religious baggage behind.

en form. In Tre dagar med Bergman (p. In retrospect. which made the film a target for feminist critique. [Jag befann mig i en vansklig situation. That whole project was a big mistake. min ångest och alla mina svårigheter till någonting konkret. en mycket bestämd och tydlig form till vilken jag kunde överföra och omforma min smärta. one of whom is mentally retarded. who appeared briefly in the opening sequence of Scener ur ett 151 . Some saw signs of this when Das Schlangenei was released in 1977. Men i Ur Marionetternas liv fann jag en sätt. But in From the Life of the Marionettes I found a way. did not reach mass audiences in Europe or the United States. became his first critical and public fiasco since the early 1950s. Jag älskar den filmen. though it was well received in France. Höstsonaten was made during Bergman’s exile from Sweden. It is a moment of epiphany. a very definite and distinct form to which I could transfer my pain. Charlotte’s self-absorption in her career becomes the basis for violent accusations by Eva. she nevertheless joins the league of selfish parents that used to appear in Bergman’s earlier films. The idealization of the maternal as embodied by the housekeeper Anna in Viskningar och rop (culminating in a pietà scene when she takes the dying Agnes to her bosom) is reinforced in the caring grandmothers in Ansikte mot ansikte and Fanny och Alexander or in the competent ex-wife Marianne in Saraband. I had already tried to express my pain and suffering in The Serpent’s Egg. set in pre-Nazi Germany in 1923. a family communion that may be as much dream and wishful thinking as was Isak Borg’s final vision of his parents. On the whole it fared better with the reviewers in Sweden than elsewhere. but without succeeding. far away from my homeland where I did not want to return. he says to the interviewers apropos of the making of From the Life of Marionettes: I found myself in a difficult situation. but this time the confrontation is far more ruthless. the professional pianist.Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production park on her estate. But it is counterbalanced by the critical portrait of the mother in Höstsonaten (1978). Here Bergman seems to launch on another examination of the parent motif. Though Charlotte is portrayed more superficially by actress Ingrid Bergman than the script suggests. Jag hade redan försökt att ge uttryck för denna smärta och detta lidande med Ormens ägg men utan att lyckas. Höstsonaten was the fulfillment of a promise made long before to actress Ingrid Bergman. attained a special place in the Bergman canon. a year after his departure from Sweden. my anguish and all my difficulties and reshape them into something concrete. Ormens ägg was written before his arrest in Stockholm in 1976. Many had speculated that his creativity would dry up outside of his native country or that the frustrations he would face working with foreign crews would sabotage his future film projects. The film.] None of Bergman’s films made outside of his native country can be said to spring directly from his foreign experience. During a visit to her married daughter Eva. like Gycklarnas afton. It is also a favorite of Bergman himself. it is a film that has. 66). Hela det projektet var ett stort misstag. perhaps in response to a need among the critics to atone for their government’s treatment of Bergman. His second German-made film. långt borta från mitt hemland dit jag inte ville återvända. a form. Aus dem Leben der Marionetten was based on the couple Peter and Katarina. I love that film. Charlotte. this time focussing not on a critique of the father but on a scathing exposure of the mother. Aus dem Leben der Marionetten. neglects her two daughters.

Viskningar och rop. the elaborate studio set reflects more the ambition of American producer Dino de Laurentiis than Bergman’s own intentions as these are indicated in the script. Ingmar Bergman began to look upon his distant past with less critical eyes. part retrospection. but compromised with the German TV producer by opening the film in color. Red is also the life force that is draining from the cancerous Agnes’ frail body. As for the technical crew. the shift from black and white to color in Bergman’s filmmaking is in keeping with his memories of the male and female worlds of his childhood. The film can in fact be seen as his cinematic testament – a filmmaker’s homage to and exploration of his childhood. Thematically. För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor from 1964. (Bergman conceived the film in black and white. In films like En passion and Viskningar och rop color plays a more subtle role. Beröringen/The Touch. In this ‘intermezzo’ in Bergman’s filmmaking. Group VI. But red also connotes passion and sexual arousal. as in Karin’s case. TV With his reconciliation with the Swedish government in the early 1980s and the warm reception he encountered upon returning to Sweden.) As Bergman shifted his focus once more to women in such films as En passion. which he had only done once before. In fact. 64. as in the flighty Maria’s case. pyrotechnical manner that fit the farcical mood of the film. Fanny och Alexander is a summation of long-established 152 . Sven Nykvist and several members of the production team remained part of Bergman’s staff for his foreign films and provided a link to his previous filmmaking. In the Presence of a Clown) Director & Script Script Script Script Director & Script.Chapter III the Filmmaker äktenskap. In En passion it serves to underscore the repressed emotions of the characters on the Baltic island by projecting them against a subdued scale of earth tones. Marionetten’s concentration on black-and-white close-ups brought the spectator back to the world of Persona and seemed like an explicit visual statement by Bergman. p. and revenge. The male figures wear the stark black garb of a man of the cloth and move in the light of harsh realities. in another woman-dominated film. For his filmmaking. and Hörstsonaten. a visualization of an inner world of passion – sensuous. In both Herbstsonate and Aus dem Leben der Marionetten. Best Intentions) Söndagsbarn (1992. Bergman toned down any extravagance in the mise-en-scène. dangerous and spiritually redemptive. Finally. he began to employ color. self-destruction. In Das Schlangenei. this mellowed view resulted in Fanny och Alexander. Fanny and Alexander) Den goda viljan (1991. In Viskningar och rop Bergman has stated that the use of red dissolves to signal the flashbacks in the lives of the four women is connected with his own childhood fantasies of the soul as a membrane of red. part fiction. color was used in a deliberately gaudy. Private Confessions) Larmar och gör sig till (1997. The women dress more colorfully and their presence is associated with the prismatic world of filtering light. See Tre dagar med Bergman. suggesting that he always carried his cosmos within him. or blood when passionate emotions spell hatred. The Family Saga Fanny och Alexander (1982. Sunday’s Children) Enskilda samtal (1996.

153 . Perhaps the most remarkable one is Larmar och gör sig till/ In the Presence of a Clown. Partly set (for its climax) in the wintry village of Frostnäs where Nattvardsgästerna once took place and using some of the same characters (though not actors). However. Bergman restores magic and art as top priorities in his universe. as powerful as any holy sacrament. out of this provincial chaos amidst candle light and a clinking piano emanates Schumann’s Aufschwung. Ingmar Bergman’s work for the cinema. a tribute to art as ritual and worship. as it is miraculously metamorphosed into a secular communion that brings about a healing stillness among the audience. his filmmaking Vergilius whose name he invoked in his youthful lecture at the Uppsala Film Studio some 40 years before making Fanny och Alexander. One is reminded that the title of the first film set in the same god-forsaken part of the world was ‘Nattvardsgästerna’ or ‘The Communicants’. Bergman executes a self-referential tour de force that forms a fitting finale to his wish expressed at the beginning of his film career to participate in building ‘a cathedral on the plain’. the other to the church. The film reconfirms his own loyalty to the playful fantasy-maker Méliès. the doubting minister. Tomas. ends with a celebration of human togetherness and family bonding. Uncle Carl. The plot revolves around a fictionalized relative.Ingmar Bergman’s Films: Grouping of a Lifelong Production Bergman motifs and conflicts: the creative world of the laterna magica juxtaposed to a world of repression and humiliation. who dabbled in film entertainment in the early days of the cinema. With Fanny och Alexander. and the would-be filmmaker and his mistress assistant perform a kind of rite amidst a small crowd of spectators. For a brief moment. Larmar och gör sig till depicts a spiritual moment on a small scale and becomes a moving companion piece to the more flamboyant Fanny och Alexander and. After he bid farewell to filmmaking. and with an affirmation of the healing power of the imagination. so often associated with a world of existential pain and anguish. above all. never gave comfort to the villagers who came to his church. In that film. A linkage is established between these two milieus not only in terms of the widowed Mrs. the assembly hall in Frostnäs becomes a cult place. Ekdahl’s marriage to Bishop Vergerus but also in an explicit stress on ritual in both households: the one pertaining to the theatre. Bergman wrote and directed a number of works for television. the way Carl’s primitive and aborted film showing does. the small group of onlookers are exposed to the accidental short-circuiting of Carl’s film projector.

the rushes from each day's filming were collected to be sent later by boat to the film laboratory. so that retakes had to be made. To save on transportation costs. scratches were discovered on the negatives. There. From the shooting of Fanny and Alexander in 1982 (Courtesy: Arne Carlsson/Cinematograph/SF) . as suggested in this photo during the filming of Summer with Monica (1953) where Bergman and his crew are seen standing in the water by an island in the Stockholm archipelago.Bergman's early filmmaking took place under rather primitive circumstances.

Each film entry comprises a plot synopsis. At the end of the Filmography is a selective list of foreign distribution titles. credits. a reception summary. p. Commentaries and Reception Record The Filmography Chapter lists in chronological order all screen works that were scripted and/or directed by Ingmar Bergman. Commentaries for those Bergman scripts that have been filmed by other directors tend to be less extensive. unless the Bergman script became the subject of a media debate. The credits include major crew members and a complete cast list. In the rest of the entry. critical commentaries.Chapter IV Filmography Synopses. his statement only applies to works that were designed from the start to circulate in two different versions. except in direct quotes where the refereed title appears. i. Foreign titles of Ingmar Bergman’s early films were often the invention of distributors looking for a way to cash in on the reputation of the Swedish cinema as a producer of sexually titillating films. carries connotations not conveyed in English. abridged version. 155 . Title explanations are included before the synopsis of the film narrative when the foreign distribution title departs radically from the original or when the Swedish title. Names of Swedish cinemas where a film first opened are usually limited to one or two samples. A special organizational problem involves Bergman works that were originally conceived for television but have also circulated (abroad) as commercial feature films and then often in a specially edited. notes. followed by its year of release and. while the version adapted for cinema viewers has had an international circulation but a limited or no movie house showing in Bergman’s own country. though translated literally.. and reviews.e. As a rule. only the original distribution title is used. the original television version has been seen by a Swedish or Scandinavian audience only. by its English title. The title heading used in each entry is the Swedish distribution title. in brackets. Credits. However. In an interview Bergman once commented on making parallel cinema and TV versions of the same work (see preface. 19).

1998-99 Larmar och gör sig till (In the Presence of a Clown). a Bergman film made only for television was also sold as a movie house product – despite Bergman’s protest. and then always. For space-saving reasons. 1982-83 Efter repetitionen (After the Rehearsal). have a later release date than the film version. information that pertains directly to the TV transmission. 1969 Fårö dokument 1. 1984 Den goda viljan (Best Intentions). A shorter synopsis and credit list is included for the same item in the media chapter.e. thus referring to its first TV transmission. 1980 Fanny and Alexander. Scener ur ett äktenskap has a 1974 title date in this chapter but a 1973 date in the media chapter. 2003 For eighteen of Bergman’s feature films. on the internationally circulated cinema versions) and to single out Swedish (or sometimes Scandinavian) reviews and comments in the media chapter (i. 1958 Såsom i en spegel.Chapter IV Filmography films like Scener från ett äktenskap/Scenes from a Marriage. a TV film transmitted in 1984.e. 1976 Fårödokument 2. 1955 Sommarnattens leende. 1973. 1970 Scener ur ett äktenskap (Scenes from a Marriage). 1953 En lektion i kärlek. a full synopsis and complete credit list only appears once in such cases. 1955 Det sjunde inseglet. Examples are Riten/The Ritual from 1969 and Efter repetitionen/After the Rehearsal. However an item originally conceived for television may. 1984 156 . 1954 Kvinnodröm. 1974 Trollflöjten (The Magic Flute). in the Filmography listing. 1996. Variations in length between the film and TV versions are noted in the respective context. The following works are involved [first date after the title refers to first television showing. 1957 Ansiktet. 1962 Persona. documentary footage or ‘bakomfilmer’ are or will be available in the Ingmar Bergman Archive at the Swedish Film Institute. 1976 Ur marionetternas liv. 1984. 1975 Ansikte mot ansikte (Face to Face). occasionally. The procedure followed here with regard to both multiple-version and multipledistribution works has been to focus on the foreign reception in the Filmography entry (i. 1958 Nära livet. 1981 Efter repetitionen. Ansikte mot ansikte/Face to Face. 1973 Ansikte mot ansikte. and Fanny and Alexander.. second date (if different) to its international release]: Riten (The Ritual). for the sake of consistency. But the fact is that in several cases. including press debates). Date of entry may differ between the filmography and media listings. 1979. 1968 Viskningar och rop. 1966 Skammen. 1961 Nattvardsgästerna. 1998 Saraband. 1969. For instance. 1997. 1957 Smultronstället. 1972 Scener ur ett äktenskap.. 1992 Enskilda samtal (Private Confessions/Conversations). 1991-92. 1980 Höstsonaten. ‘Bakomfilmer’ so far pertain to the following film titles: Gycklarnas afton.

as a reflexive verb. and sexual promiscuity. young passion and frustration. Jan-Erik Widgren. establishing the use of film noir-inspired photography. 1944 [Torment. Synopsis Hets. Berta Olsson. the first film scripted by Bergman. in the conservative upper-class home of one of the pupils. (The ending brings to mind the opening vignette in Strindberg’s novel Röda rummet/The Red Room where an angry young Arvid Falk stands in the same location as he begins his exploration of the city’s corruptive mores and institutions). and he becomes the target of Caligula’s sarcasm and despotism. HETS. Outside in the hallway. Ignoring him he steps out into the sunshine. When his classmates matriculate. Ø 249). offering to help. The verb hetsa connotes the baiting of animals. 1970. parental and social pressure. segment A. trembling with fear and self-pity. he becomes hysterical until an autopsy establishes that Berta died of natural causes (a heart attack). The dramatic action reaches its climax when Jan-Erik finds Berta dead in her bed. To have a hetsigt temperament means to be hot-tempered and choleric. Credits. Special TV documentaries have been made using several of Bergman works. Brought to the police station. whom he has found drunk in the street. which is a film depicting teacher abuse. documentary footage from Bergman’s film Beröringen/The Touch.Synopses. Later. Ø 796). takes place in a boys’ school in Stockholm in the 1940s. Commentaries and Reception Record In addition. A love story develops between Jan-Erik and Berta. 202. see Varia. B/W Director Screenplay Alf Sjöberg Ingmar Bergman The Swedish word hets implies stress. Caligula is crouching like a frightened animal. hetsa upp sig carries the meaning of ‘working oneself into a frenzy’. Interviews. symbolic of educational success. Caligula turns the tables on Jan-Erik by reporting his affair with Berta to the school principal. What follows is an addition to the original script: Jan-Erik moves away from home to Berta’s apartment where the school principal visits him. Frenzy]. Jan-Erik finds Caligula on the stairs. was used in Stig Björkman’s portrait of Ingmar Bergman (see Chapter VIII. who works in a tobacco shop. The opening sequence. All of these connotations have a bearing on both the school situation and the personal relationships in Hets/Torment. and in the cheap lodging of a young girl. The final shot shows him standing on a hill overlooking the city. For a complete list. A documentary was made by the American producer of The Serpent’s Egg (see film entry in this chapter. Jan-Erik stands alone in the rain outside the school watching them emerge in their white student caps. Jan-Erik’s performance in school deteriorates. an agitated mood. Credits Production company Executive producer Production manager Director Assistant Director Svensk Filmindustri Harald Molander Gösta Ström Alf Sjöberg Ingmar Bergman 157 . Slowly he begins to walk down towards it. Jan-Erik responds by hitting Caligula and is subsequently suspended from school. depicts the late arrival of a young schoolboy and the rigid school atmosphere during compulsory morning prayers. Later during a Latin class the friction between Jan-Erik and a sadistic teacher nicknamed Caligula becomes evident. a tense atmosphere.

et al. et al 21 April 1947 Commentary Hets was part of SF’s 25th anniversary program aimed at quality production and introducing a new policy of giving aspiring young filmmakers a chance to succeed in the industry. Oscar Rosander Stig Järrel Hilda Borgström [part cut in released version] Alf Kjellin Mai Zetterling Olof Winnerstrand Gösta Cederlund Stig Olin Olav Riégo Märta Arbin Anders Nyström Hugo Björne Jan Molander Birger Malmsten Bengt Dalunde Gunnar Björnstrand Bertil Sohlberg Nils Hultberg. Arne Ragneborn. John Zacharias Lillie Wästfelt Edvard Danielsson Selma Sandberg Greta Stave Curt Edgard. Allan Linder. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm). Sten Gester.Chapter IV Filmography Artistic Director Screenplay Cinematography Architect Music Costumes Make-up Editor Victor Sjöström Ingmar Bergman Martin Bodin Arne Åkermark Hilding Rosenberg Mimmi Törnquist Carl M. Filmed on location at Norra Latin School in Stockholm and Råsunda Studios. and he 158 . Lennart Nyberg.S. Distribution U. ending with the matriculation sequence. Cast Caligula Caligula’s mother Jan-Erik Widgren Berta Olsson School Principal Teacher ‘Pippi’ Jan-Erik’s friend Sandman Jan-Erik’s father Jan-Erik’s mother Jan-Erik’s brother Dr. Rolf Bergström. physician Student Pettersson Student Krantz Student without hymn book Teacher proctoring late arrivals Student arriving late at school Teachers at morning prayer Physicians at the morgue Police Woman The Pastor at Berta’s funeral Parish Assistant Lina. inc. Nilsson. was considered too depressing.S. Rune Landsberg Torsten Hillberg. Lundh. Paul ‘Palle’ Granditsky. Widgren’s housemaid Student Extras Bergman’s voice is heard once on the radio in Berta’s apartment. beginning 21 February 1944 and completed 25 May 1944. Bergman’s original script. Distribution Running Time Released Premiere U. Carl-Olof Alm. opening Svensk Filmindustri Oxford Films 101 minutes 12 September 1944 2 October 1944.

shot in South Stockholm. During the shooting Bergman. 159 . 9 (editorial by Carl Björkman. Aftonbladet 3 October 1944. Ingmar Bergman mobilizes both a triangle drama and a sample of Krafft-Ebing’s Psychopatia sexualis. Ø 1141). was however assigned the task of handling the outdoor scene at the end. 7 (article by Stig Järrel’s teacher). Reply by Bergman in same paper. 34-57. with a commentary on the added ending of the film). 4 (editorial). 14 and no. The script was also dramatized as a stage play and performed in 1948 in Oslo by the city’s newly founded Studio Theatre. 45 (5 November) 1944. 12-15 (1959). pp. 6 October 1944. en studie som har spelat en stor och oftast sorglig roll i litteraturen]. leading Stockholm film critic). 13 October 1944. d.. For sample views see the following: Beklädnadsfolket 1. p. 4 (résumés of public response to Hets). 21 (4 November) 1944. sad role in literature’ [För att lufta sin antipati för det svenska skolsystemet. 20 (21 October 1944). p. Reception Literary magazine BLM’s editor Georg Svensson reviewed Hets and praised SF for bringing together so much talent. 11 pp. 43 (22 October 1944). 18-19. 36-37. no. In connection with the premiere of Hets. 1. See Øyvind Anker (Chapter IX. 2002. Commentaries and Reception Record was asked to add the scene depicting Jan-Erik’s return to Berta’s apartment.Synopses. most often. school pedagogue). 11. mobiliserar herr Ingmar Bergman både ett triangeldrama och ett prov på Krafft-Ebings Psychopatia sexualis. 4 (Margot Wohlin. 9 October. 10. entitled ‘Frenzy’. Bergman published a brief newspaper account of his own years in school: ‘Skoltiden ett 12-årigt helvete’ [School a 12-year hell]. 321-22 (editorial) and p. 33 (1944). Peter Ustinov made a stage adaptation based on the film. Alf Sjöberg (director). 51/52 (1944) – 8 (1945) and in Bildjournalen. now deposited at SFI. no. pp. the production company (SF) issued a brochure (Stockholm: SF. p. no. pp. In the public response to the film there was more focus on Bergman’s script than on Alf Sjöberg’s direction. Vecko-Journalen. Hilding Rosenberg (composer) and Erik Tuxén (music director). p. (article by Elsa Brita Marcussen titled ‘Skolans auktoritestro måste bort’ [School Authoritarianism must disappear]. which contains brief statements by Bergman (see Ø 24).16. A comment by his former headmaster (Håkansson) at the Palmgrenska School in Stockholm appeared in the same paper (AB) on 5 October 1944. These drafts are discussed extensively in Maaret Koskinen’s book I begynnelsen var ordet. nos. 4. 11 (1944). Martin’s Theatre in London. 330. Part of the film’s tremendous impact in Sweden can be related to its timely story. which coincided with an intense discussion of the old-fashioned structure of the Swedish school system and the need for democratic reform. nos.). Several early drafts of ‘Hets’ are among Bergman’s Fårö papers. 21 April 1948. and no. p. Film was attacked in all articles in this teacher publication. no. ST. 350. pp. SvD. no. pp. Credits. Swedish author Frank Heller [Gunnar Serner] wrote: ‘To air his antipathy for the Swedish school system. pp. p. a study that has played a great and. The screenplay to Hets has never been published. 119-122. but the story appeared as a novella in Filmjournalen. 2 (20 January) 1945. He describes the job in Bilder/Images. My Life in Film. who was more of a script boy than an assistant director. SF Nyheter. Svenska Morgonbladet. pp. Upon the release of Hets. n. 12 October 1944. pp. It opened at St. Vecko-Journalen. 32. Mr. pp. 1. p. 30. Tidning för Sveriges läroverk (Journal of the Swedish Teachers Association): no.

Peter Cowie interviewed Bergman in September 1982 about his memories of the shooting of Hets and of Alf Sjöberg as a director. Carl Anders Dymling. 2177. Dansk Film Museum program note. Reviews Cinématographie française. pp. 4). SF has no further data on this. pp. 10. no. p. Ø 1526). item has somewhat misleading title ‘Ingmar Bergman’s Schooldays. 4 pp. Torsten Jungstedt interviewed Alf Sjöberg (director). Göteborg press.S. See Röster i Radio-TV. no. 11. 86. Monthly Film Bulletin. adapted from a radio play by Leck Fischer 160 . 28. 17 (1949).’ Birgitta Steene published an essay on Hets titled ‘The Sjöberg-Bergman Connection: Hets. 11 (4-10 March 1972). See also Filmnyheter. Collaboration and Reception’ in Tijdsschrift voor Skandinavistiek 20:1 (1999): p. Karin. See also Bergman. 385-88. Vecko-Journalen. on 21 April 1947 but later became somewhat of a cult film. 1940-1949 (Ø 1314). pp. 9 1944. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. no. S. 203. 84-85. Updated information on internet: www. no. p. the Legion of Decency began a crusade against the film in New York and other American cities. and students in at least one city demonstrated by burning the head of the censorship board in effigy. carries a news item about a similar reception of Torment in Canada. Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). 7 November 1944 (see especially GP. pp. See Monthly Film Bulletin L. 1946 [Crisis]. (March 1966). svenskfilmdatabas. 1285). 3 October 1944. Svensk filmografi. 11 (1946):17-9 (reception in England). pp. 7 November 1944. 230-32.Chapter IV Filmography Hets/Torment opened to several devastating reviews in the U. 96-97. 10-13. 22 April 1947. no. Filmnyheter 1. According to head of Svensk Filmindustri. no. Vi no. pp. where local censorship boards closed cinemas.p. p. p. 22 April 1947. 591 (April 1983): p. 1913-1968 p. SF-nyheter. 96. 14 April 1947. no. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). p. 34:2. n. p. no. Krohn. 13 November 1947. 16-17. referring to positive reviews in Newsweek (‘honest approach makes for unusual film’). 4 March 1953. Detta underliga skådespel som heter livet (Linton. no. NYT Film Reviews. Filmnyheter. 61-69. BLM 13. p. Interviews and Longer Articles In connection with a Swedish TV broadcast of Hets in 1972. Filmorientering (NFI/Norwegian Film Institute). 85-102. 150 (13 June 1946). 42 (1944). KRIS. 8. New York Herald Tribune. and Jarl Nylander (assistant photographer) about the filming of Bergman’s first film script. pp. 1947. 15. (no. 152-53. no. 42 (1944). New York Times. p. 21 (1945). 4 pp. pp. 46. Newsweek. Allan Ekelund (production manager). 785.

Mitt barn är mitt [My child is mine]. However. Jenny wants Nelly to work in her beauty parlour in the city. One evening Jack comes to the beauty salon where Nelly is alone. Nelly’s biological mother. Seivie Ewerstein Inga Landgré Stig Olin Dagny Lind Marianne Löfgren Allan Bohlin Ernst Eklund Signe Wirff Svea Holst Arne Lindblad Julia Caesar Alternate titles Architect Music Sound Props Make-up Continuity Cast Nelly Jack Ingeborg. now deathly ill. somewhat more hesitantly. Jenny. Commentaries and Reception Record Synopsis Kris opens with a speaker voice-over introducing the idyllic town where 18-year-old Nelly lives with her foster mother.Synopses. travels to the city in search of Nelly but has to return home alone. Lundh. At the ball Jack approaches Nelly and offers her a drink which he calls ‘Jack the Ripper’s Evensong’. Arriving in the city she begins to work in her mother’s beauty parlor. a considerably older agronomist. Drömmen om Nelly [The dream of Nelly]. arrives in town and is later joined by her lover. The couple is surprised by Jenny. In a vengeful mood she tells Nelly that Jack is a mythomaniac who makes up stories about himself to arouse women’s sympathy. Jack explains to Nelly that he is a ‘moonlight creature’ who can love no one but himself. on that same day. The rendez-vous is intercepted by Ulf. Preparations are under way for Nelly to attend her first ball. Nelly is courted by Ulf. by Ulf. based on radio play by Leck Fischer entitled Moderhjertet [Mother heart]. with Ulf as her escort. Inc. Moderdyret [The mother animal] Arne Åkermark Erland von Koch Lennart Svensson Harry Malmstedt. Nelly’s mother Ulf Uncle Edward. Nelly is shocked by his suicide but returns home to the small town where she is warmly received by Ingeborg and. housekeeper Mayor Mayor’s Wife 161 . Jack leaves very upset and shortly afterwards shoots himself against the flickering neon signs of a theatre. Escaping outdoors. physician Aunt Jessica Malin. Nelly’s foster mother Jenny. Ragnar Carlberg Carl M. Ingeborg. Ingeborg. but Nelly decides shortly thereafter to leave town. Credits Production Company Exexcutive Producer Production Manager Director Artistic Advisor Screenplay Svensk Filmindustri Harald Molander Lars-Eric Kjellgren Ingmar Bergman Victor Sjöström Ingmar Bergman. He and Nelly cause a scandal by interrupting the traditional entertainment with modern improvised jazz. Jack. Credits. first produced by Danish radio (DR) on 27 September 1944.

Britta Billsten. But individual sequences. Filmed on location at Hedemora in central Sweden. For Bergman’s account of the genesis of the Jack character. Resultatet hade möjligen blivit bättre. Bergman’s screenplay shows some changes from Leck Fischer’s play. see Chapter II (Ø 41). Reception Most reviews of Kris were critical. were singled out as showing great promise. Directed by Ingrid Luterkort. The result might have been better. Bergman commented on his debut as a film director in a special series of program notes (see Ø 154): ‘If someone had asked me to film the telephone book I would have done so. et al. 1990. who appears in the same role in Bergman’s film version. Gösta Qvist. pp. I knew nothing. it opened on 6 October 1944. the film was termed unbalanced in style and juvenile in mood and character depiction. Jag visste ingenting. Danish reviews. Stockholm (Djurgården) and at Råsunda Studios. Ullastina Rettig. Hanna Adelby. and remarks about the shooting of Kris in Bilder/Images. pp. could do nothing and felt like a crazy cat in a ball of yarn’. Jack is Bergman’s own invention.] See also comments on his novice status in the film world in Laterna magica. Per H. Spegeln (Stockholm) Commentary Leck Fischer’s play was produced at the Helsingborg City Theatre during Bergman’s first season there as head of the theatre. In a 1973 retrospective at SFI. Otto Adelby. Maud Hyttenberg. and the most dramatic figure in the film. Distribution Running Time Released Premiere Svensk Filmindustri 93 minutes 12 February 1946 25 February 1946. My Life in Film. and completed 31 August 1945. [Om någon hade bett mig filma telefonkatalogen hade jag gjort det. 122-130. pp. 81-88 (English edition. comparing the film to the original 162 . such as a shift of focus from the struggle between mother and foster mother to a love story between Nelly and Jack. Gustaf Hedström.Chapter IV Filmography Singer at ball Nelly’s dance partner Beautician Assistant at beauty parlor Customers at beauty parlor Man in the beauty parlor Musician at ball Trumpet Blower Bass Tuba Player Flute Player Clarinet Player/Orchestra Leader Pianist Wife of Town accountant at ball Young Woman on train Old Woman on train Gypsy Woman Men in the street at Jack’s suicide Participants at ball Dagmar Olsson Karl-Erik Flens Siv Thulin Monica Schildt Anna-Lisa Baude. especially from the beauty parlor. Rune Ottoson. 67-73). Hariette Garellick John Erik Liebel Sture Ericson Wiktor ‘Kulörten’ Andersson Gus Dahlström John Melin Holger Höglund Ulf Johanson Margit Andelius Carin Cederström Mona Geijer-Falkner Singoalla Lundbäck Nils Hultgren. beginning 4 July 1945. Jacobsson. The foster mother in the Helsingborg production was played by stage actress Dagny Lind. kunde ingenting och kände mig som en galen katt i en garnhärva.

Expr. BLM 15. 7. no. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). 4 pp. p. A discussion of Kris between critics Bengt Chambert. The next day the owner. no. 8 (October 1951): 498-505. 1946 [It Rains on Our Love].Synopses. To find shelter. 10 (1946): 27. and the two leave the city. 204. 3 (March 1946): 246-47. An older man turns to the camera and introduces himself as the Man with the Umbrella. David has found employment at a garden nursery run by Mr. pp. 6. no. they break into an empty pea patch cottage. p. 11 September 1973. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). This is in line with most adaptation discussions at the time. and Gösta Werner appeared in Biografbladet 27. See positive write-up by Gerd Osten in GHT. 9. p. p. Synopsis The film opens with a Hitchcock-inspired shot (Foreign Correspondent) showing a crowd of people under umbrellas waiting in the rain for a bus. 22-23. Vi. A young couple. Two well-meaning Robin Hood-like characters keep leaving household utensils at David’s 163 . 71-78. 9 September 1945. B. 8. 486 (December 1994). Perspektiv 2. Maggie and David. p. Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma. including his commentary in the same paper on 16 March. as yet ignorant of Maggie’s pregnancy. 21. 85 (July 1958). Now she is pregnant with a child whose father is unknown. Vecko-Journalen 39. which tended to favor faithfulness to the literary original above cinematic criteria. no. 2. 8.. no. 19 (1948):7-9. He is the narrator of the story and also acts as a providential character. a nasty old man who lives alone with a hoard of cats. Filmnyheter 3. Later he changes his mind and offers to sell them the cottage. no. no. 11 pp. joins her. 2 (Summer 1946): 114-120. p. p. Credits. Such attention suggests that Bergman was not treated as an ignorant novice among the film critics. Danish Film Museum program. Håkansson. p. 6. who once had ambitions to become an actress. sec. pp. David. 512-14. 9 March 1946. meet at Stockholm’s Central Station. 4 (Winter 1949-50): 226-27. Commentaries and Reception Record Danish play. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. Svensk filmografi 1940-1949 (Ø 1314). 10 (9 March). pp. no. and by Thorsten Eklann in UNT 5 March 1946. appears and threatens to report them for trespassing. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman & Herbert Grevenius. p. 9. Cahiers du cinéma no. Variety 8 May 1946. Andersson and his shrewish wife. were mostly negative. DET REGNAR PÅ VÅR KÄRLEK. has made a living as a prostitute. 26 February 1946. Biografbladet 30. 7-11 November 1960. David has recently been released from prison. SDS (Malmö). Gerd Osten (Pavane). Maggie. SF program to Kris. Kris got better reviews outside Stockholm.

The last fourth of the film is set in a courtroom.Chapter IV Filmography and Maggie’s front steps. he offers to marry her. The Man with the Umbrella appears. friend of David His Wife The Pastor The Prosecutor The Judge Assistant to Judge Kängsnöret [Shoestring]. who tells them to leave immediately. however. who reports the incident to the police. bum Stålvispen [Eggbeater]. first produced at the Oslo National Theatre on 9 September 1930 Göran Strindberg. He gets David acquitted of Purman’s assault charge. in shock. Maggie and David find yet another bureaucrat waiting in front of their cottage. a friendly neighbor Mr. Later. Anderson Hanna Ledin. The pastor turns out to be a pedantic bureaucrat who obviously takes unctious delight in stalling their plans. Lundgren Erland von Koch Lars Nordberg Tage Holmberg Gun Holmgren Barbro Kollberg Birger Malmsten Gösta Cederlund Ludde Gentzel Douglas Håge Hjördis Pettersson Julia Cæsar Gunnar Björnstrand Magnus Kesster Sif Ruud Åke Fridell Benkt-Åke Benktsson Erik Rosén Albert Johansson Sture Ericson Ulf Johanson Cinematography Architect Music Sound Editor Continuity Cast Maggi David Lindell Man with the Umbrella Per Håkansson. David hits Herr Purman. In a fit of anger. David and Maggie choose the road to the City. cottage owner Anderson. which causes him to run off on a drunken spree. bum 164 . Purman Bicycle Mechanic. The film ends as the young couple take leave of the Man with the Umbrella at a crossroad. Arriving back home. He is a civil servant. labeled City and Country. Maggie tells David of her pregnancy. miscarries. They have stolen the items from the Andersson couple who accuse David of the theft. The cottage had been expropriated by the town council before Maggie and David moved in and is now going to be torn down for a new development. A sign appears with arrows pointing in opposite directions. Hilding Bladh P. proprietor of nursery Mrs. acting as Maggie’s and David’s defense attorney. Herr Purman. Maggie. Credits Production Company Executive Producer Production Manager Director Screenplay Sveriges Folkbiografer Lorens Marmstedt Lorens Marmstedt Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman and Herbert Grevenius adapted Norwegian playwright Oskar Braathen’s play Bra Mennesker [Decent people]. A. The two go to the local pastor to register and to ask him to read the marriage banns in church.

Julien Duvivier. 45. and Marcel Carné. In early 1947 Det regnar på vår kärlek began a very successful round in the Swedish provinces. concluded: ‘We have to go back to the era of Victor Sjöström to find anything comparable on the Swedish screen’ [Vi måste gå tillbaka till Victor Sjöströms epok för att hitta något jämförbart på den svenska duken].e. Distribution Running time Released Premiere Svenska AB Nordisk Tonefilm 95 minutes 31 October 1946 9 November 1946. 27-29. Each one is responsible for about 50% of the footage. See also Bergman. 28. 165 . but on the whole Bergman was praised for his playful and lyrical approach. Strindberg’s footage in the city scenes is typical of his film noir style. 47 (1946): pp. Hilding Bladh started shooting Det regnar på vår kärlek but had to turn over the job to Göran Strindberg because of a time conflict. pp. 26 February 1947 p. 4 (Winter 1946-47): 235-239. Vecko-Journalen 37. his footage in Fängelse/ Prison. no. no. Credits. Cf. pp. 14-15. i. Björling. Edvard Danielsson Carl (Johansson) Harald Nils Hultberg John W. Signature Björn in Hudiksvallsposten. Bergman’s work on the script confines itself to the trial. Ingmar. Cahiers du cinéma no. directed by Leif Sinding. A longer analysis of Bergman’s film was published by Bengt Chambert in Biografbladet 27. My Life on Film. Reception Reviews were mixed. 7. Commentaries and Reception Record Clerk Policemen Attendant at station Ticket salesman at station Men at Café Women in Courtroom Erland Josephson Bertil Anderberg. comparing it to Marcel Carné’s film noir and noting Méliès’ influence on Bergman. Margot Lindén Filmed on location at pea patches near Hellasgården in South Stockholm and at Drevviken and Sandrews’ Novilla Studios in the Stockholm nature park Djurgården in August 1946 (completed on August 22nd). 10 (December 1946): 906-907. no. Strindberg remembers shooting outdoor scenes and interior scenes from pea patch cottage. Many pointed to the influences from French cinema of René Clair. Vi no. BLM 15.. 74 (August–September 1957). Britta Billsten. Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma no. 47 (1946). to the most realistic part of the film. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). A Norwegian film based on Braathen’s play was made in 1937 with the title Bra mennesker [Decent people]. 10 November 1946. 85 (July 1958): 6. Bilder/Images.Synopses. Einar Hylander Karin Windahl. p. 132-33. Astoria (Stockholm) Commentary The Man with the Umbrella and other allegorical overtones in the film exist already in Braathen’s play.

Ragnar’s voice interrupts Rut’s story while the camera introduces us to Martin. The family is gathered for dinner at Martin’s parents.. She returns to Martin who flies into a jealous rage at the sight of the large sum of money. 166 . Ragnar checks on Martin and finds him dying after a suicide attempt. B/W Director Screenplay Gustaf Molander Ingmar Bergman Synopsis Ragnar Ekberg. Rut takes him to Sam Svensson’s concert and persuades Sam to rent them a room. Film was ranked best Swedish film for 1946-47 by Swedish Film Journalists Club and the film magazine Biografbladet. and their small son Pil. Frida. Worried that Rut will not be faithful. sits at a hotel bar while his off-screen voice introduces him as the narrator of a story whose main characters are Martin Grandé and his mistress Rut Köhler. pp. pp. They begin an affair. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). After he is gone. pp. no. 79-85. 1967 (Ø 1233). with Ragnar providing an alibi for them. 1940-1949 (Ø 1314). They talk about their future together. Some time later she waits for him outside the university where he is a student. In the hospital. Biografbladet 30. Rut is also at the station. 4 (Winter 1949-50): 217-236. Rut tells her mother how Victor tried to seduce her when she was only 12. Martin insults Frida. 29 August 1974. it is Sam Svensson. 2 October 1964. an author. 205. 542-544. while Rut returns to her mother. She deliberately breaks off the heel on one of her shoes and accepts Martin’s offer to drive her home. Awards 1946: 1947: Ingmar Bergman won a Charlie (Swedish Oscar) for the film. 24. Rut serves him beer. Wortzelius. talks briefly to Rut. He goes back to his family and avoids charges of desertion by claiming a nervous collapse. his wife Frida. feeling guilty. A quarrel starts over the way the grandparents spoil their grandson. a chimney sweep and trumpeteer who offers Rut free tickets to a concert. he takes Pil with him in the car to buy flowers for Frida. SDS. 14-17 May 1962.. Svensk filmografi. p. 6-7. Rut pursues Martin who accompanies her to the hotel where the film started. 1947 [Woman without a face]. and later they climb up on the roof to make love. 10 November 1946 p. expressing her pity. Later. Expr. At the florist he sees Rut for the first time.Chapter IV Filmography Danish Film museum program. H. In a flashback we see Rut in her mother’s apartment as a caller arrives. 30. Image et son. Later at the hospital Ragnar meets Rut and follows her home. but Martin does not see her. Martin deserts from the army and returns to Stockholm. 18. 4 pp. whose lover Victor is the model for Rut’s portrait of the devil. p. Martin’s parents suggest that he go to the United States. Robin Hood. But Ragnar and Martin are drafted. She shows him a portrait she has painted representing the devil and tells him a fairytale called ‘The Three Chimney Sweeps and the Changing of Guards’ [De tre sotarna och Vaktparaden]. ST. and extracts 700 kronor from Victor as compensation. The film ends at the train station with Frida saying goodbye to Martin who is leaving to board a ship for the US. Seeing Rut leave the hotel alone. Martin’s and Rut’s liaison is short-lived. KVINNA UTAN ANSIKTE. Martin finds himself a cold shack.

one easily gets a feeling of being offered dramatic drugs. a violent storm in a teapot. just as had been the case with Hets. ett våldsamt stormande i ett vattenglas. Director Gustaf Molander was one of SF’s grand old men. Reception Bergman’s script caught the limelight. see (Ø 42). 4 (1947): 21-22. But always inspired. Lite ojämt och ryckigt någon gång. beginning 3 February 1947 and completed in Spring 1947. förtjusande omoget ibland. Mitt i allt 167 . often leaving question marks. Bergman followed part of the shooting of film. [Ingmar Bergmans ‘Kvinna utan ansikte’ är en diktares verk. Men nästan hela tiden inspirerat. charmingly immature at times.Synopses. known for his sober and elegant upper class comedies and melodramas. his convulsive furor. ofta med frågetecken. hans konvulsiviska furia får man lätt en känsla av att bli bjuden dramatisk narkotika. one suddenly begins to wonder if he actually has anything to say’ [Inför Ingmar Bergman med hans hetsiga upprördhet. a theatrical “much ado about nothing”. with the brilliance of a very youthful genius who has all the deviltry of film and theatre in his blood’. The leading film critic Carl Björkman noticed Bergman’s dramatic and lyrical talents: ‘Ingmar Bergman’s “Kvinna utan ansikte” is the work of a poet. Credits. no. Commentaries and Reception Record Credits Production company Director Screenplay Photography Architects Sound Music Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Gustaf Molander Ingmar Bergman Åke Dahlqvist Arne Åkermark.] Björkman’s appreciative review might be juxtaposed to Artur Lundkvist’s negative reaction: ‘When faced with Ingmar Bergman’s fiery excitement. Nils Svenwall Sven Hansen Erik Nordgren Oscar Rosander Lucie Kjellberg Alf Kjellin Gunn Wållgren Anita Björk Stig Olin Olof Winnerstrand Linnea Hillberg Marianne Löfgren Georg Funkquist Åke Grönberg Cast Martin Grandé Rut Köhler Frida Grandé Ragnar Ekberg Martin’s father Martin’s mother Rut’s mother Victor Sam Svensson Filmed at Råsunda Studios and at Märsta station. According to an article in Filmnyheter 2. In the midst of all the noise and all the rebellious gestures. ett teateraktigt ‘mycket väsen för ingenting’. Distribution Running time Released Premiere Svensk Filmindustri 100 minutes 9 July 1947 16 September 1947 Commentary For genesis of script. A bit uneven and jerky at times. gnistrande av ett mycket ungdomligt geni som fått både teaterns och filmens alla djävlar i blodet.

Johannes Blom returns from long service in the merchant marine. a never-never land: ‘Jag ville jag vore en drömlands son/en infödd av Indialand’ (I wish I were a dreamland’s son/a native of Indialand). He succeeds in persuading her to leave with him. who is living alone. ‘Le port des filles perdues’) to the story of a promiscuous woman. She tells him she does not need his pity. Carl. Artur. but becomes crippled and totally dependent upon his wife. Johannes falls in love with Sally. ‘Kvinna utan ansikte’. His neglected wife Alice hopes his condition will worsen to make him dependent on her and give up Sally. and they depart together. Awards 1948: Stockholm film critics (and Uppsala critic Pir Ramek) voted Kvinna utan ansikte best Swedish film of the year. no. Summer 1948. Synopsis The film opens seven years after the main action has occurred. DN.Chapter IV Filmography bullret och alla de upproriska åthävorna kan man plötsligt börja undra om han egentligen har något att säga. He then makes an aborted suicide attempt. with whom he planned to sail for ‘Indialand’. Early American and British titles. In a flashback he recalls his past. The Swedish name for India is Indien. Johannes goes down to the harbour where his father’s sloop used to be. the poet converts a distant geographic spot to a melodious land of fantasy. See Biografbladet. Danish title – ‘Sømandstøsen’ or ‘The Sailor’s Gal’ – changes the conflict (as does one of the French titles. beginning on the day his father Alexander brought home Sally. followed by his Musik i mörker/Music in Darkness and Skepp till India land/A Ship to India.] Reviews Björkman. He looks up Sally. 17 September 1947. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman after a play by Martin Söderhjelm The original Swedish title is a direct reference to a poem by Gustaf Fröding (1860-1911). by renaming it Indialand. ‘Film’. and the father flees in panic to a room he keeps in town. 206. ‘Ship to Indialand’ or ‘Ship to Never-Never Land’ would come closer to the original meaning. Lundkvist. The film ends as Johannes snaps out of his reveries and returns once more to Sally’s place. 8 (October) 1947: 683. When Captain Blom discovers Sally’s interest in his son. BLM XVI. 1947 [A Ship to India]. not as lovers but as mutual friends. ‘Frustration’ and ‘Land of Desire’. Johannes is rescued at the last minute. decorated with model ships and exotic objects which he now proceeeds to destroy. he forces Johannes to work as a diver against his will and attempts to murder him by cutting off the air in the diving tube. which begins: ‘Jag ville jag vore i Indialand/och India vore sig själv’ (I wish I were in Indialand/and India were itself). Final distribution title Ship to India places skipper Blom’s unreachable destination firmly on the map. place emphasis on psychological mood while ignoring the irony of the setting: a tug boat serving as a launch pad for escapes to exotic lands. Alexander Blom is going blind. Credits Production company Executive producer Production manager Sveriges Folkbiografer Lorens Marmstedt Allan Ekelund 168 . SKEPP TILL INDIA LAND.

Synopses. 102 min 22 September 1947. pp. Bergman writes about the making of Skepp till India land in Bilder/Images. In a reportage from the shooting of the film in Expr. his son Sally Alice Blom Crewmen Hans. and completed 16 July 1947. in which Ingmar Bergman can be seen as a man in beret (his ‘trademark’ for many years) watching a Punch-and-Judy show. a dwarf Alexander Blom’s partners Street girl Girl on beach Young man on beach Woman witnessing arrest Black crew member Old men in the street Filmed on location at Ankarsudden. Erik Hell Naemi Brise Hjördis Petterson Åke Fridell Peter Lindgren Otto Moskowitz Gustaf Hiort af Ornäs. Rialto. p. Bergman stresses both the escapist motif and the theme of youthful rebellion. 136-139. Credits. 11. Janus Films. My Life in Film. Rolf Bergström Ingrid Borthen Amy Aaröe Gunnar Nielsen Svea Holst Charles White John W. beginning 28 May 1947. Lundgren Erland von Koch Lars Nordberg. Royal (Stockholm) 29 August 1949. Arne Lundh Tage Holmberg Gerd Osten Holger Löwenadler Birger Malmsten Gertrud Fridh Anna Lindahl Lasse Krantz. Inc. Erik Selma Sofi Manager of music hall A foreign crewman Kiki. Commentaries and Reception Record Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman after Martin Söderhjelm’s play Skepp till Indialand. A. Björling.S.S. Bertil. 169 .. 7 June 1949. 23 October 1946 Göran Strindberg P. Opening Nordisk Tonefilm Film Classics. distribution Running time Premiere U. Distribution U. Uno Larsson Photography Architect Music Sound Make-up Editor Continuity Cast Captain Alexander Blom Johannes Blom. in Stockholm archipelago and at Sandrews’ Novilla Studios in Stockholm’s Djurgården (Deer Park). 1990. NYC Commentary Bergman’s screenplay intensifies the father-son relationship in the original play by Söderhjelm and adds a variety-show sequence. Torö. Sven Josephson Inga-Lisa Storthors. Jan Molander. first produced at the Swedish Theatre in Helsinki.

13. New York Herald Tribune. Reflexioner kring Ingmar Bergmans “Skepp till Indialand”. 4 pp. no. no. Variety. pp. 23 September 1947. 30 (1947): 10-11. 30-31. 8. 4 (Winter 1947-48): 229-235. referred to it as ‘a horror ship of fyrtiotalism’ [ett fyrtitalistiskt skräckskepp]. p. Foreign Reviews Il giornale d’Italia (Rome). 1964. NYT Film Reviews. pp. 27 August 1949.S. 610-612. In France. 40 (1947): 39. 40 (1947). i. pp. 23 September 1947. 2355-56. BLM 16. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Dagmar Edqvist and Ingmar Bergman The Swedish title has alliteration and cadence.p.. 22 October 1947. no. Danish Film museum program. criticized Bergman for using a trendy literary cliché in his portrait of Sally. 3 October 1968. full of the malaise of Sweden’s literary Forties (see Ø 952). Filmorientering (Norwegian Film Institute). See Cahiers du cinéma no.Chapter IV Filmography Reception In Bilder/Images (p. Image et son (Ø 1233). 22. New York Times. But Variety. 1940-1949 (Ø 1314). p. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. 86-90. Variety. no. but was in general positive about the film. pp. n. 8 (October 1947): 683. Vi no. no. Nils Beyer in Stockholm MT. Early American title ‘Night is my Future’ focusses on main character’s blindness and ignores importance that music plays in the film. 7 (1947): 8-10. 1948 [Music in darkness]. p. but actually the film received mixed reviews. 31 August 1949. 139) Bergman calls the reception of Skepp till India land ‘a massive adversity’ [en massiv motgång]. Arne Sellermark in Filmjournalen 29.’ Biografbladet 28. 7:3. lost in literal English translation. Awards 1947: Honorable mention at Cannes Film Festival. 40 (1947): 7. 31 August 1949. Vecko-Journalen 38. MUSIK I MÖRKER. 11. the good prostitute. dismissed it as a ‘a slow murky film with no appeal for the US market’. 86 (August 1958): 42-43. a common motif in Swedish cinema at the time. the film became a modest success during the Bergman vogue of 1958. (SFI clipping). He also compares the film’s strong element of escapism to so-called utbrytningsdröm [dream of breaking away]. p. 4. 4 pp. same date. p... Filmjournalen 29. recommending the film for the U. 7-9. 1913-1968.e. Svensk filmografi. 8. market. 207. no. 11. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). 170 . p. carried a brief note about Ship to India. He sees family conflict in the film as a desperate human search for contact rather than a generation battle. The only longer study of Skepp till India land was published by Hugo Wortzelius: ‘Ensamhet och gemenskap. Scen och Salong no. 79 (November 1964). pp. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). pp.

partly because of their social differences and partly because of Bengt’s blindness. Returning to his family residence in the country. The pastor finally gives them permission to marry. Later he hits Bengt when discovering that Ingrid is in love with him. musician at pub Mrs. Lundgren Gösta Pettersson Erland von Koch Olle Jakobsson Inga Lindeström Lennart Wallén Ulla Kihlberg Birger Malmsten Mai Zetterling Bengt Eklund Olof Winnerstrand Douglas Håge Gunnar Björnstrand Naima Wifstrand Åke Claesson Bibi Lindqvist-Skoglund Hilda Borgström John Elfström Sven Lindberg Cast Bengt Vyldeke Ingrid Olofsson Ebbe Larsson Kernman. One day Bengt is falsely accused of theft and loses his job. blind worker Hedström. Bengt’s sister Lovisa. Credits Production company Executive producer Production manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Props manager Music Sound Make-up Editor Continuity Terrafilm Lorens Marmstedt Allan Ekelund Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman and Dagmar Edqvist. Ingrid needs a job and becomes a servant in Bengt’s home. music director 171 . In a contest of bending arms. Ebbe wins. he meets a lower class girl. Bengt tries to adjust to a world of darkness and begins to play the organ in a country church. Bengt. however. he begins to play in a pub whose owner exploits all the employees.Synopses. Commentaries and Reception Record Synopsis The film opens with an expressionistic dream sequence: young Bengt Vyldeke is blinded when trying to save a puppy during a rifle drill in the army. Beatrice Schröder Augustin Schröder Agneta. The films ends as they leave by train for their new life together. whose father is being buried. and Ingrid encourages Bengt to pursue his musical studies. One day when playing at a funeral. pastor Kruge. A chance encounter brings Ingrid and Ebbe together with Bengt. A. Subsequently. He refuses to give his blessing to a marriage between Ingrid and Bengt. He applies to the Academy of Music in Stockholm but fails his entrance exam. after her 1946 novel of the same name Göran Strindberg P. The two men are jealous of each other. pub owner Klasson. The pastor in the church where Bengt used to play the organ is Ingrid’s guardian after her father’s death. housekeeper at Schröder’s Otto Klemens. for he feels that Ebbe has treated him as an equal and not as a handicapped person. Ingrid. Bengt is grateful. decides to pursue a career as a church organist and is accepted into such a program. In the meantime Ingrid has been admitted to a teacher’s college where she meets Ebbe. Credits. The two fall in love. Ingrid will teach grade school.

his mother Anton Nord Post office clerk Jönsson. Hamnstad/Port of Call. Commentary Bergman switched the focus of Edqvist’s novel from a love story across class barriers to a psychological study of a traumatized young man.S. pp. waiter Blind pianist Woman throwing out garbage Chief cook Train engineer Man at train station Mrs. 6). as slick as drawing paper [. he is described as a man who ‘aggravates. Robin Hood claimed that the expressionistic opening was an obvious imitation of Eisenstein (ST 17 February 1948. The film was a modest public success in Sweden. Opening Terrafilm/Stjärnfilm Embassy Pictures/Janus Films. though acknowledging Bergman’s obvious artistic ambitions. Stockholm. Distribution U.]men entonigt berättad. vånda och ångest (och bara ser) livets mörka sidor]. and. utan glädje och spontanitet]. boy in pub Hjördis. 16).Chapter IV Filmography Einar Blom Blanche Sylvia Evert. (11 December 1947. My Life in Film. was conceived as an ‘Italian’ neo-realist film. Carl Björkman (DN. Else Klemens Hotel guest Bengt Logardt Marianne Gyllenhammar Ulla Andreasson Rune Andreasson Barbro Flodquist Segol Mann Svea Holst Georg Skarstedt Reinhold Svensson Mona Geijer-Falkner Arne Lindblad Stig Johanson Ulf Johanson Britta Brunius Otto Adelby Filmed at Sandrews Studios at Lästmakargatan. Björkman suggested that Bergman look at the current Italian cinema for a treatment of tragic subjects with warmth. [en alltigenom snygg film. In a shooting reportage in Expr. 139-40. without joy and spontaneity.] but narrated in a monotone. NYC Bergman can be seen as a train passenger in the final scene. agony and anguish’ and only sees ‘the dark aspects of life’ [en man som hetsar och hatar och handlar i skräck. p. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. in fact. Musik i mörker was said to be an answer to his critics that he could also make ‘happier’ films.. den är proper in i minsta detalj. it is proper in its smallest detail. until 1963. He talks briefly about the making of Musik i mörker in his book Bilder/Images. 85 minutes 15 January 1948 17 January 1948 8 January 1963. humor and emotional involvement rather than ‘narrow anguish’ [snäv ångest]. Inc. 172 . Eight Street Playhouse.. termed Musik i mörker no more than ‘an altogether presentable film.S.. 18 January 1948). p. the first Bergman film to make money. Bergman’s next film venture.S. It has had limited distribution outside of Sweden but was not released in U.. hates and acts in fear. beginning 1 November 1947 and completed 30 December 1947. glättad som illustrationspapper [. Reception Reviewers approved of Bergman’s adaptation of the original story but were somewhat divided about the filmic result.

Berit escapes but is caught and and sent back. 1948 [Port of Call]. Mr. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. 59). compared its ‘silly plot’ favorably to Jane Eyre. lives and the factory where she works. 99-102. Vecko-Journalen 39. When Gösta meets her. no. Credits. Berit’s mother reports her daughter’s encounter with Gösta to the probation officer. Musik i mörker was an entry at the 1948 Venice Film Festival but won no prize. p. p. 645-647. The story begins as Gösta. who then attended a milliner’s school. 7 February 1963. p. p. 208. 226 (March) 1969: 9-10. Commentaries and Reception Record Variety reviewed it on 29 July 1959 (p. 5 (1948): 24. NYT Film Reviews. p. HAMNSTAD. 9 January 1963. 25 January 1963. 32. 1913-1968. Later Gösta. p. 29 July 1959. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 790). February 1948. 7 (April 1962) p. 31 December 1962. p. p. 153-154. a serious man who reads contemporary Swedish poetry. 18 January 1948. and no bonds are formed between the two. Time. 42 (Am. 6. the main character. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman after Olle Länsberg’s novel Guldet och murarna [The gold and the walls] Synopsis A docu-style camera depicts the bustling port of Göteborg.ed. Vi no. Time. She moves in with him. passes the spot where Berit has just tried to commit suicide by jumping into the water. 6). Image et son. New York Herald Tribune. p. referring to it as an old picture showing some talent. Foreign Reviews Filmfacts. 30-31. Biografbladet 30. Svensk filmografi. pp. Vilander. 5:-6. imposing her meticulous sense of order and fundamentalist religion on Berit. NYT. the tenement housing where Berit. Monthly Film Bulletin. It is a casual relationship. 5 (1948). 15. a 29-yearold sailor who has just returned home after eight years at sea. but her mother has her admitted to a juvenile institution. pp. p. 8 no.Synopses. meets Berit in a dance hall.Ed. Variety. In a flashback we learn that Berit is the product of a broken home. 42 (Am. 25 January 1963. 14. March 1961. she has been released on probation and is working in a ball-bearing factory. 33. p. 173 . no. On this occasion Berit has met a young man reminiscent of Jack in Kris. is locked out by her mother when she returns home late one night. He follows her home and spends the night with her. One scene depicts her parents quarreling. Still another flashback tells how Berit. 59). 1940-1949 (Ø 1370). 4 (Winter 1949-50): 217-236. 3371. another shows her strict mother moving about in the home. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1382). dismissed it as ‘cinematic juvenilia of a painful sort’. pp. Films and Filming. BLM.

Vilander. Credits Production company Executive producer Production manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Propman (Studio manager) Music Sound Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindusti Harald Molander Lars-Eric Kjellgren Ingmar Bergman Stig Ossian Ericson Ingmar Bergman. she divulges the address of the abortionist. abortionist Police superintendent ‘Tuppen’ [the Rooster]. foreman Tuppen’s buddies Gunnar Johan. runs away and gets drunk with a prostitute. Berit takes the critically ill Gertrud to Gösta who helps her to the hospital. In a plea-bargaining for her freedom. probation officer Man from Skåne Gustav ‘Eken’. but just before boarding. Berit tells him of her past. New complications arise. Gösta is upset. a pregnant friend of Berit’s. from Olle Länsberg’s Guldet och murarna [The gold and the walls] Gunnar Fischer Nils Svenwall Gösta Ström Erland von Koch Sven Hansen Oscar Rosander Ingegerd Ericsson Nine-Christine Jönsson Bengt Eklund Berta Hall Erik Hell Kate Elffors Mimi Nelson Sture Ericson Birgitta Valberg Hans Strååt Harry Ahlin Nils Hallberg Sven-Eric Gamble Sif Ruud Nils Dahlgren Yngve Nordwall Torsten Lilliecrona. has arranged for an abortion which fails. a Negro Salvation Army soldiers 174 . his father His mother Thomas A prostitute Girls from reform school Joe. Else-Merete Heiberg Bill Houston Britta Nordin. Gertrud. After they have had a good time together at an amusement park.Chapter IV Filmography Gösta is uncertain about his feelings for Berit. they change their minds and decide to stay in the harbour city. social worker Mr. Berit is now apprehended. Hans Sundberg Bengt Blomgren Helge Karlsson Hanny Schedin Stig Olin Brita Billsten Ernma Groth. hotel maid Gertrud’s father Agneta Vilander. Estrid Hesse Cast Berit Holm Gösta Andersson Berit’s mother Berit’s father Berit as a child Gertrud Ljungberg. He comes late to a second meeting. Krona. Stockholm kid Mrs. She and Gösta make plans to stow away on a ship.

707-708 (review by Artur Lundkvist). (November 1948): pp. Vecko-Journalen no. same date. and completed 17 July 1948. p. beginning 27 May 1948. Kaparen (Göteborg) 18 October. Vi no. p. Swedish censorship board cut about 30 seconds from a scene of violent abuse (in ‘act 3’). November 1959. 20.S. Films and Filming. Monthly Film Bulletin. women’s penitentiaries. pp. p. Credits. except that the latter film was set in Göteborg. Distribution Running time Released Premiere U. approved of a ‘new’ Bergman who subordinated himself to the docu-style of the script. But Bergman’s supporter in ST (Robin Hood. no. 19 October 1948. 44 (1948). a labor conflict jeopardized shooting schedules. November 1959 Commentary In late winter and early spring 1948. Reception Swedish reviews of Hamnstad were mixed. 175 . and the U. 9. 85 (July 1958): p. socialkuratorer. 12 October. Mikael Katz (Expr. p. Commentaries and Reception Record Captain on Dutch ship Girl in dance-hall Swing kid at the dance-hall Man at card game A screaming girl Police sister Voice reading court verdict Herman Greid Vanja Rodefeldt Rune Andreasson John W. Ingmar Bergman added one scene to the original script. 24. and on the Södertälje-Stockholm train. and Stockholm press. the episode where Gösta gets drunk with a prostitute. Skandia (Stockholm) as Port of Call. two productions got under way: Eva. the film was shown too late to ride on the neorealistic wave of the Forties. It got respectful though lukewarm reception during auteur-oriented Ingmar Bergman retrospectives in France (1958). 45 (1948). social workers. directed by Ingmar Bergman but not based on his script. Björling Harriet Andersson Inga-Lill Åhström Stig Ossian Ericson Filmed on location in Göteborg and Hindås. 12) was very negative: ‘One is tired of abortions. ‘kvinnofängelser’. 4. (1959). Cosmorama. When SF studios opened again on 27 May. 19 October 1948.S. p. where Bergman resided at the time. cheap seductions and equally cheap dance halls’ [Man är led vid aborter. 9). October 1959. and Hamnstad. Britain. Why Molander got to direct the very personal script of Eva and why Bergman took care of the social-realistic Hamnstad is not clear. those who compared it to Swedish street-and-problem films of the Forties were negative. opening Svensk Filmindustri 99 minutes 4 October 1948 11 October 1948. Swedish Reviews Göteborg press. written by Bergman but directed by Gustaf Molander. 6-7. 25.. usually critical of Bergman. Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma no. Abroad. BLM 17.Synopses. billiga förförelser och lika billiga danshak]. Those who saw Hamnstad as an example of postwar neorealism favored it. 147.

nos. find the corpse of a German soldier who has washed ashore on the Swedish coast. Returning to the present. Göran. Johansson helps Eva to a midwife who delivers her of a healthy boy. 1940-1949 (Ø 1314). Bo has felt that death follows him everywhere. B/W Director Screenplay Gustaf Molander Ingmar Bergman Synopsis Bo Fredriksson. Image et son. he kills Göran. Ever since. pp. cared for by his wife. Johansson. encouraged by Susanne. Oscar Rosander Birger Malmsten Eva Stiberg Cast Bo Fredriksson Eva 176 . and Bo is a happy expectant father. Their joy ride ends in disaster as the locomotive derails and Marthe is killed. L. Eva is pregnant. Filmnyheter 3. pp. But one day when the baby is almost due. pp. This triggers a second flashback in Bo who remembers bringing blind Marthe on board a locomotive and setting it in motion. The two decide to leave town and move out to the skerries. Later Bo makes love to Eva. a trumpeteer in the navy. whose niece Eva is working on the farm. Credits Production company Director Screenplay Photography Architect Music Sound Make-up Editor Svensk Filmindustri Gustaf Molander Ingmar Bergman and Gustaf Molander. EVA. from a synopsis by Ingmar Bergman Åke Dahlqvist Nils Svenwall Eric Nordgren Lennart Unnerstad Carl M. no. Wortzelius). The next morning Eva comes to Stockholm to surprise Bo. Lundh. The shock of seeing the dead soldier precipitates the birth of the child. 209. In the birth of their son. Bo receives a warm welcome from his parents. May 1960. no. Bo returns to Stockholm where he shares an apartment with a musician. 678-680 and 716-720 (H. 32-33. Svensk filmografi. Inc. Marthe. returns home on leave. 47 (1952): 3-4. Bianco e nero. the Berglunds. Bo and an old fisherman. 1948.Chapter IV Filmography See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). On the train he remembers how he ran away at age 12 after quarreling with his father and joined an ambulatory theatre company whose director had a 10-year-old blind daughter. pp. Bo feels that death has ceased to be a threat. 8-9 (1964). After his visit to his parents. 15 (1948): 16-18. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). who makes passes at Bo. Ernesto. 58-72. Eva watches the two men carry the soldier into a nearby storage shack and goes to check on them. 103-107. and his wife Susanne. After a night of heavy drinking Bo has a nightmare in which. At the same time old Berglund dies. In the evening he visits a neigbouring family. He now accepts death as an inevitable part of life. Vi 39. 226 (March) 1969: 10-11. Danish Film Museum program. no.

Cosmorama (Göteborg). the blind girl Josef Friedel. 101-06. 1949. Brazil. Bogesund. 52-53 (Artur Lundkvist). Handen. acts 3 and 4. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm). no. 2. See (Ø 57) for Bergman essay on genesis of Eva. pp. written in the aftermath of the release of Bergman’s Fängelse/ Prison in 1949. Nynäshamn. 18 January 1948. Reviews Stockholm. and at Råsunda Studios. Malmö and Göteborg press. Tumba. Biografbladet. Biografbladet vol. Scania (Malmö). UNT. Anna Fredriksson Frida. In an article titled ‘Eva – en ingmar bergmansk vändpunkt?’ [Eva – a turning point for Ingmar Bergman]. BLM.Synopses. in 1954. 2 (Summer) 1949: 101-06. Marthe’s father Josef ’s brothers Karl and Fritz Man in the train Midwife Train engineer in flashback Waitress Station Master Station Master in flashback Railroad Worker Eva Dahlbeck Stig Olin Åke Claesson Wanda Rothgardt Inga Landgré Monica Weinzierl Yvonne Eriksson Olof Sandborg Hilda Borgström Carl Ström Lasse Sarri Anne Karlsson Sture Ericson Erland Josephson and John Harryson Hans Dahlin Hanny Schedin Lennart Blomkvist Barbro Flodqvist Göthe Grefbo David Erikson Birger Åsander Filmed on location in Tylösand. and Norrköping. See also (Ø 58-59) for published prose excerpt called ‘Den lille trumpetaren och vår herre’ [The little Trumpeteer and our Lord]. p. Credits. Distribution Running time Released Premiere Svensk Filmindustri 97 minutes 6 December 1948 26 December 1948. fisherman Bo at 12 Marthe. Maria Berglund Mikael Johansson. Eva was chosen to represent Swedish filmmaking in an arts festival celebrating the 500th anniversary of Saõ Paolo. Commentary Swedish censorship board cut about 1 minute from the seduction scenes. Bo’s sister Aron Berglund Mrs. beginning 27 May 1948 and completed 28 June 1948. Hugo Wortzelius provided a rereading of the film. Bergman’s original working title was ‘Starkare än döden’ [Stronger than death] while original title of script was ‘Trumpetaren och vår herre’ [The Trumpeteer and our Lord]. 27 December 1948. January 1949. 30. et al. Commentaries and Reception Record Susanne Bolin Göran Bolin Erik Fredriksson Mrs. no. Tvetaberg. Hudiksvall. 177 . Together with Bergman’s Gycklarnas afton (The Naked Night). Bo’s sister Frida at 7 Lena.

Birgitta-Carolina falls asleep and has a nightmare. the ‘real’ film begins. i. FÄNGELSE. He sees a dead bird and kicks it into the water. Bergman’s version of Sartre’s Huis clos [No Exit]. p. 1949. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman The original title is symbolic. his former pupil. the story turns to a prostitute. Vi. The early American distribution title. where the couple project an old silent farce they find in a movie projector. 3. no. at the home of Tomas. Next the camera follows Tomas to the harbor. a young author whose marriage has brought him to the verge of suicide. no. Tomas returns home to his wife. The film ends in the film studio. Birgitta-Carolina has been his vicarious sufferer. 1949. Birgitta-Carolina. 1. 52. The film is to open with a proclamation by the Devil that human life is an inferno.A. The suggestion is dismissed with laughter.e. but it changes into a fish that is squashed. ‘The Devil’s Wanton’. Mixing naturalistic details with expressionistic dream sequences. p. of an idea for a screenplay. This anticipates Birgitta-Carolina’s suicide after she has been tortured with cigarette butts by a former lover. In her nightmare Birgitta-Carolina reenacts an earlier episode in her life when she had to surrender her newborn baby to the sister of a pimp who drowned it. Bergman tells of a rendezvous between Tomas and Birgitta-Carolina in an old attic. a hand lifts up the doll. a depiction of human existence where hell is other people. 210. In a bathtub she sees a doll bobbing in the water. 1949 [Prison].. Synopsis An old mathematics teacher tells the director. In the attic. Later. Lundgren Sven Björling Erland von Koch Olle Jakobsson Inga Lindeström Lennart Wallén Chris Poijes Doris Svedlund Birger Malmsten Cast Birgitta-Carolina Söderberg Tomas 178 . while picking up on Bergman’s reference to the film as a morality play for the screen. The answer is that it would never work. Credits Production Company Executive producer Production manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Property Music Sound Make-up Editor Continuity Terrafilm Lorens Marmstedt Gösta Pettersson Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Göran Strindberg P.Chapter IV Filmography Obs!. is too suggestive of promiscuous living and ignores the main character’s trapped life condition and tragedy. focusing on the young girl and demonstrating the schoolteacher’s thesis. Tomas’ account is visualized. 19 (Gerd Osten/Pavane). The teacher comes back to ask the director about his opinion of the original plot idea.

Original title of film was ‘Fängelset’ (The Prison). with a metafilmic frame showing scenes from a film studio. NYC Commentary Structurally. director/narrator Peter. opening Terrafilm Embassy Pictures. Credits. Fängelse was Bergman’s most complex film to date. Stockholm. with Greta. actress Alf. The script was based on an unpublished novella by Bergman called ‘Sann berättelse’ [True story]. Birgitta-Carolina’s pimp Linnéa. Kalle Öhman. opera singer Anna. Astoria (Stockholm) 4 July 1962. saying to Arne 179 . actor in film studio Greta. Peter’s friend Magnus. 80 minutes 18 March 1949 19 March 1949. the actress. Birgit ‘Bibi’ Lindkvist Sven Björling. Björling Gunilla Klosterborg. Tomas’ wife Martin Grandé. This is closer to the finished film than Bergman’s original script.Synopses. beginning 16 November 1948 and completed 4 March 1949. Commentaries and Reception Record Sofi. 55th St. One copy of the script in SFI Archives has an added ending with Kenne Fant’s name on it. showing the arrival of the old teacher. mathematics teacher Mrs. Harry Karlsson Inga Lindeström Chris Poijes Rune Lindström [cut] The Brothers Bragazzi Filmed on location in Stockholm’s Old Town and at Sandrews’ Studios at Lästmakargatan/ Gärdet. then a ‘postludium’ that takes place in the film studio. Inc. It suggests a dissolve on Tomas. young boy Lasse’s mother Cinematographer Lighting crew Police superintendent Plainclothes policemen Man in Birgitta-Carolina’s dream Voice of B-C’s mother in nightmare Man in Birgitta-Carolina’s nightmare Dark woman Guest at boarding house Workers in film studio Make-up artist in film studio Scriptgirl in film studio Minister Performers in film projector farce Eva Henning Hasse Ekman Stig Olin Irma Christenson Anders Henrikson Marianne Löfgren Carl-Henrik ‘Kenne’ Fant Inger Juel Curt Masreliez Åke Fridell Anita Blom Arne Ragneborn Lasse Sarri Britta Brunius Torsten Lilliecrona Segol Mann Börje Mellvig Åke Engfeldt. An episode using a wallpaper motif was not included in the film but was used many years later in Såsom i en spegel/Through a Glass Darkly (1961). distribution Running time Released Premiere U. landlady’s young relative Anna’s fiance. landlady Arne. Janus Films. Signe Bohlin. 4 pp.S.S. postman Lasse. Peter’s sister Paul. Playhouse. Gösta Ericsson Ulf Palme Britta Holmberg John W. and a plot narrative constructed as a series of flashbacks. in which the tone in the studio is more serious. Distribution U.

Thorsten Eklann in an article titled ‘40-talistisk filmmoralitet’.. alcoholics. for discussion of the lawsuit threatened by the Turitz Corporation over the fact that the film’s prostitute is said to work in one of its chain stores (EPA). avoiding overtime. On the eve of the opening of Fängelse. child murderers. F. and Expr. He now responded to a question about his Hitchcock technique: ‘My present technique is not the same. For Ingmar Bergman’s response.] and telling EPA to relax. 9. SVT. 351 (12 pp). For ‘fyrtiotalism’ issue. no. but it no doubt implies a few weird consequences when carried to the extreme’ [Min nuvarande teknik ser inte ut på samma sätt. see (Ø 952). See also Robin Hood’s defense of film in ST. EPA decided not to take any action (see DN.]. men den för onekligen med sig en del besynnerligheter när man följer den in absurdum]. In it he mentions trimming the budget for Fängelse by cutting down the number of studio days. a nursery rhyme by Alice Tegnér known to all Swedes of Bergman’s generation. Bergman made Fängelse without any pay. sinnesrubbade o. Most Swedish critics rejected Ingmar Bergman’s bleak view of life in Prison. [i Ingmar Bergmans filmer är samtliga huvudpersoner i regel gatflickor. sutenörer. and many saw it as flirting with the metaphysical spleen of Sweden’s literary Forties. Det är sista chansen.Chapter IV Filmography (her co-actor) and Martin (the director): ‘In spite of everything one must seek God. pimps. 8. he was supposed to receive 10% of the profits. [Trots allt måste man söka Gud. p. reprinted in part in Röster i Radio/TV. 6 April 1949. Prior to a 1962 TV showing.s. 9. barnamördare. Though still dissatisfied. 1 April 1949. pp. 8 (1949):3). calling Ingmar Bergman ‘one of the leading men in the Swedish Angst Union’ [en av de ledande männen i Svensk Ångestunion U. 13. 145-53.] There are some ironies in the film that are probably lost on a non-Swedish audience: The song heard on the radio when Alf. pp.P. 11 (reprinted in Filmnyheter 4. ‘Filmen om Birgitta-Carolina’ (see Ø 60). But after its release in France on 17 March 1959. 14 June 1962. Prison received a favorable review in Variety.v. 22) called it ‘loaded with private symbolism and expressionistic bric-a brac’. written by its Stockholm correspondent. p. knowing that ‘in Ingmar Bergman’s films all the main characters are usually prostitutes. no. He also reveals a decision to follow Hitchcock with long takes and few cuts or by using cuts-in-the-camera. 83 (July 1959). The most extended foreign analysis of Fängelse is by Marsha Kinder (Ø 1373) and a review article in Télé-Ciné no. p. Biografbladet 30. 2 April 1949. etc’.A. doing rehearsals outside of scheduled shooting time. 7 April 1949. instead. Bergman published a brief newspaper essay. 27-28. starting work earlier in the morning and trimming the manuscript minutely. Bergman discusses the same material in Bilder/Images. the European correspondent in Variety (25 March 1959. 6 April 1949. no. alkoholister. Humorist Erik Zetterström (Kar de Mumma) wrote a column about the incident in SvD. pp. Film was shown to the employees at EPA. 23 (1962). 6. That’s the last chance’. but the film was an economic flop. using no extras and little music. burns Birgitta-Carolina with a cigarette is ‘När lillan kom till jorden’ [When baby arrived on earth]. a pimp. argued that Bergman’s film represented a stylistic analogy to Swedish modernist poetry by breaking with traditional linear cinema and using an associative technique built on an intricate flashback structure. Hitchcock’s technique was originally a fascinating thought. 180 . limiting the sets and supplies for the outdoor shooting. p. 8 (1949). Reception Fängelse caused a lively debate in Swedish press. p 7). See editorial in Filmnyheter. 1. p. Hitchcocks teknik var urprungligen en fascinerande tanke. Swedish censors cut ten meters from Birgitta-Carolina’s suicide scene. Bergman was interviewed about the film. demented people. no. pp. 1 (Spring 1949): 15-23. 5 April 1949. see a newspaper ad signed by Bergman in DN.

pp. no. 34-36. 1940-1949 (Ø 1314). Cinéma 59. 77 (December 1966). Variety. and 25 March 1959. Monthly Film Bulletin. 7 (April 1962): 33. 4 (April 1949): 315-317. Motion Picture Herald. Cahiers du cinéma. 7-8. n. pp. The husband. 161-162. no. Filmcritica. 23 (10-18 June) 1962. Filmorientering (NFI). 12. NYT Film Reviews. (German program to ‘Gefängnis’). 2122.Synopses. no. p. 18 March 1959. Films and Filming. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1314). 53. 122-123 (May-June 1959): 34. Birgit Tengroth Synopsis Törst begins in a hotel room in Basel. BLM 18. no. 1951: 28-37. 95. Osten. p. 39 (November 1958): 70. no. are about to return home to Sweden after a trip abroad. 14 (1949): 7 and no. no. G. pp. 31 (November 1959). B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Herbert Grevenius. 22 (1961). 85 (July 1958). Värld utan nåd (Stockholm: Wahlström & Widstrand). Kosmorama. no. is 181 . 5 July 1962. 133 (May 1963): 255-262. p. 226 (March) 1969: 11-14. 21-2. no. A. 35 (April 1959): 100-102. no. 51-53. 46 (8-15 November) 1970. Films in Review 4. 23 (1961). 1 (1962): 22-25. 1962. Commentaries and Reception Record Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. Kosmorama. Cahiers du cinéma. 38-44. pp. 58-59. Filmfacts 3 August 1962. Röster i Radio-TV. Filmjournalen 31. no. 6 (June/July 1962): 360-361. no longer young but not yet middle-aged. Isstkustvo Kino. Positif. 1913-1968. 15. 6. 14 (2 April) 1949. TÖRST. 3333. Bertil. no. 43. (May 1959). no. New York Herald Tribune. Vi. 113-129. Svensk filmografi. p. New York Times. 211. 10 (October 1989): 92-94. pp. Die kleine Filmkunstreihe Hefte. 22. 26-28. p. no. p. Foreign Reviews Arts (French). p. (American Motion Picture clipping). same date. pp. no.p. 20 March 1949. Filmkritik. pp. no. 3 pp. Switzerland. 1949 [Thirst]. 78-79. 6 April 1949. no. no. pp. 9 (November 1953): 461-464. and no. 11 July 1962. A couple. pp. no. p. p. 61 (July 1956). Credits. n. pp. and no. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). Neue Filmkunst. April 1961. 3 pp. [SFI clipping]. Image et son. 61 (July 1956). no. Films in Review 13.p. no. New York Herald Tribune 31 December 1962. 13 pp. 20. and Kosmorama (394). Image et son. 53. 713-720. p.Plebe. in 1946. pp. 16 (1949): 31 (portrait of Doris Svedlund).

Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Music Orchestration Choreography Costumes Props Make-up Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Helge Hagerman Hugo Bolander Ingmar Bergman Herbert Grevenius. Rut has become sterile. Waking up in a cold sweat. and continues down to the waterfront where she commits suicide. she meets Valborg who follows her home and tries to approach her sexually. The focus is on Rut. their private war escalates. Inc. He denies his paternity and forces her to have an abortion. Rut displays her frustration and messiness. Rut’s former lover Astrid. She walks past groups of dancing couples. whose story runs parallel to Bertil’s and Rut’s. Bertil shows his pedantry and stinginess. an army captain. his wife Rut is a former ballet dancer who is now too old to perform. Horrified. she seeks the help of a psychiatrist who tries to seduce her. Oscar Rosander Ingegerd Ericsson Eva Henning Birger Malmsten Birgit Tengroth Hasse Ekman Mimi Nelson Bengt Eklund Gaby Stenberg Naima Wifstrand Cast Rut Bertil Viola Dr. the first one depicting her love affair many years earlier with Raoul. psychiatrist Valborg Raoul. Her best friend is Valborg. Bertil’s former wife. The film ends on a note of resigned reconciliation. Viola escapes and begins to drift through the city. captain. As Rut and Bertil travel through bomb-devastated Germany. As she flees from his office. he finds her alive and realizes that in spite of their incessant arguments. Viola’s death is juxtaposed to Rut’s and Bertil’s quarrels. A second flashback depicts Rut’s life as a student in ballet school. who is lesbian. his wife Dance teacher 182 . The two plots now coalesce. Lundh. from Birgit Tengroth’s short story ‘Resa med Arethusa’ (1948) Gunnar Fischer Nils Svenwall Lennart Unnerstad Erik Nordgren Eskil Eckert-Lundin Ellen Bergman Gösta Ström Hilmer Peters Carl M. which climax in a nightmarish sequence with Bertil dreaming that he has murdered Rut. Lonely and unhappy. The film shifts to Viola. She is completely absorbed in her work and has no time for love. celebrating Midsummer.Chapter IV Filmography an art historian and coin collector. Rosengren. he does not want to lose her. he tells her of his intention to return to his wife and children. As a result. At a summer outing in the archipelago. whose past is revealed in flashbacks. and one day Rut tells the captain that she is pregnant. But the affair continues.

no. for Tengroth’s work had caused quite a stir in Sweden. Ingmar Bergman appears for a split second in a train scene depicting a Swedish and a Danish pastor conversing about trivia while ruins from World War II pass by before their eyes.S. 4-7 (also in German program note issued by Superfilm). According to Rune Waldekranz. 9-10 (1949). 88 min 24 September 1949 17 October 1949. and several film production companies were bidding for it. which was to be used again in Vargtimmen/Hour of the Wolf. Sandrews entered into negotiations. Many of the foreign exteriors were shot using back projections. 10 April 1949. Herbert Grevenius chose one of them. Ingeborg Bergius. Laila Jokimo. Together they discussed the script in the evenings. Grevenius wrote the script in Göteborg while Ingmar Bergman was rehearsing a play there. In the film. beginning 15 March 1949 and completed 5 July 1949. 183 . Herbert Grevenius discussed his and Bergman’s adaptation of Birgit Tengroth’s Törst in Filmnyheter. An article about shooting the studio-built train compartment scenes appeared in AB. Inc.Synopses. provided Ingmar Bergman got to direct it. despair and resignation. pp. Tengroth had a verbal agreement with Sandrews to film her book. Distribution U. as the narrative basis of his film script but retained the book title. often erotic thirst for life is replaced by repressed hate. but SF retained Bergman and signed a contract with Tengroth behind Sandrews’s back. probably for PR reasons. on Ornö in the Stockholm archipelago. and at Råsunda Studios in Stockholm. Carl Andersson Peter Winner Oscar Rosander Hermann Greid Sif Ruud Inga-Lill Åhström Inga Norin. The film’s depiction of a lesbian relationship involving Valborg was cut by the censors. pp.S. Opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. Bergman discusses their collaboration in Bilder. Birgit Tengroth played Viola in the film. Öllegård Wellton Filmed on location in Stockholm. Tengroth’s uncompromising. Spegeln (Stockholm) 11 July 1961 Commentary Törst was the collective title of a volume of three short stories published by author/actress Birgit Tengroth in 1948. She introduced him to the close-up of the lighted match against the human face. Commentaries and Reception Record Workman Male nurse Nurse Patient Swedish pastor on train Danish pastor on train Woman on train Her little girl German train conductor Train passengers German policeman Hotel guest Porter in Basel Widow in cemetery Piano teacher Ballerinas Sven-Erik Gamble Gunnar Nielsen Britta Brunius Estrid Hesse Helge Hagerman Calle Flygare Else-Merete Heiberg Monica Weinzierl Verner Arpe Erik Arrhenius. 154-57. ‘Resa med Arethusa’ (Journey with Arethusa). Credits. Distribution Running time Released Premiere U.

4-6. it was considered of interest only to Bergman cinephiles. Image et son no. no. 9.. BLM 18. 1940-1949 (Ø 1314)... Reviews Stockholm press. 85 (July 1958). pp.. 1 November 1949. 14 (1949).. 25 October 1949. pp. 38. in which Bergman was presented as a real connoisseur of women. Script to Törst was published as a novella in Filmjournalen 31. p. Variety 15 March 1950. 18 October 1949. and Dostoyevski who focussed on prostitutes in St. On the contrary! My only task is to see to it that people who watch my films do not remain indifferent. pp. 44.. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman 184 . Robin Hood in ST.] to rule out Goya who poked around among Spanish idiots. and Robin Hood retorted in ST. carried a reportage about Thirst. Reception Swedish reviewers spoke of Ingmar Bergman’s controlled intensity and Grevenius’ sober handling of sensationalist material. The most extensive discussion of Törst can be found in the Danish Film Museum program by F. in which he responded: ‘No one can claim that my film makes such matters desirable.] Mikael Katz replied in Expr. 23 October 1949. 142 (June 1961). the Filmbewertungstelle changed their decision on the ground that the ‘destructive moments’ in the film could be seen as a deterrent (see report in Dagens Nyheter. Released in France in 1961. 18 October 1949. describing Bergman’s use of long takes (like Hitchcock and the earlier Bergman film Fängelse/Prison) and the difficulties he had in varying the scenography in such a limited space. 4 pp. 12. 9. Jüngersen. Bergman was interviewed briefly by the Düsseldorf paper Der Mittag.. no. pp. 51-52 (1949) through 32. 20 October 1953. no. Filmnyheter. who referred to the film as ‘meaningless digging in angst’ [meningslöst rotande i ångest]. 47. TILL GLÄDJE. 23 February 1953. It ran into trouble in West Germany when the film industry’s selfcensorship (Filmbewertungstelle in Wiesbaden) first refused to pass it because of its lesbian motif. p. 131-38. 57 (June 1961): 105-106. Petersburg’. 7). p. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). p. 52-53. 97 (July 1961). no. p. [att kalla ‘Törst’ meningslös [. Törst had limited circulation abroad. Jr. 9 (November 1949): 731-732. Vi. 1950 [To Joy]. 120 (June 1961). pp. no. p. 9. och Dostojevskij som rotade i gatflickor i S:t Petersburg. Image et son 226 (March) 1969: 14-15. 1949. 9. 13 (1950). 9. See also Bianco e nero 25. som rotade i spanska dårar. 22. 8-9 and no. no. 8-9 (August–September 1964): 58-72.Chapter IV Filmography p. Cahiers du cinéma no. replied: ‘To call “Törst” meaningless is [. n.’ After an appeal from the West German distributor and further negotiations.p. Svensk filmografi.] är att utdöma också Goya. no. 740-42. p. 6 May 1963. 212. Arts (French) 3 May 1961. p. p. Cinéma 61. An exception was Mikael Katz in Expr. Télé-Ciné no.

Synopses. It is shortly thereafter that Marta is killed. he blames Marta and deserts her. Inc. Mendelssohn. Agda Helin Salesgirl Maud Hyttenberg 185 . Mikael and Nelly Bro. Gradually. As Stig returns to the orchestra for a rehearsal. starting seven years earlier when Stig and Marta were novices in the orchestra. Stig spots a doll he once gave his wife and begins to remember their life together. Credits: Production company Production manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Music Orchestration Props Make-up Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Gunnar Fischer Nils Svenwall Sven Hansen From Mozart. a joy beyond pain and despair. He sits down to listen to the orchestra as it bursts into ‘Ode to Joy’. their son Björn Montin Sönderby Victor Sjöström Mikael Bro John Ekman Nelly Bro Margit Carlquist Marcel. their daughter Berit Holmström Lasse. Sönderby. First and Ninth Symphonies) Eskil Eckert-Lundin Tor Borong Carl M. When Stig fails as a soloist. Oscar Rosander Ingegerd Ericsson Cast Stig Eriksson Stig Olin Marta Olsson Maj-Britt Nilsson Lisa. The rest of the film is a single flashback. Commentaries and Reception Record Synopsis During rehearsals of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony – ‘Ode to Joy’ – the young violinist Stig Ericsson gets a telephone message that his wife Marta has been killed in a kerosene explosion at their summer cottage. Sönderby talks about the joy that Beethoven wanted to express in his music. Beethoven (Egmont Overture. Credits. Stig’s small son enters the concert hall. Lundh. The final sequence brings us back to the present. He remembers their quiet moments of happiness. In the last scene. Svea Holm Nurses Svea Holst. Stig accepts his artistic limitations and is reconciled with his wife. Eventually. Smetana. cello player Birger Malmsten Stina Sif Ruud Persson Rune Stylander Bertil. Returning home to an empty apartment. Marta saves Stig from the clutches of an evil couple. Marta soon discovers that Stig is an ambitious egotist. Stig and Marta get married and have children. a view confirmed by their music conductor. actor Erland Josephson Anker Georg Skarstedt Man performing marriage ceremony Allan Ekelund Two housewives Carin Swensson.

p. Reception Swedish reviews were mixed and somewhat contradictory. 26. IV. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). 9-10. southern Sweden. Teatern.S. 18. Filmblätter (East Berlin). 15. no. pp. 1 August 1950.Chapter IV Filmography Doorman Lisa. Marianne Schüler. Cinéma 74 no. Radio-Cinéma-Télévision. 21 February. 30 April 1971 To Joy has only been released in U.22. no. Summation of Swedish reception of Till glädje can be found in Filmjournalen 32.p. 189 (June 1974). Télé-Ciné. while SvD (same date) thought Bergman wrote the best dramatic dialogue since Strindberg. 1949. pp. no. Bergman discusses the film in Bilder (pp. no. 27. no. p. 299 (October 1975). 74 (August–September 1957). published Bergman’s script as a novella. Commentary Bergman appears briefly as an expectant father in the maternity ward. and at Råsunda Studios in Stockholm. BLM 19. 11 (1950): 7. no. no. See review section below. at 3 Man waiting in maternity ward Guests at Marta’s birthday party Grandmother Ernst Brunman Eva-Fritz Nilsson Staffan Axelsson Tor Borong Astrid Bodin. Distribution Running time Released Premiere Foreign Opening Svensk Filmindustri 98 minutes 17 February 1950 20 February at Spegeln (Stockholm) Paris. Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma. SF’s Filmnyheter. 139-145. 85 (July 1958). no. n. advised Bergman to stop trying to be a writer. p. Film had a limited circulation abroad. Filmjournalen 32. 8. p. p. p. no. 4-5. (SFI clipping). 21 February 1950. 277-82) where he calls it ‘an impossible melodrama’ [en omöjlig melodram]. 21. pp. Filmforum (Emsdetten) July 1954.12. 27 July 1958. at 3 Lasse. 6 October 1971. 45-47. pp 15-16. Vi.p. on video. nos. published a reportage from the shooting. 3 (March 1950): 232-233. Marrit Ohlsson Dagny Lind [cut] Filmed on location in Hälsingborg and Arild. 21. Variety. Cahiers du cinéma. AT. beginning 11 July 1949 and completed 2 September 1949. 186 . Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. pp. 187 (May 1974). p. 124-126. pp. n. 9 (1950). 12 through 20 (1950). 3 (1950). See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). Image et son.

Jompa’s girlfriend Iris hopes she can change his antisocial lifestyle. no. 15-16. B/W Director Screenplay Lars-Eric Kjellgren L. and no.-E. pp. When she becomes pregnant. They decide to break with their criminal past and continue without their leader Jompa. Synopsis by Ingmar Bergman Synopsis A gang of young boys brought to court on charches of car theft and rabble-rousing are given suspended sentences. He drags other members of the old gang with him and sabotages their attempt at social rehabilitation. a decent man who has found Jompa a job as a car mechanic. In panic Jompa kills the man and flees with Iris to a hideaway cabin. her father forces Jompa to marry her. Commentaries and Reception Record Image et son. 1949. pp. but does not know that he has stolen it from her father’s boss. Kjellgren/Per Anders Fogelström from the latter’s novel Ligister [Hoodlums]. During a break-in in a pawn shop. Credits Production company Director Screenplay Svensk Filmindustri Lars-Eric Kjellgren L-E. Credits. 64-67. and after a wild chase. 213. 272. Jompa and his companions are surprised by the owner. Iris finds a large sum of money in Jompa’s wallet. Jompa is caught. 1950 [While the city sleeps].Synopses. Synopsis by Ingmar Bergman Martin Bodin Nils Svenwall Gustav Roger Sven Hansen Erik Nordgren Oscar Rosander Sven-Erik Gamble Inga Landgré Adolf Jahr Märta Dorff John Elfström Barbro Hiort af Ornäs Carl Ström Ulf Palme Hilding Gavle Svensk Filmindustri 101 minutes 29 August 1950 8 September 1950 Photography Architect Location manager Sound Music Editor Cast Jompa Iris Her father Her mother Jompa’s father Rut Doorman Kalle Lund A Cad Distribution Running time Released Premiere 187 . Kjellgren/Per Anders Fogelström. 1950-1959 (Ø 1314). Jompa quits his job afterwards and goes downhill rapidly. But the police track them down. Svensk filmografi. On her wedding night. MEDAN STADEN SOVER. 299 (October) 1975: 391.

warning them about a third world war and urging them to return to their homeland. She meets with a group of Baltic refugees in a small movie theater. Vera asks Natas about the fate of her parents but receives evasive answers.Chapter IV Filmography 214. an engineer from the country of Liquidatzia. now working for his torturers. find a note adressed to Baltic refugees. investigating the attemted suicide by an old Baltic woman. She discovers and copies an important paper in Natas’s briefcase. 1950 [High Tension]. he is tortured and confesses his plans to defect to the United States. one of the policemen. then calls a doctor who pronounces Natas dead. A Baltic wedding is under way. In the meantime. Atkä Natas. I løpet av 12 timer [Within 12 hours]. The police. Björn Almqvist. based on the idea that dangerous political spies can operate also in idyllic and neutral Sweden. Lennart Wallén Photography Architect Props Sound Music Orchestrations Make-up Editor 188 . He has been picked up by an agent from his own country. arrives by plane on a diplomatic passport. The groom from the wedding is there and accuses Vera of working for the authorities back home. He is revealed to be an agent spying on the refugees. Natas tries to escape but is cornered on top of an outdoor elevator and jumps to his death. Almqvist visits Vera at her lab. after a novel by Waldemar Brøgger [pseud. Almqvist takes up the chase in a black Chrysler parked outside. West German title Menschenjagd suggests the politicized man hunt from East to West Germany that took place during the Cold War. They are surprised by Natas. wife of Natas. From his hotel he calls the American Embassy. she tries to murder Natas with an injection. and the house is surrounded by Natas’s people. Almqvist arrests her for attempted murder. Björn Almqvist discusses Natas’s ‘death’ with Vera. Peter Valentin]. But before the ambulance arrives. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Herbert Grevenius Spy thriller. The police find Vera drugged and hidden in a lifeboat on board an East European steamer. Natas’s body is stolen. published in 1944 Gunnar Fischer Nils Svenwall Tor Borong Sven Hansen Erik Nordgren Eskil Eckert-Lundin Carl M. Natas knocks Almqvist unconcious and disappears with Vera. Inc. To protect Vera. Recovering. He suspects her of foul play and orders her followed. Mrofnimok Dagyn. She knows Björn from before. During the night. a lab technician and refugee. Credits Production company Production manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Svensk Filmindustri Helge Hagerman Ingmar Bergman Hugo Bolander Herbert Grevenius. sheltered country. Recovering consciousness. looks up one of the woman’s relatives. British title High Tension seems like a witty reference to the villain’s final fate: suicide in a fall over high tension wires. One of the guests is Vera. Synopsis A voice-over announces the location of a small. But the phone has been cut. She has adjusted to her new country. Lundh. SÅNT HÄNDER INTE HÄR.

Willy Koblanck. Credits. Gregor Dahlman. Distribution Running time Released Premiere Svensk Filmindustri 84 minutes 18 October 1950 23 October 1950. shocked woman Worker with hang-over Stage manager/laboratory attendant Student at Charles XII statue Young girl First mate on ship Engineer on ship His assistant Policeman Projectionist Estonians Filmed on location in Stadsgården and Ängby. and at Råsunda Studios. Priit Hallap. Rundblom The house owner Captain on Mrofnimok Gadyn Disturbed woman Switchboard operator Woman in rental flat Caretaker Old. woman at wedding The ‘Shadow’ Agents for Liquidatzia Hotel manager Young neighbour Filip Rundblom Mrs. Teet Koppel. beginning 6 July 1950 and completed 19 August 1950. Elmar Nerep. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 189 .Synopses. Marja Parkas. Hans Laks. alias Sander. Helmi Nerep. Hilma Nerep. Gustav Laupman. Stockholm. refugee Speaker at meeting Leino. Karl Sööder Cast Vera Irmelin Björn Almkvist Atkä Natas A doctor Policeman Refugee pastor Vanja. Riina Reinik. Commentaries and Reception Record Continuity Speaker Sol-Britt Norlander Stig Olin Signe Hasso Alf Kjellin Ulf Palme Gösta Cederlund Yngve Nordwall Hannu Kompus Sylvia Tael Els Vaarman Edmar Kuus Helena Kuus Rudolf Lipp Segol Mann. Haari Kaasik. informer Refugee. Ivan Bousé Hugo Bolander Stig Olin Ragnar Klange Lillie Wästfeldt Magnus Kesster Alexander von Baumgarten Hanny Schedin Gunwor Bergqvist Mona Geijer-Falkner Erik Forslund Helga Brofeldt Georg Skarstedt Tor Borong Maud Hyttenberg Mona Åstrand Fritjof Hellberg Eddy Andersson Harald Björling Ingemar Jacobsson Wiktor ‘Kulörten’ Andersson Agnes Lepp-Kosik. Gösta Holmström.

87-90. Leif & Folke Isaksson: Politik och film. see Bergman om Bergman. pp. It was shown briefly in England under the title High Tension. Bergman is said to have had his doubts about her participation in the film from the moment he met her at Stockholm airport (she was ill with a thyroid infection. 182-186. 25 pp. p. p. tr. 32 (1950): 10-11. titled ‘Sånt händer inte här: Detaljer och synpunkter kring en thrillerfilm av Ingmar Bergman’ [This doesn’t happen here: Details and views about a thriller film by Bergman].p. 1951-53 [Breeze soap commercials]. 54/ Bergman on Bergman. no. Monthly Film Bulletin. Foreign Reviews Filmkritik. Stockholm: PAN Norstedt. BRIS-FILMERNA. 325) reviewed the film and found it interesting as a marriage drama pointing forward to later Bergman films. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). Atkä Natas becomes Äkta satan [Real Devil]. no. Furhammar. 1962.Chapter IV Filmography Commentary Read backwards. 7. 20. Der Neue Film. pp. title of Swedish Communist daily). 24 October 1950. Cahiers du cinéma. 325. 1950-1959 (Ø 1314). but in Bilder (1990. BLM no. B/W Director Screenplays Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman In 1951. 10 (1950): 799-800. p. pp. 47-50. Twelve years after the original release. ca. 7 (1962). 1971. pp. 48). 285-90) he attributes his difficulties in making the film to his own illness (sinusitis) and his encounter with the Baltic refugees that appear in the film. Perspektiv 4 no. January 1953. Image et son 226 (March) 1969: 19. while the name of the ship. 1968. 74 (August 1957). whose real life stories made Sånt händer inte här appear ‘almost obscene’ [nästan obscen]. in protest over the high entertainment tax on box office receipts. (SFI clipping). Svensk filmografi. Film/Theatre Dept. the German film journal Filmkritik (no. Stockholm Univ. London: Studio Vista. p. 20 June 1959. no. 215. using returning Hollywood actress Signe Hasso as a major drawing card. To have an income 190 . Robert Stiernevall wrote an undergraduate paper on the film. p. (SFI library). In 1972. Swedish film producers closed their studios and began a year-long lockout of their film crews. pp. Reception Swedish reviews were unanimous in their view that this type of secret-agent film was not Bergman’s forte. Sånt händer inte här was a commissioned work. 9. p. 3 (March 1953): 132-133. becomes Kominform Nydag (Ny Dag [New Day]. Filmjournalen 32. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. Autumn 1972. Sånt händer inte här has been withdrawn from circulation by Bergman.. 147-55. pp. Mrofnimok Gadyn. 133-135. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). as Politics and Film. n.

6. 1. det är bakterier. ‘Tvålen Bris’/‘Bris tvål’ [‘Bris Soap’]. 4-6). and the stench. for which the viewers needed special glasses. only seemingly splendid. these commercials reflect on a small scale Bergman’s filmmaking at the time by pinpointing two of his favorite themes: the magic of the film medium and the deceptive nature of filmmaking. A variation on the Hans Christian Andersen tale of the princess who promised the swineherd one hundred kisses in exchange for a music box. ‘Prinsessan och svinaherden’ [‘The Princess and the Swineherd’]. so that the viewer is challenged to interpret them. 1952 (no. each commercial had to contain one of two slogans: ‘Perspiration alone does not smell. In the most conventional of the nine commercials. though commissioned. it is the skin bacteria that cause the smell when they come in contact with perspiration’ [Svett i sig själv luktar inte. which has to be repeated over and over again. In this one. Credits. A voice asks if the film was difficult to follow. now with the Bris slogan as text. The first half of the commercial shows images without any text. 4. 7. 8. ‘Operation’/‘Filminspelning’ [‘Operation’/‘Film Shooting’]. The film is conceived as a Méliès farce. ‘Tennisflickan’/‘Magisk teater’ [‘The Tennis Girl’/‘The Magic Theater’]. and 1953. even in the royal court. Bergman introduces an old man. The films were made in 1951. 1953 (no. In fact. 7-9) AB Filmkontakt 2. Miniature people in a puppet show are engaged in a struggle between good and evil forces. som gör att när de kommer i kontakt med svetten blir det lukt] or ‘Bris kills the bacteria – no bacteria – no smell’. 57). 1-3). Again Bris soap comes to the rescue. Ingmar Bergman had fun making the commercials. played by veteran comedian John Botwid. though he had some difficulty fitting the Bris text into the films. 1952. Svensk Filmindustri for AB Sunlight Ragnar M. ‘Uppfinnaren’ [‘The Inventor’]. ‘Gustavianskt’/‘Gustav III’ [‘King Gustavus III’]. for in the 18th-century Bris soap was not yet invented. much discussed at the time. Credits Production company Producer Director Screenplays Photographer Production year Distributor 191 .Synopses. ingen lukt]. It is intended as a spoof on the three-dimensional film. A man dreams that he has invented a marvellous soap that can work miracles. Three of the commercials utilize the film medium self-consciously. Bergman shows the viewer how a commercial film is made. 5. Evil monsters – the skin bacteria – fight harmless creatures – the perspiration drops – and the contact produces a nasty smell that only Bris soap can eliminate. whereupon it is shown a second time. The starlet who presents Bris steps out of the screen-within-thescreen and falls on a spectator. inga bakterier. ‘Tredimensionellt’/‘Filmföreställningen’ [‘Three-dimensional’/‘The Film Showing’]. [Bris dödar bakterierna. 9. Lindberg Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Gunnar Fischer 1951 (no. Bris soap. Commentaries and Reception Record Ingmar Bergman signed a contract with the Sunlight & Gibbs Corporation to make nine commercials for one of its products. ‘Rebusen’ [‘The Rebus’]. 3. In this metafilm we witness the projection of a commercial in a movie theater. Bergman’s swineherd possesses a remarkable soap. was quite unbearable. which neither the princess nor the king can resist. whose task it is to misunderstand the name of the soap. According to Bergman om Bergman (p. A historical setting. ‘Trolleriet’/‘Trolleriföreställningen’ [‘The Magic Show’].

pp. 192 . mentions the making of a documentary about the Breeze films. has made them somewhat of a cult phenomenon among Bergman commentators. Introducer King Gustav III The valet Negro valet Doris Svedlund Åke Jensen Börje Lundh Charles White Ulf Johanson Barbro Larsson Erna Groth Barbro Larsson John Botwid Gösta Prüzelius Barbro Larsson Lennart Lindberg John Botwid Gösta Prüzelius. plus the fact that they represent a film artist’s concession to make commercials. ‘Uppfinnaren’ (The inventor) and ‘Trolleriet’ (Magic act). 8. deposited at SFI. 1 (January 2003). Other material on the same matter include the following: Bergman’s Fårö papers. The spectator Woman in shower Narrator Bergman’s Bris films have only rarely been shown. Sight and Sound. each 2 pp. Torsten Lilliecrona Georg Adelly Emy Hagman Lennart Lindberg Berit Gustafsson Carl-Gustaf Lindstedt Barbro Larsson John Botwid Bibi Andersson Curt ‘Minimal’ Åström John Botwid Marion Sundh Gösta Prüzelius 2. no. The man The woman The magician 7.]. stage manager Grips 5. 1992 (Ø 1521) pp. Teodor His wife 6. contain stenciled manuscripts to three of the Bris commercials. XIII. The introducer 8. 215-216 (1988) pp. Maaret Koskinen analyzes the commercials in ‘Tvålopera à la Bergman’ [Soap-opera à la B. 21-28. Introducer A girl The old man Man in white coat 4.Chapter IV Filmography Cast 1. Translated in English in Chaplin special issue titled ‘Ingmar Bergman at 70 – a Tribute’. also published in Il giovane Bergman. Chaplin no. titled ‘Operation’. This. The king The princess The valet 9. 30-34. but this has not been confirmed elsewhere. Introducer Girl in the shower 3. The actress The husband Botte. 84-88. p.

This flashback is filled with tension and pain. The seond flashback takes place when Marie returns to the small shack where she stayed that summer. After ballet practice Marie quarrels with her present boyfriend David. 216. Calwagen. 6 (December) 1978: 10-11. both times to remind Marie of her commitment to dancing. David comes to Marie’s dressing room. is a misnomer for a film that according to Ingmar Bergman depicts the best there is.’ Synopsis This structurally intricate film begins and ends at the Opera in Stockholm where the main character. As Marie opens her diary. She is playing chess with a clergyman. He struggles ashore and dies in Marie’s arms. next to hers. he breaks his neck. Commentaries and Reception Record Susan Vahabzadeh writes about the Bergman commercials in ‘Kleine. but also to warn her of the ephemeral nature of her work. She imagines his return. who is dying of cancer. and ends as Marie relives Henrik’s fateful leap into the sea. Cf. SOMMARLEK. namely summer. a journalist. When Marie goes to look for him. and comes upon David in the wings. He appears twice in the film. 7 June 1996.Synopses. During a dress rehearsal of Swan Lake. Early American title. Annoyed. Marie. Mrs. he runs away. Credits. Gertrud Wennström’s article ‘Ingmar Bergman gjorde reklam för tvålen Bris’ [Bergman made commercials for Bris soap] appeared in Unisont. On the impulse of the moment. She dances off the stage. is a ballerina. an embittered old man who has been in love with her for a long time. but instead is surprised by her ballet master. Süddeutsche Zeitung. The plot returns to the present. The diary is being returned to her by her Uncle Erland. The rest of the film consists of three flashbacks and a final sequence in the present. a diary is delivered to Marie written on an island in the Stockholm archipelago many summers ago when she had a love affair with a young student. Hitting his head on an underwater rock. young love and the Swedish archipelago. Illicit Interlude. dear-play). she leaves on a small steamer headed for the island where she and Henrik were once lovers. Credits Production company Production manager Director Svensk Filmindustri Helge Hagerman Ingmar Bergman 193 . The third flashback is triggered by Marie’s meeting with Uncle Erland on the island. The two embrace. 27 October 1954. The first recollection occurs on the steamer and is seen partly from Henrik’s perspective. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman The second half of the title (lek) means play as in children’s play. Bosley Crowther in NYT. The camera recaptures the lyrical beauty of the summer landscape and the sequence ends as Marie takes Henrik to her secret wild strawberry patch. dressed in his role as magician in Coppelia. no. But the coined word sommarlek suggests the Swedish word for love. the face of young Henrik appears as if in a mirror. p. 32:6: ‘The film no more merits the pornographic word ‘illicit’ than it deserves to be labelled smut. and she gives him the diary to read. passive and waiting. In the final scenes Marie stars as the lead ballerina at the opening night of Swan Lake. Tidning för Unilever-anställda i Sverige. 1951 [Summer Interlude]. kärlek (lit. In her memory she is back in his villa. Henrik. she meets an old black-clad woman. rehearsing while young Henrik sits on the floor. schäumende Autorenfilme’.

Saltsjöbaden. opening Svensk Filmindustri Gaston Hakim Productions. Cast Marie Henrik Marie’s boyfriend David Nyström Uncle Erland Aunt Elisabeth Mrs. workman at the opera Maja. Distribution U. it won no prize. Inc. 194 .S. Inc. doorkeper at the theater Karl. Sol-Britt Norlander Sentimental Journey. Plaza. ‘Marie’ Gunnar Fischer Nils Svenwall Gösta Ström Erik Nordgren Eskil Eckert-Lundin Carl M. dresser Sandell Lighting man Kerstin. Calwagen. ballet dancer Captain on steamer A doctor A nurse Uncle Erland’s housekeeper Delivery boys Carlsson. Göte Stergel with the ballet at the Royal Opera in Stockholm. stage manager at opera Marie as ballerina Ballet dancers Filmed in the Stockholm archipelago (Dalarö-Rosenön. Carl-Axel Elfving Gösta Ström Gun Skoogberg Monique Roeger. Lundh. beginning 3 April 1950 and completed 18 June 1950. Oscar Rosander Ingegerd Ericsson.Chapter IV Filmography Screenplay Photography Architect Props Music Orchestration Make-up Editor Continuity Working titles Ingmar Bergman and Herbert Grevenius from an unpublished story by Bergman. Gerd Andersson. Sommarleken [The summer play] Maj-Britt Nilsson Birger Malmsten Alf Kjellin Georg Funkquist Renée Björling Mimi Pollak Annalisa Ericson Stig Olin Gunnar Olsson Douglas Håge John Botwid Julia Caesar Carl Ström Torsten Lilliecrona Marianne Schüler Ernst Brunman Olav Riégo Fylgia Zadig Emmy Albiin Sten Mattsson. Resubmitted in the following year. black-clad woman Kaj. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. NYC Commentary The film was withdrawn from the Venice Film Festival in 1951 because SF wanted to test it out in Sweden first. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 26 October 1954.S. Sandemar) and at Råsunda Studios. ballerina Ballet master Clergyman Nisse. 96 minutes 2 April 1951 1 October 1951.

The screenplay has been published in French in Oeuvres (see Ø 122). until 1954. Credits. no. plot synopsis. 6. 283-85.. December 1959. excerpts from reviews. Longer Review Articles C. and short essay by Ingmar Bergman (see Ø 76). 195 . Bergman writes briefly about Sommarlek in Bilder/Images. p. and the result can be revolutionary’ [Ingmar Bergmans metod att göra film är mirakulös. and a bibliography. Teatern no. Cahiers du cinéma. och resultatet kan bli en revolution]. 1990.Synopses. 3 (December 1959): 25. October 1958). Foreign Reviews Arts. a film in which he helped solidify and give depth to the native ‘summer film’ genre. Milan. 29. p. NYT Film Reviews. praised Bergman’s filmmaking: ‘Ingmar Bergman’s filmmaking method is miraculous. review excerpts. 27 October 1954. Filmkritik no. p. 108 (November 1966).] Han hör till dem – en handfull benådade här och där i världen – som nu upptäcker filmens framtida artikulation. and critical comments. 4 pp. 84 (June 1959). 9 (November 1951): 713-714. Cinéma 58 no. 32-6. Vecko-Journalen no. 156. pp. no. is an Italian fact sheet on Un’ estate d’amore. p. Bretteville. 8 pp. 1960. [. credits.. no. The script to Sommarlek was serialized as a film novella in Allers Familjejournal. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. 44. 28 November 1951. Variety. same date. 5 (1951). Monthly Film Bulletin. This view was reported in Variety. 311-312. pp.. Films and Filming 6. Sommarlek was not released in the U. This has not been verified. Dedelle dello Spettacolo.. 28 December 1964. no. p. no. where he mentions a teenage love story as the background of the film. 2 October 1951. Centro S. no.. 1913-1968.. 7-15 May 1958 (C. 26-30. containing credits. 78 (fiche no. which also appeared in the Danish program issued by Nordisk Film Kompagnie. 2820. pp. Stig Almqvist in Filmjournalen 33. freed from his earlier metaphysical brooding. 2. [. pp. 6 (June) 1964. Commentaries and Reception Record SF issued an undated program to Sommarlek with notes. 45-47.. Reception Sommarlek was Ingmar Bergman’s first real critical success in Sweden. 339. Télé-Ciné published a special issue on Jeu d’été in no. New York Times. 116-17. 6. Positif no. pp. Filmjournalen 32.] He belongs to a handful here and there in the world who are now discovering the future articulation of film. 18 (November 1956). 41 (1951): 18-19. suggested the emergence of a new Ingmar Bergman. plot synopsis. The earliest American version is rumored to have had inserts of silhouetted nude bathing scenes filmed on Long Island Sound but removed in later distribution copies. illustrated with photographs from the film. p. Givray). in connection with Italian TV broadcast. In France. 5-100. 28 November 1951. nos. p. In Italy.S. character analysis. p. 29. newspapers carried analyses and comments about the film on 3 October 1968. 28 (June 1958). Filmorientering (Norwegian Film Institute). pp. contains interview/article with Ingmar Bergman where he reports that the earliest draft for the film was written in a Latin notebook at age 18. 9 (1950): 25. Film a Sogetto. 12 pp. 43 (1951). Harry Schein in BLM 20. New York Herald Tribune. listing openings worldwide. 26-28. 21.

a middle-aged woman. J. but leaves when Tore and his wife arrive. no. ‘Un estate d’amore’. n. 21 (12 October 1956) n. Later Bertil seeks Gertrud’s company. pp. 294 (May) 1990: 47-50. Comuzio. no. no. 68-71. Gertrud gives some advice and departs. pp. J. 10-11 Autumn 1961. 2 (Summer 1951): 55-59. Gertrud visits friends in the country.. April 1963. On Midsummer Eve. She discovers that she is loooking forward to her first vacation in 23 years. January 1989. 1978. she finds Bertil waiting.. pp. He is a young doctor engaged to Marianne Berg. 25 August 1952.p. 12 (1951): 2. She rebuffs him. 1950-1959 (Ø 1314). 2 (1978): 26-30. a socialite. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). 51-54. 214 (March) 1968: 173-178. Her landlady’s son. Wide Angle 2. Sw. 20-21. Cahiers du Cinéma. 9-10 (1950): 23-35. 4 pp. 2. Cineforum no. Gertrud considers herself happily married.p. 10 (December 1951): 625-633. Image et son. Of their two children. Perspektiv 2. Awards 1952: Honorary mention for script and direction by Svenska Filmsamfundet (Swedish Film Society). Bertil Nordelius. Marianne arrives and accuses Gertrud of stealing Bertil from her. program 114. Gråsten. 162-67. Gertrud’s daughter and her husband come to visit but soon leave to spend the holidays with Tore and his new wife. no. Revue pour le cinéma français. for 20 years. Svensk filmografi. 8 (1978). B/W Director Screenplay Gustaf Molander Ingmar Bergman & Herbert Grevenius Synopsis Gertud Holmgren. 217. Gertrud is invited to share Christmas with the Nordelius’s. pp. 65. 196 . pp. and soon afterwards he leaves for work at a regional hospital. Gertrud moves into a rented room. no. pp.. no. 1978: 26-30. Röster i Radio-TV. has been married to Tore Holmgren. 48-51. Biografbladet 32. takes an interest in her.. On the train. but one day Tore asks for a divorce. program no. The next day Gertrud decides to leave while Bertil is at work. 24. ‘Die Seele im Bauch’. G. no. Donohoe. B. ‘Cultivating Bergman’s Strawberry Patch: The Emergence of a Cinematic Idea’. a man her own age shows an interest in her. an engineer. no. 8-10. Rivette. pp. Gertrud is surprised to find that her rival is neither younger nor prettier than she is. Returning to her room.Chapter IV Filmography E. 207-216. Cine Club del Uruguay. 63-67. Bertil and Marianne quarrel. 1951 [Divorced]. Kosmorama 137. Wide Angle 2. He wants to marry a colleague with whom he can share his professional interests. 16 (October 1952): 7. D’Orazio in 1975 dissertation (Ø 1265). Danish Film Museum program. Cicim. 133-137. Museo de arte cinematografica (Brazil). FRÅNSKILD. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). They make love. On Christmas Eve. Etudes cinématographiques no. and 6. a son died at an early age and a daughter is living in a modern student marriage.ed. no. paid with her own money. Filmnyheter 5. 160-163.

Bertil Nordelius Tore’s new wife Marianne Berg Mrs. he gets desperate and. Nordelius Ingeborg Hans Man on the train Filmed on location in Stockholm and Uppsala. Annette. the fifth is the teenage sister of one of them. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) Note Frånskild was an entry in the Berlin Film Festival. Four of the women are married. beginning 15 November 1950 and completed 30 December 1950. who had come to the summer house on a visit. 1952 [Waiting Women/Secrets ofWomen]. 218. When Eugen finds out. To pass the time. Commentaries and Reception Record Credits Production company Director Screenplay Photography Architect Music Editor Svensk Filmindustri Gustaf Molander Ingmar Bergman and Herbert Grevenius. 1952. and at Råsunda Studios. Kaj. titillating suggestion of female freemasonry. threatens to shoot himself. the oldest of the women. from a synopsis by Bergman Åke Dahlqvist Nils Svenwall Erik Nordgren Oscar Rosander Inga Tidblad Holger Löwenadler Alf Kjellin Irma Christenson Doris Svedlund Hjördis Petterson Marianne Löfgren Stig Olin Håkan Westergren Cast Gertrud Holmgren Tore Holmgren Dr. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman American title Secrets of Women has an unfortunate. Synopsis Kvinnors väntan is made up of three separate stories told by a group of women who live with their families in a summer compound in the Stockholm archipelago.’ The first episode is related by Rakel whose marriage to Eugen is childless. claims that their marriages will not stand up to the close scrutiny of a long summer together. She tells of an affair she had with a former lover. KVINNORS VÄNTAN. Credits. each of the married women agrees to tell the others a crucial episode from her marriage. Distribution Running time Released Premiere Svensk Filmindustri 103 minutes 25 September 1951 26 December 1951. Her own story never gets told. hiding in a woodshed. It has had limited circulation abroad. He tells 197 .Synopses. but her somewhat bitter view is that married women’s consolation lies ‘in Jesus or the grandchildren.

When the elevator gets stuck. When Martin. Marta and Martin become a couple. The film ends as the younger sister of Marta. The setting is Paris. and they get married. forgetting the entire incident. Marta’s lonely delivery is depicted in nightmarish vignettes from her life with the immature Martin who abandons her. comical in tone. nurse Bob. The third story. but when the elevator is repaired in the morning. They decide to go on a second honeymoon. Marta looks upon her husband as a big child. Fredrik discovers that he is late for a business meeting and rushes off to work. and then make love for the first time in many years.Chapter IV Filmography Rakel that it is his sense of shame and loneliness rather than her unfaithfulness that plagues him. American pilot 198 . her boyfriend Annette Paul Lobelius. Lundh. return home from a party. Nothing is done to try to intercept the young couple. They set out in in a small boat just as the husbands arrive from the city. Rakel calms him. Marta’s younger sister Henrik Lobelius. decides to elope with her boyfriend. Later Martin returns to her. Marta. a successful and preoccupied businessman. meets Marta in a nightclub. she leaves her Amercan fiancé. Inc. and soon she is pregnant. Karin Lobelius and her husband Fredrik. her lover Eugen Lobelius. is a visual tour de force set in an elevator. The second episode concerns a young woman. and her husband Martin. Karin muses over the fate of women. her husband Marta Berg Martin Lobelius. having learned nothing from the older women’s accounts. husband and wife tease each other with their infidelities. her husband Karin Lobelius Fredrik Lobelius. Walter Sarmell Oscar Rosander Bente Munk Anita Björk Jarl Kulle Karl-Arne Holmsten Maj-Britt Nilsson Birger Malmsten Eva Dahlbeck Gunnar Björnstrand Gerd Andersson Björn Bjelfvenstam Aino Taube Håkan Westergren Carl Ström Märta Arbin Kjell Nordenskiöld Cast Rakel Kaj. and they continue their marriage. her husband Anesthesiologist Rut. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Music Orchestration Make-up Props Editor Continutity Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Gustav Roger Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Gunnar Fischer Nils Svenwall Sven Hansen Erik Nordgren Eskil Eckert-Lundin Carl M. Like Rakel. her husband Maj. In a flashback within a flashback. a painter and the family’s black sheep.

nos. Cinema. pp. Bengt-Arne Wallin Filmed on location on Siarö in the Stockholm archipelago. It was ranked Best Swedish Film in 1952/53 by Swedish film critics in a poll taken by magazine Filmnyheter. Fifth Ave. 1952. 290-291. it created little attention. October 1953. beginning 3 April 1952 and completed 20 June 1952. in Paris. Surrealistic Paris flashback and elevator episodes were singled out as visually outstanding. Reception Kvinnors väntan received glowing reviews in the Swedish press and established Ingmar Bergman’s reputation as a filmmaker with a unique understanding of women and their emotional crises. Argentina and Uruguay). with reprinted pages from script. pp. 1/1960. Olsson provided an insider reportage: ‘Det får publiken aldrig se’ [What the audience will never get to see]. Distribution U. Bergman had been scheduled to direct Hon dansade en sommar (One Summer of Happiness) but was replaced by Arne Mattsson. 46. In an unsigned article from the shooting of the film in ST 22 June 1952. Lobelius Doorman Newspaper distributor Garbage man Stranger outside Marta’s door Åke.S. no. Bergman talks in private terms about his motivation to make Kvinnors väntan: He had long planned to make a film about women and to try his hand at a comedy. 22-25. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 11 July 1961. Carl-Gustaf af Verchou Rolf Ericson. Commentaries and Reception Record Nurse Nightclub waiter Old Mrs. 107 minutes 22 October 1952 3 November 1952. (1990). F. and at Råsunda Studios. Inc. Marta’s boy Karin’s boys Nurse Young man by the elevator Man outside nightclub Dancers at night club Trumpet players at night club Lena Brogren Torsten Lilliecrona Naima Wifstrand Douglas Håge Mona Geijer-Falkner Wiktor ‘Kulörten’ Andersson Sten Hedlund Leif-Åke Kusbom Jens and Peter Fischer Rut Karlsson Sten Mattsson Gustav Roger Inga Berggren. Bergman discusses the genesis of the film in Bilder. Kvinnors väntan made its first international round in Latin America (1956 in Brazil. In a brief interview in Vecko-Journalen no. The film was shown at the Venice Film Festival in 1953. NYC Commentary Bergman appears briefly as a man on the stairway outside a gynecologist’s office. 7. Instead he was given the go-ahead with Kvinnors väntan. Credits. Kvinnors väntan was said to be Bergman’s brightest and most optimistic work so far. 48 (1952). opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. Like most Bergman films of the early Fifties. a script inspired by his third wife (Gun Grut) who had experienced a similar situation in a summer family compound. It opened in France in 1959. p. Koval discussed it briefly in a report from the festival in Films in Review.Synopses. riding on 199 . In magazine Se. G. 390-391. illustrated with photographs from the film. The script of Kvinnors väntan was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. 49-52/1959 and no.S. pp. distribution Running time Released Premiere U.

108 (1972). Filmnyheter 7. 173-178. January 1953. 6. 11. A World on Film (112). Institut des hautes études cinématographiques issued a fiche (no. pp. 80 (January–February 1959). It opened in East Germany in 1972. pp. pp. 1913-1968. Perspektiv 3. 214 (March 1968). same date. 3266. 36:1. p. 311-313. Image et son. and no. Image et son no. no. BLM 21. Gauteur). pp. Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). 10 (December 1952): 796-797. pp. A review in Filmblätter (East Berlin).E. Cahiers du cinéma. March 1960. 226 (March) 1969: 19-21: Museo de arte cinematografica (Rio De Janeiro). Camera. p. 92 (February 1959).. 67 et passim. 45-47. 11 pp. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). 12 July 1961. 1950-1959 (Ø 1314). 46-48. 42. and in the U. 9-10. no. p. p. pp. Appearing in West Germany in 1962. pp. no. 118 (January 1959). no. 5 October 1956. 24 December 1958. New York Times. January–March 1968.p. 200 . Bianco e nero. 20 December 1959. 219. Vecko-Journalen no. See also SF program. p. Critisch Film Bulletin 12. 15.. 3 (December 1959): 24. S. 6 (1959):44. no. no. 279-280. 1 (Fall 1961). Kauffmann. 119-122. 15. 19. 234-237. 85 (July 1958). 23 October 1952.. Télé-Ciné no. 7-8. 3-10 December 1958 (C. New York Herald Tribune. Foreign Reviews Arts. no. 10 (December 1952): 475-476. 41-43. 10-11 and no. pp. p.. Films and Filming 6. La cinématographie française. p. NYT Film Reviews. Filmkritik no. no. 4 November 1961. no. p. Monthly Film Bulletin. in 1961 where it was treated as a museum piece.1952: 12-14 (reportage from shooting). program no. 6 October 1961. 6 (June) 1962. p. see section on ‘Foreign Reception’ below. it received quality rating by the West German Classification Board.Chapter IV Filmography Cahiers’ Bergman wave in 1958-59. p. 266-268. 1952. pp. 55. Film Quarterly. 157) on Kvinnors väntan. 92 (A.S. 14 July 1961. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Per Anders Fogelström & Ingmar Bergman For early foreign distribution titles. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. 121-22. SOMMAREN MED MONIKA. 2-3 (February 1961). revealing the limitations of bourgeois society’. Cinéma 59. Variety. pp. 176-186. no. pp. pp. Svensk filmografi. p. 221-222. Filmfacts. 46 (1952). 70). 15 Time. predictably called it ‘a sad film. pp. 1953 [Summer with Monica]. pp. n. 33 (February 1959). 33 National Review. Hörde ni?.

and she and Harry return to Stockholm. she steals from a summer resident but is caught in the act.Synopses. Monica. Lelle. Lund. She neglects the baby and the housework. With Monica’s help. Lindström. One morning after returning home from a trip with the construction team. They quarrel. The next morning Harry arrives late for work and is fired. Harry wants to study and improve his social status. composed by Filip Olsson. Tage Holmberg and Gösta Lewin Birgit Norlindh Harriet Andersson Lars Ekborg Dagmar Ebbesen John Harryson Georg Skarstedt Gösta Ericsson Gösta Gustafsson Sigge Fürst Cast Monika Eriksson Harry Lund Mrs. however. Harry finds Monica in bed with another man. They get married. and takes up with former boyfriends. Her father drinks. her mother is worn out. Commentaries and Reception Record Synopsis The film is set in the working-class section of South Stockholm and in the archipelago. Monica lives at home in narrow quarters. The upper-class owner is full of contempt for Monica and calls the police. She is working for a wholesale fruit and vegetable dealer. Monica and Harry. One day after a quarrel she gives up her job and leaves home. Gunnar Fischer P. and they spend the night in his father’s small motor boat. Harry’s aunt Lelle. and he in a store selling glass and china. Monica dreams of film stars. They don’t like their jobs. Harry beats up Lelle.A. carrying his baby daughter in his arms. Credits. Inc. Credits Production company Production manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Music Orchestration Make-up Editors Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman and Per Anders Fogelström. He and Monica leave the city in the boat and spend a leisurely summer in the archipelago. Monica’s former boyfriend arrives and sets the motorboat on fire. Harry goes to night school and gets a new job in the contruction business. She herself finds escape in sleep and in romance magazines. Lundgren and Nils Svenwall Tor Borong Sven Hansen Erik Nordgren. Two young people. Harry and Monica have divergent visions of the future. from a novel by the same name by Fogelström. meet in a café. has difficulty adjusting to her role as wife and mother. He lifts her up and the reflection of both of them is seen in the window. former boyfriend Harry’s father Forsberg. At the movies on a date. When food gets scarce. and Harry hits Monica. Waltz ‘Kärlekens hamn’ [Haven of love]. She looks up Harry. Ornö Eskil Eckert-Lundin Carl M. But Monica escapes. She decides to leave him. Monica becomes pregnant and grows increasingly desperate about it. Harry’s boss in store Forsberg’s accountant Johan 201 . 1951. The film ends with shots of Harry walking past a display window.

Harry is told he has only himself to blame.S. and at Råsunda Studios. The two live part of the time in a boat that belongs to Harry’s father. Harry’s father calls him a good-for-nothing. Spegeln (Stockholm) 3 February 1956. and his aunt takes care of the child. The Orpheum Theater. she comes from a dysfunctional family. Inc. Carl-Axel Elfving Wiktor ‘Kulörten’ Andersson. opening Working title Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. Gustaf Färingborg Hans Ellis Ivar Wahlgren Renée Björling Catrin Westerlund Carl-Uno Larsson Hanny Schedin Kjell Nordenskiöld Margaret Young Nils Hultgren Ernst Brunman Sten Mattsson Åke Grönberg Magnus Kesster. Birger Sahlberg Anders Andelius. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. Soon they are part of the social system and feel a loss of freedom. café owner Movie star Movie star Lindevall. near the island of Ornö in the Stockholm archipelago. When Britt becomes pregnant. Tor Borong Mona Geijer-Falkner. Distribution U. Harry’s aunt insists they get married. parson Tobacconist Harry’s buddy Harry’s construction boss Harry’s workmates Bums Monica’s boyfriends Monika’s date at café Scrap dealers Ladies in backyard window Nurse at maternity ward House owner His daughter A girl Gösta Prüzelius Åke Fridell Naemi Briese Arthur Fischer Torsten Lilliecrona Bengt Eklund. Fogelström presents Harry as a 17-year-old daydreamer and schoolboy who lives with his father.S. Astrid Bodin Gun Östring Harry Ahlin Jessie Flaws Mona Åstrand Filmed on location at Sadelöga./Gaston Hakim Prod. He meets Britt (later named Monica) in a café. Monika’s father Monika’s mother Monica’s boss Driver Monicas’s male colleagues at work Messenger boy at Monika’s work Owner of summer home His wife Their daughter Hasse. In Ingmar Bergman’s screen adaptation of Fogelström’s novel. Britt leaves Harry and child. Gordon Löwenadler Bengt Brunskog Nils Whiten. Fogelström 202 . the emphasis shifts from Harry to Monica. There are several confrontations between father and son. Monika’s young brother Mrs. Los Angeles En sommar med Monika [One summer with Monica] Commentary In a first synopsis (SFI Archives). Boman.Chapter IV Filmography Salesman in glass shop Ludvig. beginning 22 July and completed 6 October 1952. an artist. 96 min 6 February 1953 9 February 1953.

Bergman let the daily rushes pile up over a three-week period. 38. Variety. Though critics praised its realism. 295-96. the film was confiscated by local police. 13 (1952): 8-10.’ The distributor. Filmnyheter 7. 6. One viewer saw Monika as defiant of a male chauvinist society. AB (pp. the film became recognized by the Swedish social-conscious generation of the Sixties.p. pp. while another argued that Monika’s escape from marriage was a flight into a tough male world that would destroy her. pp. On 5 February 1956. 17. no. Swedish censors cut a love-making scene between Monika and Harry after their fight with Lelle.S. the sexy image of the actress in a décolleté sweater launched the film both in Sweden and abroad. 5) carried a front page news report from Los Angeles about the arrest of Morton Lippe. n. 8-10. On 26 April 1956. 24. an ironic piece of advice in view of the film’s later fate in the U. manager of the Orpheum Theatre in L. To save the transportation costs from the archipelago to the photo lab in Stockholm. carelessly directed sexploiter about a stupid teenager’. In AT. no. 10-11. 1 (1953): 20-23. contain interviews with Harriet Andersson and Lars Ekborg and a series of articles titled ‘Männen kring Monika’ [The Men around Monica]. Walter’s summation of the case: ‘Monica appeals to potential sex murderers. it showed a bad scratch on the negative. But once the film was developed. However. 28 January 1977. The Los Angeles Examiner quoted from Judge Byron J. no. 23. no.. Films in Review. Los Angeles Times. Most of the film was shot on location during a summer that Ingmar Bergman and his crew recall with nostalgia. 2. Mosk[owitz] suggested cutting the nude bathing scene. The summer landscape was termed trite and overused. See (Ø 84) for Bergman vignette from the shooting.A. and 7 February 1977. Lippe was booked on misdemeanor charges. Swedish Reception Swedish reception of Sommaren med Monika was rather lukewarm.A.. see Jack Stevenson in Chaplin 258. pirated copies of the film circulated at drive-in theaters in the American midwest as early as 1954. Credits. necessating 75% retakes. Commentaries and Reception Record accepted this. see FIB. 1 (2-8 January) 1953. A television showing of Monika in Sweden in 1977 led to a feminist reader exchange in GP. 203 .. the tempo dull. Sommaren med Monika was released again in the U. 6 February 1956. 3 (Summer) 1995: 18-22 (Ø 1596). under the original Swedish title. Apparently. This is one of the reasons. 7 February 1956. the American distributor had added scenes of nudist bathing to Bergman’s original version.Synopses. p. Los Angeles Times and Los Angeles Herald Tribune all reported that L. pp. For details. Foreign Reception In a review in Variety. called it ‘a clumsily. 173-174.] Crime is on the increase and people wonder why. and the typecasting unfortunate. in 1960. p. they found the film uneven. Filmnyheter 7. 32-35. no. was acquitted from the charge one year later in higher court. The film became known mostly for Harriet Andersson’s pouting portrayal of Monika. pp. Bergman talks briefly about the shooting of Sommaren med Monika in Bilder/Images (1990). which was the first American distribution title. the editing poor. film distributor Jack Thomas was fined $750 and sentenced to 90 days in jail. (American Motion Picture Academy clipping) reported further confiscations in the Los Angeles area. After Sommaren med Monika was rediscovered in 1958 by Jean-Luc Godard in France (see below).S. however. no. 22. pp. [. 1. but its old reputation as pornography lingered. p. Filmnyheter 7. during a showing of Summer with Monica or The Story of a Bad Girl. 1920 (1952). March 1960. p. for his response to the film. 7 July 1954. 3. and Filmnyheter 8. SF head Carl Anders Dymling denied rumors that SF had made a special export version of the film with added nude shots.

T. vol. 1967. 19. 14. 1972. Monica is the most original picture by the most original of filmmakers. 30 July-5 August 1958. 68. usually a severe Bergman critic. Cahiers du Cinéma. 1950-1959 (Ø 1314). 2 (February 1953): 6. 5 (interview with Harriet Andersson). no. 187-195. 3 (March 1953): 129-30. Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). gave Monica an A rating in a review of a released video recording by Connaisseur Video Collection. 84-85. London: Secker & Warburg. who termed it the cinematic event of the year: ‘You must dash to the Cinéma Panthéon as you dashed to the van Gogh exhibit. 19 December 1957. no. 30 July – 5 August 1958. p. 85 (July 1958): 11. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 36 (1954).’ Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. no. 19-20 (in special issue on the portrayal of adolescence in the cinema). Films and Filming 5. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). Narboni. had termed it ‘the most erotic film since Gustav Machaty’s L’Extase’. 84 (June 1958): 11. 3 (March 1953): 233-34. hubba. p. 10 February 1953. no. 267-270. 11-12 (November-December 1961): 82-85. no. Hubert Arnault suggests that the tremendous critical success of the film on its second round in France depended on its combination of two features dear to French cineastes at the time: the exoticism of the Nordic summer and the handheld cinéma-verité camera. 45. Allombert. pp 21-24. pp. p. no.. which anticipated the nouvelle vague by several years. Milne). pp. ‘Mabuse’ (Stockholm Film Festival program). pp. François Truffaut includes a poster reference to Monika in his film Les 400 coups (The 400 Blows). See also G. 5 (February 1959): 25. 36 (1954): 50. Film und Mode Revue. no. and no. American Film. the Film und Mode Revue. Quigly. no. 16. 24 February 1956. the realism of Monika resulted in a glowing response from I. pp. 122-123 (May-June 1959). BLM no. Review concluded: ‘This is one of the director’s rare movies of which it can truly be said: hubba. called many scenes in the film too constructed and excessive but saw in Bergman’s filmmaking the work of ‘a personality with whom every film fan should get acquainted. 6). Svensk filmografi. Monthly Film Bulletin. Teatern. 19. 205. Four years later Monika was shown on a commercial rerun in Paris and received overwhelming support by Jean-Luc Godard (Arts. 1953. Image et son.Chapter IV Filmography In 1989. 204 .ed. pp. no. Perspektiv IV.’ In France the release of Sommaren med Monika in 1954 as ‘Le sac du douchage’ or ‘Monique ou le désir’ led to a lively press debate after Cahiers du cinéma. 10 (1959): 78. Foreign Reviews Arts. 1953. Critisch Film Bulletin 12. Bianco e nero. Godard review appeared in English in Godard on Godard (ed. In (West) Germany. 6. pp. no. August 1992. See Spectator. Image et son. no. 88-89. 113-120. 7. Cahiers du cinéma 14. 1967 (Ø 1233). 72-79.’ In an extensive analysis of Monika in Image et son. 76-80. pp. no. 11 pp. In England. February 1959. p. no. J. p. Sw. SF program. p. 1953.

Albert tumbles ouside. GYCKLARNAS AFTON. The theatre company has been invited to the circus performance. 17 November 1990 (five minute introduction to TV showing of film by Ulrika Knutsson and Maaret Koskinen). who operates a small store in town with the help of their two young boys. Both men get drunk. Anne. Afterwards he goes to the stables to seek the company of the horses. the theatre’s manager. She has been visiting Frans. John Simon’s English translation ‘The Clown’s Evening’ in his book Ingmar Bergman Directs (pp. he kills the animal. 50-105) seems to point to the single character of Frost. Frans and the audience taunt Anne during her performance as a Spanish equestrienne until she falls off her horse. Back in the circus wagon. walks outside and climbs up next to the coachman.Synopses. his mood changes. and the diegetic sound effects – the jeering laughter of the soldiers and the firing of the cannons – have a surreal quality. blinded animal. As he leaves his wife. It is likely that Bergman intended the title of his film to refer to circus performers as a collective group. Most misleading foreign title is the Italian one: Una vampata d’amore. Then he walks outside to the cage that houses Alma’s bear. an actor in the repertory theatre. Albert pleads with her to take him back but is rebuffed and pitied. The humiliation of Frost and Alma is soon to be felt by Albert and his mistress. 220. Jens. who has made love to her in his dressing-room and given her a worthless trinket in return. With his long riding whip Albert flips off Frans’s hat. The flashback sequence is an overexposed white-out. Despite her protestations. Alma went swimming in the nude before a group of soldiers on artillery practice. Sawdust and Tinsel. and Albert is carried out. Visually. Credits. Setting out in their Sunday best to borrow costumes for their dilapidated circus from the repertory theatre in town. but is interrupted by Frost who arrives with a bottle. The owner. In an ensuing fight. they face the ridicule of Mr. he sees Anne exit from a pawn shop. Sjuberg. British title. He orders the circus tent raised. channel 1. 1953 [The Naked Night/Sawdust and Tinsel]. He and Frost sing a popular broadsheet song. Synopsis Gycklarnas afton opens with a bleak shot of Circus Alberti arriving in a small Swedish town at the turn of the last century. 205 . Albert takes out his pistol and threatens Frost. he takes out his pistol and shoots his own image in the mirror. When notified. Commentaries and Reception Record SVT. Later Albert leaves the circus to visit his wife. Anne intervenes. The sequence has no dialogue but is accompanied by Karl Birger Blomdahl’s modernistic music. The film’s only flashback follows as Jens tells the story of Frost the Clown and his wife Alma. Gycklare were people who used to entertain the public with gyckelspel at fairs and in market places. wakes up in his cramped wagon. who tells him to shoot Alma’s sick bear instead. this is a night film. Frost sheds his clown suit and carries Alma out of the water and back to the circus. with dawn. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman The Swedish word gycklare is often used by Ingmar Bergman in its original medieval sense of an itinerant performer. One summer seven years earlier. Frans kicks sawdust in Albert’s eyes until he is like an enraged. Suddenly. is a more direct reference to the film’s circus milieu. Albert Johansson. Back in his trailer. twilight and darkness enveloping its main characters from the opening shot to the final vignette. Albert vents his frustration on Anne. American distribution title The Naked Night has a certain relevance probably not intended by its original distributor: Film depicts a night of unmasking when circus owner Albert Johansson is deprived of professional dignity and faces personal despair.

circus performer Uncle Greve. Albert walks beside Frost who relates a dream he has had: he became smaller and smaller until he was only a seed in Alma’s womb and then he disappeared altogether. Erna Groth. circus performer Theatre actors Meijer. Sture Höglund wig shop Carl-Olov Skeppstedt Marianne Axelsson Harriet Andersson Åke Grönberg Hasse Ekman Anders Ek Gudrun Brost Annika Tretow Gunnar Björnstrand Erik Strandmark Kiki (Otto Moskowitz) Åke Fridell Curt Löwgren Majken Torkeli Vanje Hedberg Hanny Schedin Göran Lundquist Mats Hådell Eric Gustafson Michael Fant Julie Bernby Conrad Gyllenhammar Mona Sylwan Naemi Briese Lissi Alandh. Frost goes into his wagon to join Alma. circus performer Mrs. Sjuberg. Albert’s wife Mr. circus performer Albert and Agda’s oldest son Little Albert. Credits Production company Executive producer Production manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Music Costumes Make-up Editor Continuity Sandrews Rune Waldekranz Lars-Owe Carlberg Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Hilding Bladh. circus performer Tightrope dancer Fager. his wife Agda. Ekberg. Agda Helin Sigvard Törnqvist John W. their youngest son Policeman ‘Beautiful Anton’. circus performer Mrs. the coachman Dwarf Officer Blom. stage manager Mrs. Tanti. Albert and Anne come together alongside the circus wagon.Chapter IV Filmography The next day the circus is on the road again at early dawn. circus musician Mrs. Göran Strindberg and Sven Nykvist Bibi Lindström Olle Jakobsson Karl-Birger Blomdahl Mago (Max Goldstein) Nils Nittel. Ekberg’s son Aunt Asta. Björling Gunborg Larsson Gunnar Lindberg Cast Anne Albert Johansson Frans Teodor Frost Alma. Without a word they walk off towards another day. Karl-Axel Forsberg. theatre director Jens. circus performer Policeman 206 . Olav Riégo. circus performer Mrs. Fager. John Starck. Meijer.

17. The film is shot by three different cinematographers. at Kullaberg and Ystad. opening Sandrew-Baumanfilm Times Film Corporation/Janus Films 92 minutes 11 September 1953 14 September 1953. 7. Nils Beyer. accused Ingmar Bergman of giving circuses a bad reputation by showing ‘pornographic trash in which the female circus artists are depicted as prostitutes’[en pornografisk smörja i vilken kvinnliga cirkusartister porträtteras som prostituerade]. 1956. Robin Hood in ‘Filmskott’. Cinematographer Hilding Bladh shot the flashback sequence. [Jag anser att man helst bör undvika att orena offentligt även om man har mycket att bli av med. 12. The most notorious review was by Filmson [Sven Jan Hanson] in AB. NYC Commentary Bergman writes about the genesis of the film in Bilder (1990). called Gycklarnas afton Ingmar Bergman’s best film. p. pp. 1960. the film got better reviews in the press outside Stockholm. An English version is available at SFI archives. but contains only credits and plot synopsis. Critical reactions oscillated from enthusiasm to abusive remarks. Generally. p. Gycklarnas afton. Bergman still felt obliged to make a film for Sandrews.. p. Commentaries and Reception Record Filmed on location in Arild. to produce the film. p. p.Synopses. 1956. southern Sweden. and at Sandrews’s Studios. with credits. excerpts from Swedish reviews. Göran Strindberg shot the outdoor scenes and most indoor scenes. Sweden. Olsson in Lantarbetaren. 4 (November 1995): 50-57. and a few years later he proposed his script. This film marks the first time that Mago (Max Goldstein) worked as Bergman’s costumier. Gärdet. During the shooting.S. illustrated with photographs from the film. same date. Though he expected no immediate box office success. no. såvida man inte som en August Strindberg kan sublimera sitt elände. Sven Nykvist was proposed as his substitute. 4. Credits. Waldekranz had tried earlier to engage Bergman for a film project with Sandrews but had lost out to SF (see Commentary to Törst. nos. 40-44. Little Carnegie. Nykvist shot scenes in the circus tent. Ø 211).). 1. 11: ‘I am of the opinion that one should not defecate in public even if one has a lot to get rid of – unless one can sublimate one’s miseries like August Strindberg’. Grand (Stockholm) 9 April 1956. Distribution U. Göran Strindberg had to make a study trip to Hollywood to learn the new cinemascope technique. p.d. By contrast. discussed the mixed response to Gycklarnas afton. 29 September 1953. Sandrews issued a program to Gycklarnas afton (no. 106. ST. distribution Running time Released Premiere U.] Other negative assessments were made by Viveca Heyman in Beklädnadsfolket. See Örebro Dagblad. and presentation of leading actor Åke Grönberg. Producer Rune Waldekranz has given an account of the origin of the film in an article titled ‘Birgit Tengroth svek men plötsligt stod Ingmar Bergman där med sina gycklare’ [Birgit T. The script of Gycklarnas afton was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. 5. n. and by I. failed but suddenly Bergman was there with his jesters]. 8 pp. Stockholm. Waldekranz persuaded his boss. Nykvist passed Bergman’s test and eventually won his approval. 184-88. 7. 20 September. no. 15 September 1953. Anders Sandrew.S. in the Gävle City Theatre. MT (Stockholm). beginning spring 1953 and completed in early summer 1953. 207 . Reception The Schreiber Circus in Örebro. Kulturens värld no.

77 (December 1957) and no. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. fiche 324. Danish Film Museum issued a five-page program on Gycklarnas afton. and a bibliography. no. 1 (January) 1959. p. Holmer. ‘Förnedringsmotiv i femtiotalsfilmen’ [Humiliation motifs in Fifties film]. no. was devastating. and New York Herald Tribune. Norwegian censor Bernt A. 1950-1959. no. Milan. Teatern 20. 121-127. which at first was only appreciated in cineast circles in Latin America.Chapter IV Filmography Foreign Response Bergman visited Oslo and Bergen in connection with the Norwegian opening of the film. listing openings worldwide. 4 February 1965. pp. p. pp. ‘The Naked Night’. The climate is cold and drizzly. In both cases. p. Zinsser wrote: ‘The Naked Night. p. 8 (October 1953): 380-381. NYT Film Reviews. 6 December 1958. Foreign Reviews Arts. Filmkritik. 302-308. 208 . 10-13. Revista de cinema. p. 154-155. Joseph. 10-14. pp. 31 October 1957. no. Awards). Télé-Ciné published a special issue on the film (no. Cinema Nuovo.. referring in particular to the flashback sequence of Frost and Alma in the beginning of film. Bianco e nero. Fedelle dello Spettaculo. 1960. Variety. no. the cuts were from the fight in the circus arena and from Albert’s suicide attempt. 4 (1953): 13-14. 10 April 1956. Longer articles/discussions Doorman. This view was echoed in Newsweek. 2919. Films and Filming 1. 1913-1968. pp.. 23 April 1956. Ramseger. Film a soggetto. 53. June 1955. See Bergen Morgenavis. no. everybody is seething with passion and remorse. 85 (July 1958). BLM 22. calling the film an offensive imitation of the worst aspects of cinematic expressionism. 1. 27: 5. no. 102-105. Cahiers du cinéma.. Filmkritik Jahrbuch 2 (1960): 3-5. February-March 1961. 77 (December 1957). Per. 11-12. where W. Perspektiv 5. and in 1958. pp. Cahiers du cinéma. Film Notes (Wisconsin Film Society). Nissen claimed that only two meters had been cut beyond the 25 meters already omitted by Swedish censors. He became upset over Norwegian cuts. 73. 15-22 October 1957 (Eric Rohmer). Die Welt. credits. In retrospect. including a discussion of Bergman’s use of the circus as an emblem of life. Centro S. ‘Ein Film der uns den Atem verschlägt’. 22 (April-May 1956). 144 (March-April 1962). no. p. pp. Monthly Film Bulletin. 48-50. 11 (August 1955): 18.’ The review in NYT. pp. 6. has become an Ingmar Bergman classic. Svensk filmografi. pp. 83. is a rueful tale. pp. 10 April 1956. 8 (October 1953): 638-639. p. 8 February 1956. 20. Positif. dubbed La nuit des forains a remarkable auteur film. Gycklarnas afton. no. presented The Naked Night as ‘a controversial Swedish import with stress on sex and morbidity’. Georg. winning several awards (see below. no. 10 pp. 12 September 1953. pp. comparing it to Dupont’s Variété. 18 March 1954. In November 1961. plot synopsis. review excerpts. 38-41. 112). is an Italian fact sheet on Vampata d’amore. 27 (February 1958). Le Monde.

This view of Bergman as a gifted image maker but a poor writer represents a very common view of him among Swedish commentators in the 1940s and 1950s. 12 pp. pp. David and Marianne have been married for 16 years. Paris. ‘Den allvarsamma leken’ [The serious game]. Image et son no. 1978. Awards 1954: 1957: 1958: 1959: 1999: First prize in Montevideo Film Festival. 302-05. In a series of flashbacks we see the development of their relationship. pp. Credits. Jurgen. pp. ‘Abend der Gaukler’. 1954. Second Prize by Polish Film Critics’ Society.. Wolf. 12 p. pp. the woman. pp. S. David has now broken off his affair and tries to regain Marianne’s love. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788).Synopses. Filmorientering (Norw.) no. It is at this point in the film that the bet occurs. 221. 197-213. 209 . 125 (November) 1959: i-xi (special supplement 17). Schildt’s review article recognizes Bergman’s visual talent. Film Culture no. and no. Listed in Swedish Filmrutan survey as one of the ten best Swedish films of the century. 226 (March) 1969: 24-28. 51-54. is his wife Marianne. from their first romantic summer together to a farcical episode when Marianne surprises them in bed at a tourist inn.d. John. Perspektiv IV. 29 (Summer 1963): 23-24. Offers the most extensive (and also the finest) analysis of the film in his book Ingmar Bergman Directs. Gold Plaque in Buenos Aires Film Festival. German Film Critics Award for Best Direction. a gynecologist. pp. Kosmorama no. Svensk Filmografi (Ø 1314). He pursues her on the train to Copenhagen where she is scheduled to meet her lover Carl-Adam. Simon. Commentaries and Reception Record Schildt. 1950-59. 17-18. no.’ The plot of En lektion i kärlek begins with a bet made by two men about a woman with whom they share a train compartment. 137. Der frühe Bergman (Ø 1326). German program to Abend der Gaukler (Göttingen: Walter Kircher Filmkunst) 1959. 81-96. unknown to the viewer. 2 (December 1960). B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis As the credits roll across the screen. One of the men is David Erneman.. Etudes cinématographiques 1. to whom she was once engaged. L’Etoile du Cristal de L’Académie du Cinéma. 8. 50-105. Film Inst. Suzanne. Praktische Hinweise für die Jugenfilmarbeit: Filmbesprechungen. Frankfurt am Main. an ironic voice announces: ‘This is a comedy that could have been a tragedy. n. 1954 [A Lesson in Love]. David is having an affair with his former patient. 1-2 (1960): 109-114. With credits and a presentation of film as one of several Bergman movies selected for young people. EN LEKTION I KÄRLEK. 1953: 380-382. but the script is said to be full of trite statements about art and life. Highest quality rating by the West German Classification Board. and in his collection of reviews Private Screenings. no.

David and Marianne are seen sitting on the bed. who was a tardy bride-to-be. It is an early summer morning in the country home of David’s parents. The next flashback takes place a year before the present events on the train. Marianne’s former fiance Åke Grönberg Henrik Erneman. Oscar Rosander Birgit Norlindh. grandfather Olof Winnerstrand Svea Erneman. David was sent by Carl-Adam to fetch Marianne. he is walking on the beach with his 15-year-old daughter Nix. Lundgren Gustaf Roger Sven Hansen Dag Wirén Eskil Eckert-Lundin Carl M. chauffeur John Elfström Lisa. In a farcical scene. his ‘affair’ Yvonne Lombard Nix. and opens the door. nurse Dagmar Ebbesen Traveling salesman Helge Hagerman Pastor Sigge Fürst Train conductor Gösta Prüzelius Uncle Axel. a powerless pastor has to witness how all the ceremonious preparations for the wedding are smashed to pieces. It is Henrik’s seventy-third birthday. the text on the turned sign reads: ‘Silence! A Lesson in Love’. Inc. In the first.A. Credits Production company Production manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Music Orchestration Make-up Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Ingmar Bergman Rolf Carlsten Ingmar Bergman Martin Bodin P. Bente Munk Cast Marianne Erneman Eva Dahlbeck David Erneman Gunnar Björnstrand Suzanne Verin. grandmother Renée Björling Lise. which ocurred in Copenhagen. Lundh. Nix talks to her grandfather about her fear of death. In the evening there is a dance at which the mutual trust of the older Erneman couple becomes a lesson to David and Marianne.Chapter IV Filmography Another flashback gives us a glimpse of the first encounter between David and Marianne. The film ends in Copenhagen. potter Carl Ström 210 . who reveals her disgust with the erotic interests of her friends and with her parent’s extramarital affairs. Two flashbacks on the train focus on David’s family. toasting in champagne. A cherub comes through the hotel corridor. David and Marianne fell in love. his children and grandchildren serve him morning coffee in bed. When the door is closed. maid Birgitte Reimer Sam. She and David check into a hotel room where Cupid himself hangs a ‘Do Not Disturb’ sign on the door. Marianne decides not to pursue her relationships with CarlAdam. Erneman’s daughter Harriet Andersson Carl-Adam. Later in the day they all go on a traditional automobile excursion. Henrik and Svea Erneman. David responds by telling Nix of his boredom. turns the sign.

p. 4) questioned an earlier statement by film critic Marianne Höök in Vecko-Journalen (no. But SvD termed the film a disappointment after the more subtle ‘woman’s film’ Kvinnors väntan. DN termed it an ‘unpretentious’ film combining joie de vivre and esprit. reading a newspaper. Henning Blanck. It is enough to make one want to learn the language. 44. 380). Smultronsstället/Wild Strawberries. 1990. Arild. distribution Running time Released Swedish premiere U. February 1960. Several months later Hanserik Hjertén in Arbetaren (4 January 1955. 342.. Distribution U. p. Wera Lindby. voiced a rare appreciation: ‘[It is] like Schopenhauer giggling. Films in Review. 52-53. p. 11 pp. nos. 6-10/1960. Beatelund. p. Tor Åhman Tor Borong Mats Olsson Björn Näslund Dancer at cabaret in Copenhagen Pelle. no. until 1960. Gustaf Färingborg. and Saltsjöbaden. opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus 94 minutes 23 August 1954 4 October 1954.’ Télé-Ciné. AB called the film ‘capricious and entertaining’.S.Synopses. no. 95 (April 1961) published a fiche on the film (no. in Hälsingborg. 214 (March 1968). Olof Ekbladh. on the Malmö-Copenhagen ferry. Perhaps inevitably. and Ansiktet/ The Magician/The Face. Marianne and David’s son Hotel maid Clarinet player at cabaret Man looking for his wife at cabaret Young men at cabaret Taxi driver in Copenhagen Piano player at cabaret Bellboy Filmed at Filmstaden (Råsunda). Pålsjöskog. 211 . 103. Ramlösa. ST referred to it as a spontaneous and visually conceived comedy bubbling over with fresh ideas and dialogue. Image et son. pp. in the aftermath of such major Bergman successes as Sjunde inseglet/The Seventh Seal. did not find ‘Bergman doing a turn of Ernst Lubitsch [.. 1954) that Ingmar Bergman was a genius in depicting women. 173-178 contains a longer analysis of film. 4 (Summer 1960). Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 14 March 1960. in Copenhagen (Nyhavn). Credits. Vincent Jonasson. illustrated with photographs from the film. no. pp. Murry Hill Theatre.S. hotel clerk Bartender Wedding guests Arne Lindblad Torsten Lilliecrona Georg Adelly Julie Bernby.] very funny’. 15. NYC Commentary Ingmar Bergman appears briefly in the train sequence. beginning 30 July 1953 and completed 16 September 1953. Commentaries and Reception Record Hotel manager Jönsson. Reception En lektion i kärlek was Ingmar Bergman’s first popular success in Sweden. Georg Skarstedt. Kaj Hjelm. this made it seem a minor work.S. Bergman writes about the film in Bilder/Images. called it ‘pointless adolescent tom-foolery’ and Film Quarterly. The script of En lektion i kärlek was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. New York Herald Tribune. the Mjölby train station. Bengt Thörnhammar Yvonne Brosset Göran Lundquist Margareta Öhman Torbjörn ‘Tompa’ Jahn John Starck Kjell Nordenskiöld. 15 March 1960. The film was not distributed in U.

New Republic. 3178. 222. Svensk filmografi. Atlas Filmheft. 85 (July 1958). 5 pp. pp. Variety. 2 (1963). pp. Neither title. KVINNODRÖM.. p. Filmfacts 1 April 1960. Positif. p. New York Times. Doris is getting ready for the photographer. 3 (1963). B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman The American title. Cinéma 60. no. Only the drumming fingers of Magnus. FIB no. no. The British title. 95 and no. 78. is as offensive as the Argentine one: Confeción des pecadores. 212 . See also Arts. Awards 1955: 1963: Punta del Este Festival Award. is hardly applicable to one of the main charachters. p.Chapter IV Filmography Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. 226 (March) 1969: 28-29. 103. NYT Film Reviews 1913-1968. Image et son. 16. 43 (1954). p. 4 Nov 1959. Doris. pp. BLM 23. p. Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma no. Dreams. Synopsis Kvinnodröm begins and ends in a fashion photographer’s studio in Stockholm. 12 and no. where the main characters. pp. 14 (1960). 34-35. 43 (February 1960): 121-123. 16-23 December 1959. Her struggle is reflected in quick images of her face against a rain-swept train window. travel on business. Journey into Autumn. an obese businessman and fashion director. 2 (1955). 20. 18-9. 26. however. 5 October 1954. 7. p. Vecko-Journalen no. fashion designer Susanne and her model Doris. can be heard. 126 (October 1959). Unspecified award at Film Comedy Festival in Vienna. p. 17 (June-July 1956): 51-53. Perspektiv no. p. SF program in Swedish and English. 1955 [Dreams/Journey into Autumn]. pp. p. 15 March 1960. 47. Kosmorama. Image et son no. 7. a teenage model. 44 (1954). Cahiers du cinéma. 1954. no. no. 58-60. no. (part of a presentation of Scandinavian film in Paris). 68. 1978. Filmkritik no. 384-87. 53-54. no. no. 25 April 1960. 9 (November 1954): 762. p. 74 (August-September 1957). p. the rest of the film takes place in Göteborg. 133-4. Susanne’s tension continues on the train trip to Göteborg. 46. ignores that this is a film about women. p. Monthly Film Bulletin June 1959. 1950-1959 (Ø 1314) pp. 137. In a wordless sequence (the only sound being that of the train’s wheels) Susanne fights an impulse to commit suicide. Opening sequence is silent and tense.

Returning to the Consul’s villa. Sönderby’s motives are also self-centered: he wishes to rejuvenate himself through Doris. Commentaries and Reception Record Arriving in Göteborg. fashion director Marianne. Gunhild Kjellqvist Ludde Gentzel Maud Hyttenberg. In a parallel episode. Arén Mrs. Lobelius arrives unexpectedly. Susanne tears up the letter. Consul Sönderby. Sönderby’s daughter Mrs. a young student. Credits. Doris wants to be rich and live the life of a movie star. The plot follows two tracks. Susanne realizes that Henrik will never seek a divorce. Susanne receives a letter from Henrik Lobelius. Folke Åström Cast Susanne Frank Doris Consul Otto Sönderby Henrik Lobelius Marta. Back in Stockholm. his wife Palle Palt Magnus. suggesting that they continue their clandestine affair. The dreams of the two women are thus revealed: Susanne wants to get married and have children. Doris gets tipsy on champagne and reveals her completely materialistic dreams. When Mrs. Their fantasies are interrupted by Sönderby’s cold and offensive daughter.Synopses. the other depicting Doris and her brief encounter with a much older man. Doris returns to her former boyfriend. who reminds him of his dead wife. They go to an amusement park where a roller coaster ride brings out the age difference between them. Henrik Lobelius arrives at Susanne’s hotel room. Berger Women aides in fashion studio Ferdinand Sundström. we follow Doris’s excursions in the city. Both women seek solace from their ruptured dreams through hard work. Palle. he admits his economic dependence upon his wife. Credits Production company Executive producer Production manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Make-up Editor Continuity Sandrews Rune Waldekranz Lars-Owe Carlberg Ingmar Bergman Hans Abramson Ingmar Bergman Hilding Bladh Gittan Gustafsson Sven Björling Olle Jakobsson Sture Höglund Carl-Olov Skeppstedt Katherina Faragó Eva Dahlbeck Harriet Andersson Gunnar Björnstrand Ulf Palme Inga Landgré Sven Lindberg Benkt-Åke Benktsson Kerstin Hedeby-Pawlo Naima Wifstrand Renée Björling Git Gay. to make a commitment to her. one involving Susanne and her attempt to get her lover Henrik Lobelius. a businessman. Susanne and Doris go their separate ways. Doris decides to leave without the gifts bestowed upon her by the Consul. photographer in Göteborg Sundström’s aides 213 . Consul Sönderby buys her clothes and jewellery. Preoccupied with his faltering business.

80 (January-February 1959) published a fiche (no. p. 46-49. n. In France Kvinnodröm/Rêve des femmes was shown in early fall of 1958 during the peak of the Ingmar Bergman vogue. Rohmer called Bergman a truly international filmmaker. refused to work with Bergman. and Arts. 342). on the film. 23 August 1955. with statements by Ingmar Bergman about his views on women and how to depict them on the screen. Millan Lyxell. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. Télé-Ciné no. Commentary The role of the Consul (Sönderby) was written by Bergman for the actor Anders Henrikson.. Margareta Bergström. It was a term used by reviewers for such films as Kvinnors väntan and En lektion i kärlek. 14) found Kvinnordröm to be a dark and brooding film. 11 pp. with reference to French playwright Jean Anouilh’s division of his own plays into pièces noires and pièces roses. This typifies a divided critical view that was to surface many times during Bergman’s career.p. Cinema. Reportage from filming Kvinnodröm by Arne Sellermark appeared in Allers.Chapter IV Filmography Sundström’s assistant photographer Make-up girl Fanny Katja Fashion photographer Photographer in Stockholm Model Mr. It was reviewed by Eric Rohmer in both Cahiers du cinéma. 3. NYC Bergman appears briefly in train corridor during Susanne’s and Doris’s journey to Göteborg. Barse. To her. no. However. Elsa Hofgren. 89 (November). Stockholm. Greta Stave. no. opening Sandrew-Bauman Film Janus Films. Ehrén in Ny Dag. Inc.S. pp. 6-7. it confirmed Bergman’s strength in depicting women. 36. beginning 15 June 1954 and completed 4 August 1954 (additional takes in February 1955). See group entry (Ø 975). 1955. 214 . Autumn Sonata).S. Instead. who. 86 minutes 28 May 1955 22 August. however. Gerd Widestedt Filmed at Sandrews Studios. 35 (1954). objected to Bergman’s female portraits. Distribution U. jeweler Hotel clerk Man at Liseberg Shop assistant at café Taxi driver Ladies in a café Curt Kärrby Jessie Flaws Marianne Nielsen Siv Ericks Bengt Schött Axel Düberg Viola Sundberg Tord Stål Carl-Gustaf Lindstedt Richard Mattson Inga Gill Per-Erik Åström Ninni Arpe. 37-38. 15-22 October. Reception Bergman’s Kvinnodröm had been rumored to be a continuation of his rose-colored period. Inga Rosqvist. But Marianne Höök (Vecko-Journalen. B. Grand (Stockholm) 31 May 1960. pp. the part went to Gunnar Björnstrand. calling them ‘a sexist presentation’. no. Ella Welander. up to and including Herbstsonate (1978. Fith Ave. p.

pp. no. 23 August 1955. 17 June 1959 (SFI clipping). 32 (January 1958). See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). Filmorientering (NFI). 279-280. 143-144. 567. Filmkritik no. Monthly Film Bulletin. but was considered a minor film. p. BLM no. 67. 456-459. 34 (April 1962). New York Times. Image et son. reception of Dreams. Positif no. 9 (1963). 120-127. 465-466. Image et son no. Vecko-Journalen no. 7 (1955). p. p. 35 (1955). U.Synopses. January 1965. 12 (September 1959): 22-23. 23. 4 pp.S. Films and Filming 5. pp. FIB no. 30. and no. 14. Cinéma 58. 114. 215 . 5. Sw.. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. The action takes place in the Egerman household. 89 (November 1958): 46-49. New York Herald Tribune. SOMMARNATTENS LEENDE. 42: 1. p. February-March 1961. NYT Film Reviews. Sandrews’ program no. 36 (1955). p. 10 (1955). 12-13. 426-428. no. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis Sommarnattens leende is an erotic masque set in southern Sweden in 1901. 19 November 1958. Variety. no. Svensk filmografi. 44-45. p. no. pp. 1913-1968. p. 118 (January 1959). Dansk Film Museum program. echoed the Latin American evaluation. 85 (July 1958). Time 13 June 1960. 6. 100-101. 20. pp. Musikern. A World of Film (Ø 1011). See Buenos Aires El Pueblo. pp. p. 3 (1955). 1955 [Smiles of the Summer Night].ed. pp. p. pp. Filmfacts 15 July 1960. same date. p. 226 (March) 1969: 29-31. in the local theatre and the lodgings of Desirée Armfeldt. an actress. released out of sequence in the 1960s. 17. Commentaries and Reception Record Kvinnodröm was discussed extensively in the Argentinian press during the summer of 1959. 1 June 1960. Cahiers du cinéma no. 42. 102-104. 1950-1959 (Ø 1314). Foreign Reviews Bianco e nero. 134. 223. August 1959. The various tours of love matching create an intricate plot pattern and represent the three smiles of the summer night. Credits. 6. 9 (1954). 3192-3193. 38 (1955). Perspektiv no. Kauffmann. pp. no. p. 22 August 1955 (also in English). Teatern no. (July 1959). and at the Ryarp manor house owned by her mother. 4 pp. Vi no. pp. pp. p.

Fredrik Egerman notices Anne’s tender feelings for Henrik. Armfeldt serves a love potion at dinner. while Fredrik Egerman. ‘Liebestraum Opus 62. Lundgren Ove Kant P. and Frid. Inc. and Fredrik Egerman. Later that night the two elope with the willing assistance of Petra. asleep. black in the face. are seen romping in the hay. falls in a puddle of water and borrows a nightshirt and cap belonging to Desirée’s current lover. Soon afterwards. Fredrik goes to visit his former mistress Desirée Armfeldt. Charlotte and Desirée are waiting. Costumes Make-up 216 . Count Malcolm has hinted to his wife Charlotte that Fredrik Egerman is an intimate friend of Desirée Armfeldt. The Malcolms and the Egermans. The lawyer is the unlucky player who ends up shooting himself. Pettersson Erik Nordgren Eskil Eckert-Lundin Robert Schumann. 3’ ‘Bort med sorg och bitterhet’ (Text: Ingmar Bergman) ‘Freut euch des Lebens’ (sung by Eva Dahlbeck) Mago (Max Goldstein) Carl M. Count Malcolm makes a stormy entrance. Count Malcolm.O. tries to seduce Henrik. returns to Desirée. but wards off her advances while quoting the Scriptures. ‘Aufschwung Opus 12’ Frédéric Chopin. Charlotte Malcolm. watches from a distance. Early the next morning Desirée persuades her aged mother to arrange a party on her estate. are to be invited. and the astounded Fredrik learns that he is the father. rebuffs her husband’s physical advances. Jealous charges and countercharges follow. he accidentally touches off a mechanism on the wall. Credits Production company Production manager Location manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Music arrangement Orchestration Music Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Gustav Roger Ingmar Bergman Lennart Olsson Ingmar Bergman Gunnar Fischer P. The film ends with the sun rising over the summer night. Charlotte conveys this information to Anne Egerman during a visit. sad and lonely. In the meantime. Count Malcolm has challenged Fredrik Egerman to a game of Russian roulette in a pavillion on the estate’s park grounds. Henrik is upset over the cynical conversation at the dinner table and leaves. Charlotte is reconciled with her husband. At the gathering at Ryarp. the groom. the pistol was loaded with soot. a student of theology. A young child appears. Bells begin to chime and the bed in an adjoining room comes rolling into Henrik’s room. having made a bet with her husband. Lundh. Fredrik Egerman stumbles out. ‘Fantasie-Impromptu Opus 66’ Franz Liszt. Henrik Egerman is approached by Petra. Anne and Henrik are attracted to each other. without their knowledge. which was the scheme set up by the actress and her mother. Petra. the maid. old Mrs. In the bed lies Anne. the maid. Later he tries to commit suicide. To defend his honor. virgin wife of middle-aged lawyer Fredrik Egerman. Suddenly. Planning to hang himself from a damper.A. but his attempt ends in a surprise. but Anne proudly declares that she is already aware of her husband’s liaison. no. Outside. including Fredrik’s adult son Henrik.Chapter IV Filmography Anne Egerman.

Armfeldt Petra Count Malcolm Charlotte Malcolm Frid Beata.Synopses. plus two days in November 1955.S. Stockholm. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 23 December 1957. Almgren Policeman Maids to old Mrs. Bibi Andersson Anders Wulff Gunnar Nielsen Gösta Prüzelius Svea Holst Hans Strååt Lisa Lundholm Sigge Fürst Lena Söderholm.S. Malcolm’s aide Butler Dresser Adolf Almgren. Georg Adelly [cut] Cast Desirée Armfeldt Fredrik Egerman Anne Egerman Henrik Egerman Old Mrs. British version 104 min 14 December 1955 26 December 1955. Mille Schmidt John Melin Ulf Johanson Carl-Gustaf Lindstedt. Armfeldt Dinner guest Notary Tobacconist Actor Curtain puller Servants Mrs. Credits. opening Svensk Filmindustri Bank Film Distributors of America 108 min. beginning 28 June 1955 and completed 29 August 1955. the cook Malla. Desirée’s maid Actresses Desirée’s son Niklas. Distribution U. Sutton. Distribution Running time Released Premiere U. Mona Malm Josef Norman Börje Mellvig David Erikson Arne Lindblad Einar Söderbäck Sten Gester. Armfeldt’s butler Aide at lawyer’s office Clerks at lawyer’s office Filmed on location at Jordberga estate in Skåne (southern Sweden) and at Råsunda Studios. 217 . NYC Ingmar Bergman appears briefly as a bookkeeper at Egerman’s legal office in a scene that was cut from the final version of the film. photograper Mrs. Commentaries and Reception Record Editor Continuity Oscar Rosander Katarina (Katherina) Faragó Eva Dahlbeck Gunnar Björnstrand Ulla Jacobsson Björn Bjelfvenstam Naima Wifstrand Harriet Andersson Jarl Kulle Margit Carlqvist Åke Fridell Jullan Kindahl Gull Natorp Birgitta Valberg.

nota bene Who had as her guest The City’s high priest But then. titled ‘Är han tyrannregissör?’ [Is he a tyrant director?]. p. Nevertheless. for Olsson’s account of filming: ‘Bergman was like a thundering cloud’ [Bergman var som ett åskmoln]. all is pure to the pure] Hjertén persisted. He also states that the film could have been a tragedy but that he chose the comedy form as better suited for a costume film. 2. [There once was a broad in Mykene Clever and beautiful. influential editor of Stockholm paper DN had jumped on the bandwagon with an editorial protest (‘Ett filmpris’. nota bene Som hade som sin gäst Stadens överstepräst Men allt är ju rent för de rene. pp. 26-29. 1 (1956). Arne Sellermark interviewed Bergman during the shooting of Sommarnattens leende: ‘Tre nattliga leenden’ [Three nightly smiles]. Best film. nos. 4-5. and Best supporting actor). Bergman was asked to respond. illustrated with photographs from the film. pp. Elizabeth Taylor. rather dull day-to-day recording of Bergman’s production. To Lagercrantz. Bergman states his satisfaction with having found an expressive comedy form. Sec. 16-20/1960. p. Olsson’s diary is a detailed. 19-20. in an article titled ‘Bergmanfallet eller sommarnattens falska leende’ [The Bergman Case or the False Smile of the Summer Night].. Anti-Bergman critic Viveca Heyman supported Hjertén (and Lagercrantz) in 218 .Chapter IV Filmography Commentary The script of Sommarnattens leende was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. Best script. The script is included in an English translation in Four Screenplays by Ingmar Bergman (Ø 110). Bergman writes briefly about it in Bilder/Images (1990). Assistant director Lennart Olsson kept a two-volume diary during the shooting of Sommarnattens leende (deposited in SFI Library). p. See also KvP 27 January 1974. a musical by Steven Sondheim titled A Little Night Music based on Bergman’s Sommarnattens leende opened in New York. no. Reportage from filming Sommarnattens leende appeared in ST 31 July 1955. 9. 4. and lacks the element of personal involvement evident in Vilgot Sjöman’s record of the shooting of Nattvardsgästerna/Winter Light. A Little Night Music was in turn made into a movie. 345-46. 1955: 4-7. Best actor. His review is important since it recognized Bergman as an auteur before the term became fashionable. In yet another Sellermark interview article. in which he referred to Bergman’s film as ‘the bad fantasy by a young man with acne. no. Bergman supporter Nils Beyer considered it one of the best Swedish films ever. 16. a boundless contempt for artistic and human truth’ [en finnig ynglings dåliga fantasi. pp. charging him with pornography. p. Vecko-Journalen. Filmnyheter 10. ett omoget hjärtas fräcka drömmar. Hanserik Hjertén wrote an open letter to Ingmar Bergman in Expr. In February 1973. Sommarnattens leende elicited a rather intense negative press debate after the jury in FIB (Folket i Bild) gave the film several awards (Best direction. no. the obscene dreams of an immature heart. In the meantime Olof Lagercrantz. Filmfront 4. 4). he accused Bergman of making egocentric and hysterial films. 3 February 1956. Swedish premiere took place in Göteborg’s Stora Teatern on 11 January 1974. some years later (see Ø 1100). 10 March 1956. directed by Harold Prince and starring. ett gränslöst förakt för konstnärlig och mänsklig sanning]. Reception Reception of Sommarnattens leende was very favorable. 10. among others. and did so with a limerick (same date): Det var en gång en sköka uti Mykene Skicklig och vacker. Bergman reveals that he got the idea for Sommarnattens leende from his Malmö staging of Lehar’s operetta The Merry Widow. Bergman did not have ‘enough wit to fill a doll’s thimble’ [nog av ande att fylla en dockas fingerborg]. 41 (15 October) 1955.

p. pp. 181 (November 1973): 44-45. 11:3. Isabel Quigly in The Spectator described Bergman’s film as ‘a series of dazzling stills. However. Vecko-Journalen no. p. 138-139. Arbetaren. p. p. p. pp. pp. lit by a silvery Scandinavian light’. is available – for the grown-ups please – at. 11 March. 4. 45. 109 (February 1958).. The Legion of Decency labelled the film ‘immoral’ (class C). O’Neill. Teatern 22. p. 83-84. 105-108. Motion Picture Herald. 3 (1956). 42. and again in same paper. 698. and vaudeville artist Povel Ramel made a parody of the dinner sequence at Mrs Armfeldt’s estate in his film Ratataa eller The Staffan Stolle Story (1956). Kael. p. suggesting frivolities that supposedly had been silenced by the censor. same date. 1 (1956). Jr. 15. 17 (1956). 16 March 1956. 16 March 1956. this was followed with repartees by Heyman and L. 26 March 1956. New York Times Film Reviews. 22 March 1956. Matthias. p.S. p. 12) was used in its entirety as an advertisement for U. no. 49-51. 1913-1968. sin and psychiatry. 3. pp. 1965). Pauline. p. Filmkritik no. Films and Filming 3. 4. Vi no. same paper. were inaccurate and sparse. New York Times. 14 March 1956. distributors. 5 (see also Eklann’s positive comment. Credits. 4 (1956). 273. film critic Stig Ahlgren called Sommarnattens leende ‘A Swedish pilsner film in a champagne bottle’ [en svensk pilsnerfilm på champagnebutelj]. 4. 4 (April 1959): 28-29. Critisch Film Bulletin 12. 3030. Cahiers du cinéma. Harmless pieces of dialogue. 4. 27 December 1955.. 3 (1956). Lasse Bergström. no. p. Contributing to the reaction was probably the fact that English subtitles in the British and American distribution copies of Smiles. 16 January 1956. filmmaker. 4-5. Kosmorama no. FIB no.. A review by J. November 1958. Smiles. p. 3 (1958).. member of the FIB jury. In an editorial in Vecko-Journalen no. 6 (1956). no. Filmforum. no. Cinéma 73. no. 2 January 1958. such as a giggling exchange in a bedroom scene between Anne and Petra. 10. was viewed as a risqué comedy. The film was awarded the Special Jury Prize for its ‘poetic humor’ at Cannes Film Festival in spring 1956.Synopses. 20 (October 1956). Comments were also made by Nils Beyer in MT. p. pp.S.. I Lost It at the Movies (Boston: Little. pp. Swedish comedian. in late 1957. p. 16. 40-42. New York Herald Tribune. p. 6. no. 1 (1956): 13. and by Thorsten Eklann in UNT 22 March 1956. Commentaries and Reception Record Arbetaren. p. Perspektiv no.J. Björklund in Scen och Salong no. responded on FIB’s behalf in Arbetaren. This in turn elicited responses from film critics Mauritz Edström and Gunnar Oldin. BLM no. 6. Sommarnattens leende led to Ingmar Bergman’s international breakthrough as a maker of sophisticated film comedy. p. Monthly Film Bulletin November 1956. p. 219 . and finally Heyman again. 4. p. Swedish style. 2 (November 1956): 26. Brown & co.. 7).. Swedish Reviews Stockholm/Göteborg press. Released in the U. in Washington Daily News (22 February 1958. Image et son. same paper. 2 (1954). 27.. C. 61 (July 1956). p. were left untranslated. a Swedish smorgasbord of sex. Foreign Reviews Arts 1956: 573.’. 24 December 1957. Sample quote: ‘Smiles of a Summer Night.

Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 29. Svensk Filmografi. by J. Longer Studies and Special Issues include the following Baron. 27 January 1958. 6. pp. Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). S.Chapter IV Filmography Positif. See also Annotations on Film (Melbourne). Gerald. pp. ‘Sourires d’une nuit d’été’. credits. Pauline. Anita. 1972. listing openings worldwide. no.. 10 pp. 7 (April 1962): 38. sequence and dialogue outlines. pp. ed. In Movie Comedy. no. An Italian fact sheet on Sorrisi di una notta. chose Sommarnattens leende/Sourires d’une nuit d’été to represent year 1955 in an annual selection of best films. Brown and E. 1973). Issue also includes an article by David Alman. 2 (Winter) 1970: 203-207. (argues that Bergman’s use of still photographs of Anne Egerman can provide a key to the film’s stylization). Term 1 (1964). p. John. For reaction in DN. De Filmkrant 207. 72-76). ‘Undermining the Gaze: Voyeurism in Ingmar Bergman’s Smiles of a Summer Night’. no. p. 110-142. 1950-1959. 16 May 1956. 1962 220 . 6. Cinema (Bucharest) 10. 1950-1959. Simon. Télé-Ciné no. 26-28. Fact Sheets L’Avant-scène du cinéma 454 (July 1996) is a special 102 pp. 281-283. 13-14. Centro S. Unpublished paper. no. Films and Filming 8. Cinéma 62. 62 (December 1956). 90-91. Image et son no. Simon. 99-112. plot synopsis. Livingston. ‘The Phaedra-Hippolytus Myth in Ingmar Bergman’s Smiles of a Summer Night’. Swedish cultural magazine) in March. no. review excerpts. 108-143. 66 (May 1962): 108. 1964). 313-316. 28 September 1956. 2 (February 1972): 11. Credits and brief critique of Glimlach van een zomernacht. Grabowski. Fedele della Spettacolo. no. See Cahiers du cinéma. 2 (Spring 1976): 169-180. p. pp. 6. Image et son 226 (March) 1969: 31-36. pp. C. Ingmar Bergman and the Rituals of Art. d’Yvoire. Variety.. Lefèvre. Mast. no. pp. pp. 18 (November 1956). 99 (March 1966). ed. pp. ‘Les jeux de l’humor’. Sight and Sound 26. pp. 24 July 1957. p. R. Paisley. see above commentary. a compilation of press clippings from original release of film in 1956 and from later retrospective showings in France (pp. 501-05. Time. 146-50. issue on Sommarnattens leende including French text of the film. Film Inst. no. Ohio State University Germanics Dept. Milan (10 January 1965). Includes perceptive discussion of Smiles of a Summer Night in his book Ingmar Bergman Directs. Le cinéma moderne (Lyon: Serdoc. (Ø 1218). Weiss (New York: Grossman. pp. Kael. Filmorientering (Norw. 233 (November) 1969: 179-91. Spectator. (Ø 1384). In his The Comic Mind (Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill. Special Jury Prize at Cannes Film Festival for ‘its poetic humor’. 418. 2 (Autumn 1956): 98. Spring 1992. January 2000. pp. 60 (June 1956). 1982. 501-05. Film a sogetto. 289 (10 pp) is a fact sheet in French. pp. 5. Jacob A Rawlings) no. Svensk Filmografi. and a bibliography. James. p. Scandinavian Studes 48. 1-6. Awards 1956 Sommarnattens leende received FIB’s film trophy (FIB = Folket i Bild. F. Brown. 1972).

but is too unhappy to stay very long. He gets the keys to the apartment where his mother and her lover usually meet. Bo goes to the opera. 1956 [Last couple out]. Kerstin wants to go to a party that her friend Anita is giving. and Kerstin and Bo decide to leave. 221 . Dr. Fårell. Contrary to his earlier decision. and Bo leaves deeply hurt. The last class is dismissed. with a young man torn between idealism and resentment. His father provides some paternal support. Fårell. Fårell. He drifts over to Anita’s party where he meets Kerstin. this film has an unmistakable adolescent Bergman quality to it. Returning home. He persuades her to return home with him. The party is getting rowdy. The script dates back to Bergman’s earliest writing efforts. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) Cast Bo Bo’s grandmother Kerstin Kerstin’s mother Anita Bo’s father Bo’s mother Dr. The two argue. Credits Production company Director Screenplay Photography Svensk Filmindustri Alf Sjöberg Ingmar Bergman. Depressed. also directed by Sjöberg. Bo takes his younger brother Sven with him to visit his grandmother. walks home with his girlfriend Kerstin. she misunderstands the situation and accuses Bo of seducing her daughter. But scared of her rootlessness. Fårell Teacher Distribution Running time Released Premiere Commentary As in Hets from 1944. Alf Sjöberg from a story by Bergman Martin Bodin Björn Bjelfvenstam Märta Arbin Bibi Andersson Aino Taube Harriet Andersson Olof Widgren Eva Dahlbeck Jarl Kulle Hugo Björne Svensk Filmindustri 98 minutes 8 November 1956 12 November 1956. he finds his mother waiting. He has no intention of staying but when Kerstin’s mother arrives suddenly. who lives in the same apartment complex as Dr.Synopses. Bo accompanies Kerstin home. SISTA PARET UT. Fontänen. He goes back to Anita. but in the evening she departs together with Dr. Commentaries and Reception Record 224. and Bo Dalin. But they cannot agree on how to spend the evening. Credits. Bo returns home. Arriving there. he goes back to school on Monday morning. and depicting a parental crisis where the wife has a lover. see (Ø 73 and 97) in Chapter II. B/W Director Screenplay Alf Sjöberg Ingmar Bergman & Alf Sjöberg from a story by Bergman Synopsis The film opens on a Saturday in May in a Stockholm senior high school. and Bo wants to attend the opera. an 18-year-old student. Bo eavesdrops on his parents who are having a violent argument and learns that his mother has a lover. a girl without a family.

Jöns appears amd marks Raval’s face with a knife. A voice reads from the Book of Revelations. against which can be seen a lonely bird. the Knight is tricked into revealing his chess game strategy. Next. Jof sees the Knight and his companions in a silhouetted Dance of Death across the horizon. his life ends for real as Death saws down the tree in which Skat has taken refuge for the night. strikes up a conversation with a church painter. and Skat are performing. The film opens with oratorio music and a shot of the grey sky. Death announces that the Knight will be checkmated at their next meeting. They are interrupted by a train of flagellants whose somber singing of Dies Irae ends the sequence. Moments later. Later that night. whose murals depict the dance of death and penitents flogging themselves. who remains silent until the very end of the film. the black-robed figure of Death appears. 1956 [The Seventh Seal]. Jof spots them and escapes with his family while the Knight overthrows the chess pieces to distract Death’s attention. Having enterered the tavern. While Block goes to pray. who prepares supper and reads to them from the Book of Revelations. The Knight is seen kneeling on the shore. A knock on the door announces Death. He also expresses his frustration in his search for a God that does not speak to him. Jof and Mia have sensed ‘the Angel of Death’ sweeping by their wagon. The Knight has one more encounter with Death at the chess board. Film ends as Jof. the others stand up to face ‘the stern master’. Mia. At dawn. In the meantime. They witness the burning of the witch. Jof is approached and tormented by Raval to the cheers of other tavern guests. and their child walk off towards a new day. Jof is a visionary. and their child as well as Plog and his wife. now including Jof. and Skat performs a mock suicide. In the meantime Skat has taken off with Lisa. They are later joined by Jöns and the silent woman he rescued earlier. Mia offers them a bowl of milk and wild strawberries. The Knight Antonius Block and his squire Jöns are returning home after ten years in the Crusades. In the early morning he sees the Virgin Mary walking in a rose garden. who has been befriended by the Knight on a sunny hillside. Raval. The Knight and the Squire arrive at a church. putting the title of the film in its biblical context. joins the Knight and the Squire for the rest of the journey. encounter Raval who is dying from the plague. Mia. his wife Mia. Antonius Block and his companions arrive at the Knight’s castle and are greeted by his wife. and their companion Skat are all asleep. now turned thief. Suddenly. Jof escapes and returns to Mia. the Knight and Jöns come to a farm where Jöns rescues a young woman from a former priest. Lisa returns to Plog. The next stop is outside a tavern where Jof. a non-believer. a young girl is tied to the stocks. Unaware that Death has taken the confessor’s place. 222 . the Knight and his companions. Plog. 1955 Synopsis The setting of Det sjunde inseglet is 14th-century Sweden. While the Knight prays. whom the Knight asks for objective proof of the devil’s existence. Outside the church. a country ravaged by the Black Plague. Jöns.Chapter IV Filmography 225. The Knight and the Squire ride past a covered wagon in which Jof the juggler. After a palaver. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman from his play Trämålning [Wood Painting]. The Knight vows to remember the moment. The Squire is asleep. She is thought to be a witch and will later be burned at the stake. The woman. their small son Mikael. Mia. He has come to claim the Knight who asks for a respite by challenging Death to a game of chess. wife of a smith. Later. then leaves to resume his game of chess with Death. DET SJUNDE INSEGLET. The Knight gives her a sedative to soothe her fear and pain.

A. Bengt Gillberg. the smith Plog’s wife. Lundh. Lennart Tollén. the accused witch Karin. Lars Granberg. Lisa Tyan. Gunlög Hagberg. the Squire Death Jof Mia Jonas Skat Plog. Commentaries and Reception Record Credits Production company Production manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props (Studio manager) Sound Special sound effects Music Orchestration Choreography Costumes Make-up Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Ingmar Bergman Lennart Olsson Ingmar Bergman from his play Trämålning [Wood Painting]. Ragnar Sörman. Helge Sjökvist.Synopses. Lundgren Carl-Henry Cagarp Aaby Wedin Evald Andersson Erik Nordgren Sixten Ehrling Else Fisher Manne Lindholm Nils Nittel (Carl M. 1955 Gunnar Fischer P. the Crusader Jöns. Gun Hammargren. Credits. Sten Ardenstam.) Lennart Wallén Katarina (Katherina) Faragó Max von Sydow Gunnar Björnstrand Bengt Ekerot Nils Poppe Bibi Andersson Erik Strandmark Åke Fridell Inga Gill Maud Hansson Inga Landgré Gunnel Lindblom Bertil Anderberg Anders Ek Gunnar Olsson Lars Lind Benkt-Åke Benktsson Gudrun Brost Tor Borong Harry Asklund Josef Norman Ulf Johanson. Jof and Mia’s son Flagellants Pregnant young woman 223 . Caya Wickström Mona Malm Cast Antonius Block. Lennart Lilja. Monica Lidman. Knight’s wife Mute girl Raval Doomsday monk Church painter Monk outside church Merchant in tavern Tavern hostess Peasant in tavern Merchant in tavern Old man at tavern Soldiers involved in witch burning Cripple Mikael. Gordon Löwenadler Karl Widh Tommy Karlsson Siv Aleros. Inc. Georg Skarstedt. Uno Larsson.

3 February 1957. L’Avant scène du cinéma no. Bergman is interviewed about the film. at Hovs hallar in southwestern Sweden. The script to Det sjunde inseglet was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. 7) by actor Keve Hjelm and author Bengt Anderberg. no. p. Stockholm. 19 February. A 15-minute American film parody of The Seventh Seal (and Wild Strawberries) entitled Da Duwe [The dove] was made in 1972 by Sidney Davis. Sörenson’s biography Loppcirkus. on which Det sjunde inseglet was to be based. and Anthony Lover (CoeDavis Ltd. In radio program ‘Tidsspegeln’. beginning 2 July 1956 and completed 24 August 1956. 95 minutes 12 December 1956 16 February 1957. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. Bergman’s writing style was also critiqued by Harry Schein.S. 3) charged Bergman with plagiarizing Strindberg’s 224 . Gustafsberg. 26 July 1954. Gösta Prüzelius. George Coe. Det sjunde inseglet elicited a media debate about Ingmar Bergman’s originality as an artist. 14-18. Skevik. to Hanserik Hjertén’s advice in Arbetaren. BLM 26. 4. 51 (1956): 20-21. and talks about it in Bergman om Bergman/Bergman on Bergman (1971. Viby. 4. My Life in Film (1990). Productions. contains the manuscript in French. pp. 4 (April 1958): 350-353. Paris. Fritjof Tall Filmed on location at Östanå. 4) and responses in GHT (1 March 1957. Max von Sydow discusses his role as the Knight in E. p. John Landquist (AB. and Skytteholm outside of Stockholm. March 1992.S. 233-38. 1961. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 13 October 1958. compares the play and the film. illustrated with photographs from the film. pp. that Ingmar Bergman should stop filming for a while. Max von Sydow berättar. and at Råsunda Film Studios. NYC Commentary Original film title was Riddaren och döden [The Knight and Death]. pp. The screenplay has never been published in Swedish but is included in Four Screenplays by Ingmar Bergman (Ø 110). 425) and on the radio (Ø 283). p. nos. An article in Expr. A reportage from the shooting of the film appeared in ST. All major reviews recognized the film as an ambitious undertaking. p. Bergman introduced the script with a short ‘message’ to the magazine’s readers. 53. 121-22/114-15). 25 February 1957. Expr. Pyramid Distributors). Inc. On the whole. p. (2 March 1957. but reaction ranged from Robin Hood’s panegyrics in ST. 17 February 1957. Bergman the image maker was praised. Bergman’s first mention of a project to make a film set in the Middle Ages is in an interview in AB. 5 July 1956. See Ivar Harrie. p. 15. An excerpt from the script appeared in FIB no. On this occasion he also refers to his one-act play Trämålning. and Bergman the scriptwriter lambasted. produced by Erik Goland and transmitted 26 February 1957. p.. 410. It has also been produced on stage (see Ø 424. Trämålning (Wood Painting) has been published both in Swedish and English (see Ø 90). p. 90-94. 13. see list of foreign translations in Chapter II (Ø 98). opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. Reception Det sjunde inseglet opened in Stockholm with pomp and circumstance. Later Bergman writes about the shooting in Bilder/ Images. Humorous references to the film appear in Woody Allen’s Love and Death (1980). 8. Distribution U..Chapter IV Filmography Dark-haired woman Old man watching procession Other men in crowd scenes Catherine Berg Nils Whiten Tor Isedal.

Synopses. 70-74. and by Paul Patera in Arbetaren. 21. 20) declared that he found Bergman’s metaphysical worries monotonous. ‘Dödsdans och pest stötande’ [Dance of death and plague are offensive]. February–March 1961. 9 (November 1958). Daily Telegraph (London). but now Gycklarnas afton. pp. Taxi Driver. 8 March 1958. no. 23-29 April 1957. Religious and philosophical implications of Det sjunde inseglet aroused little interest in Sweden. Bergman topped the list. Svantesson in Svensk Kyrkotidning. 9 (1957). planned to air on Easter Sunday 1963. 4). Film Ideal. pp. pp. p. head of TV Drama Department at SR/TV and was moved to a later date (22 April 1963). pp. Bergman declined to comment. The Seventh Seal established Bergman as an international filmmaker and auteur of rank. Stockholm). and in same journal’s February 1963 issue (pp. A television production of Trämålning. 40-41. 28. p. 515-517. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. Vecko-Journalen no. 68 (1964). 225 . attacked the film for conveying ‘the emptiness ecstasy of the Fifties’ [femtiotalets tomhetsextas]. 3 (Spring 1959). Barry Lyndon). Best among his works was Det sjunde inseglet as number 26 (after such films as Singing in the Rain. who became one of Bergman’s most ardent admirers (see Ø 982. Influential reviewer Carl Björkman (DN. 72 (July 1957) and no. typescript in SR Archives. no.-O. pp. 1999) asked Swedish film critics to list the best feature films of the century. Bianco e nero. Teatern no. a poll in Swedish magazine Filmrutan (no. Cahiers du cinéma no. FIB no. p. In 1999. was stopped by Henrik Dyfverman. 42 (19 November 1958). pp. Films in Review 9. pp. Films and Filming 5. 11 (1957). The film was referred to as ‘Bergman’s Faust’ by Eric Rohmer (Arts. no. 115-16. Landquist aired his views again on Swedish radio in a discussion with filmmaker Vilgot Sjöman (26 February 1957. Film Quarterly. 17 February 1957. 121-127. 4-5. pp. In the UK Films and Filming (April 1958. 19 March. 143 (January-February 1960). 18-19) chose The Seventh Seal as ‘the film of the month’. The Wild Bunch. 26. p. Filmfacts no. pp. no. 2 (1957). 2 (1962). 7 (April 1958). 1 (1957). 23 April 1958. universal theme. A. Vi no. pp. p. pp. Commentaries and Reception Record Folkungasagan/The Saga of the Folkungs. 22-23. no. Several monographs and longer articles have been published on the film (see below). 45-46. See also comment by Marianne Höök in SvD. 12. Cinéma 58 no. The film was called ‘the first truly existential film in the history of the cinema’ by Andrew Sarris in Film Culture. no. Filmkritik no. pp. p. None of Ingmar Bergman’s films scored any top place. Amadeus. Cinema Nuovo. 4. 163-164. Franzén in Ghöteborgske spionen. p. 13-14. 42-44. and original imagery. 17 February 1957. 5. Credits. One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest. a nihilistic state of angina temporis. no. 37-38) Peter Cowie termed The Seventh Seal one of ‘the great films of the century’. 19 (April) 1959: 51-61. 4. 194-195. 9. p. 28 February 1957. Foreign Reviews Arts. 43-46. pp. listing as its special qualities: historical authenticity. 83 (May 1958). no. 21 (1957). French Reception). pp. and Persona got more votes than Det sjunde inseglet. 11. Smultronstället. However. See AB. in yet another poll confined to listing the ten best Swedish filmmakers and films of the century. The Strindberg-Bergman connection was also discussed by L. 20 March 1963.

Nordic Theatre Studies. 1972. no. 8 March 1957. ‘Iconography in The Seventh Seal’. Sight and Sound 28. Le septième sceau. pp. Ingmar Bergman y El septimo sello. 1 (Fall) 1994: 38-39. Diss.P. Santa Barbara. Darius. Ralph E.p. Robert. Osterman. Bragg. Positif. Videocassette issued by Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. New Statesman. 95-101. pp. pp. 137-143. 112 (May 1958). 127-132. no. reprinted in Focus on The Seventh Seal (Ø 1220). 72 pp.. p. VHS. same date. La stampa (Turin). Süddeutsche Zeitung (Munich). reprinted in part in Journal of Social Issues 20. Bernt. 8 March 1958. ‘Le septieme sceau: une analyse’. 1992). Cebollado. May 1958. 408. 1989. 20311). ‘The Problem of Evil in Ingmar Bergman’s The Seventh Seal’. Ingmar Bergman. Sonnenschein.Chapter IV Filmography Image et son no. Slayton. no. Literature/Film Quarterly 13. Liggera. 1991. no. 3088-3089. SDS. Melvyn. no. 4 (Spring 1958). no. p. pp. 220 pp. 239-243. 16 April 1962. no. ‘Art as Inspiration’. (Analyzes film and play/script as allegory for stage and screen). pp. Microfilm International 1980. 7331294. Dutton. 4 Approach to The Seventh Seal as a musical piece of four symphonic movements and a coda. Richard. n. pp. 18 October 1958. ‘Film är inte litteratur’ [Film is not literature]. 2. Joseph and Lanayre. and Skrien. pp. pp. Arne. Sight and Sound 7. Positif. West Virginia Philological Papers 27. 226 . 1972. John Drew. 12-13. by Julius Bell.. MA thesis: Pacific Lutheran University. sec. 10 October 1968. 14 October. University of California. Communion. 1960). ‘The Ideal Fused in the Fact: Bergman and The Seventh Seal’. 199-200. West Virginia University Philological Papers 35. 1998: 34-45. Saturday Review. and Significance in The Seventh Seal’. Edmond. ‘De stora frågornas sorti och Antonious Block’ [Exit the big questions and AB]. New York Times. pp. ‘Going Roundabout: Similar Images of Pilgrimage in Ibsen’s Peer Gynt and Bergman’s The Seventh Seal’. Monograph on the film. no. 6 (June) 1997: 69. p. 303.. 3/1989: 177-86. 104 p. 16. (Iranian filmmaker writes about the impact of Bergman’s film on his own conception of cinema as art). 5. Norman. (August–September) 1994: 79. ‘Individualism. in The Moving Image (New York: E. Pascual. Vol 11. 25-26. Gessner. ‘Ingmar Bergman’s The Seventh Seal’. 127 p. New York. 1913-1968. p. and in Renaissance of the Film. pp. BFI Film Classics. 1970. (Madrid: ABC del Cine. Jean. 58. 44:1. 59-60. ‘The Shock of Revelation’. Eva Sundler. Grandgeorge. 2 (1985). New York Times Film Reviews. Univ. (Roos). (Paris: Nathan. Pressler. Douchet. 1 (January 1964): 71-96. Hudson Review 12. In Ingmar Bergman and the Arts. p. no. Kosmorama no. p. Longer Studies and Special Issues Anderson. Malmnäs. ed. 1994: 75-77. 21-27. 48 (February 1960). (Traces Dance of Death motif in The Seventh Seal to its medieval representations in mural art and engraving).p. Monthly Film Bulletin. ‘The Obligatory Scene’. The Seventh Seal. New York Herald Tribune. Finsk Tidskrift. (Analysis of film using Wittgenstein’s philosophy). Merjui. Monograph on the film. 1993. 1981. Holland. 1957. Pressler. n. Reviews: Film Quarterly. 54 typed pp. 2 (Summer 1959): 266-270. Ericsson.

Autumn 1961. by Malan Marnersdottir and Jens Cramer. Cinéma 57 no. Special Issues and Study Guides on The Seventh Seal L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma. pp. pp. no. Burvenich. no.J. 207-216. Uppsala. Birgitta. no. pp. listing openings worldwide. plot synopsis. pp. 18 (1956): 1-3. pp. Ø 997. 1978. ‘Det sjunde inseglet: Filmen som ångestens och nådens metafor [The Seventh Seal: Film as metaphor of angst and grace]. —. 226 (March) 1969: 36-39. Films and Filming 9. 25-26 (1957). Annales Societatis Scientiarum Færoensis XXV. 493-99. Many religious discussions of Bergman’s work in the cinema include analyses of The Seventh Seal. Etudes cinématographiques. 1950-1959. 1-94. Image et son no. T. no. 13 pp. Folkuniversitets Filmbyrå. Svensk filmografi. J. Centro Fedelle Spettacolo. no. Special issue on Le septième sceau. ed. no. 11 & 15 pp respectively. 1969. ii–vii. no. characters. Télé-Ciné. p. 331bis (numéro hors series).) brought out a video cassette of The Seventh Seal in its Great Directors Series. Steene. 10-11. Film Heritage 8. Sight and Sound 26. no. Birgitta.. 227 . 24-25. ‘Från subjektiv vision till tidsdokument och arketyp: Ingmar Bergmans Det sjunde inseglet i mentalitetshistorisk belysning’ [From Subjective Vision to Time Document and Archetype: Bergman’s The Seventh Seal in the Light of Mentality History’. credits. 4 (January 1963): 25-29. ‘The Milk and Strawberry Sequence in The Seventh Seal’. 18 (May 1957). Koskinen. fiche 333. review excerpts. and an analysis of its dramatic structure and religious implications. pp. Image et son. Study guide (in Swedish) with teacher and student manuals. Fact sheet analysis of sequences dealing with natural sounds/music. With credits. 4 (Spring 1957): 173. n. and a bibliography. and no. Image et son. 5 pp. pp. Cine cubano 4. 107 (November 1966). 17 (1956): 4-6. 229-34. An Italian fact sheet on Il settimo sigillo. 6. 1995.Synopses. March 1992 are special issues on Le septième sceau. 1-13. —. pp. Film a sogetto. Positif no. excerpted dialogue. 410 (March 1992). ed. 119 (February 1959). and 22 October 1958. pp. Film Classics (Rockleigh. Focus on the Seventh Seal. Commentaries and Reception Record Steene. Media C 50. ( Ø 1220). 1964). Extensive source book on the film in English. 1992. 22. ‘Det sjunde inseglet: en filmhandledning’. 55-60. See special group item. p. 146-147. In Nordisk litteratur och mentalitet. including biographical note. pp. Cinema (London: Cassel. Filmorientering (NFI). 592-595. Zoom 1/1998. Torshavn: 2000. N. no. Credits. Brief study guide (in Swedish) for high school students. 29 May 1957. A special issue on the film. Variety. pp. ‘Het zevende zegel’.d. 77 (August-September) 1958. November 1977 and L’Avant scène du cinéma. 22 (1964). See also Filmnyheter 11. Special section on The Seventh Seal. 37-9. filmography and bibliography. Wiseman. 1972. 30-33. Milan (25 March 1958). 10-18. no. pp. synopsis of script. Maaret. 4 (Summer 1973). Contains study material and excerpts from French reviews of the film. Paired with Night is My Future (Musik i mörker). Lumière du cinéma. no.

still an old man. Journal of Aesthetic Education 9. Bergman’s title carries this meaning for Isak Borg. no. Her name is also Sara. He sees his sweatheart Sara picking wild strawberries while being courted by Isak’s brother. witnesses a breakfast gathering from his youth. Crowther. 2 (1975): 62-76 (script excerpt and study questions). places where they grow are often kept a secret in the family. pp. Awards 1957 Cannes Film Festival. Driving to Lund with Marianne. A coffin slides off. Röster i Radio-TV no.P. 13 (1981). 589-592. Borg encounters a hearse. (Ø 788). driven by an engineer Alman and his wife Berit. Anders and Victor. Since these berries are rare in Sweden. Törnqvist. 1957 [Wild Strawberries]. his daughter-in-law.Chapter IV Filmography B. pp. They praise him for the work he did. (Ø 1314). pp. Filmdiktaren Ingmar Bergman. especially for Marianne. The visit is a chilling experience. A ‘smultronställe’ is often a place associated with a sense of roots and self-identity. Literal translation would point to a spot where smultron or wild strawberries grow. Borg stops at a big country house where he and his large family used to spend their summers when he was a child. see film title in varia. pp.C. Synopsis Set in present-day Sweden. pp. All three join Isak and Marianne in the drive south. For more prizes. the film’s main character. Stopping for gas. and she is the look-alike of Isak’s sweetheart. 1967). The Great Films: Fifty Golden Years of Motion Pictures (New York: G. 1995. Smultronstället depicts one day in the life of a medical professor in his seventies (Isak Borg). who does not want to have children. who believes she sees the same emotional atrophy in old Mrs. a favorite or special retreat. The first of these occurs early. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman The Swedish title is difficult to convey in English. 88-89. after Borg has introduced himself as an old pedantic widower. Isak meets the Åkerman couple whom he knows from the time he was a country doctor in the area. Borg as in her own husband Evald. Stubbs. E. At an outdoor luncheon Isak recites a poem by 19th-century Swedish poet and bishop Johan Wallin. Bergman’s beloved Fårö could be his ‘smultronställe’ in life. Putnam’s Sons. 22-42. Jury’s Special Prize (shared with Andrzej Wajda’s Kanal). Back on the road Isak’s car narrowly escapes colliding with a VW. segment C. Afterwards Borg and Marianne leave to visit his old mother who is 95. 228 . 226. A young girl wakes him up. and Isak wonders to himself if he should not have stayed there. who is about to receive a jubilee degree at the University of Lund for his long service to medical science. In a reverie. pp. A set of daydream reminiscences and nightmare sequences interrupt the account. But the word smultronstället also carries symbolic meaning and refers to a person’s ‘jewel of place’. 218-222. Ingmar Bergman. a recitation Marianne helps him to finish. an actress. 82-95. 112-119. Bergman on Bergman. Anders and Victor have an argument about God. J. SMULTRONSTÄLLET. Sigfrid. 1950-1959. its lid opens and a corpse bearing his likeness tries to pull him in. Sara is hitchhiking with two boyfriends. Isak. Finding himself wandering alone in a surreal landscape. Svensk filmografi. Robin Wood. The two join the group for a short while but carry on an argument until Marianne asks them to leave the car. 1969.

Alman brings him to witness how his wife. Isak is serenaded by Sara and her friends before they continue to Italy. who has flown there. The film ends as Isak Borg falls asleep. Inc. and Isak falls asleep.A. At night. He fails the test and is found ‘guilty of guilt’. As he is about to fall asleep. Credits Production Company Production manager Location manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Music Arrangement Music Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Sven Sjönell Ingmar Bergman Gösta Ekman Ingmar Bergman Gunnar Fischer Gittan Gustafsson K. Isak’s housekeeper. is seduced by her lover. with Sara and her boyfriends presenting a bouquet of wild flowers to Isak. ‘Fugue in Ess Minor’ ‘ Royal Södermanland Regiment March’ (Carl-Axel Lundwall) ‘Marcia Carolus Rex’ (W. Awake again. Isak’s housekeeper Sten Alman 229 . his sweetheart of long ago. They wave at him. Bergman Aaby Wedin Eric Nordgren Johann Sebastian Bach. Lund. takes him by the hand and leads him to a lake where he sees his parents on an outing in an idyllic countryside. Isak finds himself alone with Marianne in the car. Commentaries and Reception Record Marianne has taken over the driving. Isak and his travel companions are greeted by Agda. This sequence is followed by a return to the present. Topelius/Herman Palm) Millie Ström Nils Nittel. Evald and Marianne are reconciled. Credits. In a flashback we witness her discussion with Evald on this matter. Alman. dead since many years. But Isak’s thoughts wander. now parked by the roadside. Sven Rudestedt Oscar Rosander Katherina Faragó Victor Sjöström Bibi Andersson Ingrid Thulin Gunnar Björnstrand Folke Sundquist Björn Bjelfvenstam Naima Wifstrand Jullan Kindahl Gunnar Sjöberg Costumes Make-up Mixing Editor Continuity Cast Isak Borg Sara Marianne Evald Borg Anders Viktor Isak’s mother Agda. The academic ceremony at which Isak Borg becomes a jubilee doctor is stately and solemn. Harteveld) ‘Parademarsch der 18:er Husaren’ (Alwin Müller) ‘Under rönn och syren’ (Z. he has a comforting vision: young Sara. In a nightmare he is examined by Mr. Carl M.Synopses. as was also the original plan for Isak. he decides to write down the strange events of the day. Arriving in Lund. She tells him of her marital problems: she is pregnant and does not want to abort the child.

his wife Karin.S. 16. at the university town of Lund. available in SFI library. and Bengt Forslund in Filmrutan 25. pp. his wife Aunt Olga in breakfast sequence Uncle Aron Sigfrid Sigbritt Charlotta Angelica Anna Kristina and Birgitta. 159-160 (Eng. and also appeared as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. In an article in Sight and Sound (Spring 1960). Stockholm. pp. Ingrid Thulin in Cinéma 60. ed. opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. Monica Ehrling Per Skogsberg Göran Lundquist Vendela Rudbäck Professor Helge Wulff Ulf Johanson Gunnar Olsson [cut] Josef Norman [cut] Filmed on location at Vida Vättern and the Gyllene Uttern Inn (at Lake Vättern). Distribution U. p. 1958. Filmnyheter 12. The screenplay was serialized in Swedish in FIB 25. For an assessment of the Sjöström-Bergman relation.S. pp. pp.) In Bilder he claims the story was made up. 90 minutes 6 December 1957 26 December 1957. Bergman honors Sjöström. ST. English.. At the release of the film. no. 45 (April 1960). 1 August. Its first publication as a script was in Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman (see Ø 110). no. 131-133 (Ø 788) and Bilder (Ø 198). p. a presentation of Bergman. (See Chapter I. 12. 131-33) he relates the genesis of Smultronstället to an early morning visit to his grandmother’s living quarters in Uppsala many years after she died. indoor shooting at Råsunda Film Studios. and Gunnar Fischer. Inc. University of Lund Isak’s father Bishop Jakob Hovelius Professor Carl-Adam Tiger Gunnel Broström Gertrud Fridh Åke Fridell Max von Sydow Anne-Marie Wiman Sif Ruud Yngve Nordwall Per Sjöstrand Gio Petré Gunnel Lindblom Maud Hansson Eva Norée Lena Bergman. 144-45/ Bergman on Bergman. 14. 38-39. and a plot synopsis. 16 July. no. KvP. see DN 5 July 1957. 10-11. beginning 2 July 1957 and completed 27 August 1957. the twins Hagbart Benjamin Elisabet. It has never been published in book form in Swedish. 3 (Autumn) 1982: 2-7. pp. 11-24. 9. 16-20/1962. 7 through no. SvD. Isak’s mother’s nurse Chancellor. Svensk Filmindustri (SF) published a program in Swedish. 18-20 (1957): 16-19. Isak’s wife Her lover Henrik Åkerman. He also comments on his 230 . no. In Bergman om Bergman. It contains a Bergman interview with himself titled ‘Dialog’. pp. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 22 June 1959.Chapter IV Filmography Berit. For articles during the shooting of the film. see Bergman om Bergman. p. gas station owner Eva. Sjöström. nos. 14 pp. Beekman Theater NYC Commentary In Bilder/Images (1990). and German. Bergman outlines the personal background of Smultronstället. pp. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. 16 August. and at Dalarö and Ägnö in Stockholm. illustrated with photographs from the film.

31 (November) 1959): 59-60. 25 July 1959. p. p. 331-332 (1984). no. 3 (Winter 1958/59): 35. no. no. acting.Synopses. with a discussion that includes his role as Isak Borg. and Films and Filming 5. Village Voice. 36. pp. 9 July. 7 (1961). 1958: 150. 1975) (a basic close reading of the film). 3 (December) 1958: 24. Reception Smultronstället received very fine reviews in Sweden. no. 231 . Critics praised the script. 1981). Cinéma 58. p. Commentaries and Reception Record talent in Gösta Werner’s film Victor Sjöström (SFI. Monographs Diane Borden and L. New York Herald Tribune. pp. December 1958. L’Avant-scène du cinéma. Ord och Bild. 3133. and photography. Film News 31 (February-March 1974): 23. beyond doubt. 3. Earliest foreign reception of film focussed on Victor Sjöström’s performance. n. 14-15. no. 4 (1958). and NYT. Télé-Ciné no. p. 1975. p. See Films in Review 10. same date. Cahiers du Cinéma. 1913-1968. Smultronstället has elicited a great many longer articles and has been regarded. and saw the film as the meeting of two generations in Swedish filmmaking. Credits. pp. 2 (1958). See for instance New Yorker. (the most concise monograph study of the film). 1993 (Ø 927) and a presentation in Röster i Radio-TV. Sight and Sound 28. 4 (April 1959): 231-232. 62 ff. 151-152. At a revival of the film in 1981. 50. Filmkritik no. 78 pp. Wild Strawberries. In retrospect. 31. Monthly Film Bulletin. p. 28 (12 August 1959): 157-159. 82 (April-May) 1959: 9. 98 pp. 1958. 1958. Letter. New York Times Film Reviews. no. 95 (May 1959). FIB no. 23 June 1959. Teatern. Filmkritik Jahrbuch 3 (1962): 30-32. 44. no. A number of American reviews expressed puzzlement at the story and found the film mystifying. 27 (May) 1958: 79-83. 23 June 1959. Filmfacts 2. pp. Foreign Reviews Arts. no. ‘Ny film’. 22. pp. pp. 1 July 1959. 3 (1958). 50. no. 24-25) and again in 1988 (16 July 1988.. 1981. Vecko-Journalen no. Reporter. 50. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. Beklädnadsfolket no. London: BFI. 355-359. 37-38. Positif no. Pierre and Kersti French. See also comments by assistant director Gösta Ekman in Interviews. Vi. 16-17) carried interviews with actors Bibi Andersson and Gunnar Björnstrand reminiscing about the shooting of Smultronstället.p. pp. 22 April 1959. New York Times. 3 (December 1958): 24. Wild Strawberries: A Critical Commentary (New York: Syllabus Press.. as one of Bergman’s major films. 37:1. 6. 11. Expr. 37:1. (7 December 1981. p. no. The analyses have concerned both the narrative structure and the psychological content of the film. 15. 27 December 1957. p. no. is a special Sjöström issue. p. 2. 1. no. p. Films and Filming 5.

Harvey. F. Denitto. Birgitta. cf. 18 August 1990. ed. pp. Carl-Johan. Holland. pp. no. 179-194. Törnqvist discusses the same subject in his book Between Stage and Screen. Archer. 1998. Isak Borg in Ingmar Bergman’s Wild Strawberries’. pp. 1 (February) 1965: 58-76.39. no. Norman. Törnqvist. pp. in The Film Idea (New York: Harcourt. Solomon. Blake. (on Isak Borg’s psychological quest. 1. ‘Long day’s journey into night: Bergman’s TV version of Oväder compared to Smultronstället’. 1980: 197203. Béranger. no. 186195. no. I. no. Greenberg. Smultronstället och Dödens ekipage (Stockholm: Carlsson. 1985: 6-8. Lectures given at the 11th International Strindberg Conference (Copenhagen: Munksgaard/Rosinante. (On Smultronstället as a road movie. 95 (May 1959). pp. Scheynius. no. (Focus on dream sequences). half won: Thoughts about the prologue in Wild Strawberries]. 44-47. Jovanovich. Hudson Review 12. ‘The Filmic Dream and Point of View’. by Saul Brody and Harold Schechter. 40-47. 1958. ‘Väl börjat. Asta. ‘Åldrad och återfödd’ [Old and reborn]. Cinéma 58. 79-83 (on Smultronstället and the journey motif). 34 (Winter 196061): 44-46. In Kela Kvam. no. ‘Ingmar Bergmans Smultronstället och Homo Viator motivet’ [Bergman’s Wild Strawberries and the Homo viator motif]. Bolin. pp 128136. 4-14. 63 (1988). 2 (1978): 33-61. Richard A. Sight and Sound 30. 232 . DN. ‘Il visible e il non visible’. no. cf. 1998). Chaplin 234. —. American Imago 27. (A close psychoanalytical reading of Wild Strawberries). pp. Vol. Tulloch. Rhodin. ‘Bakvänd predikan’ [Sermon in reverse]. 1998: 15-33.Chapter IV Filmography Margareta Wirmark. Erikson Erik H. Ingmar Bergman och det självbiografiska vittnet’ [Locations of memory. 4. ‘The Rags of Time’. Dennis. ‘The Rhetoric of Wild Strawberries’. Eugene. pp. Eleanor. Béranger and Andersson above). ‘A Life History. Koskinen. 15. Bergman and the autobiographical witness]. Hoveyda. in Cahiers du cinéma. ‘I det undermedvetnas labyrint’. ‘Salvation without God’. ‘Rack of Life’. Filmcritica (June-July) 1986: 272-282. hälften vunnet: Tankar kring prologen i Smultronstället’ [Well begun. Aura IV. Filmhäftet no. ed. 194-200. 1 (Fall 1959). J. no. p. Steene. 1994). Jean. 4. New York: Norton. no. 1991. 4 (Winter 1959/60): 570-577 (on Wild Strawberries and parenthood). 45-70. R. L. ‘En odyssé i minnets landskap’ [An odyssey in the landscape of memory]. 2. 3. ‘Archetypal Patterns in Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman’. pp. Film Quarterly 13. pp. In CUNY English Forum. Maaret. Mats. 1986.. 239-292. McCann. Australian Journal of Screen Theory. 1985. Vår lösen. [In the labyrinth of the subconcious]. pp. Strindberg’s Post-Inferno Plays. no. (discussion of the dialogue and visual context of Borg’s and Mariannne’s first conversation in the car). Filmrutan XXVIII. ‘Ingmar Bergman’s Wild Strawberries: A Jungian Analysis’. With a response by Seldon Bach. 26. ‘A Brace of Bergman’s’. ‘Minnets spelplatser. Encounter 28. In Vital Involvement in Old Age by Erik Erikson et al. p. 344-347. (notes the Proustian flashback structure of the film). no. SJ. Egil. 27 (May 1958). Lars Gustaf. no. Brace. Articles Albano. ‘Images of Dying’. Eberwein. (charging Bergman with using a set of clichéd oxymora in Wild Strawberries). pp. Aura IV. 4. 1972). no. Literature/Film Quarterly 8. Malmberg. 4 (Autumn 1967): 313-26 (discusses Lutheran concept of salvation in Wild Strawberries). 1 (Spring) 1970: 66-82. Archer above). S. 1995. Reprinted in Kaminsky (Ø 1266). B2. Reprinted from Dædalus 105:2 (Spring) 1976: 1-28 see item Ø 1281. Andersson. pp 69-71. Scandinavian Studies 37.

Stina Andersson is a 25-year-old wife of a workman. 3 (Fall 1992): 86. plot synopsis. 226 (March) 1969: 42-45. 1973). 654-657. and a bibliography. credits. Gado.. pp. 96-115. C. dignity] in her 1954 book Dödens faster [The aunt of death]. 18-20 (1957): 1-3. Donohoe (Ø 1321). 85 (October 1959). 233 . 9 (June 1958): 31-32. Tyler. F. no. 151 (MayJune 1960). 314 bis. Filmdiktaren Ingmar Bergman. no. See list in Varia. and Hjördis Pettersson is a 19-year-old pregnant unmarried girl who wants to have an abortion. Svensk filmografi. 1982. Image et son. 102-120. Special Issues and Fact Sheets L’Avant-scène du cinéma no. D. 169-178 (excerpted dialogue and commentary) and no. pp. The Passion of Ingmar Bergman. pp. 210-224. Film a sogetto. Télé-Ciné published a fiche on Les fraises sauvages: no. no. Murray includes Wild Strawberries in his selection of Ten Film Classics (New York: Frederick Ungar. no. 211-227. 50 pp. 156-166. 232-235. Awards Smultronstället remains to date Ingmar Bergman’s most decorated film. 43-61. It was nominated for an Oscar in category ‘Best Story or Screenplay written directly for the screen’. 137 (Spring) 1978: 58-59. pp. pp. listing openings worldwide. 1950-1959. James Limbacher brought out a video recording based on reviews of Wild Strawberries. pp. 1962). is a fiche on Les fraises sauvages. pp. no. E. Milan (10 July 1962). 1958 [Brink of Life/Close to life]. A World of Film (Ø 1011). (Amsterdam: Kastalia. Nära livet takes place in the maternity ward of a modern Swedish hospital. See also Peter Cowie. E. pp. Ingmar Bergman. Cinema Nuovo. (Prize went to Pillow Talk). 14 pp. XX. 1 (January) 1970: 37-40 (about music in the film). Cairo Cineclub Bulletin. Cecilia Ellius is a professional woman who suffers a miscarriage in the third month of her pregnancy. Image et son. J. See also Filmnyheter 12. Credits. in his The Screenplay as Literature (London: The Tantivy Press. Kauffmann. no.Synopses.p. no. 100 (March 1966). 1986.. NÄRA LIVET. 227. 1993. Filmorientering (NFI) no. Films and Filming 4. 1979. is an Italian fact sheet on Smultronstället. 13. no. pp. A Critical Biography. Centro Fedelle dello Spettacolo. whose baby is overdue. Lundell and Mulac (Ø 1374). based on her short story ‘Det vänliga. Filmrutan. F. n. P. det värdiga’ [Kindness. 270-273. pp. Kastalia (Dutch). Törnqvist. 356 (12 pp). B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman and Ulla Isaksson. ‘Smultronstället’. Kosmorama 24. review excerpts. 23 March 1967. see Journal of Popular Film and Television. 331-332 is a special issue on Smultronstället. Commentaries and Reception Record Winston. 144 (March–April 1960). 2001). Classics of the Foreign Film (New York: Citadel Press. Presentation in connection with film festival: Schrijvers Kiezen Film. where three women share the same room.

Larsson Dr. When the doctors make their round. After a long wait Stina is ready to give birth. Thylenius Night nurse Hjördis’s friend Maud. She is left alone in the examination room. assistant nurse A nurse A doctor Woman with newborn baby 234 . and no longer cowers in self-accusation before her husband. Lars Engström Ingrid Thulin Eva Dahlbeck Bibi Andersson Erland Josephson Inga Landgré Max von Sydow Barbro Hiort af Ornäs Gunnar Sjöberg Anne-Marie Gyllenspetz Sissi Kaiser Margaretha Krook Lars Lind Gun Jönsson Monica Ekberg Maud Elfsiö Kristina Adolphson Gunnar Nielsen Inga Gill Cast Cecilia Ellius Stina Andersson Hjördis Pettersson Anders. where she miscarries. Hjördis is persuaded to call her mother who invites her home to have the child. she asks for an explanation for the stillbirth but receives no answer. Back in the ward. but his intervention is fruitless: the baby is stillborn. Stina’s husband is all excited about the baby. and she does not want to bear his child. The midwife calls for the doctor. Stina is depressed and embittered. Medical expertise finds the tragedy a mystery. She accepts and decides against having an abortion. Cecilia’s husband Greta Ellius Harry. Credits Production company Production manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Props (Studio manager) Sound Make-up Editor Continuity Medical adviser Nordisk Tonefilm Gösta Hammarbäck Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman and Ulla Isaksson Max Wilén Bibi Lindström Gunnar Lundin Lennart Svensson Nils Nittel Carl-Olov Skeppstedt Ingrid Wallin Dr. For the rest of the film she is in bed. Anders Ellius sees little point in bringing children into the world and finds Cecilia’s fear of losing the child hysterical. The film opens with Cecilia’s arrival in the hospital. Stina’s husband Sister Britta Dr. Cecilia in the meantime has become fond of both Stina and Hjördis. She meets with a social worker who tries to persuade her not to have an abortion. Hjördis’ boyfriend never comes to visit her. and Stina is happy and impatient about the arrival of the child. Nordlander Gran.Chapter IV Filmography The attitudes of the three prospective fathers are reflected in the women’s different feelings about childbirth. Her delivery is long and painful. Hjördis tries to befriend Stina but receives a slap in the face. she blames herself for her miscarriage. Hjördis wanders listlessly in the hospital corridors. social worker Sister Mari Dr.

Distribution U. by John Russell Taylor. illustrated with photographs from the film./Janus Films. 7 (1958).. Inc. 100-2. no. opening Nordisk Tonefilm Ajay Film Co. Cinéma 59. 5 (May 1958): 224 and Films in Review 10. in 1957. Foreign reception of Nära livet was respectful. (April 1959). 28. 10 (December 1959): 624-25. 144 (March-April 1960). 10-11. 48-51. Many welcomed Nära livet’s realistic style and subject matter. My Life in Film. pp. 29 (1958). A number of brief press interviews were made with doctors. Nils Petter Sundgren argued in Röster i Radio/TV. never much of an Ingmar Bergman supporter: ‘Close to Life is a superior woman’s picture. p. 48. Many felt that Bergman’s collaboration with novelist Ulla Isaksson meant an improvement: ‘Bergman’s pretentious language has been replaced by a poet’s’ [Bergmans pretentiösa sprsåk har ersatts av en diktares].Synopses. pp. NYC Commentary The script was published by Ulla Isaksson in FIB (Folket i Bild). p. Rohmer. no. 7. pp. 8. 15 (1958). Arts. pp. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. some in superlative language. and Image et son. 1990.S. no. no. 19 (2 May 1958). 4 (Spring 1961): 90-91. pp. pp. contains an interview with Bergman and Ulla Isaksson on their collaboration. no. Also approving was the usually critical Bergman reviewer Viveka Heyman in Beklädnadsfolket no. Cinéma 58 no. no. social workers and nurses. 189. no. pp.’ Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. Most critics treated it as a semi-documentary about childbirth or as an auteur movie (especially in France). no.S. Bergman added the character of Hjördis Pettersson (young girl who wants an abortion) to Isaksson’s original story. who were asked to comment on the film. See Arbetet. 25. 59 (May 1959). After a showing on Swedish TV. 311-314. and at Nordisk Tonefilm Studios. 84 minutes 19 March 1958 31 March 1958. i. Little Carnegie. 17 (1958). Arbetaren. p. See also Perspektiv. p. The script was also serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. 33-35. pp. 10-12 and no. p. 14 (5-11 April 1958). A curiously sexist assessment appeared in Sight and Sound 30. 10-11. 20-21. 37-41/1961. Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma. beginning in no. 44. p. no. Bergman researched the film in the Söder (South) Hospital in Stockholm and also consulted a medical adviser. 28 (June 1958). He writes about the shooting of the film in Bilder/Images. 17 April 1958. a film calling for some intelligence but not too much. pp. Stockholm. 1959. Exact dates not available. 13-14. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 8 November 1959. Vi. 11 March 1959. See E. and no. no. FIB no. 94. 101-105. Vi no. nos. p. 235 . and continuing through no. pp. 1 April 1958. 7. 155. Reception All Stockholm critics praised the film. Commentaries and Reception Record Father with injured child Bengt Blomgren Filmed on location at South Hospital. Stockholm. 12 (1968). 85 (July 1958). 9.e. 48. Cinema Nuovo. 18. 12 (1958). Credits. that Nära livet shares its ascetic style with Bergman’s later films but that the realistic setting links it with his earliest production.

116. 84 (June 1958). when juxtaposing this title and Bergman’s discussion of himself as an illusionist using a modern variation of the old magic lantern. Venice: Film Critics Award (out of competition). April 1961. Ingmar Bergman. See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). Synopsis Ansiktet is set in Sweden in July 1846. 14-18. p. the American title ‘The Magician’ might seem unfortunate in its suggestion of hocus pocus. pp. 60. 255-56. pp. no. and the actor Spegel. 1913-1968. Bibi Andersson and Barbro Hjort af Ornäs) Cannes Film Festival. 1-3. 3 (Spring 1960): 49-50. 271-72. 122-123 (May-June) 1959: 32. p. and Bergman’s great emphasis on face vs. no. 30 (July 1959). With him are his disciple Aman-Manda. 18-19. mask. 45. 13. nakedness vs. Filmnyheter. Eva Dahlbeck. Films and Filming (July 1958). p. but also to the magic potential of his art. 7 (April 1961): 25. Wood. p. pp. no. 172-73. no. pp. 9 November 1959. referring not only to the main character’s deceptive tricks. NYT Film Reviews. his manager Tubal. 36: 2. Albert Emanuel Vogler arrives with his ‘health theatre’ at the middle-class home of Consul Egerman. Variety. 1950-1959 (Ø 1314).Chapter IV Filmography Critisch Film Bulletin. p. 23 November 1959. April 1959. 78 (October 1958). 236 . Image et son no. no. Film Journal. Spegel has collapsed and is presumed dead. New York Times. Films and Filming 7. Film Quarterly 13. pp. same date. p. Awards 1958: 1958: Best Director and Best Actress (jointly to Ingrid Thulin. Filmfacts. pp. 4 April 1958. 7 (14 April) 1958. no. R. pp. p. an herb-collecting old woman called Granny. Newsweek. 189 (December) 1965: 101-105. 683-686. 1 (Summer 1961). whom the troupe has found en route in a state of delirium tremens. Cahiers du cinéma. Télé-Ciné. 3155. 1958 [The Magician/The Face]. New York Herald Tribune. no. Svensk filmografi. ANSIKTET. New Yorker. pp. no. 18-20. 22 (October 1963). FIB. Monthly Film Bulletin. 16. 9 December 1959. pp. 21 November 1959. 11. ‘The Face’. Motion. 228. pp. 10-11. 26-27. 21 May 1958. pp. Image et son no. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman In view of the original film title. Positif. camouflage. ‘The Magician’ becomes an appropriate name for the film. 124-133. However. the coachman Simson. 1969.

who is said to be mute. now really dead. for his own. Vogler joins the rest of the troupe in the kitchen. Later. Credits Production company Production manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Studio manager Props Sound Music Orchestration Costumes Make-up Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Ingmar Bergman Gösta Ekman Ingmar Bergman Gunnar Fischer P. Humiliated. Later Sanna.A. The autopsy takes place in the attic where Vogler proceeds to play a number of frightening tricks on Vergerus until the medical doctor screams in fright and stumbles down the stairs. Inc. he denies having been affected by the ‘seance’ in the attic and continues to ridicule the troupe. the town’s medical counsel. is put in a trance and reveals her husband’s gauche manners. The film ends as Vogler’s Health Theatre departs in triumph to gallant music suggesting royal pomp and circumstance. is visited by Dr. who – having feigned death – has substituted the body of Spegel.A. Sofia is attracted to Tubal. It consists of two numbers: Mrs. and confesses to his wife that he fears the public whose scrutinizing eyes make him feel powerless. Vergerus. wife of the town’s chief of police.Synopses. as he meets the unmasked Vogler in the hallway. Dr. The next day a performance takes place in the Egerman living room. Vogler appears in the room and becomes enraged at seeing Vergerus there. Suddenly the ‘dead’ Spegel comes sweeping into the kitchen and grabs a bottle of liquor. Bergman Aaby Wedin Erik Nordgren Eskil Eckert-Lundin Manne Lindholm. Credits. Antonsson. is examined by Dr. and Egerman’s coachman. Antonsson dashes out and is later found dead. who sings her an old ballad. Lundh. Granny and Tubal decide to stay behind. Powerless and fettered. Commentaries and Reception Record At the Egerman house. In Vogler’s bedroom. is tied with the invisible chain. Aman-Manda. and Sara flirts with Simson. is consoled by Granny. But the tables are turned once more as Vogler and his companions are suddenly called to the Royal Palace. and to Sara and Sanna. Anders Vergerus 237 . Vergerus decides to perform an autopsy on Vogler. the cook. Greta Johansson Carl M. Vergerus. frightened by the troupe. having hanged himself. Vogler. Starbäck. Vogler. two maids. Vogler removes his wig and false beard. Vergerus dismisses Vogler’s muteness as a hoax. Oscar Rosander Katherina Faragó Max von Sydow Ingrid Thulin Åke Fridell Naima Wifstrand Gunnar Björnstrand Cast Albert Emanuel Vogler Aman/Manda. where Tubal and Granny sell love potions to Sofia Garp. his wife and assistant Tubal Granny Dr. but young Sara joins the troupe. now unmasked as Mrs. Antonsson tries to strangle Vogler and apparentely succeeds. When alone with Aman-Manda. Lundgren Carl Henry Cagarp K.

See Vecko-Journalen 49.-O. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 27 August 1959. 44. 1. no. Bergman’s statement in Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). 1990. beginning 30 June 1958 and completed 27 August 1958. Löthwall: ‘Ett nytt ansikte’ [A new face]. nos. SR. Bergman was also interviewed on Swedish public radio about the film. Bergman writes about Ansiktet in Bilder/Images. Tor Borong. 43 (March 1959). 127. 15 (April) 1958: 22. Harry Schein Filmed at Råsunda Film Studios.S. Inc. In ‘Biodags’. 151-153). See also interview with Bergman during making of film in L. 1989. p.Chapter IV Filmography Spegel Sara Sanna Consul Abraham Egerman Mrs. see ‘Biodags’. p. Reception In Sweden Ansiktet elicited a lively press debate. no. Theater. Jurgen Schildt wrote an open letter to Bergman. Filmnyheter 13. 238 . Max von Sydow talks in retrospect about the film in Elisabeth Sörenson’s biography Loppcirkus. pp. saw Vogler as Bergman’s persona in his role as public artist. pp. NYC Commentary On the frontpage of Bergman’s shooting Script II to Ansiktet there is a crossed-over quote from the ‘Sound and Fury’ monologue in Act V in Shakespeare’s Macbeth. See Birgitta Steene. p. titled ‘Brev till Ingmar Bergman’. In Cahiers du cinéma. Distribution U. published a series of interviews with the actors in Ansiktet. pp. 1959. 20 January 1959. 85 for resumé in English. 12-20. reprinted in English in Focus on The Seventh Seal (Ø 1220). 23 September 1958. Arne Mårtensson. Henrietta Starbäck Simson Antonsson Rustan Sofia Garp Customs officials Bengt Ekerot Bibi Andersson Birgitta Pettersson Erland Josephson Gertrud Fridh Toivo Pawlo Ulla Sjöblom Lars Ekborg Oscar Ljung Axel Düberg Sif Ruud Frithiof Bjärne. 4. Carl-Eric Nordberg in Vi (no. Åke Runnquist in BLM 28. 96-100 (Ø 1493). pp. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. Stockholm. as did Gunnar Eddegren in Gaudeamus. 100 minutes 13 December 1958 26 December 1958. 4. SR. and H. no. 88 (October 1958). In a learned article in SvD. Jean Béranger reports on a meeting with Bergman during shooting of the film. p. 4 January 1959. asking him about his face and mask. 16-18 (1958). Lindström in UNT (15 January 1959. 3 1959. 4 (reprinted in Kosmorama no. Torsten Jungstedt and Marianne Höök discuss the film. 9 (November 1959): 784-787. no. 161-172. 4) contrasted Bergman’s illusionist to the 19th-century hypnotist Mesmer. p. p. SF published a 14-page program in English on Ansiktet (SF: Stockholm 1959). 14) interpreted Vogler as a Christ figure. It is the same passage that Bergman refers to in the original title of his TV film Larmar och gör sig till (In the Presence of a Clown). Svenska Morgonbladet 28 August 1958. opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films.S. Ingmar Bergman. 1968. Stig Wikander compared Bergman’s film to the gnostic legend of Simon Magus. Ottilia Egerman Police Chief Frans Starbäck Mrs. pp. Cf. 1. Fifth Ave.

28. 2 (November 1959): 20-21. 203-205. 4 (1959). Positif. Swedish Reviews Stockholm. 38. Vad åskådaren får ut av den är hans personliga ensak]. 78 [Am. 16) considered The Magician a rather exclusive product. 1 (Fall 1959): 47-50. 40 (October 1959). Cinéma 59. p.Synopses. Most extensive American critiques of The Magican are: Norman Holland. 4-5. F. p. 41 (November-December 1959). 173-178. 31 (November 1959). 28 August 1959. FIB no. 126 (December 1959). Vi no. pp. 26 September 1959. New Yorker. Peter. same date. p. Milan (11 July 1962). p. 323-325. 180. 11 (1960). 14. p. pp. 9. and a bibliography. pp. 101 (November 1959). 354 (16 pp). 272. no. Film Ideal. Monthly Film Bulletin. p. Bergman responded in a reported telephone interview (SvD. New Statesman. 239 . p. Hudson Review 12. pp. Bengt Forslund summarized the Swedish discussion of Bergman’s film. Filmkritik. Ord & Bild no. and reprinted in Kaminsky (Ø 1266). saw the film as ‘the impetuous outpouring of a demonic poet’. Teatern no. p. pp. 3145-3146.. listing openings worldwide. Ingmar Bergman. special issue on Le visage. 27 December 1958. Credits. 10-11 (Autumn 1961). Films and Filming 6. pp. NYT Film Reviews. no. New York Times. pp. 11-12. no. Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma no. 3-4 (Autumn-Winter 1959): 167-68.. 30 September 1959. no. 207-216. 8 (October 1959): 486-489. p. See also Cowie. Filmfacts. pp. Göteborg. pp. 8 (October 1959): 486-89. Malmö press. Ed. 15 December 1961. 19. Italian fact sheet on Il volto. p.. no. pp. ‘A Brace of Bergmans’. Centro S. pp. pp. pp. 174-87. 17 February 1961. 1 (1959). Films in Review 10. Cinema Nuovo. 5 September 1959. Commentaries and Reception Record In Filmrutan 2. 146. 60]) termed it Bergman’s least successful film to date: ‘’Just what this Gothic hoedown signifies is anybody’s guess. 4 (Winter 1959/60): 573-577. What the viewer gets out of it is his personal business’ [Mitt svar är min film. 5-9. plot synopsis. no. 13 January. p. 86 (Nov-Dec 1959). no. A Critical Biography. no. Vecko-Journalen no. review excerpts. Fedelle dello Spettacolo. Vernon Young’s review in Film Quarterly 13.S. 201-214. pp. 130-132. and no. credits. and Time (7 September 1959. New York Herald Tribune. pp. 3 (1959). slightly abridged in Cinema Borealis: Ingmar Bergman and the Swedish Ethos (306). 2 (1959). no. 45-46. no. Nation. 1982. Télé-Ciné no. November 1959. Fact Sheets Film a sogetto. 1913-1969. no. 71-73. Sight and Sound. Image et son no. p. Variety (14 January 1959. 430-431. no. 1 (1959). Etudes cinématographiques. 27:1. 76-77. 88 pp. In U. 2 (1959): 5-7. 16): ‘My reply is my film. 141 (September-October 1959).’ Henry Hart in Films in Review 10.

and innocent of their motives. gets sick and vomits.Y. Töre. Karin rides on alone through the pastoral landscape. Pasinetti Award. no. she offers to share her lunch with them. The film opens as Ingeri.) issued a cassette analysis of The Magician in agreement with Janus Films Inc. She meets three shepherds. Going outside he fells a birch tree with his bare hands and beats his body with the twigs. Kauffmann. who begins to prepare for revenge. pp. After the killings. She is willing to save him. 15. Töre kneels and promises God to build a church on the site. Several book-length studies of Bergman’s filmmaking pay particular attention to Ansiktet as a film portraying Bergman’s view of the artist. 66-109. who did not rape her. 229. Ingmar Bergman and the Ritual of Art. pp. As Karin begins to cut the bread. Variety. International Film Annual 1959. See: Paisley Livingston. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ulla Isaksson Synopsis Jungfrukällan is based on a 13th-century Swedish ballad called ‘Töre’s Daughter in Vänge’. Acapulco Film Festival: Unspecified Award. 6 July. Töre sets out with his household to find the body of young Karin. 20 January. Ingeri has watched the violent deed from a distance. 91-102. During the meal the youngest shepherd gets sick again. JUNGFRUKÄLLAN. no. 273-275. pp. and Birgitta Steene. She is raped by two of them and afterwards killed with a blow to her head. 11. 1960 [The Virgin Spring]. prepares the morning meal. Svensk filmografi. 137 (Spring) 1978: pp. National Review. no. Kosmorama. 33-37. pp. pp. A World of Film (Ø 1011). they arrive at the house of Karin’s parents. Cinema Nuovo Award. pp. who in a fit of envy has put a toad between two loaves of bread. The meal was prepared by Ingeri. Educational Dimensions Corporation (Great Neck. The ballad ends by telling of the subsequent violent revenge by Karin’s father. the toad jumps out. Karin’s dark-haired foster sister who is big with child. Ready to kill. They are received hospitably and invited for supper. 16 March. in 1973. Awards 1959: Venice Film Festival: Special Jury Prize. Måndagar med Bergman. But in the forest she stays behind to consult with an old sorcerer who practices pagan charms. and the miracle – the welling forth of a fresh spring – that occurs on the spot of her death. 226 (March) 1969: 46-48. which relates the rape and murder of a young maiden. Töre wakes up the shepherds. respectively. 24. but Töre dashes him against the wall. When they come upon it in the forest. N. pp. Ingeri accompanies Karin on her ride to church. He overcomes the two oldest ones while the young boy rushes to Karin’s mother for protection. 1950-1959 (Ø 1314). 257-258. The youngest shepherd. After supper the two older shepherds try to sell Karin’s clothing to her mother. (Best Foreign Film). 2 (December 1960): 94-101. The shepherds collect Karin’s expensive clothing and ride on. 51-54. Tulane Drama Review 5. Unwittingly.Chapter IV Filmography Image et son. 727-730. Karin. Instead. 22 April 1961. This becomes the incitement for the shepherds to violate Karin. As 240 . who recognizes her daughter’s robe but says nothing. 1996. 1982. Blond Karin wakes up and gets ready to ride to church with candles for the Virgin Mary. and 26. she notifies Töre.

He 241 . Credits Production Company Production manager Location manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Music Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Carl-Henry Cagarp Ingmar Bergman Lenn Hjortzberg Ulla Isaksson Sven Nykvist P. Credits. Töre’s wife Shepherd/rapist Mute shepherd Shepherd boy Bridge keeper Frida. Commentaries and Reception Record he prays. which he had read as a student. Inc. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 14 November 1960. ‘Töres dotter i Vänge’ [Töre’s daughter in Vänge]. a spring wells forth at the spot where Karin’s smashed head has been resting on the ground. Leif Forstenberg Ann Lundgren Costumes Make-up Editor Continuity Cast Karin Ingeri Töre Märeta.S.S. beginning 14 May 1959 and completed in late August 1959. opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. 88 minutes 19 January 1960 8 February 1960. i himmelen’ (rev.A. NYC Commentary Ingmar Bergman first toyed with the idea of writing his own screenplay based on the medieval ballad.Synopses. Dalarna and at Råsunda Studios. Lundgren Tor Borong Aaby Wedin Erik Nordgren & Alexander Surkevitz ‘I himmelen. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. Distribution U. Beekman Theater. text: Ingmar Bergman) ‘ Tiggarens visa’ (text/music: Ingmar Bergman/Erik Nordgren) Marik Vos Börje Lundh Oscar Rosander Ulla Furås Birgitta Pettersson Gunnel Lindblom Max von Sydow Birgitta Vallberg Axel Düberg Tor Isedal Ove Porath Axel Slangus Gudrun Brost Oscar Ljung Tor Borong. housekeeper Simon of Snollsta Farmhands Stand-in for Birgitta Vallberg & Gunnel Lindblom Filmed on location at Styggeforsen and Skattungsbyn.

22 May 1959. 2. SvD (p. appeared in Kosmorama. 11 March 1960. 4). p. p. 3). In the American release of the film. 10 February 1960. ST. 14. 21 February 1960. 3).. and 4 March 1960. after Töre’s revenge. p. In an editorial on 10 February 1960. 1960. but dwelt more on the rape scene than on Töre’s savage vengeance. DN. sec. the board denied rumors that Ingmar Bergman had threatened to withdraw his film if any cuts were made. 3 December 1972. published a public poll on audience response to the film. no. who praised the film. 15 February 1960 (p. 14-15. p. vi): ‘It is of great importance that the spring wells forth when all need it. Agreement was unanimous. Reception Next to Tystnaden/The Silence (1963). 7 March 1960 (p. titled ‘La Ballade de la fille de Töre à Vänge’ was published in a special issue on the film in Cinéma 60. 22. and 2 March 1960 (p. December 1959. SvD. less than ten seconds of the rape scene was cut. published in Danish translation. 13 March 1960. Kristianstadsbladet. see AB. p. The same statement appears in French in the above-mentioned special issue of Cinéma 60. 33-43. 44 (1959). An interview with Jean Béranger. That this possibility exists is the very meaning of the film. pp. Stig Ahlgren in Vecko-Journalen. Ingmar Bergman was a master of histrionics and not an authentic artist. and explains the change in the American preface to her novel The Virgin Spring (New York: Ballantine Books. with a loss of critical acumen. 22 May 1959. 4). and SDS. In that sense the film is very Lutheran. 51 (November-December 1960). 17 January 1961. 14-17. arguing 242 . p. p. an editorial comment by Olof Lagercrantz in DN (p. 9 February 1960. pp. Gunnar Oldin interviewed Ingmar Bergman about Jungfrukällan on Swedish TV (SVT) on 14 February 1960. 13 November 1960. An interview with the actors appeared in DN. p. 5). 9) reported the decision by the Swedish Film Censorship board not to cut anything in the submitted version of the film. Ulla Isaksson talks about her novel in ‘Boken jag minns’ [The book I remember]. Two issues crystallized during the Swedish discussion of Jungfrukällan. 14. 15. An editorial comment in Arbetet. 5). 50-51 (by Arne Sellermark). 16 February (p. with a concluding synopsis. Expr. 15. A public request that the Swedish attorney general examine the rape sequence was denied. no. 4).Chapter IV Filmography later turned to Ulla Isaksson as a collaborator. 2. see AB. no. (läsbilagan/reading supplement). One concerned Bergman’s standing as a film artist: was he an authentic artist or a sensationalist? The other matter focussed on violence and censorship. pp. in Hemmets Journal no. French version. claimed that the real rape was the artistic violation of the ballad source. p. Jungfrukällan became Bergman’s most controversial film in Sweden. 12. To Lagercrantz. appeared in Continental Film Review. This issue also contains a brief note from Bergman’s diary during the shooting of the film. pp. concluded that Bergman lacked artistic integrity when he chose to ‘arrange brutally murdered people in such exquisitely aesthetic settings’ [att arrangera brutalt mördade människor i så raffinerat estetiska positioner]. (p. and Vecko-Revyn. Lagercrantz charged Swedish reviewers. 26 February (p. Reportages from shooting of Jungfrukällan appeared in DN. 9 (‘Source of a Spiritual Spring’). 2 (review). 5) started a month-long debate on Jungfrukällan.’ The English preface to Isaksson’s book was actually an 8-page program issued by Svensk Filmindustri (SF) in English and French (available in SFI archives). 8 (19 February 1960). 13 February (p. She conceived of the story as a novel and changed the order of events by placing the miracle at the very end. and in Expr. For discussions of the rape sequence. On 12 February 1960. p. A long segment of the script in English. two days after the Stockholm opening. and discusses her collaboration with Bergman in NYT. L’Avant-Scène du cinéma 444 (July) 1995 includes the full manuscript in French (La source). 49 (October 1959). Among the many responses to Lagercrantz’s editorial. did not object to the muchpublicized rape scene but questioned the use of a toad in the bread prepared by Ingeri. 6-7.

Films in Review 11. is an issue devoted to La source in connection with a Bergman revival in Paris. LXIV. 3 (1961). 1204 (26 November 1960) contains a special write-up on The Virgin Spring (BFI info). 1973. New Republic.Synopses. 53 (February 1961). 1955. n. no. and no. Film Ideal. pp. 17. and Brendan Gill. discusses The Virgin Spring as a Kierkegaardian credo quia absurdum est. New York Herald Tribune. no. 94-97. Jörn Donner in BLM 19. Birgitta Steene in Ingmar Bergman. pp. 9 February 1960. Films and Filming 8. 5 December 1960. L’Avant Scène du Cinéma no. Inc. reviews were mixed.Y. 292-295.. saw the film as Bergman’s (rather than Ulla Isaksson’s) expression of a religious and moral vision. p. 10 (July 1961): 26-27 Filmfacts 9 December 1960. and Swedish poets of the Forties. Hjalmar Bergman. 1975 (Ø 1266). New Yorker. Commentaries and Reception Record that what we witness is not rape but a caricatured cult act. The Swedish debate of Jungfrukällan/The Virgin Spring was summarized in Sight and Sound. 1-2. 277-279. 116 (February 1961). In France. pp. 16. Ahlgren’s folklore reference was elaborated on in a newspaper essay by historian Sven Ulric Palme (ST. 7 (1960). 12 (17 May 1960) for a compilation of international reviews of Jungfrukällan/La source in connection with its showing at the Cannes Film Festival. Cinéma 61. 22. Pär Lagerkvist. thought The Virgin Spring was ‘Bergman’s most lucid film’. U. the film marked the beginning of the Cahiers group’s disenchantment with Bergman. Cf. 8 (1960). 1968. pp. pp. In Scandinavian folklore. B. pp. troll women who had sex with the devil gave birth to toads. Vi no. Title on the container is ‘Two Films by Ingmar Bergman’.. 3 (March 1960): 254-59. Cuadernas de Cine Club Mercedes no. 62-63. felt that the film was more ‘brutal and less sophisticated than earlier Bergman’. who calls the film ‘supernatural mumbo-jumbo’. while NYT. (See Ø 982. pp. 2 (1960). no. no. The journal Granta. 15 November 1960. Toads and frogs were represented in medieval drawings as a metamorphosed uterus and were thought to have special sexual power. pp. 10 (1960). 152-54. related its artistic vision to that of Strindberg. Educational Dimensions Corp. p. pp. (Great Neck. contains sample reviews in Spanish. Ahlgren claimed to have seen ecstacy in Karin’s eyes as she is raped by the shepherd who wears a Mephistopheles mask. Andresen in Arbetaren. pp.p. 19 November. pp. 215-221]. Other issues raised about Jungfrukällan concerned its literary and philosophical parallels. p. 8 October 1960) in which he discusses the medieval use of toads as host in witch sabbaths. 9 (November 1960): 556-557. this to Stanley Kauffmann. Spring 1960: 66-67. 17 March. 46:1. Teatern no. 179-82. no. 51-53. Foreign Reviews Arts. 14-21 December 1960. 21-22. 26-31. 11. p.) issued a cassette analysis of The Virgin Spring (and The Magician) in agreement with Janus Films. 1 December 1961. [Excerpted in Kaminsky. 50 pp. no. Filmkritik no. Definition no. same date. 22-26. 243 . 98-100.S. Credits. no. Cahiers du cinéma no. p.) See also Agence France-Press. 444 (July 1995). Swedish Reviews Stockholm/Uppsala press. toads being the devil in disguise. pp. N. 1 (May 1963). who refers to Bergman in a derogatory way as ‘a cinema Kierkegaard’. Chaplin. 9 (March 1960). pp.

p. 18 April 1961. no. 85 (1 December 1961). pp. 26-27). pp. no. Madden. Saknar innhållet intresse?’ [The Virgin Spring. Variety. Götheborgske Spionen. Svensk filmografi. pp. Variety. Image et son. ‘The Virgin Spring: Anatomy of a Mythic Image’. 15 November 1960. pp.E. p. 18-29. 5 December 1960. 57-59. 21-22. pp. 2 (Winter 1967): 2-20. p. After Jungfrukällan received an Oscar. 48-51. ST. no. Sven Ulric. see Varia. Films and Filming. p. 49 (April 1960). no. 13 February 1960. New Yorker. New York Herald Tribune. 91 (September-October 1960). C. Palme. no. 78. SR (Sveriges Radio) interviewed Bergman in ‘Dagens eko’. NYT Film Reviews. 38 (March 1961). no. p. Cinéma 60. ‘Ingmar Bergman and the Religious Film’. 152-154. Los Angeles 1961. Film Ideal. pp. 63 (A. ‘The Ballad and the Source’. Longer Articles and Special Issues Ambjörnsson. 21 (1964). 4-page program analysis of film. Motion. pp. 4. Télé-Ciné no. Spring 1961. 1960. p. 13-15. Silverstein. pp. ‘En vårnatt i Dalarne’ [A spring night in Dalecarlia]. 4. Film Heritage 2. Vernon. Vecko-Journalen no. 207-216. Etudes cinématographiques. Temas de cine. 39-40. 7 (12 February) 1960. 6. no. 226 (March) 1969. Positif. no. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). 26 (January-February 1963). no. Cinéma 59. N. 1 (January 1960). 5 December 1960. Filmnyheter. 29-33. 1913-1968. David. 4 (Summer 1960): 43-47. Kenyon Review. pp. 839. 3 (Spring-Summer 1968): 53-66. 24 February 1960. Young. Golden Globe Award by Hollywood Foreign Press Association. no. 1 (Summer 1961). Awards 1961: Academy Award for Best Foreign Film. 17. p. no. 1983: 37-41. Ronny & Anna-Karin Blomstrand. same date. 244 . Salmagundi II. pp. 4. pp. pp. 4. Spectator. no. 40 (October 1959): 93-100. 3223.Chapter IV Filmography Film Quarterly 13. 22-26. 65-66. no. p. pp. no. also in Filmkultura. Does the content lack interest?]. Stolpe Sven. Kosmorama no. 46 (May 1960): 85-88. See also Cine cubano. p. 10-11 (Autumn 1961). 4-7. 9 June 1961. Pechter. pp. pp. 46. Time. April 1962. no. ‘Jungfrukällan. 332-335. 8 October 1960. ‘UCLA Art Films’. pp. New York Times. 18-19. 40). William. For more awards. p. 19 November 1960. ‘Fotnot till Jungfrukällan’ [Footnote to the Virgin Spring]. 154-155: New Republic.

But this time – unlike his earlier erotic escapades – Don Juan has actually fallen in love with the object of his seduction. During a stormy night. 1960 [The devil’s eye]. in a final flashback to the vicarage on the occasion of Britt-Marie’s wedding. This is a minor victory for the forces of Hell. from a Danish radio play by Oluf Bang. Still another defeat occurs for Satan when the parson. forgives his wife for her infidelity. who provides a Brechtian commentary during three ‘intermissions’. His mission accomplished. contrary to all infernal calculations. DJÄVULENS ÖGA. since it spells defeat for the infernal principles that rule the underworld. The main action is set in Hell and in a vicarage in the Swedish countryside. Credits. The two men emerge from the underground into an earthly paradise. the film is introduced in a theatre by a speaker dressed in formal attire. the head of ‘this inverted parish’ gets a stye in his eye. and his frustrated wife. accompanied by his jovial servant Pablo. played by Käbi Laretei Mago (Max Goldstein) Börje Lundh Olle Jakobsson Oscar Rosander Ulla Furås 245 .Synopses. However. Lundgren Karl-Arne Bergman Stig Flodin Erik Nordgren. which in turn causes consternation among the Devil and his advisors. whose punishment in Hell is to remain forever aroused and never sexually fulfilled. is ordered by Satan to return to Earth. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis The theme of the film is an ‘Irish’ motto invented by Bergman: ‘A young woman’s chastity is a stye in the Devil’s eye. The pastoral beauty intensifies their agony. Commentaries and Reception Record 230. One day. The actual plot concerns the legendary Don Juan who has spent 300 years in Hell. for they realize the temporal nature of their visit and become aware once more of what they have forfeited in an earlier life through their lecherous living. Don Juan. Don Juan seduces Britt-Marie while Pablo devotes himself to her mother. and the stye disappears from the Devil’s eye. Don Juan vender tilbage [Don Juan Returns]. Arriving at the vicarage they meet Britt-Marie. BrittMarie. selections from sonatas by Domenico Scarlatti. Don Juan must return to Hell. a totally naive and innocent man.A. Renata. 1940 Gunnar Fischer P. She is the daughter of the parson. The reason is that a young girl of 20.’ Designed in four acts like a stage play. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Music Costumes Make-up Mixing Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Lars-Owe Carlberg Ingmar Bergman Lenn Hjortzberg Ingmar Bergman. remains a virgin though she is engaged to be married. Satan learns that the young girl lies to her husband during their wedding night.

NYC Commentary The script of Djävulens öga was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. 10-13 (Matts Rying). Text-based reportages also appeared in Röster i Radio/TV. nos. opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. Distribution U. no.S. 18 October. 15 and 22 February 1960. 18) called it ‘a placebo in a Swedish vicarage park’ [ett lusthus i en svensk prästgårdspark]. illustrated with photographs from the film. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. 52 (1959). no. Life. pp. Stockholm. 16-24. published a review that denounced not only the film. 246 . though Cinéma 62.S. p. 63 (February 1962). 10. p. Britt-Marie’s fiancé A demon Woman with veil Demon keeping watch The hairdresser Doctor giving enema Cosmetics doctor Assistant to tailor Maid Tailor The Metamorphosis Expert Negro masseur Jarl Kulle Bibi Andersson Nils Poppe Sture Lagerwall Gunnar Björnstrand Gertrud Fridh Stig Järrel Georg Funkquist Gunnar Sjöberg Torsten Winge Axel Düberg Allan Edwall Kristina Adolphson Ragnar Arvedson Börje Lundh Lenn Hjortzberg John Melin Arne Lindblad Inga Gill Sten-Thorsten Thuul Svend Bunch Tom Olsson Filmed at Råsunda studios. 50-52/1960 and nos. Foreign opinion also tended to view the film as an interlude in Bergman’s career. 1-2/1961. Carl Björkman (DN. Reception Djävulens öga was well received by Swedish critics who regarded the film as an entertaining intermezzo in Bergman’s production. pp. Beekman Theater. 1960. published a pictorial reportage by Lennart Nilsson from shooting of The Devil’s Eye. no. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 30 October 1961. Inc. 21. beginning 19 October 1959 and completed 1 January 1960. and in ST 6 December 1959. Similar reportage appeared in Swedish in Vecko-Journalen. but Ingmar Bergman as a filmmaker. 102-3. pp. 86 minutes 8 October 1960 17 October 1960.Chapter IV Filmography Cast Don Juan Britt-Marie The Parson Pablo Speaker Renata Satan Count Armand de Rouchefoucauld Marquis Guiseppe de Maccopazza An old man Jonas.

247 . pp. Vecko-Journalen. no. Ord & Bild 69. Eva (ed). pp. pp. no. no. her husband Martin. pp. no. Foreign Reviews Bianco e nero. 22 September 1961. a novelist and widower. pp. 4. 244-245. a young woman who suffers from schizophrenia. 78-79. 231. pp. no. 63 (February 1963). Don Juan and Faust in the XXth Century. 45.) See also Kauffmann. Positif no. Cinéma 62. It concerns a family of four: Karin. 244-49. 19 pp. Image et son. New York Times. 51-52. pp. p. no. 11-12 (November-December 1961). 44 (1960). 9 November 1960. 4 (1966). 9. A World of Film (Ø 1011). 35.Synopses. Film (Hannover). 12 (December 1961): 620-621. Svensk filmografi. 148 (February 1962). p. and no. pp. 46 (May 1960). Spectator. Cinéma 60. 51 (December 1960). 36. SÅSOM I EN SPEGEL. no. p. Image et son no. Commentaries and Reception Record Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. p. 2 (February 1963). Gilliatt. Longer Articles Törnqvist. her younger brother Minus. no. 85-88. 1961 [Through a Glass Darkly]. 43 (1960). Synopsis The film occurs during a 24-hour period on an island in the Baltic. 74-75. p. a medical doctor. 204-205. 16. P. 19. no. Egil. 11 January 1963. In Sormova. 280-282. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). 53 (April 1961). Prague: Department of Czech Theatre Studies. and their father David. p. p. no. p. pp. 82-85. 151-152. Monthly Film Bulletin. 1913-1968. English translation uses King James’ version. 45 (May 1962). 8 December 1961. Films in Review 12. 283-284. Unholy Fools (New York: Viking Press). p. 4 (April 1966). 4 November 1961. ‘Ingmar Bergman and Don Juan’. 3286. Proceedings from Theatre Conference. New Yorker. 207-208. 5 (February 1963): 37-38. 31 October 1961. 27 September – 1 October 1991. Vi no. p. 226 (March) 1969. p. Time. Filmkritik no. 72. FIB no. Kosmorama no. pp. Filmfacts. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman The film title is a direct quote from the Bible (Paul’s first epistle to the Corinthians. 1993. Variety. 27:4 and NYT Film Reviews. 47 (1960). 18 October 1960. 13:12). 116. 19. 10 (December 1960): 521-527. Films and Filming 10. Credits. p. pp. (Article deals primarily with the Don Juan motif in Bergman’s film but with some references to same motif in his theatre productions of Molière’s Don Juan.

screaming hysterically. There is a suggestion of incest. Later when David and Martin return from the city. it seems to move and come alive. The positive implication of this is shown in Minus who seems overwhelmed that his father has confided in him: ‘Father spoke to me’. But he regrets his promise. David and Martin overpower her. Early the next morning Karin wakes up to the shrieks of seagulls. and she receives a tranquillizing injection. A helicopter arrives to pick her up and is seen descending outside the window. After they have left. Quieted she reveals her vision to them: God emerged from the closet in the shape of a huge spider and tried to penetrate her. in which he has written about his fascination with her illness. The scene changes to a rowboat in which Martin and David discuss Karin’s illness. When the sun’s rays hit the wallpaper pattern. The final sequence begins with David. She asks Martin to kneel beside her. Her posture suggests sexual rapture. Rummaging around in David’s desk. Minus hears Karin talk to imaginary voices. Worried. and Karin cowers in a corner of the room. Karin tells him of voices that speak to her. After dinner Karin and Minus put on a play for David: a poet promises to follow the Princess of Castille into the realm of death. Karin recovers her sense of reality briefly. Karin and Martin retire to bed. The sound from the helicopter is deafening.Chapter IV Filmography The film opens as these four characters emerge from a swim. David is visibly shaken by the play. Karin wakes up. The film ends with Karin’s departure. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Lars-Owe Carlberg Ingmar Bergman Lenn Hjortzberg Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist P. then takes him to the attic. Waiting outside the room. she comes upon his diary. she falls asleep in her father’s study after David has tucked her in. Karin helps Minus with his Latin lesson. There Minus finds her and comforts her. David’s homecoming is celebrated with an outdoor dinner during which David presents gifts. and she withdraws to the hull of an old. but soon voices call on her again.A. His children are unhappy about this announcement. and the princess departs alone. this time as a tour guide in Yugoslavia. stranded ship. Martin and David leave in the motorboat to go to the city. A scene from within the attic shows Karin standing against its papered wall. Later. Minus reveals his uneasy feelings about sexuality. Later in the day. obviously bought at the last moment. where he breaks down crying. Martin makes arrangements to have Karin moved to a hospital. Martin and Minus discovering Karin in the attic again. Suddenly she asks him to leave her alone. Minus and Karin go to fetch milk at a nearby farm. Minus listens to David talking about the human love that surrounds Karin. Martin appears at the window and asks his father to go fishing. David reveals having made a suicide attempt during a recent stay in Switzerland and claims it filled him with a new sense of love. David leaves the table and goes inside. The air vibrations from its rotating wings force a closet door to open in the attic. He also reveals his intent to leave soon. Lundgren Karl-Arne Bergman Stig Flodin 248 . she goes to the attic where she communicates with her voices.

13) who reports on reasons for Bergman to abandon earlier plans to shoot the film in color.S. The working title was Tapeten [The Wallpaper]. Suite no. Bach. it was reported that the so-called Color Film Club (consisting of Bergman and his collaborators). based on an idea that had been omitted in Bergman’s film Prison: a mad painter thought the wallpaper in his room moved. 11. 89 minutes 4 October 1961 16 October 1961. The press conference was also covered by Philip Scheuer in Los Angeles Times (1 August. In a Swedish newspaper write-up a few weeks before the press conference. At the time of the press conference Bergman viewed Såsom i en spegel as the last film in a trilogy. Credits. same date. pp. Holden below. Fontänen and Spegeln (Stockholm) 13 March 1962. Beekman Theater. Distribution U. NYC Commentary Bergman discusses the film in Bilder/Images. Cf. and ST. footage in color would be done as an experiment. p. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. beginning 12 July 1960 and completed 16 September 1960. See (Ø 124). Bergman held a press conference on 13 July 1960. sec. 9. J.. played by Erling Blöndal Bengtsson Mago (Max Goldstein) Ulla Ryghe Ulla Furås Harriet Andersson Max von Sydow Gunnar Björnstrand Lars Passgård Cast Karin Martin David Fredrik.’[Bergman color film club voted black and white for ‘The Wallpaper’].Synopses. 14). All three works dealt. the first two being Smultronstället and Jungfrukällan. DN. p. he searched for a new name for his film and almost opted for Bekänna färg [Show your hand] but remembered that this title had already been used by Swedish novelist Olle Hedberg. step by step. As this motif remained in Bergman’s mind. Såsom i en spegel was the first Bergman script to be published in book form in Sweden. p. 243-256.] Här har jag kommit till en lösning]. 4.S. opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. called Minus Filmed on location on the island of Fårö and at Råsunda Studios. Here in [Through a Glass Darkly] I have found a solution’ [Gudsproblemet har alltid varit angeläget och ständigt närvarande för mig. 14 July 1960. Chapter II. with the idea of atonement (försoningstanken): ‘The God problem has always been my concern and is perpetually present to me. p. Commentaries and Reception Record Sound effects Music Costumes Editor Continuity Evald Andersson Erik Nordgren. announcing his intention to shoot his next film on Fårö. had decided with eight votes against two to shoot Bergman’s next film in black and white (see ‘Ingmar Bergmans färgfilmklubb röstade svartvitt för “Tapeten”. Report also states that during the shooting. 1990. 16 June 1960. 2. Inc.S. D minor for cello. and that Bergman would begin to give color a dramatic role in his filmmaking as soon as he ‘felt comfortable with the new medium’ [kände sig hemmastadd med det nya 249 .. which had experimented with color for some months. [. See SvD.

In Såsom i en spegel he (and Bergman) began to develop a new ‘chamber film’ style. But Stanley Kaufmann (New Republic. 69 (September-October 1962). Vi. 41-45. 26-27. pp. jag lade mig i deras handlande och deras öden. its themes undefined. 22-23. Reception Swedish critical reception of Såsom i en spegel was enthusiastic. 250 . 13 April 1962. pp. no. Foreign Reviews Arts. no. 5 November 1961. Olsson in ‘Bergman som Guds spegel’. 43 (1961). But questions were raised about whether the film was not too exclusive. 59-61. Reaction to the film in the U. and Birgitta Steene. pp. [. Spectator. regretted that Bergman had relinquished his visual talent and created a movie that was basically uncinematic. Sedan ‘Såsom i en spegel’ låter jag dem leva sitt eget liv]. Nykvist had taken over as Bergman’s main cinematographer with Jungfrukällan. p. no. Film Quarterly 15. 28-29. FiB. and its resolution unconnected to the plot. 16 November 1962. see Jean Béranger. April 1972. no. Bergman talks about the importance of the new intimate format of Såsom i en spegel and how it changed his approach to his characters: ‘Earlier I played the guardian.. Cinéma 62. 7 (March 1977). Cahiers du cinéma. Reviewers stressed Bergman’s masterly control of the medium and labeled the film his most essential work to date. p. See Sven E. 17 October 1961. 761. There were other specific challenges in photographing the film. 19 September 1962.] My fictional people were not left alone. 137 (November 1962). no. 168. 12 a-d. p. Chaplin. 210-211. Filmfacts. p. p. 16. Vernon Young in Film Quarterly 15.] De människor jag diktat upp fick inte vara i fred. both in its preoccupation with the role of the artist and its examination of religious issues. 34) felt it surpassed Bergman’s previous work in its clarity and directness. p.. Over the years Bergman critics have frequently singled out Through A Glass Darkly. pp. especially its ‘forced’ ending. F-Dienst 30. 70 (November 1962): 106-108. See Ø 1680. Expr. no. BLM 39. 9 (November 1961): 760-762. pp. 24. p. 6. and Arthur Knight in Saturday Review (17 March 1962. pp. 1968.. Cf. Time (23 March 1962. 5 September 1962. Since Through a Glass Darkly I can let them live their own lives’ [Förr spelade jag förmyndare. 48-50. was mixed. 23 (November 1961). p. 96. 230-31.S.Chapter IV Filmography mediet]. Films and Filming 10. 9-10. Ingmar Bergman. In an interview in DN. 46-47. 4 (Summer 1962): 52-3. 3 October 1962. p. reprinted in A World on Film. 1961. 282-284) found the film confusing. Götheborgske Spionen. as a target.. [. Chapter III. pp. I interfered with their actions and their destinies. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. no. p. see the following: Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788).. Le Figaro. 19 January 1962. 1198. no. 44 (1961). and no. no. pp. For an explanation of the term. Cinéma 62. 69 (September-October 1962). 4 (Summer 1962): 52-53. p. ‘A Passion for Light’ in American Cinematographer. 4 (January 1963): 47-48. 16 March 1962. pp. Christian Century. no. 67) called it Bergman’s most mature creation to date. no. 4. no. Films in Review April 1962. pp. See Sven Nykvist. For a report of the shooting of Såsom i en spegel.

Longer Discussions Most longer discussions of Såsom i en spegel are parts of essays on what became known as The Trilogy (Through a Glass Darkly. pp. passim. Steene. A Critical Biography. and excerpts from the script. no. 40 (October 1963). pp. 1965 (Ø 1129). New Yorker. pp. (Analysis of student response to Bergman’s film). pp. ‘Suffering into Ideology: Bergman’s Såsom i en spegel (Through a Glass Darkly)’. 1975. 72-77. Steene. p. 1963. Also issued in 1966 under title Bilder des Dichterischen Themen und Gestalten des Films. pp. 67. 1963. The Art of Confession. Cohen. L-136: Dagbok. 30-31. Marc. 23 March 1962. Sjöman. 267-80. p. Torborg and A. pp. Austin: University of Texas Press. 106-139. no. (Ø 1185). 123. (Ø 1381).. New Republic. Vilgot. no. 239-241. 87-105. 1967). See the following: Buzzonetti. Peter. pp. ‘Archetypal Patterns. Göran. p. 19 September 1962.’. Monthly Film Bulletin. Persson. ed. Hubert L. New York Times. Jeune Cinéma. Winter Light. 196-202. Temps Modernes. (Ø 1100). Cowie. contains a review of the film by Stig Björkman. Mulac. 3 (Winter 1962/63): 38-39. p. 171-82. (Ø 1657). 1982. Variety 3 January 1962. Journal of the University Film Association 1(Winter) 1981: 23-37. Ingmar Bergman. Robin. p. pp. 26-27. p. Sight and Sound 32. p. Special Studies French. 34. 37. no. pp. 34 (June 1994): 68-72. 14 (April 1962). Frank. no. Time. Ingmar Bergman. pp. Schlappner. Birgitta in ‘Bergman’s Movement towards Nihilism’. Movie. R. 14 March 1962. Fact Sheets and Special Journal Issues Cineforum. Revista del cinematografo 36. Saturday Review 17 March 1962. pp. Chaplin. 77-133. and 18 May 1963. Wood. no. Part of the same material appears in Cinema Nuovo. 63-78. by Robert Rovinsky and John Weinstock. Ingmar Bergman. New York Herald Tribune. 45:1 and NYT Film Reviews. In The Hero in Scandinavian Literature. 3. 8 (1962). same date. p. F. a special issue on Como in uno specchio. Arthur. Le monde. 96-113. no. Gibson. (Ø 1546). The Passion of Ingmar Bergman.Synopses. no. ‘Die Trilogie der Anfechtung’ in author’s Filme und ihre Regisseure. which also 251 . Commentaries and Reception Record Filmkritik no. pp. no. Gervais. The Silence of God. 6 (January 1963). 159 (September–October 1962). 1 (Winter 1974): 22-29 see Ø 1252 Lundell. D. 6 (July 1964): 255-58 (analysis of philosophical progression of the Trilogy). Gado. 26 March 1962. 375-78. 1986. 1969. and The Silence). (Ø 1432). ‘Three Literary Sources for Through a Glass Darkly’. Holden. bio-presentation of Bergman. 1913-1968. CineAction. 1993. Ingmar Bergman. (Ideology referred to in title is ‘a suspect ideology of Love out of someone else’s anguish’). 198 (November 1962). 1999. 8 (June-July) 1965. pp. ‘Husband and Wives in Bergman’s Films’. Martin. no. Magician and Prophet. Birgitta. 17 March 1962. January 1963.. 4. Credits. 3311-3312. p. pp. Huber. Tony. 1969. 21. 5. (Bern: H. Literature/Film Quarterly II.

1 (Winter 1964). Brussels: Cedoc-Film and Amsterdam: Centraal Filmberaad. 10 April 1962. pp. Milan (22 April 1965). review excerpts. has had an affair with Miss Fanny. and Kosmorama. SR (Swedish Public Radio) discussed the matter briefly in ‘Dagens eko’. Image et son. Kosmorama. including retrospective evaluation by Jörn Donner. Both men are anxious not to reveal their liaisons. pp. no. Röster i Radio-TV no. no. no. Hurt and disillusioned by her lover’s ambivalent attitude. though the whole town knows about them. Franzén is the author. He sends for Miss Fanny’s 20-year-old daughter. W. no. is an Italian fact sheet on Come in uno specchio. 102-105.. 52-56.ed. The book sells out in no time. and proudly introduces Fanny to the townspeople. 56 (February 1962). See also Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). Svensk filmografi. But they frown upon the whole matter. 3-13 and 42-56. 91-97. pp. Sw. no date. 42 (1970). listing openings worldwide. Mr.. Centro S. see Varia. 11 pp. Miss Astrid and Mr. no. n. no. pp. is a dossier with credits and other information on the film. and a bibliography. 232. pp. After Såsom i en spegel received an Oscar as Best Foreign Film. In the meantime Fanny’s daughter falls in love with the local pastor and becomes secretly engaged. 1-7. Miss Fanny decides to leave town. Télé-Ciné. Lundberg has a mistress. 226 (March) 1969. Media C.. a waitress at the local hotel. 24. (Guido Aristarco) on Kierkegaardian aspects of the film. pp. ‘Secrets of the Heart’. 22-23. Film a Sogetto. C. pp. 1961 [The Garden of Eden]. 1-11.d. is devoted to A travèrs le miroir. pp. Eastmancolor Director Screenplay Alf Kjellin Buntel Ericsson (joint pseudonym for Ingmar Bergman and Erland Josephson) Synopsis For several years Samuel Franzén. but encouraged by Miss Astrid. Etudes cinématographiques. a high school teacher in a small Swedish town around the turn of the last century. pp. Zurbuch edited a special program for West German release of the film. La Biennale 7. pp. At first Franzén denies having anything to do with the book. Lundberg spreads the rumor that Mr. Lundberg have an argument and break off their liaison. and Franzén begins to regret his action. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). he reveals his poetic ambitions and his affair with Miss Fanny. 120 (March 1965).A. 65-66. When the bookstore receives a few copies of a romantic collection of poetry. 16 pp. who has been living with her grandmother. Awards 1962: American Motion Picture Academy Award (Oscar) for Best Foreign Film For additional awards. issued by Nora Filmverleih.Chapter IV Filmography has an article entitled ‘L’aut-aut di David nell’opera di Bergman’ by G. 252 . 137 (Spring) 1978:59-61. Miss Astrid who manages the town bookstore. 105. no. Western Humanities Review. 160-72. Fedelle dello Spettacolo. LUSTGÅRDEN. 174-186. 48 (1963): 29-44. July 1962. 46-47 (1966). His colleague Mr. credits. plot synopsis.

her daughter Lundberg Ellen Astrid Emil. and they are reconciled. She prefers that they go back to their old arrangement. Arboga. Distribution Running time Released Premiere Svensk Filmindustri 93 minutes 5 December 1961 26 December 1961. beginning early summer 1961 and completed late summer 1961. Mr. 253 . Franzén. But Miss Fanny refuses to marry Mr. nos.Synopses. Fanfaren and Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) Commentary The script of Lustgården was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. Brusén Policeman Filmed on location at Vadstena. Franzén soon discovers he needs Miss Fanny and asks her to marry him. young Pastor Liljedahl Wibom Innkeeper Berta Ossian The volunteer Bishop Mayor Principal Principal’s wife Postmaster Dr. and at Råsunda Studios in Stockholm. Lundgren Erik Nordgren Lars Lalin Ulla Ryghe Gunnar Björnstrand Sickan Carlsson Bibi Andersson Stig Järrel Hjördis Petterson Kristina Adolphson Per Myrberg Gösta Cederlund Torsten Winge Lasse Krantz Fillie Lyckow Jan Tiselius Stefan Hübinette Sven Nilsson Rolf Nystedt Sten Hedlund Stina Ståhle Lars Westlund Ivar Uhlin Birger Sahlberg Cast David Franzén Fanny Anna. Credits Production company Production manager Director Artistic advisor Screenplay Photography Architect Music Sound Editor Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Alf Kjellin Ingmar Bergman Buntel Ericsson (joint pseudonym for Ingmar Bergman and Erland Josephson) Gunnar Fischer P. Credits. Lundberg approaches Miss Astrid. illustrated with photographs from the film. Skänninge. Commentaries and Reception Record Mr. 3-7/1962.A.

a weather for catching colds. Walking across the backyard at Film Teknik I saw the critics streaming out. 1970. Only a few parishoners are present. (See Ø 1498. grey and dark. He insisted that SF buy new projectors for the opening of the film at Röda Kvarn to avoid ‘piss yellow and cadaver blue shades’ [pissgult och likblått ljus]. set in the present. 17). wintry light. den lättaste att förlåta] (Röster i RadioTV. The Communicants. a compound noun meaning ‘guests at the last supper’. a nonbeliever. however. She gives an account of how she. began to pray for a cure of her eczema after Tomas had failed to do so. förkylningsväder och gråmörkt. Winter Light. A bitter northerly wind. storm och snöglopp. And I said to myself: This film is dead!’ [Det var en ohygglig dag. 1990. and the sexton Mr. Märta Lundberg arrives with hot coffee and sandwiches. Tomas who has a bad cold dozes off.] It was an extraordinary gathering of black ravens who had watched our little summer comedy. Fredrik Blom. 13. Erland Josephson comments briefly on the origin of the pseudonym Buntel Ericsson in the memoir collection Rollen. which is shot in a bleak. the church organist. a middle-aged widower. Bergman was engaged in the project and particulary sensitive about it. who is in love with Tomas. his head and arms resting on the table. He reveals his angst. among them the local schoolteacher Märta Lundberg. Bergman commented on the event: ‘It was a terrible day: snow storm and slush. Tomas shows only irritation.Chapter IV Filmography Though Lustgården was not directed by Ingmar Bergman but by Hollywood emigré Alf Kjellin during a return visit to his native Sweden. Bergman was right but claims he has retained a certain faiblesse for the film. [. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman The American title. fisherman Jonas Persson and his wife. Sanningslekar. NATTVARDSGÄSTERNA. 368 (from Sanningslekar). 1963 [Winter Light/The Communicants]. this being his first attempt to use color film. Jag kom över gården utanför Film-Teknik när kritikerskaran strömmade ut. referring to it in the same interview as ‘an almost white sin. the church warden.. Algot Frövik. p. Jonas Persson suddenly appears. took place on the Råsunda Film-Teknik premises and was apparently a disaster. the easiest one to forgive’ [en nästan vit synd. Märta leaves. The press showing. Though visibly upset over the letter..] Det var en enastående samling svarta korpar som hade sett vår sommarlätta lilla komedi. After the communion. The British title. Synopsis The film. Aronsson. 254 .. his feeling that God has abandoned him. The camera shifts to a long close-up of Märta’s face as she recites the letter. no. Föreställningar. Och jag sa till mig själv: ‘Den filmen är död’!]. [. En hård nordostan. 233. but Tomas can only respond by talking about his own anguish. but seems very abstract in comparison to the poetic Swedish word. p. is well chosen in terms of the landscape and mood of the film.. is the dictionary meaning of the Swedish title. and his wife suggests that he come back to church alone later. opens with a service in Mittsunda church where Tomas Eriksson. is officiant. fisherman Persson and his wife come to see the pastor. In an interview in connection with a 1970 TV showing of the film. Tomas ponders the photographs of his dead wife. She ends by asking Tomas to use her.) The film has never been released internationally. Persson is depressed. then opens a letter that Märta has sent him earlier. in which she reveals her agony over her unrequited love for Tomas.

Tomas pays a visit to Mrs. together they head back to the schoolhouse where Märta lives in an upstairs apartment. Tomas begins to tell Märta of his past.A. Frövik has read the Gospels and has come to the conclusion that his own prolonged physical suffering is probably comparable to the physical pain endured by Christ on the cross. While Frövik talks to Tomas. 14. asks for peace of mind for both of them. Märta later joins him. When Märta returns. An old woman enters and informs them that Jonas Persson has shot himself down by the rapids. he has a brief and stilted conversation with Tomas. who advises her to leave and seek employment elsewhere. Tomas stays below in the classroom. including God himself. in Heaven as on Earth. kneeling in a pew. The film ends as Tomas pronounces the words of the church ritual: Holy. Commentaries and Reception Record Jonas Persson leaves. was his sense of being abandoned by all those he loved. A boy comes in to get a book.Synopses. Lundgren Stig Flodin Evald Andersson Nos. Back in the car. The last part of the film takes place inside the church at Frostnäs. Tomas again shows his irritation over her concern for him. sexton 255 . Credits. Märta cries but later (upon Tomas’s request) accompanies him to the church at Frostnäs for the afternoon service. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Assistant directors Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Sound effects Music Costumes Make-up Props Editor Continuity Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Lars-Owe Carlberg Ingmar Bergman Lenn Hjortzberg. Vilgot Sjöman Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist P. The rheumatic Algot Frövik comes to talk with Tomas. calling the congregation to service. and Märta returns. but no one has come to church. stop ringing. Persson and informs her of her husband’s death. On the way there. While Märta goes to fetch some medicine. Thy Name be Honored. holy. Under such circumstances Tomas could cancel the service but decides to conduct it. Christ’s real suffering. 400 in Swedish hymn book from 1937. holy. 520. His decision comes at the same time as Märta. Märta listens to the organist Blom. Tomas breaks down coughing and crying in Märta’s arms before the altar. Postludium (Johan Morén) Mago (Max Goldstein) Börje Lundh Karl-Arne Bergman Ulla Ryghe Katherina Faragó Gunnar Björnstrand Ingrid Thulin Max von Sydow Gunnel Lindblom Allan Edwall Olof Thunberg Kolbjörn Knudsen Cast Pastor Tomas Ericsson Märta Lundberg Jonas Persson Karin Persson Algot Frövik Fredrik Blom. but the noise from a passing freight train drowns his voice. 508. organist Knut Aronsson. says Frövik. The church bells. Tomas leaves in the car to help take care of Jonas’s body.

6-10/1963. 14. an excerpt from the shooting of Nattvardsgästerna was shown in segment 14 (SVT.. see (Ø 1100). pp. p. 256-274. 18. schoolboy Stefan Larsson. which contains two reviews of the film. nos. p. pp. p. illustrated with photographs from the film. In a series of TV programs called ‘Återsken’ (Reflections) by Lennart Ehrenborg. 55-58. filmed only in fog and cloudy weather.. and a somewhat boring one for the religiously indifferent. no.Chapter IV Filmography Old woman in church Johan Åkerblom. See Lillie Björnstrand. 14). SR (Swedish Public Radio) reported on the same subject in ‘Dagens eko’.’ In his review of the film in DN (12 February 1963. 6. (See Ø 1685. 1975 (Ø 1263). Variety. Mauritz Edström – though praising the film’s artistry – referred to Bergman as a ‘religiously infected’ person. baker Doris. Inc. farmer Hanna Appelblad. NYC Commentary The script to Nattvardsgästerna was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. The shooting of Nattvardsgästerna seems to have been troublesome for actor Gunnar Björnstrand. p. 3 October 1961 (Bergman interviewed by Lennart Swahn). 264. Bergman writes about the film in Bilder/Images (1990). her five-year-old daughter Johan Strand. policeman Persson’s daughter Persson’s son A man Two boys Elsa Ebbesen-Thornblad Tor Borong Bertha Sånnell Helena Palmgren Eddie Axberg Lars-Owe Carlberg Ingmari Hjort Stefan Larsson Johan Olafs Lars-Olof Andersson. Christer Öhman Filmed on location in Dalarna. beginning 4 October 1961 and completed 14 January 1962. Distribution U. opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. 35 (February 1963). summed it up: ‘An extremely moving and fascinating film for the religiously aware. 19 January 1962. He describes Nattvardsgästerna.S. one by Lutheran pastor 256 . same matter also discussed in Expr. later issued in paperback as Filmberättelser 1 (1973). p. Filmmaker Vilgot Sjöman who followed the entire shooting of the film later published his extensive notes as L-136: Dagbok. a Catholic convert cast as a doubting Protestant minister. 20 March 1963. 80 minutes 19 November 1962 11 February 1963.S. Inte bara applåder. For a similar mixed response to film. 25 October 1975. and by Bergman in Bilder/ Images (1990). The script was published in book form in En filmtrilogi (1963). 2 December 2003. in a way that confirms a common (nonSwedish) view of his filmmaking as a whole: ‘Det är den svenska mänskan vid den svenska verklighetens slut och den svenska väderlekens lågpunkt’ [It is the Swede at the end of Swedish reality and at the low point of Swedish weather]. Björnstrand’s daughter Gabriella touched on the subject in Expr. and at Råsunda Studios. Skattunge Church in Orsa. 4. Beekman Theater. see Chaplin.) Reception Nattvardsgästerna has remained a film with a rather narrow but special appeal. Reportage from filming of Nattvardsgästerna appeared in DN. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. p. 18 October 1979). oscillating between faith and doubt whose world view had few contemporary followers. Fontänen and Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 13 May 1963.

257 . Guido Oldrini discussed Tomas Ericsson’s crisis in terms of the Protestant emphasis on individual salvation rather than on symbolic congregational rites. In Cinema Nuovo. Available at Department of Literature. J. and Strindberg. 11 February). the pastor’s role depicted a psychological transference of the concept of God from father-fixation to mother-dependence. nos. Credits. nos. 7 (1963).E. 2 (February 1963): 158-61. 18 May 1963. With the exception of Henry Hart in Films in Review 14. ST. 163 (May-June 1963). 22. Handelsblad. and Judith Crist in the New York Herald Tribune. review excerpts. 24. for whom Winter Light redeemed all previous Bergman films. 16 pp. no. Fedelle dello Spettacolo. Göteborg bishop Bo Giertz commented on Nattvardsgästerna as a deeply degrading document on the church (GP. p. Articles appeared in church publications Vår kyrka. pp. Bergman responded on Swedish Radio. no. 12 February 1963 (AB. 11.R. no. 14). p. BLM 32. Lidström and L. p. 25 February 1963. 110 typed pp. 6 July 1973 (p. p. To Sven E. 10. no. 26 February 1963. A Dutch reassessment of the film was published in 1988 by Willem Jan Otten. Milan (23 April 1965). the other by agnostic author Margaretha Ekström. Lund University. 21 April 1963. and between Leif Furhammar and T. Centro S. 5 (May 1963): 51-55. 166 (November-December 1963). followed by interview comments by four ministers of the Swedish Lutheran State Church (a fifth minister. 9. ‘Fantomen op kousevoeten’ in N. vad rör oss prästerna?’ [B. listing openings worldwide. The most thorough discussion of Nattvardsgästerna outside of Sweden took place in Italy and the U. while Brendan Gill in the New Yorker. In an interview. Olsson in Scen och salong 48. See also group item ‘Religious Approaches to Bergman’s Filmmaking’ (Ø 997). Commentaries and Reception Record Ludvig Jönsson. 98 (A. 1 & 4. referred to Bergman as ‘Sweden’s cinematic poltergeist haunting the dark and chilly corridors where Man loses God’. Lundberg in UNT. A debate on religious implications of the film was published in the Lutheran state church magazine Svensk Pastoral Tidskrift. Lönnroth wrote a joint reception study of Swedish public response to Nattvardsgästerna: ‘Ingmar Bergmans film Nattvardsgästerna’ (with summary in English). no. p. saw Luci d’inverno as a paradoxical film about atheism played out in a religious setting. 5 (1963) pp. Henriksson in Ergo (Uppsala University student publication). 12 February 1963. pp. 2. titled ‘Bergman. Kaj Munk. American press reception of the film was rather negative. no. dismissed the film as ‘the latest installment of Ingmar Bergman’s running debate with God’. 1963. 24 May 1963. see comment entitled ‘Ingmar Bergman och kritiken’ by Robin Hood in ST.. p. 5 (May 1963): 299-301. portrayed as a Christ figure. B. pp. Time.Synopses. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. 1963.C. 7 October 1988. 27 February 1963. 1969.O. Vi no. See also discussion by theologians M. is an Italian fact sheet on Luci d’inverno. 40). p. Film a Sogetto. Bengt Landgren published an article in DN. 32. 13. p. Bergman’s own father. no. Mario Verdone analyzes the film as an extension of literary works by Scandinavian writers Ibsen. 4 (1963): 22-23. theologian Hans Nystedt interpreted Nattvardsgästerna as a religious parable with Märta Lundberg. In Bianco e nero 24. and Evangeliskt drama. Renzo Renzi in Cinema Nuovo. In SvD. 13 and 15. plot synopsis. and a bibliography.S. 1963: 9. declined to answer). no. 443-445. Lönnebo and P. the schoolteacher. See also review by Robin Hood. credits. 169-73. what concern to us are the priests?]. Jönsson. 3) comparing Bergman’s Nattvardsgästerna and the modernist work of Swedish poets Gunnar Ekelöf and Erik Lindegren. 6-7. 13 February 1963. 4. called Winter Light ‘bleak and cold in its abstract ideas’. 166-168. p. 14 May 1963.

56 (February 1962). pp. 35 (1963). Saturday Review. pp. 156 (June 1964). Ingmar Bergman. New Republic. pp. 52-55. pp. 11 May 1963. pp. 1972). 1960-1969. pp. no. 15-27 (interview). Filmkritik no. see Varia. Törnqvist. Awards 1964: David O. Sveriges Radio (SR). 1913-1968. p. no. Britt Hamdi. SvD. Frank Gado. Monthly Film Bulletin. Literature/Film Quarterly 10. 79. pp. American Film. Filmfacts. Jörn Donner in Svensk filmografi. 32:1 and NYT Film Reviews. Young. 5. 17 (July 1962): 681. 135-38. Kosmorama no. Cahiers du cinéma. pp. 166 (November-December 1963). 130-36. Torsten Jungstedt. F-Dienst XXX/11. no. 1986. 1962. ‘Wenn Filme Texte sind’. May 1977. and no. Hudson Review 16. pp. no. Vecko-Revyn. p. pp. June 1963. 1 (1982): 53-61. pp. 103-4. pp. Martyr and Bergman’s Winter Light’. 37 (1963). p. 1993. Télé-Ciné. ‘The Unbelieving Priest: Unamuno’s Saint Emmanuel the Good. February. J. pp. Cineforum. p. The Passion of Ingmar Bergman. 146. 214-16). 10 (1962). no. Films in Review 14. Marianne Höök. p. Jeune cinéma. Leif Zern. Longer discussions Lacy. 112-14. New York Times. ‘Från manus till film. no. pp. no. pp. Birgitta Steene. 26-27. Selznick Silver Laurel. no. 97. no. 226 (March) 1969. 37. p. 5. and no. 443-45. Simon. 168 (July 1965).Chapter IV Filmography Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma. 10 a-d. 258 . p. 85-87. 9 (June 1963): 27-28. 8 (June-July 1963). 1968. pp. Comolli. 182-94. – Ingmar Bergmans Nattvardsgästerna’. no. 102-108. pp. 88-89. 280-94.. no. 30-39. 27 May 1963. Hubert Cohen. 5 (May 1963): 299-301. 47-47 (1966). For additional awards. pp. Image et son. pp. Se Bergman. 56-75. 145-206. Vernon. Films and Filming 9. 21-23. 1994: 44-51. 3 (1963). ‘Films to Confirm Poets’. pp. Ingmar Bergman. 67 (October 1964). 56-58. pp. Filmbulletin no 196. 224-38. no. 19-23. Ingrid Thulin. 4 October 1961. 1995. 97-99. 35-36. Extensive analysis in Ingmar Bergman Directs 1972. Times (London). no. 124 (October 1965). See also Chaplin. Schreckenberg. pp. pp. Estève. ‘Biodags’. 99-102. 3 (1972). Sight and Sound. pp. 1 May 1963. Allen. Kosmorama. C. (Ø 1218). no. E. 14 May 1963. John. Cinema Nuovo. 23 May 1963. Cinéma 65. M. Summer 1963. Etudes cinématographiques. 21-29. pp. 138-40. 192 (March 1966). no. 2 (Summer 1963): 262-264 (reprinted in On Film: Unpopular Essays on a Popular Art (Chicago: Quadrangle Books. Newsweek. The Art of Confession. no. 3386-87. 18 May 1963. no.-L. p. Eqil. 2003 (Ø 1690). pp.

starts drinking. The game is interrupted by the arrival of the leader of the troupe. a man and woman fighting. Johan wakes up at the sound of air raid sirens.Synopses. Johan is in bed reading Lermontov’s A Hero of Our Time. Anna is ready to leave again. In the meantime. Upset. Johan comes to her bed and shares her meal. He spies on the old waiter but is discovered and invited to share a piece of chocolate with him. Angered. Anna tells her a story about making love in a church. He dresses. presumably his wife. He draws a picture of a sad face. while Ester. Ester goes to see Anna and Johan. face. Anna and Ester. The last sequence in the hotel depicts Ester resting in bed. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis The setting of Tystnaden is an imaginary foreign country. Ester goes in search of her sister. 1963 [The Silence]. Soon afterwards Anna announces that she and Johan are leaving to go home. Ester. The waiter gives him a set of photographs showing a woman. who sends Johan out of the room. such as kasi. She quarrels with Ester. Soon afterwards. coming in to check on him. The radio is on. she finally collapses on the floor. Johan comes to borrow cigarettes from Ester for his mother. Soon after arriving there. Bach is heard on the radio. Anna is enraged and hysterical. playing Bach. in an adjacent room. on a bier. then performs a pantomime with two hand puppets. Credits. Ester will stay behind. caressing them in their sleep. a groom. including a bride. When alone. where she attracts the attention of a waiter. Johan hides the pictures under the hotel carpet. learns of Anna’s meeting in the hotel with the café waiter. he pretends to shoot down an electrician who is repairing a light fixture in the ceiling. with Anna and Johan visible in the adjacent room. Anna has gone to a cabaret hall where the dwarfs are performing. while his mother opens the window to let the rain wash over her face. She learns a few words in the foreign language. Commentaries and Reception Record 234. hand. Johan is sent out of the room. Johan discovers a room occupied by a group of dwarfs. and the figure of Death. now dressed up in strange costumes. TYSTNADEN. Across the aisle from her. when Ester’s illness forces them to interrupt their journey and check into a hotel in a city named Timoka. and goes exploring in the hotel corridors. the film takes place in the hotel. He joins them in their funmaking and is dressed up in a girl’s frock. his lips barely moving. from an old waiter who brings her another bottle of liquor. Drinking and smoking. and naigo. are on their way home to Sweden with Anna’s young son Johan. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Lars-Owe Carlberg 259 . she falls down on her bed and begins to masturbate. Anna and Johan take an afternoon nap. Ester leaves but collapses outside the room. A bitter scene ensues. Johan says goodbye to his aunt and embraces her. She leaves and goes into a bar. Later. Ester has a severe attack of suffocation. Except for the opening on the train and a sequence in a cabaret hall and bar. Two sisters. She gives him a list of words in the foreign language. puts a toy pistol in his belt. The dwarfs pass her. The old waiter brings her fresh bedding and food. The last shot is a close-up of Johan. A painting depicting a satyr seducing a woman catches his attention. a couple is copulating. When she returns home. Left alone. Returning to her room. she is questioned by Ester about her whereabouts. The film ends as Johan is seen lip reading the list silently on the train.

Swedish Public Radio. pp. opening Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. Sing’ (text/music: Yellen/Pollack) Marik Vos Lundh Gullan Westfeldt Karl-Arne Bergman Ulla Ryghe Katherina Faragó Ingrid Thulin Gunnel Lindblom Kristina Olavsson Jörgen Lindström Håkan Jahnberg Birger Malmsten Olof Widgren Lissi Alandh Leif Forstenberg Birger Lensander Nils Waldt Eskil Kalling Karl-Arne Bergman The Eduardini Eduardo Gutierrez Costumes Make-up Props Editor Continuity Cast Ester Anna Double for Lindblom Johan Old waiter Anna’s lover Electrician in corridor Woman in cabaret Her lover Usher Cabaret doorman Bar owner Newspaper salesman Dwarfs Their manager Filmed at Råsunda Studios. 96 minutes 4 July 1963 23 September 1963 Fontänen and Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 3 February 1964. Lundgren Stig Flodin Ivan Renliden Excerpts from J. ‘Coffee Bean Calypso’. Baby. Distribution U. ‘Jazz Club’. 20 September 1963.S. 260 . and ‘Rock in the Rough’. an Estonian word meaning ‘Belonging to the Executioner’.S Bach’s ‘Goldberg Variations’. R. 104-112. beginning 9 July 1962 and completed 19 September 1962. ‘Club Cool’. Mersey’s ‘Mayfair Waltz’. Bergman discusses the genesis of the film in Bilder/Images. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. Stockholm. Inc. NYC Commentary The script’s working title was ‘Tiimoka’. Rialto and Translux East. Lenn Hjortzberg Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist P. 1990.S.Chapter IV Filmography Director Assistant directors Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Sound effects Music Ingmar Bergman Lars-Erik Liedholm. ‘Sing.A. He talks briefly about the film in a radio interview in program ‘Filmkrönika’ [Film Chronicle].

Inc. The February 19. Variety ran several notices on the actual running time of The Silence. See Kurt Almkvist’s article ‘“Tystnaden” och Hermesstaven’ [The Silence and the Hermes staff] in Horisont XI. But the head of the Censorship Board later revealed that he would have censured the film. 29 October 1963. p. pp. (2) an assessment of Bergman as a ‘film dictator’ whom no one dared oppose. and by Martin Ripkens in ‘Kein Licht im Winter’. Swedish magazine Året runt. This was corrected to 96 minutes in the issue of 19 February 1964. p. 2 October 1963. 16). The public debate followed three directions: (1) a moral approach. 32-34). is apparently false. Swedish media discussion was reported in Films and Filming. p 2. pp. December 1963. p. It also caused a debate in the Swedish Riksdag. 4-8/1967. pp. same date. 1964. pp. 24. Rumor that ten minutes of the original film were cut in U. Commentaries and Reception Record The script of Tystnaden was published in book form in En filmtrilogi (1963). The same commentary appears in Svensk Filmografi 6 (Ø 1314). 7. it passed uncut. and (3) a gender approach charging Bergman with sexism and hostility towards women’s liberation. no. if he alone had been in charge of the decision. p. 7. 66. listing the length as 105 minutes.E. 4. pp. Janus Films Inc. the first one on 6 October 1963. 24. 53-55. 1 December 1963. the Swedish author Sven Stolpe participated.. sec. 17. and 13 November 1963. p. 35. 7. 7. typescript. than any previous Bergman film. 1. pp. nos. Two influential editorial voices – Bo Strömstedt (Expr.. p. The script was also serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. which Janus Films. 10. University of Uppsala Department of Sociology. 1. no. illustrated with photographs from the film. 31. pp. 12. 7 October 1963. p. 6. (See SvD 3 November 1963.. 70. which either condoned or condemned the film. p. pp. Filmkritik. p. claimed that Tystnaden had made the Censorship Board an impossible institution. same paper. 1. the reason being that ‘Bergman did not try to force a pattern of salvation on the viewer’. for the latter this represented a shift in attitude towards Bergman’s filmmaking. no. and DN.. among others. 2.) The Swedish Ombudsman of Justice received several complaints on the issue (See ST. published an interview with Bergman about the film and its reception. 1964 issue of Variety also reports that Bergman edited a special ‘international’ version of the film. 15 November 1963. p. 18). 16 October and 25 November 1963. 261 . the same paper reported that the film had been seen in Sweden by 1. 30 October and 3 December 1963 (printed protocols A4. 12. 60) (very glib). (p. 12. 50 pp. 10-11. p.S. Becoming a test case for the Swedish Censorship Board. 1964. 1. Lagercrantz’ assessment of Tystnaden as a non-religious work of art was attacked in an article by Torsten Strömner (‘Ingmar Bergmans nihilism’) in the journal Origo 4.Synopses. 3 November 1963. NYT. Swedish public reaction to Tystnaden is the subject of a sociological paper by Jan Ekecrantz. Credits. 154. both in Sweden and abroad. See the following press sources: Dagen. An editorial in Expr. 1964. Expr. no. later issued in paperback as Filmberättelser 1 (1973). 33-39. 17 (1964).. Time. 3 November 1963) and Olof Lagercrantz (DN. in which. 1. lists length at 95 minutes. American distributor of The Silence. 1. p. and 4 October 1963. 68. 1964: 10-12. pp. On 17 November 1963 (p. On 14 January 1964. 9 November 1963. p. refused to accept. p. 28 September. no. but only a few frames were cut. claiming that Bergman’s film might serve as a warning and a deterrent against decadence.4 million people and had been sold to 19 countries. 1. 27 September 1963. no. Norwegian paper Morgenbladet (Oslo) carried on a debate about Tystnaden during the same period of time. and B5. 5. AB tried to summarize the vast number of articles and letters to the editor that the film had elicited. 29 October 1963) – defended the film. ‘Tystnaden och publiken: En sociologisk studie’. ST. 72 (A. 43-45. Reception Tystnaden caused more discussion. from then on ‘pornography of violence’ rather than ‘explicit eroticism’ was the key criterion in censoring films to be released in Sweden. 20).

Welt am Sonntag. 179. 11 (reporting on attempt by police chief in Braintree. 1 January 1964. 122-30. 3 (1964). 239-41 (preceded by article by psychiatrist Göran Persson on the Trilogy. Critical response to The Silence in the U. Chaplin. no.. 1990. no. pp. pp. Lundberg in Atlas. where it was discussed in the Bundestag and became a test case for West German Censorship Board. titled Das Schweigen und sein Publikum (Cologne: M du Mont Schauberg. He discusses the film in Bilder/Images. and excerpted West German reviews. pp. pp. Vi no. 9 (June 1964): 22. Filmfacts. 3 (Summer 1964). pp. 25 March 1964. 2 [1964]. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. 7 (1964): 4-5. pp. no. 8 July 1964. contains a report of the Bundestag discussion on the film. see Variety. also reports on West German debate and success of film. Variety. 21-23. 88. 154 (April 164). 286-89: ‘Bergman is a director who knows more and more about less and less. also a synopsis of the plot. see AB. 40 (1963). Gert H. ‘Ballade der Einsamkeit’. 119-21). Cinema Nuovo. 224-38). 187 pp. 31 March 1964. pp. 86 (May 1964). p. 2. p. Films and Filming 10. 66 (April 1964). Berliner Morgenpost. 18 (mostly on its economic success). Kosmorama no. NYT.S. 3 (March 1964): 176-78) to Stanley Kauffmann’s cautious assessment in New Republic. which contains the West German censorship statement. 168 (March-April 1964). 262 . 48 and no. 32 (February 1964). 12 March 1964. 15). ‘Das Schweigen soll für sich sprechen’. pp. two unsigned articles on the film and one signed by I. 1966. 115-17. 21). 25 March 1964 (p. Weltwoche. no. 1965). the first foreign country to purchase the film. See Film (München) 2. Film Comment. Cinéma 64. 684-87. pp. 20 March 1964. 29 March 1964.Chapter IV Filmography Bergman reports on receiving hate mail and threatening phone calls about Tystnaden.p. 166-69. 21 March 1964. 2 February 1964. no. 24-26. 40 (October 1963). For reports on the film’s reception in the U. 104-112. pp. Michael Salzer. no. ranged from Henry Hart’s dismissal of the film as ‘one of Ingmar Bergman’s sexploiters’ (Films in Review 15. 32 (1964) is a special issue on Das Schweigen. 10 pp. 10 (1963). pp. n. Die Information: Nachrichten für die Film Wirtschaft. pp. Atlas Filmhefte. pp. and 30 June (p. 27 May (p. 99-102. 168 (July 1965). BLM no. 460-61. p. pp. pp. 18. 117-22. Filmkritik no. 19). Tystnaden caused a controversy in a number of countries after its foreign release in 1964.’ The Argentinian distributor of Tystnaden received a one-year prison sentence (on probation) according to Expr. 22 February 1964. no. to stop showing of the film). especially in West Germany. Variety. Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma. pp. pp. pp. no. pp. no. Film Kritik Jahrbuch 65 (Emsderfen: Verlag Lechtl. Flatow. and Dieter Strunz. For the response to Tystnaden in Israel. 4 December 1964. Theunissen published a book-length study of West German public response to Tystnaden. 1965). reprinted in his A World on Film. 8 (October 1963). 42-44. 56-58.. Mass. 133-35. no. 48. p.S. 2 no. p. 153 (March 1964). no. 24 September 1963 (reviews by Robin Hood in ST and Mauritz Edström in DN were translated by H. 5. 52. and Filmkritik no. no. See Bergman on Bergman. p. There were several German interviews with Bergman on the same subject: ‘Ingmar Bergman bricht Schweigen’. Perspektiv no. Cineforum. 2 (1965). 37. p.. 6 (1964): 13-20. releasing the film uncut.

’ Journal of Academy of Child Psychology. 2 (November) 1996: 233-68. 45. 263 . 4 February 1964. producing no liberation from Christian dogma. no. 10. New York Herald Tribune. Revista del cinematografo 36. ‘The Word. 115 (February-April 1964). 32 pp. 91. Monthly Film Bulletin. ‘Meningen med ‘Tystnaden’’ [The meaning of ‘The Silence’]. Sight and Sound 33. 3444. Buzzonetti. 1913-1968. pp. ‘Tystnaden’. Brightman. ‘Analyse structurale: Le silence’. Abenius above). San Jose State University. but a deep sense of abandoment). Adams. 3 (Summer 1964): 142-43. 4 pp.Synopses. Margit. 38. 186 (March-April 1967).. Filmrutan 6. 3-11. 14 February 1964. no. no. 23 April 1964. Denk). 106-8. 1-50 (special issue with dialogue sequences). p. 104-7 (Guido Aristarco analyzes the film as a Borghesian form of atheism. 4 February 1964.W. Munich: Hanser. Lehman. pp. p. ‘The Silence: Disruption and Disavowal in the Movement beyond Gender’. 5. Scandinavica 35. Credits. 237 (February 1976). B. Time. pp. ‘Kan Kieslowski lösa Tystnadens gåta’ [Can K solve the riddle of The Silence?] Chaplin. 46-47 (reassessment of film). pp. Cineforum 4. (structuralist study of Johan’s ‘conversion’ from innocence to insight). Japan. Saturday Review. and silence in the film by E. Marilyn Johns. pp. Carol. 8 February 1964. 254. p. a review article by J. Gordon. 367-73. 28:1 and NYT Film Reviews. Commentaries and Reception Record Le monde. p. 10. p. reprinted in Kaminsky. pp. New Yorker. ‘Some Comments About Ingmar Bergman’s The Silence and its Sociocultural Implications. 239-52. the Image and The Silence’. 150 leaves. 4 (Summer 1964). Amis de la télévison. Times (London). 32 (February 1964): 120-73 (special issue on Il silenzio with excerpts from scenario. L’Avant-scène du Cinéma. 1975 (Ø 1266). 18 March 1964. 123-25 (sees Johan as a contemporary Everyman figure and the old waiter as a naive representation of God. no. pp. K. 12 (Spring 1965). ed. p. 70. 21 July 1966 (English transl. no. Sidney P. p. pp. cf. Comuzio). Film Culture 76 (June) 1992. B. and discussion of music. no. ‘The Silence’. June 1964. R. Business Week. M. Télé-Ciné no. ‘Symbolical Understanding of Ingmar Bergman’s Tystnaden’. p. Movie. 23. pp. p. no. no. Kieslowski. 1994: 26-30. 1995. Film Quarterly 17. no. Burvenich. June-August 1966. J. 2 October 1963 (sign. Brussels. BLM 33. sound.A. by Vernea Lueken. Institut national supériur des arts du spectacle et technique de diffusion. Hiroshi. Blackwell. 6 (July 1964): 255-58 (analysis of philosophical progression of the Trilogy).. Hamilton. in SFI library). 1969. 35-38. 8 February 1964. 128-30 (on financial success of film). thesis. Also in Kinoerzählungen. Longer Review Articles and Special Journal issues Abenius. Labraaten. 37 (15 May 1964). no. no. 10 (December) 1963: 820-822 (pursues religious symbolism in film and sees waiter as an obsolete and powerless God figure). 4 (1963). Variety. p. New York Times. ‘Perceiving Ingmar Bergman’s The Silence through I Ching’. Cinema Nuovo no. Lee. pp. 1995. 22 February 1964.

pp. ‘Bergman’s Movement towards Nihilism’. review excerpts. Fedelle Spettacolo. 45 pp. Cinema (Zurich). Birgitta. listing openings worldwide. in Persona. pp. Olle ‘Kammarspels..Chapter IV Filmography Some stills from Ingmar Bergman’s films can serve as emblematic samples of his filmmaking: the shot of the knight playing chess with Death in the Seventh Seal. Sjögren. pp. SFI library. 34. Photo shows Kari Sylwan as Anna and Harriet Andersson as Agnes. no. 496-517. H. Commonweal. Fact Sheets Film a Sogetto. no. F. Milan (30 July 1965). 209-12. Centro S. credits. available in stencil. Institute of Literary Science. 155 (May 1964).. 264 . the split face of the two women. no. 156 (June 1964). and the pietà scene in Cries and Whispers when the maid Anna takes the dying Agnes in her lap. (Courtesy: SFI) Sammern-Frankenegg. and a bibliography. Scandinavian Studies 45. 39 (1964). p. Italian fact sheet on Il silenzio. in The Hero in Scandinvian Literature. and no. 83-88. 20 pp. 30-39. Cahiers du cinéma. University of Uppsala.och trilogibegreppen i Ingmar Bergmans filmtrilogi’ [Chamber play and trilogy concepts in Bergman’s film trilogy]. 85 (April 1964). Steene. 29 May 1964. See also Abraham. plot synopsis. no. pp. 3 (Summer 1977): 301-10. Cinéma 64. Elisabeth and Alma. 1975 (Ø 1269). ‘Learning “A Few Words in a Foreign Language”: Ingmar Bergman’s “Secret Message” in the Imagery of Hand and Face’.

87-105. Playboy. Koskinen. 1967). P. 36-44. N. 265 . Apprehensive. pp. no. and Adelaide. Frank. 25 March (p. Hamilton. Commentaries and Reception Record Gado. pp. Cornelius is seen arriving at Felix’s house to collect material for his biography. pp. 52). University College Quarterly (East Lansing). in Jordbävningen i Lissabon [Earthquake in Lisbon] (Stockholm: Raben & Sjögren. Spel och speglingar. 1986. Cornelius jumps out a window. The Passion of Ingmar Bergman. but before he can put his threat into action. pp. Variety. 30-33. As a last resort. 19). W. mistaking him for Felix. Prophet and Magician. 63-78. 1968.. This results in an amorous affair. B. though the viewers never see Felix. FÖR ATT INTE TALA OM ALLA DESSA KVINNOR. Cornelius learns that Felix will play his composition. 3 June (p. Motive. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). but is refused access to the music room by Isolde. 18). He meets Cecilia. 1968). pp. 21). Felix is already forgotten. pp. 1978 (Ø 1317). He is accosted by Felix’s ‘widows’. and so is his biographer. he looks up Bumblebee but gets lost and ends up kissing Beatrice. Passing by his lit de parade are all the women of importance in his life and his manager Jillker. pp. Gervais.Synopses. 239-45. 235. the chambermaid. Image et son. O.. (Ø 1552).. and part of his manuscript disappears. 14’. 8 July (p. pp. and additional notices on 26 February (p. Hartman. 295-307. 1 January 1964 (pp. only to encounter Adelaide firing shots at busts that resemble Felix. or Abstraction No. Film (München). Kosmorama 24. 2. Jillker now threatens to resign. Felix dies. places a manuscript on Felix’s body. Cornelius escapes to warn Felix. Steene. no. Cornelius flees again. Eastman Color Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman. which touches off a spectacular fireworks display. Svensk filmografi. pp. After Felix’s death. Ingmar Bergman. 158-67. pp. M. Jillker persuades Cornelius to dress up as a woman in order to get close to Felix. The women flock around him.M. Felix’s wife. The scene is photographed by Jillker. Cornelius examines his manuscript and is forced to admit that he has not captured Felix’s personality. a famous musician. The next morning Cornelius wakes up in Bumblebee’s bed and discovers a woman dressed in black who is about to murder him. 133-34. ‘The Song of the Fish. no. pp. He succeeds. pp. M. Cornelius. The next day. Penlington. 2 (November 1966). 137 (Spring) 1978: 59-61. June 1964. A young man enters the scene. no. which is depicted as a dance to tango music to appease the censors. as well as Bumblebee who shows him the master bedroom. In the evening. 3 (1966). 1993. 43-44. in Filme und ihre Regisseure (Bern: Hans Huber. 104-117 & passim. Marc.. 1999. no. 11). His biographer. 226 (March) 1969: 58-59. dropping his cigar. Schlappner. the musician’s young cousin. Ladiges. 80-86. 6 (February-March 1964). Ingmar Bergman. Erland Josephson Synopsis The plot catalyst is the death of Felix. In a flashback. 1964 [Not to speak about all these women/All These Women]. 61-68. 152-54. Felix’s accompanist. 61-63 (June-August 1964). Positif no. Motbilder. pp. Credits.

3 in D minor’. Båstad.S. Lars-Erik Liedholm Lars-Owe Carlberg Doris Funcke. Cecilia Drott Ulla Ryghe Katherina Faragó Jarl Kulle Bibi Andersson Harriet Andersson Eva Dahlbeck Karin Kavli Gertrud Fridh Mona Malm Barbro Hiort af Ornäs Allan Edwall Georg Funkquist Carl Billquist Jan Blomberg Göran Graffman Jan-Olof Strandberg Gösta Prüzelius Ulf Johanson. selections from J.Chapter IV Filmography Credits Production Company Production manager Studio manager Director Assistant directors Screenplay Photography Architect Propman Sound Sound effects Music Svensk Filmindustri Allan Ekelund Lars-Owe Carlberg Ingmar Bergman Lenn Hjortzberg. Axel Düberg. Distribution U. distribution Running time Released Svensk Filmindustri Janus Films. Inc. southern Sweden. Lundgren Karl-Arne Bergman P. Offenbach’s ‘La belle Hélène’.S.O. Beethoven’s ‘Adelaide’. Yvonne Igell Orchestration Costumes Make-up Editor Continuity Cast Cornelius Bumblebee Isolde Adelaide Madame Tussaud Traviata Cecilia Beatrice Jillker Tristan A Young Man English radio reporter French radio reporter German radio reporter Swedish radio reporter Men in black Chauffeur Waitresses: Filmed on location at Norrviken’s Gardens. Massenet’s ‘Thaïs’. ‘Suite no. Britt Falkemo. Erland Josephson Sven Nykvist P.A. Frank Silver (music)-Irving Cohen (text): ‘Yes! We have no bananas’ Charles Redland Mago (Max Goldstein) Börje Lundh. 3 in C major’ and ‘Suite no. Pettersson Evald Andersson Erik Nordgren. Bach. and at Råsunda Studios. beginning 21 May 1963 and completed 24 July 1963. Lars-Erik Liedholm Ingmar Bergman. 80 minutes 28 May 1964 266 .

was a costly enterprise. no. Sight and Sound 34. 7-10. 35:1 and NYT Film Reviews. who regarded the film as a complex statement on the function of art and the artist as a genius. pp. 93 (February 1965). Centro S. and a bibliography. pp.7 million Swedish crowns).S. 527-28. with his highest budget so far (1. p. Milan (7 November 1965). It was also a kind of ‘test case’ for his lab experimentation with color (ST 13 July 1963. För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor. p. review excerpts. See F. 8 pp. October 1964. pp. He claimed he had wanted to attack not just the critics but also a type of ‘puffed up’ [uppblåst] artist. Bergman held a press conference about the film on 11 July 1963. (För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor is discussed on pp. 19 June. 22) that All These Women ‘might sell because of Bergman’s name’ but that ‘there was not much chance of success’.Synopses. Fedelle dello Spettacolo. is an Italian fact sheet on Per non parlare di tutte questa donne. no. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 5 October 1964. Cinema Village. 12 July 1963. Kovac’s report in Films in Review. Commentary to entry Ø 227. no. thus confirming Variety’s prediction (1 July 1964. see Cinéma 65. 109-10. För at inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor was shown at the Venice Film Festival in 1964. response to the film: ‘If Homer nods. 254-58. pp. nos. In response to this. illustrated with photographs from the film. is indicative of the U. Såsom i en spegel). 4. 1913-1968. pp. pp. Judith Crists’s review in the New York Herald Tribune. 7-10. 19. 267 . Film a sogetto. Ingmar Bergman was interviewed about this in Se no. 3497. they were more generous than the daily press and called the film elegant. SR (Swedish Public Radio). why not Ingmar Bergman? But the trouble is the Swedish master has not only nodded – he has fallen fast asleep. asked three critics (L. August-September 1964. pp. cf. 10 (December 1964): 637. Bianco e nero. plot synopsis. 6 October 1964. See also DN. Film received SFI Quality Subsidy of Skr 153.) English and American critics were mostly negative. 117-18. no. no. Time. Björkman) to review the film. Commentaries and Reception Record Premiere U. listing openings worldwide. Chaplin. Only the French seem to have liked it. New York Times. see Tom Milne. Krantz. 10 (1964). 48 (1964). NYC Commentary The script was serialized as a novella in Swedish magazine Allers Familjejournal. 25-29/1964. claimed that the film confirmed Bergman’s total lack of humor. 16 June 1964 Foreign Reviews Bianco e nero. On same occasion he was interviewed by news program ‘Dagens eko’. 6 October 1964. and seductive. Credits. Mario Verdone gave it an extensive review in an article titled ‘Bergman ad Antonioni’. 109-10. 4 min. 7-29. 26 (1964). 8 (August-September) 1964. the first color film directed by Ingmar Bergman. p.. 1 (Summer 1965): 146-47. 458.’ For a rare positive review of All These Women. but was no international success.535 in 1964. 90 (November 1964). and S. T. no. and boring. pp. p. credits. 9 October 1964. humorous. 32-33 (‘Jag gjorde filmen i hat och förakt’ [I made the film in hatred and disdain]).S. who found it artificial. Manns. no. p. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. though Cinéma 64. p. Filmkritik. Films in Review 15. Reception För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor did not fare well among Swedish press critics. 9. spiteful. p. opening 15 June 1964.

Alma gives herself a pep talk about her own life: she is engaged to be married. Leirens. followed by seemingly disconnected shots in rapid sequence: a shorn lamb. 4 (1975). Alma introduces herself to her patient. no. A newscast shows a monk in Vietnam burning himself to death. pp. pp. See also Cahiers du cinéma. B/W Screenplay Director Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis Persona opens with a precredit segment of projector noise and an image of an old projector coal lamp. 59-60). Télé-Ciné no. Vogler’s nurse. Horrified. Ingmar Bergman. Cahiers du cinéma. spikes on a railing. The credits are displayed. 178-80. pp. Image et son. Movie no. Later. 1966. Monthly Film Bulletin. Filmfacts. Mrs. The doctor talks to Elisabet about her condition. 1 April 1965. J. Alma and Elisabet move to the doctor’s summer place on an island. 337-38. 9 (June 1965): 28. S. A boy and an older woman. Times (London). Films and Filming 12. Vogler tears to pieces an enclosed picture of her son. After having expressed doubts about her suitability as Mrs. no. While Elisabet remains mute. PERSONA. pp.Chapter IV Filmography Variety. and has become mute. 68-69. Later the same day she 268 . who does not respond. 16-18. an actress who has withdrawn from her profession and her family. 174-76. pp. 1 January 1965. Upon the doctor’s advice. and she has a job she likes. M. a woman’s face emerges slowly. Next are interior shots of a morgue. 236. 4 (1975). he gets up and begins to wipe the transluscent glass on a door. she tells of a sexual orgy in which she took part. 119 (January-February 1965). 289-90. Doneux. both seemingly dead. Elisabet retreats into a corner of the room. no. 1 July 1964. 226 (March 1969). a snowy parklike setting. no. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). alone in the room. Cowie. pp. 11-19. a young nurse. pp. 1982. 22. pp. Next Alma reads a letter to Elisabet from her husband. pp. 176-177 (September-October 1964). 144-45. 161-62 (January 1965). Positif. The film now shifts to a hospital. p. May 1965. no. 12. and no. 145-46. Kauffmann in A World on Film. P. 5. she turns on the TV set. Alma becomes more and more talkative. APEC – Revue belge du cinéma. At home in bed. a nail driven into a hand. 159 (October 1964). 228-29 (May-June 1975): 37. is being briefed by a doctor about the case of Elisabet Vogler. 44-45. no. A Critical Biography. A phone rings sharply. Moments later. She turns on the radio to Bach music. interspersed with rapid shots from the precredit sequence and recurring flashes of the face of the boy. pp. Bergman’s voice-over describes their life as harmonious. Amis du film et de la télévision. suggesting that her silence is just another role she has assumed. 13 (Summer 1965): 6-9. an animated drawing of a girl rowing upside down. a crawling spider. Elisabet covers her face with her hand while the camera gradually darkens and obliterates her features. which she will soon discard. no. the boy wakes up and tries in vain to go back to sleep. 66 (January 1965). After an evening of drinking. lie on beds covered with sheets. pp. Svensk filmografi. 91. 220-23. pp. p. no. there are distant sounds of hospital utensils and of dripping water. Alma.

The same night. she departs alone by bus. yet also realizes her own histrionic behavior. the arc lamp is extinguished. in the kitchen. At this point in her story. Bach. Mrs. Alma hears Elisabet’s voice urging her to go to bed. Elisabet is seen walking fast on the beach. seated at a table. Alma takes Elisabet’s place in bed. Mr. That night. Next. Sitting at the kitchen table. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Sound effects Mixing Music Costumes Make-up Editor Svensk Filmindustri Lars-Owe Carlberg Bo A. On the table in front of Elisabet is the torn picture of her son. the camera projects the same scene from Elisabet’s angle. The film has ended. In the next scene.Synopses. The scene ends with the merging of the two faces into one.S. Alma reads a letter from Elisabet to her doctor. Alma slits her arm. Sitting opposite her. became pregnant. Indoors. Alma tells Elisabet that they are look-alikes. Entreating Elisabet to talk to her. In it Elisabet talks about her recovery and about Alma’s devotion to her. Alma’s composure breaks down as she begins to deny her likeness to Elisabet. both dressed in black. Credits. Observed by Alma. The film screen flickers. it shows the two women. Elisabet ignores her. The next scene takes place in the hospital room. the amplifier switched off. it is in slow motion and out of focus. But when Alma asks her about it the following day. the film strip breaks. which she has forgotten to seal. Elisabet seems at peace. Alma asks Elisabet to speak the word nothing. Commentaries and Reception Record made love to her fiancé. Vibenius Ingmar Bergman Lenn Hjortzberg Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist Bibi Lindström Karl-Arne Bergman P. Alma comes into the room dressed in a nurse’s uniform. now focusing on Alma’s face. Once adjusted. Excerpts from J. Later. Alma deliberately neglects to pick up some broken glass on the patio. and the scene ends with Alma crouching alone among the rocks. The second half of the film consists of scenes within an obscure narrative context. Alma and Elisabet are seen. ‘Violin Concerto in E major’ Mago (Max Goldstein) Börje Lund. her figure reflected in a pond. but had an abortion. Elisabet steps on a piece and cuts herself. Elisabet denies it. Next. embraced by Elisabet. A brief shot shows Elisabet in a film studio. Elisabet visits Alma in her bedroom. Back at the house. At this point. Alma breaks down crying. At this point of crisis. pursued by the stumbling Alma who asks for her forgiveness. when the film starts again. Vogler’s silence is broken. Vogler visits the two women. The projector lamp dies.O. The scene then shifts back to the summer house where Alma is carrying in garden furniture and locking up the house. Pettersson Evald Andersson Olle Jakobsson Lars Johan Werle. Drowsy with wine. Alma becomes hysterical. and Elisabet sucks her blood. Driving to post some mail. Alma begins to speak about Elisabet’s feelings for her child. Tina Johansson Ulla Ryghe 269 . Alma is restless. reading on the beach. she threatens Elisabet with a pot of boiling water and is triumphant when she elicits a frightened response. The scene ends with a shot of Alma in a slick raincoat.

NYT. At a press conference on Persona on 15 July 1965. 1990. April 8 2004. 2. pp. ‘Opus 27’. On 23 October 1966.. beginning 19 July 1965 and completed 15 September 1965. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. Bergman introduced ‘the gals’. French and German. p. 16 July 1965). 25) reported on Ingmar Bergman’s delay in shooting Persona because of prolonged illness. Stockholm.S. Liv Ullmann and Bibi Andersson (see Stockholm press. ‘Ingmar Bergman Tries New Theme’. See (Ø 153). together with Viskningar och rop/Cries and Whispers. p. Almost forty years later he comments on the film in a TV interview by Marie Nyreröd. Reception Reviews of Persona in Stockholm press were respectful. pp. He discusses the genesis of the film in Bergman om Bergman/B on B (Ø 788). 15 July 1964 (‘Dagens Eko’) about his early plans for the film. Ingmar Bergman. see Peter Cowie. 44-65. no. For a resume in English of the Swedish response. as his most successful challenge of the film medium. 1-13. pp. Chaplin. labeling the film a new artistic victory for Bergman. Film in Sweden. Olof Lagercrantz commented in DN (Sunday Sect. 20 October 1966. Spegeln (Stockholm) 6 March 1967 Commentary Persona had several working titles: ‘Sonat för två kvinnor’ [Sonata for two women]. On 21 April 1965. Two months later. ‘Ett stycke kinematografi’ [A piece of cinematography]. 228-31. contains excerpted reviews from the Swedish press and a presentation of the film in English. no.Chapter IV Filmography Continuity Kerstin Berg Liv Ullmann Bibi Andersson Margaretha Krook Gunnar Björnstrand Jörgen Lindström Cast Elisabet Vogler Alma The doctor The husband The boy Filmed on location on the island of Fårö and at Råsunda Studios. The script to Persona was published in book form in 1966. ‘Kinematografi’.e. and writes about Persona in Bilder (Images. SFI). 52. Chapter II. For the Ullmann-Bergman relationship during shooting of Persona. opening Svensk Filmindustri Lopert Pictures 84 minutes 31 August 1966 18 October 1966. i. pp. SVT. Distribution U. though hard to analyze. Search for details has been unsuccessful. A television spoof on Persona reportedly appeared in the late 1970s on Canadian SCTV. not signed) on what he called the ‘Person(a)kult’ among Swedish film critics. 366. The same news was published by Gerhard Meissel. 1982. used the same coined word in a 270 . Bergman was interviewed on Swedish TV by Gunnar Oldin. p. see W. ‘Um Ingmar Bergman wird es still. A Critical Biography. stating that he favors Persona. 212-21/195-98. In connection with the opening of Persona. later issued in paperback in Filmberättelser 2 (1973). 26 October 1966 (transcript available. but SCTV apparently ran a whole series of Bergman parodies. 3 (1966-67). Bergman was interviewed on Swedish Public Radio. Wiskari..’ Tagesspiegel. Variety (p. 23 May 1965.S. My Life in Film). 68 (1966).

Synopses. Ed. and C. For related discussion. have found a promising form. no. 1959] according to which our early religious impressions. 25. making a comparison to engagé writer Sara Lidman. p. part of the 1960s critique of Bergman. 30-33). suggesting that Bergman might be influenced by Hjalmar Sundén’s book Religionen och rollerna [Religion and role-playing. Time. Martin saw Persona as a study of the double. Both rejected Persona and other Bergman films as being too hermetic and incapable of exploring the contextual origin of the traumas affecting the characters. Persona was also the subject of a ‘revaluation’ by Lars-Olof Franzén in DN. 63). The critical implication was that Bergman’s reception had reached the stage of idolatry. Persona’s pre-credit sequence was shown with cuts (image of erect penis). religionen och rollerna’. Credits. contrasting it to Ansiktet. In marked contrast to the Swedish debate. Swedish Persona debate among film critics coincided with the political consciousness-raising of the 1960s. protests. Village Voice. forces us to listen. where God descended on earth in Albert Vogler’s person. 11 [September 1967]. 1 (1967): 56-60. Nordberg in Vi. Persona redeemed Ingmar Bergman to the critics. dictate our perception of the divine. 23 March 1967. Marcel Martin in Cinéma 67. p. reprinted in Confessions of a Cultist. 40 (22 October) 1966. Though some American reviewers of Persona were puzzled by the film and dismissed it as a work about ‘lesbians and lesbianism’ (Films in Review 18. Tystnaden är nederlagets språk].-E. Sarris. 271 . p. Cahiers du cinéma in English no. see theologian Olof Hartman in Vår lösen 58. p. Cournot (5 July 1967. most critics were impressed. argued that Persona was an example of l’art engagé reflecting the anguish of our contemporary world.. 10. theologian Hans Nystedt responded (‘Ingmar Bergman. wrote that unlike Bergman. no. 10 (December 1966): 788-91. The film reveals God as an illusion. Ingmar Bergman’s religious background was coded in Persona. pp. Nordberg. p. no. A restored copy of the film was released in 2001 with 30% more text. Swedish press discussion of Persona lasted into December 1966 and focussed on two issues: (1) the symbolic meaning of the film and (2) the legitimacy of its subjective premises. after 60 years of errors. Silence [such as the muteness of Mrs. 6. and Bibi Andersson’s monologue about a sexual encounter was edited in the English translation. To Nystedt. In US. Vogler] is the language of defeat’ [ropar. 67 (1966). Cahiers du cinéma. Commentaries and Reception Record headline reporting the foreign reception of Persona. Stockholm: Diakonistyrelsen. Franzén. 4 (April 1967): 244-246) or as another example of Bergman’s total lack of affinity for the medium (A. and Alma (Bergman’s persona) can return to work. Elisabet disappears from Alma’s reality. Demand for social commitment and realism in art also dictated a critical exchange on Persona in literary magazine BLM 36. New York: Simon & Schuster. no. p. n. p.. Lidman ‘calls out. See Torsten Manns in Chaplin no. p. In SvD (28 October 1966. SvD. no. between filmmaker Jonas Cornell and critic Leif Zern. 16 April 2001. now focussed on Elisabet Vogler as an irresponsible artist and vampire and on Alma as an audience representative who learns to revaluate and free herself from a Romantic view of the artist. with Elisabet Vogler representing God or Christ and Alma being our human consciousness. tvingar oss att lyssna. expressing itself either as a divided self (the schizophrenic motif) or as a multiple self (the maternity motif). 104 (Am. 17 March 1967. see Variety. or what medieval theologians termed total indifference to life. coded in our brain. 119 (September-October 1967): 73-81. 10 July 1973. p. SFI clipping) suggested that in Persona the cinema might. 4). pp. 188 (March 1967). 5) theology professor Stig Wikander analyzed Persona as ‘a gnostic quest for divine nothingness’. 20 (transl. In France. On 19 November 1966. termed it Bergman’s ‘most beautiful film’ and Nouvel observateur’s M. 289-92). during which Bergman’s filmmaking was to become a frequent target. Zern revaluated Persona in his 1993 book Se Bergman. 1971. viewed Persona as a study in accidie. 301. protesterar. no. p.

28-32. Newsweek 20 March 1967. Film (Hannover). New Republic. February 1967. Crist in The Private Eye. p. 4 (Summer 1967): 52-54. pp. In his book Sex. no. p. Films and Filming. 3 (Spring 1967). Parker Tyler uses Persona to challenge both Kracauer’s and Susan Langer’s theories of film as either a specific physical mode or a dream mode. no. pp.’ Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. p. 3 (December 1967). New Leader. Positif. 1968). no. 22-24. pp. 180-181. Times (London). 2-3 (Fall-Winter 1967). the Cowboy and the Very Naked Girl (New York Holt. p. Carl-Eric Nordberg. no. Hofsess in Take One 1. Film Heritage 3. 21 September 1967. no. and J. 40. pp. pp. 9 (1967). Film Quarterly 20. 6. 63-65. Monthly Film Bulletin. pp. Summer 1974: 88-95). pp. 4. 63. 8. 12 (July-August 1968). (2) the self-reflexive nature of Persona. 8 (December-January 1968). pp. 26-28. 38-39. 6 May 1967. review also in Film 67/68 and in author’s Kiss Kiss Bang Bang. p. no. pp. and (3) comparative studies. November 1966. Bergman’s Persona’ (Horizon 16. Film Comment. p. 272 . see M. J. For sample reviews. Jeune Cinéma no. 7 March 1967. Foreign Reviews Bianco e nero. Variety. 1968). pp. New Yorker. ‘Ingmar Bergman och det gåtfulla leendet’ [Bergman and the enigmatic smile]. Stanley Kauffmann proposed three different approaches to Persona: (1) deciphering or mapping out the story. In general. no. 10. November 1967. 19 October 1966. Télé-Ciné. 1966. Torsten Manns. 88 (October 1967). 40-41. Filmkritik 11. pp. 24-26. 171-172). 135 (November 1967). 32-33 (Pauline Kael. pp. 25 (October 1967). no. Harris in Take One 1. (2) studying narrative technique and thematic development. pp. Vi 49. 11 March 1967. 3665-3666. no. pp. In his article ‘Landmarks in Film History. 234-36. 210 (November 1967). 114-31. New York Times. 30 November 1966. pp. 15 April 1967. no. no. Movie. 301. pp. NYT Film Reviews. 32-33. 134-36. ‘Persona’. 9 (1967): 507-8. 15 (Spring 1968). pp. pp. and (3) discussing the film as a tragedy of consciousness. 46:2. Chaplin 8 (no. Image et son.Chapter IV Filmography Most American discussions focussed on the psychological rather than metaphysical implications of the film. 8 May 1967. 45-47. 169-70. 20-21. 77-80. 30-31. 59-61. 3. Saturday Review. pp. in Persona Bergman uses a dream mode not to make a surrealistic picture ‘but to inflect the meaning of the ordinary physical world. Filmfacts. pp. no. pp. one can discern in both the Swedish and foreign reception of Persona three main areas of interest: (1) the psychological implications of the film. 18 March 1967. 1913-1968. 67). no. Psyche etecetera in the Film (New York: Horizon. p. Rinehart & Winston.

Fredericksen. Film/Psychology Review 4. ‘Vid spegeln: Lacan och Persona’. M. A. Kaminsky (ed) (Ø 1266). no. 1-2 (Fall-Winter 1986-87). In The Phantom of the Cinema: Character and Modern Film (Albany: State University of New York. J. 123-36. pp. Paisley in Ingmar Bergman and the Rituals of Art. and reprinted in Styles of Radical Will (New York: Farrar. Literature/Film Quarterly 15.Y. 1 (Winter 1979): 71-85.: Kennikat. 19 July 1967. Les lettres françaises. 1987. pp. first published in Sight and Sound 36. 1977).S. Koskinen. C. 102-32. in Self & Cinema: A Transformalist Perspective (Pleasantville: Redgrave. Paul T. no. ‘Bergman’s Persona and the Artistic Dilemma of the Modern Narrative’. 4 (Fall 1968): 3-31. See also same author’s monograph Bergman’s Persona. no. Don. ‘Reflexivity and Character in Persona’. reprinted in same 11. A. Commentaries and Reception Record Psychological Motifs Barr. 2-3 (Winter. David L. I: 4. Don. no. Quarterly Review of Film Studies 4. Casebier. 4 (Autumn 1967): 186-91. 1998): 33-46.P. 62-85. 2 (Winter 1983-84). Filmkritik 11. pp. no. no. Performing Arts and Audiovisual Communication. 180-220. p. 273 . no. surface et profondeur’. 1982. 104 pp. 1969). 127-32. and “The Use of Two Images from Popular Consciousness in Bergman’s Persona”. 2005. pp. Images: The International Journal of European Film. ‘Bergman’s Persona: The Metaphysics of Meta-Cinema’. 2 (Spring 1979): 117-39. Review article on Persona. pp. Baudry. no. Film Criticism 2. Maaret. pp. 1-40. J-L. D. 1978. Jordan. Author is film scholar and practicing Jungian psychologist. Psycho-Cultural Review 3. Salmagundi 2.Synopses. and Audiovisual Communication. and J. pp. 123-45. ‘Bergman’s Persona: An Essay in Tragedy’. ‘Modes of Reflexive Film’. no. Sontag. Michaels. 1 (November 1967): 607-10.” Images: The International Journal of European Film. Manley. Livingston. Lloyd. Poznan: Adam Mickiewicz University Classics of Cinema series. 1 (Winter 1977): 75-88. Susan. Robert. “Notes on Bergman’s Persona. Houston. Strauss & Giraux. pp. J. 10-19. ‘Personne. Kawin. ‘The Reflexive Function of Bergman’s Persona’. pp. pp. 1979. typescript. also published in French under the title ‘Masque.. Fredericksen. Michaels. pp. and Lloyd Michaels (ed) (Ø 1660). Film Quarterly 37. ‘Persona: Bergman’s Metaphor for the Artistic Experience’. no. ‘Artist and Audience. ‘Persona and the Cinema of Interpretation’. Meta-filmic Aspects Boyd. ‘The Unraveling Character in Bergman’s Persona’. Paul N. Vierling. no. Filmhäftet 57. thesis. 1980). N. Performing Arts. Jones.Spring 1978): 72-86. Diacritics 4 (1974): 4851. University of Wisconsin. reprinted in Excursions: Selected Literary Essays (Port Washington. ‘The Imaginary Signifier in Bergman’s Persona’. Literature/ Film Quarterly 5. Manley. I: 1-2 (Poland). in S. ‘Self-Exploration and Survival in Persona and The Ritual: The Way In’. 1 (Winter-Spring 1980): 15-25. Lloyd. ‘Reductionism without Discontent: The Case of Wild Strawberries and Persona’. Jung and the Classical Notion of Personare. Bruce in Mindscreen. Credits. Beverly and Marsha Kinder. 13-21. 253-69. Comparative Studies Boyers. 11. Campbell. Persona’. 2 (1987). no. 2005. 130 pp. Vampire and Victim: The Oral Matrix of Imagery in Bergman’s Persona’. Person. This is the most referenced article on Persona. 2003. Cinema Journal 19. 3 (Summer 1979): 299-320.

Film tradition and Women’s Cinema. xxxix. Nancy. (University of Washington. In Michaels. no. Compares the film to Strindberg’s play Den starkare (The Stronger). 137-48. Centro S. Birgitta. 58 pp. credits. ‘Persona and the 1960s Art Cinema’. the other a study of the use of sound in Persona. John. Script. Winston Dixon. Comuzio. (Tallahassee: Florida UP. 6 (November-December 1990). 1999) (Ø 1660) Special Journal Issues on Persona L’Avant-scène du cinéma. Marilyn. is an Italian fact sheet on Persona. 23-70. Abend. Katheleen. 1995). Die Weltwoche.. in Michaels. Ingmar Bergman Directs (Amsterdam UP. 13-18. Lucy. Johns. ‘Scenes from the Class Struggle in Sweden. Michaels. Murphy. Additional Studies on Persona Burdock. 1 (Winter 1979): 47-59. In Michaels. Figures of Light. 1999 (Ø 1660). Habernoll. (Princeton UP. 199-225. CineAction 40 (May 1996): 22-3. no. 85 (October 1968). 1972: 208-310. ‘Persona-grata? nongrata!’. pp. Smultronstället and Persona’. Tidspegel no. Holmberg. Wheeler. 1986).Chapter IV Filmography 47-70. 29 December 1966. 44-61. Monographs on Persona Blackwell. In author’s The Contemporary Cinema. 1971. pp. 5-6 (1966). credits. Stanley. 30-36. 1977). ‘Feminist Theory and the Performance of Lesbian Desire’. Orr. ‘En stillbild ur Ingmar Bergmans ‘Persona’. Ingmar Bergman Directs. Ingmar Bergman’s Persona (Cambridge UP. ‘Persona: Facing the Mirror Together’. Steene. Gwendolyn Audrey. ‘Bergman’s Persona: Rites of Spring as a Chamber Play’. pp. listing openings worldwide. The Transcendent Image (Urbana: University of Illinois Press. no. Roma (20 April 1968) 22 p. and Hamlet. ‘Bergman’s Persona through a Native Mindscape’ in Michaels. ‘Children of the Paradise’. Compares film to Strindberg’s dramaturgy. 61 (January 1967). 1999 (Ø 1660). In Shot/Countershot. no. pp. Leiser. Cineforum. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP. Marilyn Johns. pp. ‘Das Schweigen des Künstlers’. 1990). ‘Alma und Elisabeth/Persona’. King Lear. Jan. Persson. 1993. Scholar. 62-74. pp. Between Stage and Screen. 86-109. 274 . Paul. Fedelle dello Spettocolo. King Oedipus. Film a sogetto. 23-38. pp. 1999 (Ø 1660). 70-90. Göran. Unpublished dissertation ‘Strindberg’s Influence on Bergman’s Det sjunde inseglet. Persona as Brechtian Melodrama’. Simon. 9 December 1966. Patera. Kurt. review by J. Film Comment 26. pp. Kauffmann. and plot synopsis. ‘Anaïs Nin’s House of Incest and Ingmar Bergman’s Persona: Two Variations of a Theme’. Lloyd. ed. Persona. review excerpts. Erwin. Contains script and French reviews. 42. Comparative reference to Göran Sonnevi’s poem ‘Om kriget i Vietnam’. Compares Persona with Angeloupolos’s film Landscape in the Mist. by Lehman-Peter. 1989): 70-80. Fischer. John. Boyers compares Alma in Persona to the tragic protagonist in Electra. 24-43. pp. Törnqvist. Chaplin. In Close Viewings: An Anthology of New film Criticism. Egil. Foster. 1997: 41. and Filmdiktaren Ingmar Bergman. 1998. ‘The Screen as Split Subject 1: Persona’s Legacy’. 38-39. 1999 (Ø 1660). Orr. one a survey of Bergman’s production. no. 45. pp. pp. ed. Literature/Film Quarterly 7. New York: Harper & Row. pp. ‘The Actress as Signifier’. Dolores. Christopher. Paillard and two articles by E. 2 (269).

Etudes cinématographiques. Maaret. Vineberg. ‘Persona and the Seduction of Performance’. 11 (November) 1968: 760-772. Frieda. Frank. see Varia. Robin. Grafe. Wood. no. pp. Best Actress (Bibi Andersson). Ingmar Bergman. Persona also placed high on numerous ‘Best film of the year’ polls throughout the world. 80 (July 1967): 222-23 and 24. 1967 (Segment entitled Daniel). including a close reading of the film by Maria Bergom-Larsson. All post-1966 book-length studies of Ingmar Bergman’s filmmaking treat Persona as an important film in the Bergman canon. 112-15. 226 (March) 1969: 60-63. The Passion of Ingmar Bergman. 1993. 1988 (Ø 1452). ‘Der Spiegel ist zerschlagen’. 185 (January-February 1967): 33-45. ‘Persona Revisited’. For additional awards. no. 1976 (Ø 1298).Synopses. 4 (1966): 228-29. Teghrarian. Commentaries and Reception Record Törnqvist. pp. In Michaels. Cinéma 66. Koskinen. See also Cahiers du cinéma no. Credits. 62. Filmkritik 12. pp. Svensk filmografi. no. See for instance: Cohen. 110-129. Kosmorama 13. 137 (Spring 1978). 1968. 1993. no. no. 56-60. 1993): 62-74. Best Script (2nd prize). 111 (December 1966). Gado. pp. Awards National Film Society prize for Best Film. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Svensk Filmindustri Olle Nordemar Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Käbi Laretei plays W. CineAction 34 (June 1994): 59-67. 227-249. pp. 51. 327 (1967). Steene. 114-122. 1960-1969 (1314). p. STIMULANTIA. 320-344. Best Photo (3rd prize). (Stockholm: Bokförlaget Arena. Hubert. 31-45. 189 (April 1967). Madame’ Ulla Ryghe Credits Production company Production manager Director Screenplay Photography Speaker Music Editor 275 . Birgitta. Best Direction. pp. Steve. vous dis-je. Image et son. no. Ingmar Bergman. C. pp. ‘En bilddikt – Persona’. no. p. 1986. 157). ‘Ah. 1967: 237. Film Culture 48-49 (Winter-Spring 1970). essays by Björkman (pp. the film has elicited more analyses than any other Bergman work. ‘The Cracked Lens: The Crisis of the Artist in Bergman’s Films of the Sixties’. 81-83) and Dickstein (pp. Art as Confession. pp. Chaplin 215-216. In fact. 672-74. 225-232. Spel och speglingar. Mozart. In Filmdiktaren Ingmar Bergman. Egil.A. Cinema Nuovo 16. Filmrutan 9. Diss. no. S. 1999 (Ø 1660): pp. 290-98.

pastoral family pictures. including wife. Veronica Vogler. After a walk in the park. 318-20. Reviews Swedish press. Johan tells her about a childhood trauma: he was locked in a dark closet. Bergman juxtaposes a suite of soft. which he draws in his sketchbook. the film depicts Johan’s encounters with Baron von Merkens. The final product. puts on a puppet performance of a scene from Mozart’s The Magic Flute. Distribution Running time Released Premiere Never released abroad. Synopsis After an opening ‘into-the-camera’ monologue by Alma. Sweden. the camera captures the artificiality of the guests. which leads to a brief exchange about the role of art and the artist. and references to a film that was never made but which was to deal with human warmth and closeness vs. beginning with Alma and Johan arriving on an isolated island. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). past the hour of the wolf. son. Alma stays awake with him until dawn. In rapidly shifting shots around the table. according to Swedish folklore. Bergman narrates the film. entitled Daniel. a judgmental view of life based on a concept of God as a punitive deity. which Alma begins to read. and mother-in-law Alma Laretei. who may be real or a vision.Chapter IV Filmography Filmed in and around Bergman’s home (at the time) in Djursholm. On their way home. Heerbrand. and most babies are born. 29 March 1967. when. The woman tells her about Johan’s diary. pp. Alma and Johan are ill at ease. von Merkens to view Johan’s portrait of Veronica Vogler. pregnant wife of the painter Johan Borg. most people die. 1963-65. Spegeln (Stockholm) Commentary The concept behind Stimulantia – eight short films on a common theme. Alma reveals to Johan that she has read his diary and is worried about his health. Johan is then pursued by a curator. an archivist. This episode is followed by a visualized 276 . however. Svensk Filmindustri 15 minutes 22 March 1967 28 March 1967. VARGTIMMEN. Johan and Alma are invited by Mrs. Johan rejects her. Bergman’s own contribution. B/W Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Title refers to the hours between 3 and 5 a. directed by eight different Swedish filmmakers – was Ingmar Bergman’s. A short household scene with Alma going through the budget is followed by a long and central dinner party sequence at the Baron’s estate. owner of an estate on the island. the greater part of the film is a flashback. Later at home. Johan is possessed by images of haunting demons. See also: Svensk filmografi. 238. Lindhorst. Alma sees an old woman. 1967 [Hour of the Wolf]. He is tense and sleepless. and with Johan’s former mistress. and Alma runs away crying. photographed from birth to age 2. does not have much thematic cohesiveness but ranges from a filmatization of Guy de Maupassant’s short story ‘The Necklace’ to a documentary film about Chaplin’s childhood in London. In the morning. Later. is a 16mm film about his and Käbi Laretei’s son Daniel Sebastian Bergman. who disappears as quickly as she materialized.m.

an old lady pulls off a rubber mask and drops her eyeball in a cocktail glass. Johan ran away from the house. She now goes in search of him and encounters the demons that have been plaguing her husband. 3 in A minor and W. von Merkens Ernst von Merkens Lindhorst Heerbrand Old lady in Alma’s ‘vision’/ Old woman with rubber face Boy in fishing sequence 277 . Johan finds Veronica nude on a bier. Baron von Merkens tells him of his jealousy. she comes to life under his caresses while all the grotesque faces of von Merkens’ household are present. But the next moment. Vibenius Ingmar Bergman Lenn Hjortzberg Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist Marik Vos-Lundh P. his wife Old Mrs. he leaves them a small gun. Seemingly dead. Alma’s narrative resumes. then climbs the wall upside down. like an olive.A. In the next sequence. laughing in ridicule at Johan. She asks if a woman who lives for a long time with a man she loves might not become like him? Or has she lost Johan because she did not love him enough? Her monologue ends in mid-sentence. Mozart’s The Magic Flute Mago (Max Goldstein). Kjell Gustavsson. Credits. Johan urges her to leave. and Johan is gone. Inviting them to a party. attacked by birds. briefly. She sees him. The film ends with Alma talking to an invisible listener. Also: excerpts from J. von Merkens directs him to Veronica’s room. Alma is anxious. Tina Johansson Ulla Ryghe Liv Ullmann Max von Sydow Erland Josephson Gertrud Fridh Gudrun Brost Bertil Anderberg Georg Rydeberg Ulf Johanson Naima Wifstrand Mikael Rundquist Costumes Make-up Editor and Continuity Cast Alma Borg Johan Borg Baron von Merkens Corinne. Eivor Kullberg Börje Lundh. The boy’s head bobs up and down in the water. Old Mrs. Pettersson Evald Andersson Olle Jakobsson Lars Johan Werle. Alma has not seen him since. Johan is attacked by a young boy. Johan returns to von Merkens.O. an overexposed surreal sequence. Then he packed his knapsack and left. He later returned and wrote for hours in his diary. like a fly.S. Commentaries and Reception Record account of Johan fishing from a rock. After shooting her. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Sound effects Mixing Music Svensk Filmindustri Lars-Owe Carlberg Bo A. Heavily made up and dressed in a silk robe. the place is empty. Bach’s Saraband in Partita no.Synopses. In another surreal scene. He aims the gun at her and shoots. deep in the forest. Heerbrand comes to visit Johan and Alma. fights him off and kills him.

25-38. 3 (March 1968): 212-14. Ingenting är. p. no. 14.Chapter IV Filmography Kreisler Veronica Vogler Maid Tamino Corpse in the morgue Lenn Hjortzberg Ingrid Thulin Agda Helin Folke Sundquist Mona Seilitz Filmed on location at Hovs hallar in southwestern Sweden and Råsunda Studios. see Cineforum 9. Enquist in Chaplin. Commentary The script to Vargtimmen was published in paperback in Filmberättelser 2 (1973). Svenstedt in SvD (same date. 34th Street East Theater. p. Reception Swedish press reacted to Vargtimmen as to a cinematic déjà vu. On 9 February 1968. no. To Edström. Cf. 23 April 1965. In it Bergman explains to Max von Sydow and Liv Ullmann about the background of the film: he had received a diary from the widow of an artist on the Frisian Islands. For texts related to this interview. 10). Autumn-Winter 1969. the production was postponed until after the completion of Persona. last shown in public in a new print of the film at the New York Bergman Festival in May-June 1995. He began to write the script in 1964 and planned for a production in 1965. note 30. Ingmar Bergman writes about the genesis of the film in Bilder/Images. Bergman revealed that part of his difficulty in completing the script and starting the shooting of the film had to do with the very personal anchoring of the story. 4. Cahiers du Cinéma no. Koskinen. At its release on 27 September 1967 Vargtimmen was 2. which was considered an obsolete theme in today’s world. while Svenstedt resented Bergman’s pontification of his 278 . the critics had reservations about the portrait of the self-absorbed artist Johan Borg. 203 (August 1968): 48-58. 77 (September 1968): 449-52. Allting föreställer.H. likened Bergman to a dangerous mamba in a bourgeois living-room who did not bite the real enemy (the bourgeoisie). an identification with the film was possible only if the viewer let himself be manipulated by Ingmar Bergman’s vision. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 9 April 1968. This cut was not done by the Censorship Board and corresponds roughly to the length of a prologue. p. but merely crawled into a corner.O. pp. 29 August 1964. p. See report in SvD. Though recognizing Bergman’s virtuosity as a filmmaker. the film was cut to 2. 207. Distribution U. But because of Bergman’s illness in the spring of 1965. no. 80 (1968). Sandgren ‘Bergman behöver en manusförfattare’ [Bergman needs a scriptwriter]. This story is most likely a piece of fiction. beginning 23 May 1966 and completed 23 November 1966. 12) and C. Mauritz Edström in DN (20 February.395 meters (a cut of approx. 29-34. NYC Människoätarna [The Cannibals]. 2 minutes). and Nuevo film (Montevideo). 10) voiced views also found frequently in American and British responses. Ingmar Bergman. Göran O. at which time its name was Människoätarna [The Cannibals] (see SvD. P. Eriksson in BLM 38. 108. which was reported on the Swedish Radio (Kvällseko/Evening news). distribution Running time Released Premiere U. 1990. p. KvP. Bergman held a press conference in Rome about Vargtimmen on 26 February 1968. 29 April 1968. p. found that Bergman overestimated the importance of the artistic self. 2001. 89 minutes 27 September 1967 19 February 1968.455 meters long. the day before the opening of Vargtimmen.S. p. In a later TV interview on 18 February 1968. See also Gunnar E. pp.S. opening Original title Svensk Filmindustri Lopert Pictures Corp. wailing in self-pity because someone stepped on its tail as a child.

no. Variety. 20 April 1968. 30 (reprinted in Figures of Light. Jean-Louis Comolli in Cahiers du cinéma was more intrigued by the film’s structure as subjective dream than by Bergman’s position as an artist. Bergman’s imagination remains the finest. Later. 279 . but pointed out Bergman’s handling of Johan’s hallucinations as a macabre farce suggesting the labyrinthian (though less precisely designed) world of Robbe-Grillet’s Last Year at Marienbad but also an incarnation of Bela Lugosi’s Dracula. 62-65). at the same time a resume and a deepening of his developed themes of angst and fear. called the film degenerate. pp. 22. pp. The somewhat unengaged Swedish newspaper response to Vargtimmen might be juxtaposed to several longer analyses of the film. Films and Filming summed up: ‘Rich and orderly. 22 April 1968. p. p. In Europe the subjectivity of the film dominated the critical commentaries and echoed the Swedish discussion of Ingmar Bergman as a narcissistic Romantic artist.. p. referred to the film as ‘the selected works of Ingmar Bergman’ and added: ‘Anthologies are almost always disappointments. pp. Credits.. Commentaries and Reception Record message. John Simon in New Leader. Stanley Kauffmann in New Republic. See also Stig Ahlgren: ‘Vem är rädd för vargtimmen’[Who is afraid of the hour of the wolf?]. Philip Strick in Sight and Sound emphasized the exaggerated theatricality of the film and pointed to its structure as ‘a succession of deceptive curtain-raisings. 1972. French attention was either film-historically comparative or focussed on Bergman’s creative persona. DN. Stig Ahlgren related the film to Mozart’s opera The Magic Flute.Synopses. and the most disturbing. 94-104.. Anders Troelsen in Kosmorama saw the film as ‘the extreme expression of an isolated artistic position where the artist does not let himself be distracted by any audience considerations’.’ Andrew Sarris in Village Voice. regarded the film as a failure in its attempts to merge the real and surreal. Theologian Hans Nystedt continued his examination of religious symbolism in Ingmar Bergman’s work with an article on Vargtimmen in SvD. In Vecko-Journalen. 1968). Bernard Cohn in Positif felt that with this film Bergman opposed ‘the contradictions of a creator who fights against himself ’. discusses the film with Max von Sydow. 4. claimed that ‘von Sydow the actor seems to bring out the worst in Bergman the thinker [. 45-46. pp. whereas relatively little attention was paid to his use of a subjective camera with its optically disfigured faces.’ Strick concluded that ‘in the hour of dawn. was rebuffed by its coldness: ‘The most we can feel is a hospital visitor’s pity. of all the cinema’s modern visionaries’. Hour of the Wolf became a favorite film among psychoanalytical film scholars in the US (see references below). Never before.’ A very different response indeed to the Swedish and American reviews. 30-31 (reprinted in Movies into Film. wrote Monthly Film Bulletin. 31 March 1968. Ecran found a superior masochistic temperament nourishing the film but also a Scandinavian filmmaking tradition focusing on the ‘fantastique’. 230-33). American reviews of Hour of the Wolf were mostly negative. bleached flashbacks and dizzily revolving movements. Asta Bolin in Teater och moral (Stockholm: Proprius. New York: Dell.. 45... 4.5 (May 1968): 306-8. this is among the most important films of Bergman. no. yawning mysticism’. p.’ Henry Hart in Films in Review 19. surrealism and Gothic horror’.] a yearning. each leading us into deeper darkness.]his taste for the flamboyant techniques of expressionism. until we can conjure demons out of nothing. more than compulsive viewing: imperative. ‘has he so displayed [. 30 May 1968. 28 February 1968. who sees Borg’s situation as both a personal and an existential crisis. With the exception of Comolli. 16 (1968). which allowed for no intellectual response. however. p. 10 March. pp. superbly cinematic. The British called Hour of the Wolf a return to the old Bergman of chiaroscuro and angst. unrealistic lighting. René Prédal in Jeune Cinéma viewed L’heure du loup as one more excursion into Bergman’s subjective universe. In the largely very positive British reception of Hour of the Wolf.

Katy in Nya Argus 61 (1968). 32-33. 190 (August 1968). 170-72. no. August 1968. 2 (Spring 1980): 104-15. no. pp. no. 50:2. Compares the film to Strindberg’s Inferno. 11. Monthly Film Bulletin. Film Quarterly 30. pp. Positif. Robert.A. Jovanovich. 29 April 1968. p. Sight and Sound 37. Ecran. 15 May 1968. Kvällsposten. and NYT Film Reviews. pp. 3 (Fall 1968): 40-41. 9-12.p. no. no. Film Comment 6.Chapter IV Filmography Swedish Reviews BLM 38. theater. Filmkritik 12. 50. pp. no. Both Rosen and Gantz discuss Hoffmann’s stories ‘Der Sandman’ and ‘Der goldene Topf ’. pp. Houston. Stockholm press. ‘Hour of the Wolf ’. 16 (Winter 1968-69). no. ‘Hour of the Wolf: The Case of Ingmar Bergman’. Craig. Cinema (Beverly Hills) 4. 1972): 273-79. Movie. Braucourt’s analysis in Cinéma 68 no. 10. no. New York Times. 92-93. Jeune cinéma. no. 63-65. Times (London). no. Chaplin 10. 22. Comparative Studies Rosen. 128 (August-September 1968). no. ‘Enslaved by the Queen of the Night: The relationship of Ingmar Bergman to E. 10 April 1968. Gyllström. 4. Richard and Jonathan Hoops. 18 July 1968. no. 12 (September 1968). Blokker. Films and Filming 14. that L’ore del lupo forms a trilogy of Nostalgia together with Persona and Daniel. Vargtimmen as part of a Second Trilogy For discussions of Vargtimmen as part of a second Bergman trilogy. Corliss. pp. 3 (March 1968): 212-14. 1913-1968. suggesting that Toutes ses femmes. Sergio Areceo’s view in Filmcritica. pp. Beverley and Marsha Kinder in Close-up: A Critical Perspective on Film (New York: Harcourt. Filmfacts. see: G. pp. no. Persona and L’heure du loup form a thematic threesome about the power of art (music. n. 80 (March 1968): 108-9. 2 (Winter 1976): 23-34. Compares Johan Borg in Vargtimmen to Sarastro in Mozart’s The Magic Flute. T. 32 (September 1968). 29 June 1968. 4 (Autumn 1968): 203-4. Psychological Studies Buntzen. 98 (October 1968). 203 (August 1968): 58-59. ‘Mozart. p. p. p. Film Quarterly 21. Hoffmann and Ingmar Bergman’s Vargtimmen’. Hoffmann’. 17 (July-August 1973). 89-91. 122-24. no. 9 (1968). 53-55. no. Kosmorama. pp. 137 (1978). 4 (Summer 1968): 33-40. 280 . no. p. pp. Gantz. pp. 1 (Spring 1970): 26-31. Foreign Reviews Cahiers du cinéma. 33-35. painting). pp. Jan in Vrij Nederland. Linda and C. Jeffrey. The Listener. no. 11 July 1948. p. Cineforum 8 (1968): 417-25. Literature/Film Quarterly 8. New Yorker. 13 April 1968. 115-16. 3749. 20 February 1968. no. 163-65. Saturday Review. 4 (April 1968): 277-79. 20 April 1968. Brace. 570-76. p. Vi.

Next. Eva confesses she is glad they have no children. no. Hillier). Cinema (Kansas City) 6. but Jan grabs a gun to defend himself. a contemporary of Beethoven. 366-68. Eva brings up the topic of children and pleads that Jan go and see a doctor. and they are being interrogated in a televised interview. Afterwards. SKAMMEN. their only contact with the outside world. wartime noises. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Jan and Eva collect their few belongings and pack the car. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). Jan takes out his violin and tells the story of its maker. 40-42. Dossiers du cinéma: films I. a friend. Summer 1975. En route across the island they see fires and dead people. their house is surrounded by soldiers. The first sequence depicts Jan and Eva facing another day. Film Culture. surrounded by the noise of fighting. En route to town with a delivery of lingonberries. they meet Mayor Jacobi and wife. Jan and Eva listen to the delicate music of Bach on a music box made of Meissen china. 1986. When it is over. J. pp. While he goes to fetch a bottle of rare vintage wine. Jan and Eva Rosenberg. have left the mainland after their orchestra was disbanded because of a civil war. Having delivered the berries in town. Schickel’s review also in his Second Sight (New York: Simon & Schuster. pp.L. no. Commentaries and Reception Record See also Cahiers du cinéma. two musicians. On the ferry. Credits. They stop at a stream. review). Film 68/69 (New York: Simon & Schuster. Jan is preoccupied with a dream he has had and with a bothersome wisdom tooth. Suddenly. 1968 [Shame]. 174. Klas Viklund in Filmhäftet. p. they return home. 1969). The road is blocked. Passek. Contains John Simon’s New Leader review and Richard Schickel’s in Life. Eva wants to run to his rescue. who has just been drafted. The film opens with soundtrack transmissions of foreign language voices. pp. 226 (March) 1969: 63-66. The pastoral scene is suddenly interrupted by shrill sounds of aircraft. 58-60. In a ludicrous scene. Kosmorama (debate) 126. where Eva buys fish from Filip. pp. Image et son. pp. 2 (March-April 1968): 17-18. B/W Screenplay Director Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis Skammen takes place on an island threatened by invasion. who reports rumors of an invasion. the Rosenbergs visit an antique dealer. of Cahiers’s review in no. Svensk filmografi. pp. and studio directives.Synopses. Awards See Varia C. 313-16 (transl. including the corpse of a small child. They now live in a farmhouse and try to make a living by selling berries and vegetables. 130-36. Papini. and agree to get together soon for a musical evening. 239. 1972). 117-120 (synopsis/credits. no. 62 (May) 1988. 1971. the house is rocked by bombardments. ‘L’heure du loup’. 281 . A parachuter falls from the sky and lands in a tree. no. somewhat impatient with Jan’s self-absorption. 48-49 (1970). pp. 203). 175-79. 1960-1968 (ed J. Jan tries to shoot their chickens. Back home they share a meal of fish and wine. Jan and Eva argue about his failure to repair the radio. Eva goes over the household budget. vol 2.

Jan and Eva are arrested with other customers and taken to a schoolhouse for interrogation. Jacobi gives Eva a large sum of money and talks about his mother. One day they find a young deserter there. Jan is pulling a small cart with their belongings. They are pushed into a room where some people have been tortured. On the seashore they meet Filip. Jan is awake but does not intervene. Eivor Kullberg Börje Lundh. and finds Jacobi’s money on the bed and pockets. stumbles into the bedroom. The survivors in the boat are quenching their thirst ‘with contaminated water’. The house is surrounded by Filip. A sequence depicting them digging potatoes reveals their tension. Jan gets drunk and falls asleep. Jan and Eva are on their way to the sea. The next sequence shows the boat drifting amidst a sea of dead bodies from a torpedoed warship. Filip commits suicide by slipping silently over the railing. head of a resistance unit. Eva stumbling behind. which escalates from abusive language to physical fighting. Filip gives Jan a pistol to execute Jacobi. Jan wakes up. Lundgren Lennart Engholm Evald Andersson Olle Jakobsson Excerpts: J. the holy gutlessness of art’. with Eva’s voice replaced by that of a woman propagandist. He has joined the invaders and releases them with an apology.) During the night. seeing herself walking down a street with houses on one side and a lovely park on the other. Stig Lindberg Rustan Åberg 282 . they are picked out from a crowd by Jacobi. The boy is later killed by Jan after having revealed the departure of a boat of refugees. 4’ Mago (Max Goldstein). (The printed screenplay suggests a nuclear fallout. After this event. Bach’s ‘Brandenburg concerto no. The soldiers have to finish the killing for him. Jacobi visits them. The televised interview is shown. bringing them gifts. Later. but fumbles in his aim. Jan’s and Eva’s relationship deteriorates. While they are in the greenhouse making love. A high wall of roses is suddenly set on fire by a roaring aircraft. Jan is obliging. but Jan denies having seen the money. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Sound effects Mixing Music Costumes Make-up Editor Continuity Military advisors Pyrotechnical advisor Svensk Filmindustri Lars-Owe Carlberg Brian Wikström Ingmar Bergman Raymond Lundberg Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist P.S. Jan buys two seats in the open boat. Cecilia Drott Ulla Ryghe Katherina Faragó Lennart Bergqvist. Food and drink are running out.Chapter IV Filmography Travelling to the country store. They continue to live in the greenhouse. Jacobi wants to buy himself free. while Jan interrogates him. The film ends as Eva tells Jan of a dream she has had. A long take depicts Jan and Eva standing outside the ruins of their home with expressionless faces. who is given food and drink by Eva. Eva feels she should remember something important that has been said. but fails to do so. The house is searched and destroyed.A. and talks to them about ‘the holy freedom of art.

victim in schoolhouse Interrogation officer Doctor Peters. pp. 1990. On the same day he was interviewed about the shooting on Swedish Public Radio (Dagens Eko. Börje Lundh. Löthwall. p. Bergman discusses his reaction to the reception of the film and his own critical view of it 20 years later. 2 (1967). no. young deserter People in the boat Liv Ullmann Max von Sydow Gunnar Björnstrand Birgitta Valberg Sigge Fürst Hans Alfredson Ingvar Kjellson Frank Sundström Ulf Johanson Bengt Eklund Gösta Prüzelius Frej Lindqvist Lars Amble. Lilian Carlsson. SvD. 27-30. 10 September 1967. Karl-Arne Bergman Filmed on location on the island of Fårö and in town of Visby (Gotland). On 9 September 1967. see E. An interview billed as an 283 . clerk Man with dislocated shoulder Aide at interrogation Officers Man condemned to death TV interviewer Soldiers Secretary Woman bringing food in schoolhouse Johan. Skammens drömmar [Dreams of Shame] Commentary In 1961 author Pär Rådström wrote in a review of Såsom i en spegel (BLM 30. Refractions of this statement may have filtered down to Bergman’s 1968 film Skammen with its portrait of the demoralization of an artist (Jan Rosenberg).-O. Jacobi Filip Olsson Fredrik Lobelius. L. antique dealer Oswald. pp. Distribution U. 25-26. Nils Fogeby Karl-Axel Forssberg Brita Öberg Björn Thambert Georg Skarstedt. pp. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. 1. Eivor Kullberg. Willy Peters Åke Jörnfalk Vilgot Sjöman Per Berglund. In Bilder/ Images. NYC Kriget [The war]. For a report on the press conference. For Bergman’s comments on the genesis of Skammen.S. Commentaries and Reception Record Cast Eva Rosenberg Jan Rosenberg Jacobi Mrs. The script of Skammen was published as a paperback in Filmberättelser 2 (1973). 9 September 1967). 3 (1968). opening Original titles Svensk Filmindustri Lopert Pictures 102 minutes 26 June 1968 29 September 1968. Ingmar Bergman held a press conference about Skammen on Fårö for a team of journalists arriving in a chartered plane. see Film World. beginning 12 September 1967 and completed 23 November 1967. Fine Arts. 10 September. pp. 9. Film och Bio.Synopses. and rest of Stockholm press. Sörenson. Barbro Hiort af Ornäs. 298-301. Spegeln (Stockholm). 23 December 1968.S. 14. no. no. Credits. 760) that Ingmar Bergman ‘is obviously ashamed of being an artist and his god is the Bergmanian God of Shame’ [Ingmar Bergman skäms tydligen över sitt konstnärsskap och hans gud är den bergmanska Skammens Gud].

Nordberg in Vi. referred to above. Schildt in AB. See Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). J. According to Lidman. 13 March 1968. p. 66-7. and E. 8 October 1968. 2 November 1968. 29 September 1968. 7. spokesperson for NLF (National Liberation Front) supporters in Sweden during the Vietnam War. p. en återspegling av en individualistisk 1800-talssyn på konstnären som började med Werther and slutade med Oscar Wilde]. no. ‘Ingmar Bergman om Skammen’. 36.Chapter IV Filmography exclusive one by André Prevost in the Canyon Cryer. See AB. But critics saw Skammen as one more portrait of a maladjusted artist. 82-84. pp. 229. no.-O. Gunnar Tannefors in Se. 21. pp. 6. The response to Lidman’s article was lively (same paper. p. In retrospect. pp. 274. and included brief interviews with Bergman who called the attack on his film irrational and brutal.-P. 12. 66. 12. by failing to take political sides Skammen gave latent support to those pro-American forces who wished to prolong the war and who refused to see it as a Vietnamese war of liberation. Bergman was to claim that had events in Czechoslovakia preceded his making of the film. 8 October 1968. pp. who voiced critique of Bergman’s film for avoiding a real political situation 284 . 84 (October 1968). 1. 4. Löthwall in Allers. p. 48. p. and too abstract and imprecise in its depiction of the reality of war. He insisted that his examination of the artist had broader psychological implications. Skammen served as a catalyst for the politically divisive situation among Swedish intellectuals at the time. Strömstedt defended Bergman’s integrity as an artist. 12. 56-57. Lars Forssell in BLM 38. and 16 October (p. 39 (1968). Cf. 19. Leiser in Expr. p. All these critics expressed concern about a film they regarded as obsolete in its theme about the collapse of the artist. 62. 6.4). a reflection of a 19th-century individualistic view of the artist that began with Werther and ended with Oscar Wilde’ [någon slags konstitutionell blindhet. 25 September 1968. and 19 October 1968 (pp. reactionary film’ [en farlig. it might have changed his focus. The Swedish debate about Skammen was ideologically inflamed and culminated with a condemnation of the film by author Sara Lidman. pp. p. M. 30 September 1968. Röster i Radio-TV 46 (1968). N. DN. See also opinions expressed by some leading Swedish filmmakers and intellectuals in AB. one might compare Bo Strömstedt in Expr. p. which had its world premiere at Sorrento Film and Theatre Festival in Italy in June 1968.5). 1-3. the same day the Russians marched into Czechoslovakia. pp. 1. 10 October (p. This may have intensified the political debate about the film. He declared himself a non-political person who only belonged ‘to the Party of Scared People’ [de räddas parti] (see Ø 136). 8 (October 1968): 605-6. To gain an idea of the range of opinion expressed. Tannefors spoke up for Bergman’s right to be politically indifferent. no. 21 March 1968. 12 October (p.4). Ingmar Bergman added further fuel to the debate by publishing a brief interview with himself under the old pseudonym of Ernest Riffe in Expr. 64. 4 respectively).. C. charged Ingmar Bergman with ‘some sort of constitutional blindness.. 10. On 2 June 1968. 60. Beyer in Arbetet. same date. see N. reaktionär film]. Edström in DN. See AB. 26-27. p. and in Chaplin. Sundgren. 4. 13. This echoes Sundgren TV interview (29 September 1968).-E. 40 (1968). p. 5. no. 29 October 1968. and Ulla Thorpe in AB. Report from the shooting of Skammen was published by L. In the Sara Lidman debate. Thorpe called Skammen ‘a dangerous. seems to be largely based on the Skammen press conference. Sunday section pp. 2. published the first pictures and an excerpt from the film. sec. no. 35 (1968). Reception Skammen was shown to the Swedish press on 21 August 1968.. Bergman discussed his role as a filmmaker in tune with the times in a Swedish TV interview. 24-25. 5. and no. 20 October 1968. It may be compared to an interview in Les lettres françaises. p. 30 September 1968.

10. 28 December 1968.. reprinted in M. though victim of the same kind of Christian hangover. 211-13. 136 (May 1969). like Le septième sceau. Bergman responded to this debate and the leftist political climate among younger filmmakers and intellectuals in an interview conducted by Jan Aghed and published in French Positif no. 6 February 1969. is a faithless person drawn with a great deal of self-criticism. Livingston. longer articles below. Entitled ‘Ingmar Bergman och den kristna baksmällan’ [Bergman and the Christian hangover]. Literature/Film Quarterly.e. the article claims that Skammen unveiled a new trend in Bergman’s work. Film (Hannover). The Brighton Film Review. 60 (Am. see under Roth-Lindberg. pp. 276-77. Interview chapter. Film Quarterly 23. pp. 2 January 1969. 40 (1968). pp. While earlier films revealed the vacuum left by a dying religious faith. contended that Shame’s source was a Swedish neutrality complex. 34-41. Ingmar Bergman. p. 1982. 22. p. Jan’s wife. Cf. 199 (May-June 1969). Vecko-Journalen. Chaplin. 1 (Fall 1969): 32-34. no. Time. 297. p. this view to J. pp. and Cinema (Beverly Hills) 6. Eva. no. shows Bergman’s ‘new solidarity’. 12. 11. 121 (November 1971): 41-46. no. 1970. seing the film as a new. no. 113 (February 1968). 30 September 1968 (Expr. 39). discussed La honte as a nonpolitical film. p. See (Ø 794). existential movie. 3-4. Several reviewers compared Bergman’s film to Godard’s Weekend: See Los Angeles Times. to Andrew Sarris’s acerbic dismissal of Shame as ‘boom-boom theatrics’ (Village Voice. Commentaries and Reception Record (Vietnam War). 222-24. January 1984.). 10 January 1969. no. 38. 15 January 1969. pp. Vi. no. 6 October 1968.S. 4 (1969). and Film og Kino. Film Heritage 5. pp. no. no. 285 . more socially oriented departure for Bergman. pp. on the other hand. p. 221-31. p. Hollis Alpert in Saturday Review. 214-21). no. p. 2 (Fall 1970): 32-39. Brown and Company. 3 (1969). i. reaction to Shame varied from Pauline Kael’s glowing review in The New Yorker. 14 (November 1969). 135-36. Ingmar Bergman and the Ritual of Art. 162 (January 1972). The comparison is developed at some length in Robin Wood. 246-50. This article was reprinted in Motbilder (Ø 1317). Positif. One of the most thoughtful Swedish essays on Skammen was published by Torsten Bergmark in DN. 3 (Spring 1969): 1-5. pp. Boston: Little. U. 1969. 32. 22. Cinéma 69. Cinema Nuovo. Foreign Reviews Artforum. n. pp. no. AB debate was commented on in UNT 26 October 1968. a pervasive national guilt for having stayed out of World War II. no.Synopses. p. 65-85. pp. and James Maxfield: ‘Bergman’s Shame: A Dream of Punishment’. March 1969. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. 25 January 1969.. no. pp. Farber’s Negative Space (London: Studio Vista. 427-28. Credits. 58-9). pp. who claims that La honte is an apolitical. p. ed. no. 1971). 29 Sept. pp. 40 (1968). Belmans in Cinéma 72. p. Wood’s discussion of Shame is the most extensive one in English.. pp. 3-27. Jan in Skammen. 9 (December 1968). 56-59 (reprinted in Going Steady. or was the war it depicted simply a metaphor for the filmmaker’s own brand of existential anguish? L. 143-183. 4. 30. comparing it to Coleridge’s Ancient Mariner and Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress. pp. Esquire. Seguin in ‘Le cinéma dans la politique’. Filmfacts. Much of the foreign discussion of Skammen revolved around a genre question: Could Bergman’s film be classified as a war film. together with P.p.

pp. 34. 26. H.. no. See also Varia. no. no. NYT Film Reviews. art and love’) and life’s conditions (undermining of this trinity through institutionalized conventions). Shed in Esquire. 40 (June-July 1969). no. pp. 177-83) by Örjan Roth-Lindberg. pp. no. 16-18. 20 January 1969. and a complete scenario of La vergogna. Best Script (2nd place). 125-28. no. 88 (December 1968). no. pp. Movie. 84 (October 1968). Best Direction. Hudson Review 22. p. 33-36. 401-6. 1 (September-October 1968). 1913-1968. in Take One 2. Positif. 34-40. 24. pp. pp. no. Variety. and in Films and Filming 15. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). Sight and Sound 38. C. New Republic. pp. Jeune Cinéma. Positif. Cahiers du cinéma. Kosmorama. 108 (September 1969). no. 3 (1968). 3-7. 275-77. 5 (February 1969): 4-6. pp. pp. pp. 286 . Films and Filming 14. 121 (November 1970). pp. Bruce Kawin in Mindscreen. Kosmorama. See also Film 68/69 (New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. no. 229 (June-July 1969): 109-13. pp. 23 April. Comuzio. review excerpts.Chapter IV Filmography Filmkritik 13. Centro S. no. pp. 3812. 4 (April 1969). pp. p. 1 (1968). pp.. Kosmorama no. Best Actress (Liv Ullmann).. 27 February 1969. no. 16 October 1968. Fedelle dello Spettacolo (Roma). S. 110 (September 1972). is an Italian fact sheet on La vergogna.1. 60-61. 2 (Spring 1969). 4 January 1969. Article by Kaare Schmidt who emphasizes the private nature of the film and sees it as an explicit depiction of Bergman’s universe with its dichotomy between life’s meaning (‘faith. pp. no. Films in Review. 83 (March 1969): 110-296. also printed in Swedish in Chaplin. Sight and Sound 38. 24 December 1968. 32-34. and W. Kauffmann in Figures of Light.-O. no. has several items on Bergman in connection with the presentation of La honte. no. Monthly Film Bulletin. New York Times. 5 April 1967. The Listener. Les lettres françaises. 15. p. 14. Film a sogetto. New Leader. also printed in Film och bio. 137 (Spring) 1978: 65-66. pp. credits. listing openings worldwide. 7 (April 1969): 38. 4 (April 1969): 237-43. Issue also includes a survey of Bergman’s work by E. containing reviews by J. no. among them an interview article by L. 10-18. Löthwall. 259-61. 76. no. 18-19. 288-89. 2 (Summer 1969): 295-306. Simon in New Leader. 1969). 51-52. p.. 49-58. 133-42 (Ø 1372). Review Articles and Special Issues on Shame Cineforum 9. and a plot synopsis. 27-29. Contains an analysis of the film (pp. Awards 1968: National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Film. Image et son. pp. January 1969. pp. Variety. no. p. 1981. 49-51. Best Photo (2nd place). Film in Sweden. 2 (Spring 1969): 89-92. Alpert in Saturday Review. 8 pp. 23-32. 89-92 has a review article by Jan Dawson. no. 215 (September 1969). no. Svensk filmografi. 17 (Winter 1969-70). pp.

the troupe’s manager. He is dying. and 35-year-old Sebastian Fisher. who arrives and quiets Thea. Ernst Abrahamsson. Sebastian puts a long knife at her feet. Thea’s lover. a church. rolls on the floor. Abrahamsson makes a series of desperate confessions. Hans calls it a ritual game and a magic formula. He wears an enormous phallus. Abrahamsson tries to get to the point. Thea’s interrogation opens on a polite note. She relates a religious game she plays. Judge Abrahamsson meets with each artist in turn.e. Thea breaks down. Suddenly conscious of his situation. the judge makes a confession: He really wanted to become a musician. Sebastian tells the judge of a performance number that he and Hans Winkelmann do together. consists of 56-year-old Hans Winkelmann. and telling them he is a willing spectator to their act. his wife. She holds a drum in her lap. he receives the reply that an artist is his own god and keeps his own demons and angels. but under parental pressure he studied law instead. the Judge gains the upper hand but loses control of the situation in meeting Sebastian and Thea. and a cabaret theater. The crucial episode is a re-enactment of the number on which the obscenity charge rests. Hans Winkelmann explains the ritual act. while Sebastian has put on big breasts. Commentaries and Reception Record 240. Hit a second time. about a man who is seized by an insatiable appetite.. who is both angry and consoling. depicts an encounter between three traveling artists and a 60-year-old judge. In rejecting a bribe from Hans Winkelmann to keep Thea from being interrogated. Before they begin their performance. Sebastian accuses him of being dirty and smelling bad from excessive perspiration. The film is divided into nine scenes. Credits. and the trio performs it while the judge makes weak statements to the effect that he understans the ritual. he seems to have a seizure. RITEN. i. Expressing admiration and envy of the troupe. then cuts out a piece of an old man who is God himself. made for Swedish television but also released abroad in the same version as a feature film. Asking Sebastian about his religious faith. eats his family and servants. begins to undress. Credits Production company Production manager Studio manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Sound Special effects Mixing Cinematograph AB Lars-Owe Carlberg Lennart Blomqvist Ingmar Bergman Christer Dahl Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist Lennart Engholm. and pulls down the judge. 1969 [The Ritual]. the judge receives such a hard blow from Sebastian that he begins to nosebleed. he calls on Hans Winkelmann. Berndt Frithiof Nils Skeppstedt Olle Jakobsson 287 . B/W Screenplay Director Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman See also Riten as TV film in Media chapter V (Ø 329) Synopsis Riten. and Thea is dressed in a transparent frock and a stylized wig. while the rest are set in a hotel room. whose task it is to interrogate them about an alleged act of obscenity in their vaudeville show.Synopses. ‘Les riens’. The artistic trio. five of which take place in Judge Abrahamsson’s office. Taking off his jacket and tie. 24-year-old Thea Winkelmann. the vaudeville number on which he is to rule.

Le nouvel observateur. p. 10 (July 1971): 55-56. 1-70. June 1971. New York Times. 124-25. based on his drafts. (21 May 1969. Cinéma 72. Tully Hall. pp. January-February (1971). p. p. 74. Films and Filming 17. The following English-language discussions of the film deserve attention: P. Ecran 72. pp. Lincoln Center. 48-9. 170 (November 1972). The screen version was submitted to the New York Film Festival in 1969 and had a limited commercial run in the U. 143-67. Monthly Film Bulletin. and NYT Film Reviews. Etudes cinématographiques.Chapter IV Filmography Architect/Costumes Props Make-up Editor Continuity Mago (Max Goldstein) Karl-Arne Bergman Börje Lundh. Film (Hannover). 173-183. pp. no. 7 (July 1971). P. 55:1.S. no. Cecilia Drott Siv Kanälv Birgitta Särnö Ingrid Thulin Gunnar Björnstrand Anders Ek Erik Hell Ingmar Bergman Cast Thea Winkelmann Hans Winkelmann Sebastian Fisher Judge Abrahamsson A priest Though conceived for television Riten was shot in the studios at Filmstaden. distribution Running time Premiere U. Foreign Reception (film version) In the U. no. 127-8. pp. Variety. B. no. pp. no. p. in Bilder/Images (1990). 1969-1970. beginning 13 May 1967 and completed 20 June 1967. Ingmar Bergman and the Ritual of Art. no. p. Cahiers du cinéma. pp.. Distribution U. Stockholm. 2 (Summer 1971). pp. opening Cinematograph AB/Sveriges Television Janus Films. no.S. pp. 72 minutes 25 March 1969 (Swedish TV) 18 September 1969. 35-36. T:37471. p. New York Film Festival. 124-25. Available at NYC Museum of Television and Radio. 21-22.S. Monogram. Bergman writes about its genesis. 18) expressed doubt that ‘Ritorna’ (sic!) would be shown on either American television or in movie houses on account of its explicit language. in particular. 56-58. pp. 244-46. Cowie in Focus on Film 5 (Nov-Dec 1970): 7-13. 1980). 1 (1970). Jan Dawson in Monthly Film Bulletin. no. no. 44. June 1971. 10 July 1972. and. pp. 215 (November 1969). Livingston. Inc. 19 September 1969. 337 (1972). 51. no. Houston and M. 1982. 8 (September-October 1969). Foreign Reviews Bianco e nero. 26. 1 (Fall 1970): 48-50. Filmkritik. Judith Gollub in Cinema Journal 10. pp. 288 .S. Kinder in Self & Cinema: A Transformalist Perspective (Plesantville: Redgrave. Commentary The script of Riten was published in paperback form in Filmberättelser 3 (1973).

pp. 94. 30 April 1971. p. Credits. 3 (Summer 1971): 162-63. the first of a series of similar sadistic acts on the island. who speaks of the inevitable dissolution of their marriage. Anna Fromm leaves her handbag behind. 96. Variety. 4 (1975): 5-16. 18. Süddeutsche Zeitung (Munich). Eva stays with Andreas and tells him about Anna’s past: her husband and son were killed. Elis incorporates Andreas W. Elis is an architect whose hobby is portrait photography. During one of her husband’s business trips. in the first of a series of interviews with the actors. but also as a person who falsifies reality when people around her do not respond to her. is working on the roof of his house.Synopses. He collects shots of people taken off guard. Télé-Ciné. Eastmancolor Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Bergman uses the word ‘passion’ in both a secular and a religious sense. A bird flies against the window pane and is killed. The first shot is of a herd of sheep grazing peacefully on the island where Andreas Winkelman. is made a scapegoat by the islanders. Synopsis En passion opens with its production nummer. drunken driving. and police assault. 237-43. which he files under different categories. Violence creeps into their everyday life. 3 (December-January 1970). Bergman on Bergman (Ø 788). Anna Fromm and Andreas Winkelman move in together. EN PASSION. See also APEC – Revue belge du cinéma 12. p. no. he asks Max von Sydow to interpret his role as Andreas Winkelman. They watch the execution of a soldier in 289 . The culprit is never found. no. 28-29. Anna talks about her happy marriage. 57. implying earthly love as well as the passion of Christ. no. 241. p. no. pp. Commentaries and Reception Record Positif. 1969 [A Passion/The Passion of Anna]. Anna Fromm is staying with Elis and Eva Vergérus. 110 (November 1969). Times (London). whose name is also Andreas. 33-5. but no one believes her. Skoop. p. During an overnight visit. in his collection and makes him reveal his past. in it Andreas finds a letter written by Anna’s husband. Sight and Sound 41. The Passion of Anna. A Passion. L-138. no. Time. and no. Andreas finds a puppy hanging in a tree. 254-55 (May 1982). 180 (July-August 1973). pp. introduced by Bergman’s voice-over. Next. p. Liv Ulmann describes Anna as a fanatic truthseeker. Johan Andersson. but a poor old bachelor. 10. Anna Fromm (lit. At a Vergérus dinner. 21 May 1969. she is plagued by nightmares. Hence the literal British title. 82. Interviewed by Bergman. Anne Pious) stops by to use the telephone. In her analysis of Anna. Bibi Andersson sees her as suicidal but believes she will survive the present crisis with a new sense of self. no. Cinéma 69. 16. 139 (September-October 1969): 142. Andreas gets to know his neighbours. Awards Riten was an entry at the 1970 Mar del Plata Film Festival. is preferable to the American title. 17 May 1969. At night. Here Bergman interrupts the action and. which includes check forgery. pp. and Anna was hurt in an auto accident. 26 September 1969.

Bach.’ Credits Production company Production manager Location manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Props Sound Sound effects Mixing Music Costumes Make-up Editor Continuity Speaker Svensk Filmindustri/Cinematograph Lars-Owe Carlberg Brian Wikström Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist P. and Andreas grabs the wheel. Svensk Filmindustri United Artists 290 . the hunt for Johan Andersson accelerates. on the way back. distribution L-182. Bergman’s voice declares: ‘This time his name was Andreas Winkelman. Anna replies that she has come to ask for forgiveness. now outside the car. Anna seems to lose control of the car. In the car. Annandreas. He sinks down on the road while the camera pulls back until Andreas is no more than a speck in the empty landscape. Someone has set fire to a barn on the island. does not know which way to turn. On the island. Anna picks up Andreas at the barn. 3 in A minor’ and from Allan Gray’s ‘Always Romantic’ Mago (Max Goldstein) Börje Lundh. Marianne Karlbeck Cast Andreas Winkelman Anna Fromm Eva Vergérus Elis Vergérus Johan Andersson Verner His wife Katarina. Cecilia Drott Siv Kanälv Katherina Faragó Ingmar Bergman Max von Sydow Liv Ullmann Bibi Andersson Erland Josephson Erik Hell Sigge Fürst Svea Holst-Widén Annicka Kronberg Hjördis Petterson Lars-Owe Carlberg. Original titles Distribution U. Brita Öberg. there are more reports of killed animals. Jan Söderkvist Lennart Engholm Ulf Nordholm Olle Jakobsson Excerpts from J. Brian Wikström Barbro Hiort af Ornäs. Andreas asks to be free and accuses Anna of telling lies.S. Anna’s and Andreas’s relationship deteriorates until Andreas loses selfcontrol and attacks Anna physically. Full of ambivalence. Andreas. at the same time revealing that he has read the letter in her purse. Malin Ek. Lundgren Karl-Arne Bergman.Chapter IV Filmography Vietnam on TV. beginning September 1968 and completed at end of December 1968. accusing her of attempting to kill him as she killed her former husband. and a horse has burned to death. girl in daydream Johan’s sister Policemen Women in nightmare Filmed on Fårö. ‘Partita no.S. Britta Brunius. A.

It was a complicated production with some politicized activity by a member of the film team and rare tension between Bergman and cinematographer Sven Nykvist. Swedish reviewers of En passion defended Bergman’s right to produce films according to his own professionally defined premises. (same date. 25) wrote that ‘within the narrow framework of the psychological chamber play. pp. no. 24 July 1970. pp. 61. Bergman discusses the genesis of En passion in Bilder/Images (1990). Ingmar Bergman. 32) argued that Bergman’s island landscape could not be dismissed as uninteresting ‘except possibly by Mao’ [utom möjligen av Mao]. Ingmar Bergman and the Ritual of Art. no. 2 (Fall 1970): 32-39. 321-22. 1972. deploring Bergman’s renunciation of classical narrative form for the fragmented structure of A Passion. Credits. p. 36-37. pp. 1972]. 8 (reprinted in Second Sight: Notes on Some Movies. 304-310. 16-17. p. 1 December 1969. Bergman demonstrates the only mastery that the Swedish cinema possesses’ [inom det psykologiska kammarspelets smala ram demonstrerar Bergman det enda mästerskap som den svenska filmen äger]. continued to denounce Bergman: ‘Never before has Bergman seemed to spew forth so much undigested clinical material to so little artistic purpose. pp. opening 101 minutes 10 October 1969 10 November 1969. Frank Gado. pp. enigmatic and free from the baroque symbolism of Bergman’s earlier work’. Chapter II. and no. 47 (1969). 314-16). Chaplin. Paisley Livingston.Synopses. like Andrew Sarris in Village Voice. See (Ø 153). Peter Harcourt in Cinema (Beverly Hills) 6. For a representative of the second group. pp. 376-390. (A Passion was one of the few Bergman films approved of by Young. but they were unanimous in praising En passion for its depiction of human suffering.’ Others.) Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. or in the words of P.’ In America two groups of Bergman critics could now be discerned: (1) those who preferred his more traditional Fifties films and (2) those who liked his more modernist Sixties pictures. AB (11 November 1969. 4 June 1970. 1986. 11 November 1969. just as Alma did with Elisabet Vogler in Persona. Reception In marked contrast to their response to Skammen a year earlier. p. p. pp. 4. spoke for the first group. Commentaries and Reception Record Running time Released Premiere U. 147-53. 97 (January 1970).S. Expr. p. 1981 (Ø 1378). 291 . 1 (1970). Spegeln (Stockholm). 55. 1965-70 [New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. Houston (Spectator. Most foreign reviewers of En passion preferred it to Skammen. pp. In SvD. 687): ‘Rather a Vietnam in the Bergmanian soul than in allegorical Sweden. Peter Cowie in Petric. 1993. pp. and Vernon Young. 6 June 1970 Commentary The script of En passion was published as a paperback in Filmberättelser 2 (1973). The Art of Confession. no. Vi. Film and Dreams. 256-83. 298-316. Not many critics cared for the Brechtian interviews with the actors. interpreting Anna Fromm as a negative Christ figure whom Andreas Winkelman must fight off. 94 (October 1969). Hans Nystedt continued his previous discussion (see commentaries in Ø 233 and 236) of the religious implications in Bergman’s films. Schickel praised A Passion for being ‘austere. The Passion of Ingmar Bergman. 14. see Richard Schickel in Life. no. pp. 23 May 1970. 167-79. Cinema Borealis. Filmrutan. The most exhaustive discussions of A Passion in English are Hubert Cohen. p. 1982.

13. See also American Scholar. 121 (November 1970). Film og Kino. p. p. no. p. no. no. 4 (Autumn 1970). pp. Kauffmann: Figures of Light. S. Skoop 6. p. 242. no. pp. p. Films in Review. no. B/W and Eastmancolor See Media chapter (Ø 370). 6 August 1970. 3 (1969). no. J. Simon: Movies into film (New York: Dell. pp. no. 1971). 243 (November 1970). pp. 491-96. 1 (October 1970): 41-42. Listener. p. 4 (Autumn 1970): 216-17. 13 June 1970. 9 May 1970. United Artists issued a 22-page program with excerpted translations of Swedish reviews in connection with the American opening of The Passion of Anna. 163-72 (with P. pp. Special Journal Issues and Fact Sheets on En Passion L’Avant-scène du cinéma. 507-510 contains synopsis and credits of film. 171-72. Kosmorama 24. p.Chapter IV Filmography Foreign Reviews Cinéma 70. 267-71 (his New Republic review). no. Sight and Sound 40. pp. no. p. 74 (A. no. Summer 1970. 1960-1969 (Ø 1314). Filmfacts XIV/20 (15 May) 1972. French. 4 (1971): 36-40. 191. 181. C. With excerpted reviews. Positif. pp. FÅRÖ-DOKUMENT. Jeune cinéma. 11:1. 137 (Spring) 1978: 66-67. New Yorker. 48-54. 212 (January 1970). 138-9. contains a presentation of En passion in English. 1969-1970. Sight and Sound. no. Filmcritica. 239-46. Awards See Varia. pp. New York Times. Skoop 7. p. p. 37 pp. no. 7 June 1970. 1969/70. pp. and German. Image et son. pp. Time. Positif. NYT Film Reviews. complete script. 7-8 (1970). Films and Filming 16. no. 122. pp. APEC – Revue belge du cinéma 12. 228-9. no. New York Times Magazine. September 1970. 45-6. no. Film in Sweden. 103-8. pp. 443. pp. Film 70/71 (New York: Simon & Schuster. no. 4 (1975): 11-19. 34-40. no. pp. 130-32. 13:2. no. p. 109 (December 1970). Variety 6 May 1970. pp. 678-91. p. 1-7. 150-53. 32. Schickel’s in Life). no. 7 (August-September 1970). Svensk filmografi. 13. Gilliatt’s New Yorker review and R.E. Monthly Film Bulletin. 292 . 150 (November 1970). 98 (September 1970). Télé-Ciné. 62). 1972). pp. Times (London). 166 (October-November 1970). 48 (June-July 1970). 22. and filmography. 31 July 1970. Kosmorama. 118 (June 1970). 7 (May 1970): 36-39. 8 June 1970.

Some time later. Karin leaves. He has received an appointment to a Danish university and suggests to Karin that they move there together. A man asks her. David denies that his injury was self-inflicted. six years younger. telling her to go back to her smug middle-class life. RESERVATET. When Karin arrives late for a meeting. and the family lived in Berlin until David was 14. Karin is out shopping with her 14-year-old daughter when David intercepts them. Andreas is embarrassed and expresses his sympathy for David. Several months later. a surgeon. which he has felt ever since he met David for the first time. Irritated. But Karin feels an obligation to her family. Though she might be able to live both a married life and that of a mistress. but she declines. Karin Vergerus. Karin stays at David’s apartment. David calls her a coward. Color See media chapter (television section) (Ø 331. The film ends with their parting. has received medical attention from Andreas and is invited to the Vergerus home for dinner. One day David tells Karin of his past: his parents were Jewish. The night after Andreas’s visit. Karin agrees to meet him by the church where David is doing archeological excavation. begin to see each other. They live with their two children in a tastefully furnished villa that Andreas has inherited from his parents. after a suicide attempt.Synopses. One day several months later. she begins to cry. Andreas comes to talk to David about rumors that have reached him through anonymous letters. who claims that the two of them are inseparable. BERÖRINGEN. when they moved to Switzerland. All his relatives are dead. Its larvae have been dormant in it for 500 years. 1971 [The Touch]. Karin pursues him to London and finds out that he lives with his sister. David is aloof and tells Andreas to exploit Karin’s sense of loyalty to her marriage. if he can help. a married woman in her late thirties. Now when the statue has been brought into the light. except for a sister. David shows up again. in English. Commentaries and Reception Record 243. David leaves without saying goodbye. the larvae have awakened and are destroying the statue from within. Karin is married to Andreas. Eastmancolor Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis Beröringen opens in a Swedish hospital. 1970 [The Sanctuary]. the foreigner who spoke to Karin at the hospital. David loses control and strikes her while abusing her verbally. David Kovac. arrives for a viewing of her dead mother. Credits Production company Production manager Location manager Director Screenplay Photography Sound Cinematograph/ABC Pictures Lars-Owe Carlberg Lotti Ekberg Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist Lennart Engholm 293 . Soon thereafter. she cannot cope with David’s self-hatred. David tells Karin that long before the statue was walled into place in the church. On her way out. Karin explains to David that he is like a child to her – and a threat. 333). 332. 244. But she cannot fall asleep and returns home. meeting in David’s almost empty apartment in town. but David pursues her. Karin and David. they continue their tense relationship. an archeologist. an unknown insect had begun eating at it. Their meeting focusses on a wooden statue of the Virgin Mary that has been found. Credits. Karin leaves.

Chapter II. Also: ‘Allelucia Ave Maria’ (Wm. daughter David Kovac Karin’s dead mother Holm. Bellman’s ‘Liksom en herdinna’ (Like a Sheperdess) is the theme music of the film. Stockholm. See (Ø 153). 294 . Lundgren Stefan Bäckström Mago (Max Goldstein) Cecilia Drott. Spegeln (Stockholm) 14 July 1971.Chapter IV Filmography Music Jan Johansson (arrangement) C. in London. beginning 14 September 1970 and completed 13 November 1970. Sture Helander.S.S. Anna von Rosen Dennis Gotobed Margaretha Byström Erik Nyhlén Alan Simon Per Sjöstrand Aino Taube Ann-Christin Lobråten Bengt Ottekil Harry Schein Alf Montán. David’s sister Stewardess Neighbors of Vergerus Pass-control official Dr. opening Svensk Filmindustri ABC/Cinerama Releasing 114 minutes 18 August 1971 30 August 1971. Distribution U. son Maria Vergerus. ‘Victimae Paschali laudes’ (Latin hymn) P. Börje Lundh. Kenne Fant Architect Props Costumes Make-up Hairdressing Editor Continuity Cast Karin Vergerus Dr. distribution Running time Released Swedish Premiere U. Jan-Carl von Rosen. NYC Commentary The script of Beröringen was published in paperback in Filmberättelser 3 (1973). and at Film-Teknik Studios. Vergerus’s secretary Archaeologist Museum curator Beggar Woman on the stairs Museum clerk Bellboy in London Speech maker at dinner Guests at dinner party Filmed on location on island of Gotland. Lars-Owe Carlberg. Andreas Vergerus Anders Vergerus. M. Bengt Ottekil Börje Lundh Siv Kanälv-Lundgren Katherina Faragó Bibi Andersson Max von Sydow Staffan Hallerstam Maria Nolgård Elliot Gould Barbro Hiort af Ornäs Åke Lindström Mimmo Wåhlander Elsa Ebbesen-Thornblad Sheila Reid Fylgia Zadig Karin Nilsson. Byrd).A. Torsten Ryde. The Baronet. ‘Miss Hopkins’ (Peter Covent). a doctor A nurse Matron at hospital Sara.

and Bibi Andersson’s defense of the film in DN. 5 (February 1972). no. 24 July 1971. Ingmar Bergman. 10 October 1970. p. pp. 6 July. AB reported that Dustin Hoffman had been approached for the part of David Kovac. both in Sweden and abroad. while Erik Jan Kwakernaak in Kosmorama (no. 6 September 1970. pp. 28-29.E. Molly Haskell in Village Voice. In many of the negative reviews of the film. Los Angeles Times. 22-23. 10 January 1971. See also Expr. 19... 10 January. 295 . To Brenda Davis in Films and Filming. 9 (S. Bergman introduced Elliot Gould as the U. Swedish Public Radio. 24 (J. 110. Several later articles have explored the religious implications of the film: See Gay. Klynne in Chaplin. no. 21 August 1971. 5. 12 March. The film was shown at the Berlin Film Festival in July 1971 to mixed reviews. p. pp. But on 5 September 1970. Bergman criticized Swedish press reports from the Berlin festival. see Expr. Sight and Sound 41. 29 September 1971. were in fact puzzled by Bergman’s use of a middle-class soap opera plot. charged Bergman with an obsolete view of women. 6-7. pp. Life. 109) and Poul Einer Hansen in Kosmorama (no. p. 9. 4 July 1971. 4 (Autumn 1971): 224. Hanserik Hjertén responded in DN. 18 July 1971. 19 September 1971. Daily Telegraph Magazine. 4. 22-25. 7-8. Credits. p. Among those who wrote positively about Bergman’s portrayal of Karin Vergerus are the reviewers in AB. reports a figure of one million dollars. 11:1. had staked 2 million dollars on The Touch. 261) saw it as emblematic of Karin as the maternal woman who breaks out of the bourgeois family to give her love to a rootless and motherless man. There was a considerable range of opinion in the English and American reviews of The Touch. most specifically the wormeaten Madonna statue. the American producer of the film. K. and New York Herald Tribune. A Critical Biography. and Stig Björkman’s documentary film on the making of The Touch (Ø 796). See SvD. 47. New Yorker. An article in Expr. p. described the film as a story about ‘a lady with a bad taste in lovers’. 28 June 1971. p. 60-74. p. and that American backing as well as the film’s bilingualism (Swedish and English) was responsible for its failure. Skoop. 28 September 1970. 4. no. 271. 2 (1971). 14. no. 57-59. p. During the shooting of Beröringen. p. In an interview in Expr. October 1971. pp. and Arbetet 15 July..S. Olsson). 35. 15 October 1971. while Stanley Kauffmann in New Republic. In a review in Chaplin. Sunday Section pp. 107) rejected the statue as an overexplicit sign. 7-8. Andersson objected to critics who called the film banal and argued that banality of subject was not identical with artistic superficiality. Calendar sec. pp. 1982. 205-6. Peter Cowie. pp. Widegren suggested that Bergman might be burnt out as an artist and that he was only successful in depicting religious anxieties and not the ordinary problems of a middle-class housewife. p. referred to the film as ‘probably the most memorable and the most moving portrait of a lady that Bergman has given us’. p. p. Bergman had sold out to an international audience in choosing a ‘trivial’ plot for The Touch. 9 July 1971. p. Both Teodor Kallifatides in Chaplin (no. p. 9-10 (1971). 44. pp.. p. and Scherer under ‘Longer Articles’ below. and Expr. 7 August 1970. 113 (February 1972). there was a feeling that Elliot Gould was a wrong choice for the role as David Kovac. 17 October 1971. p. For interviews with Bergman at this time. pp. With time The Touch has been redeemed by critics but only by incorporating it into the religious-existential sphere of Bergman’s other filmmaking. agreed.. p. B. 112 (January 1972). actor who would play the role. 1. 9. p. no. Jan Dawson in Monthly Film Bulletin. p. Olsson.1. enough money to make ten Swedish feature films. A majority of reviewers. Sima).Synopses. no. Commentaries and Reception Record On 23 August 1970. 54-55. and 14 March 1971. See New York Times. reports that ABC. as well as Björkman’s article in Film in Sweden. carried pictoral reportage from shooting of The Touch. 66. Bergman allowed fairly extensive press coverage: See ‘Morgoneko’ [Morning news]. See also interview with Bergman in AB. 12. 29 July 1971. 6. While Beröringen was criticized for its trite plot it was also questioned for breaking out of the soap opera genre by introducing visually significant symbolism..

54-55. and by Julien Seymour. 17 November 1971. 9 August 1971. 259-61 and 261-63. New Yorker. no. p.Chapter IV Filmography Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. Sight and Sound. pp. Variety. pp. p. 25. 109 (1971). 160 (November 1971). Times (London). and E. 39. p. 1 (Winter 1985): 45-58. pp. no. ‘Cursed be My Tribe: A Second Look at The Touch’. Kosmorama. 7 July 1971. Focus. James. 1980. 110-12. p. no. no. no. pp. 98-9. 205-6. L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma. Chaplin. written by an adult. (Gay argues that The Touch is a religious film dealing explicitly with a conflict between Judaism and Christianity). no. Foreign Reviews Cinéma 71. (Emphasizes the religious context of the film). Action and Symbol in Ingmar Bergman’s The Touch’. 6. no. 224. Kwakernaak. a Christ figure). 1972. Fabricius. first printed in France-Soir. J. no. Scherer. 239. 1971-1972. 10-13. 124-26. in The Film Ideal. pp. 9 (Spring-Summer 1973). New Leader. We’ve been offered enough love stories about young people recently’. S. 7 October 1971. October 1971. ‘The Garden of Eden Theme in Bergman’s The Touch’. 22:1. (Olsson sees David Kovac’s role as that of a divine lover. by actress Bibi Andersson. p. Jeune cinéma. Ingmar Bergman. statements by cinematographer Sven Nykvist. 1 (Winter 1971-72): 42-43. p. plus excerpted reviews from leading French press. 270-75. Focus: Chicago’s Film Journal 9 (Spring 1973): 11. New York Times.’ Positif 137 (April) 1972: 27-34 (Relates The Touch to Bergman’s earlier filmmaking). 209 (February 1972). 47. containing a statement by Bergman about the film (‘It’s a love story between adults. no. first published in Lui. Robin. 121 (January) 1971: 67-71. September 1971. p. p. pp. 20 (1971): 507-10. 3 (1971). Filmfacts 14. 58 (November 1971). 27 June). Paul. 130-33. Wood. Lars. NYT Film Reviews. Peter. Solomon. Vi. Virginia. no. p. A Critical Biography. 37 (1971). no. 5 March 1964. 27. 48. 29 July 1971. 15 July 1971. Wexman. 4 (Autumn 1971). no. Scandinavian Studies 57. ‘Beröringen’. p. pp. Monthly Film Bulletin. Film Quarterly 25. New Republic. 107 (February 1972). See also Cowie. Olsson. ‘Character. pp. Kosmorama. p. Vecko-Journalen. ‘Ingmar Bergman et Le lien. pp. Filmrutan. 11. pp. Sight and Sound 42. Longer Studies and Special Journal Issues Gay. is a supplement focussed on Le lien (The Touch). 228-36 (Ø 1219). no.). Films and Filming. 31 August 1971 (Expr. 32-34. 296 . pp. Village Voice. Issue also includes excerpted reprint from Bergman’s interview article (under pseudonym of Ernest Riffe) in l’Express. 21 August 1971. 2 (Winter 1971/72): 58-59. 35. no. no. 110 (September 1972). 24 July 1971. 57-59. no. 37 (1971).

When her husband enters the room. Agnes is waking up to a new day of pain. Variety. Her minister prays at her bedside to a hypothetical God and begs her to be a messenger for the living by asking for God’s grace and a meaning to life. VISKNINGAR OCH ROP. Karin and Maria. During the meal. Other flashbacks reveal Agnes’s frustrated love for her mother and Anna’s memories of her dead daughter. For a brief moment. she will use the splinter of glass to mutilate herself by cutting her vagina. which is silent except for a few bars on a cello. and she goes to rest. Anna hears faint sounds after she has gone to bed. pp. This scene follows shortly after Maria has had a brief tête-à-tête with the doctor who attends Agnes. All the rooms are painted red. Maria seeks her out. she discovers that the dead woman has been crying. Between these scenes are flashbacks revealing the reveries or actual memories of the four women. Finally. the third sister. 1972 [Cries and Whispers]. After Agnes’s death. Credits. Later in the bedroom. It is Anna who comforts her. Two of the sisters. All the main characters are women: three sisters and a maid. Synopsis The setting of Viskningar och rop is an old manor house in central Sweden around the early 1900s. The second flashback depicts Karin and her husband at the dinner table. In one. has fallen asleep in a chair. Karin fumbles with a wineglass and breaks it. But when she is ravaged by pain and dying. she makes little attempt to help him. Maria. Later Karin tries to resume the rapport she has had with her younger sister. but Maria now excuses herself. and voices are heard whispering.Synopses. When she is conscious and reasonably at ease. no. her two sisters help comb her hair and read to her. When Anna goes there. have come to visit Agnes. Inside the house. During the night following Agnes’s death. 129-32. 29-30 (Spring 1972). Agnes is laid to rest by two old women. 1970-1979 (Ø 1314). the two sisters caress and touch each other. Anna climbs into Agnes’s bed and takes her body in her arms. She is tended to by her servant Anna. Agnes’s fear subsides. Each flashback is signalled by a dissolve to red. Karin tries to focus on practical matters. 34-35. but both turn away in disgust and fear. The opening sequence depicts the manor house at early dawn. Svensk filmografi. who is dying of cancer at age 37. Commentaries and Reception Record van der Verg in Skrien. Maria comes upon her husband after he has tried to stab himself. Karin smears her face with blood. The two women form a pietà picture. Awards 1972: Bibi Andersson won Best Actress Award for her role in The Touch in 1972 Belgrade Film Festival. saying that her husband is waiting. She summons first Karin and then Maria to the bedside. clocks are ticking. They come from Agnes’s room. both Karin and Maria shun her. 1 November 1972. 297 . p. fully dressed in white. pp. 245. Agnes’s death is slow and painful. Eastmancolor Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Bergman got the idea for the film’s title from a Swedish music critic who referred to Mozart’s music as ‘whispers and cries’. 26. with whom she has lived alone for many years. eaten in near silence. In the next room. The film is composed of scenes depicting the death of Agnes and its aftermath.

Börje Lundh. Credits Production company Production manager Location manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Mixing Music Cinematograph/Svenska Filminstitutet Lars-Owe Carlberg Hans Rehnberg Ingmar Bergman Arne Carlsson Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist Marik Vos Owe Svensson Sven Fahlén. Owe Svensson F. played by Käbi Laretei. Cecilia Drott. the passage is visualized. and Agnes’ voice takes over. Mazurka in A-minor. 298 . Maria presses some money into her hands. Anna curtsies silently.Chapter IV Filmography After the funeral. the sisters and their husbands are ready to leave. It is a moment of epiphany.S. Anna wants nothing. Agnes declares she is grateful that life has given her so much. All four women are strolling together in the park. They discuss what to do with Anna and decide to let her pick a memento from Agnes’s belongings. Ingrid von Rosen. Mariefred. Lars-Owe Carlberg Costumes Make-up Props Editor Continuity Cast Agnes Anna Karin Maria and the mother Maria’s daughter Maria’s husband The doctor Karin’s husband Isak. Chopin. Britt Falkemo Gunilla Hagberg Siv Lundgren Katherina Faragó Harriet Andersson Kari Sylwan Ingrid Thulin Liv Ullmann Linn Ullmann Henning Moritzen Erland Josephson Georg Årlin Anders Ek Inga Gill Rosanna Mariano Monika Priede Lena Bergman Malin Gjörup Karin Johansson. beginning 7 September 1971 and completed 29 October 1971. 4. and Anna swings them gently back and forth. Bach. Greta Johansson. Sweden. opus 17. Ann-Christin Lobråten. The three sisters sit down in a rocker. Anna reads from Agnes’s diary. parasols in hand. the pastor Storyteller in Agnes’ flashback Agnes as child Karin as child Maria as child Anna’s daughter Women tending to Agnes’s dead body Spectators at laterna magica showing Filmed on location at Taxinge-Näsby estate. This is the only time we see the women outdoors. The film ends with a flashback. no. J. 5 in D minor. Sarabande no. played by Pierre Fournier Greta Johansson Börje Lundh.

and 22 October (p.S. See AB. pp. no. p. Spegeln (Göteborg. Cinéma Quebec 3. Sundgren. (See report from press conference. 1990. 197 and 30 May 1973. 4 June 1973. See (Ø 153). 20 October 1971. in Film in Sweden. pp. NYC 5 March 1973. pp. 4. no. Stockholm). In May 1973 Ingmar Bergman made a rare appearance at Cannes film festival. 12 (October 1973). 38-39 (M. p. 27 October 1971. 20 May 1973. Cinema I Theater. 2. Zetterström). p. pp. 15 January 1972. 3 (E. 14-18. and in ‘Kulturbilagan’. VeckoJournalen no. Many felt that Bergman was big enough a name to be able to find financing elsewhere – if necessary outside Sweden – and should not sap the SFI production funds. 19). Los Angeles Times. 14 for reportage from Cries and Whispers (contains some errors). pp. Variety. Commentaries and Reception Record Distribution U. pp. pp. 12 December 1972. 1. SDS (Malmö). and Cinéma Québec III. the film had been a bone of contention even in its pre-production stage because of the way it was financed. 114 (March 1972). 3 December 1971. Bergman’s press agent for Viskningar och rop published ‘Excerpts from a Diary about Ingmar Bergman’s Viskningar och rop outside Stockholm 1971’. Reception In Sweden. SvD. p. 17 October 1971. 88-89. 12. See N. 79-80 (A. p. 10. sec. SR. 8-9 (J. ‘Bergmans pengar’ [Bergman’s money]. pp. 2 (1972). for reportage based on interview with Bergman. Bergman’s film led to an unusually long press debate. he advocates socializing the film industry – but tapped three sources: his own personal funds.. p. including his comments on the film. 3-13 (English and French versions). the same title. 1 (September 1973): 13-15. Steene). For a postscript to the 299 . Philadelphia Sunday Bulletin. Camera (Malmö) Commentary The script of Viskningar och rop was published in paperback in Filmberättelser 3 (1973). for good account of mood and work routine of a Bergman production. 71. 1 (September 1973). 278 (November 1973): 102-104. pp. 28.. pp. Credits. Bohusläningen. 65 (A. Sörenson). Bergman writes about the genesis of Viskningar och rop in Bilder/Images. no. actors’ investment of their salaries in the film. see AB. p. 20 May. no. Chapter II. where Viskningar och rop premiered on 5 March 1973 (half a year after its American opening). Andersson). For interviews prior to opening. Uppsala. This article originally appeared in Chaplin.Synopses. Viskningar och rop was also shown at Bergen Arts Festival. 2 (with glowing assessment of Bergman at age 55). and half a million Swedish kronor from the SFI. 7 September 1971. and Harry Schein. pp. Cue. Actually. p. Expr. 3. which should go to lesser known filmmakers. p. p. 83-103. 4. 43 (1971). see ‘Eko’ [Echo]. 20). 11 February 1973. 18-20. Femina. 6 September 1972. Image et Son. p. 9 May 1973. Sarris objecting to showing of Cries and Whispers at Cannes). L-O. and same news program after presentation of the film at Cannes (SR. 18). Filmmakers Newsletter 6. 15 (p.-P. Sunday section. 14 September 1971.) It was the SFI support that created controversy. 21 (p. Sellermark). See also DN. no. Several interviews took place with Bergman during shooting of the film. 8-9. 19 May 1973). 13-15. 12 December 1971. 7 June 1973. Village Voice. Expr. 9 July 1972. For résumés of the Cannes press conference. Swedish Public Radio (SR). Bergman did not want a private producer – in an interview in AB. distribution Running time Released World premiere Swedish opening Svensk Filmindustri New World Films 90 minutes 5 August 1972 21 December 1972. 6 March 1973 (10 minute commentary and interview with Bergman). 4 (B.. Löthwall. See also Joyce Haber. 2 July 1973. Ernie Anderson. 4. Expr. 4. 1. Related material was printed in AB. no. where Viskningar och rop was shown out of competition. p.

p. in DN. a fact deplored by Eriksson and Skagen in a closing statement. 38-51). p. 26 (Summer 1973). Swedish debate about Bergman’s film focussed once more on his role as an artist. p. See I. October 1973: 31-34) printed a glowing review of the film. p.] själens heliga autonomi].] the closed milieu [. 42-47 for comments on Eriksson and Skagen article. Foss refers to the film as ‘a rhapsody of petrified Bergman themes’. it was the psychological implications of Viskningar och rop that came to dominate the discussion. see Björn Vinberg. 1 (1973): 26-30 (L. After every major American studio had turned down U. Cries and Whispers became a focal film in a critique of Bergman’s portrayal of women. 17 February 1973. 19 April. 15 January 1973. pp. Lundgren and A. Bo Landberg published a Swedish essay on Bergman’s film in 1981. Expr. though he too (somewhat more tolerantly) recognized the familiar Bergman themes and landscape. DN. Munkesjö). 251-55 (Ø 1317). 38 pp.000 in down payment – Roger Corman’s recently formed independent company New World Films acquired the film and released it towards the end of 1972 to a glowing set of reviews. 4 and 27 April 1973. calling it Bergman’s best script and a film that would make film history. p.. no. Swedish Reviews Stockholm press. p. Foss.] den slutna miljön [. pp. 74. DN.. 4. 17 April. Eriksson and S. On 21 October 1972.Chapter IV Filmography discussion. 4. ‘Viskningar och rop: film og samfunn’ [Cries and Whispers: Film and society]. Skagen in DN. Los Angeles Times ran a report by Wayne Warga on Roger Corman and Cries and Whispers.. no... Bodegård). p.S. 176: ‘[Cries] mooches and slouches through the well-trodden range of obsessions we have come to regard as evocative of Nordic gloom’. Sjöstrand). 9. 5. See (Ø 975) for listing and response. 21 April. 1978. 27 (Spring 1974). 23..S. most notably in Joan Mellen’s feminist attack in Film Quarterly XXVI. 26 April. 122 (1973).. the New Yorker printed the script (pp. 14 March 1973. Overall. no. no. 6 March 1973. 84-85. pp.. 6 (I. p. Though some reviewers (see Hanserik Hjertén. Cries and Whispers opened in February 1973 to mostly lukewarm reviews. and Åke Janzon in SvD. 25 February 1973. 5 March). pp. 1. p. and Expr. Other critical voices spoke up in Filmrutan 16. no. p. p. p. 5 (Fall 1973): 2-11. Lukasstiftelsen. 12. in the previous 14 months to gross a substantial profit. 209 (October 1973). 45) and an analysis by O. Wrote C. 26-34. 10 February 1973. 6 March 1973 (Expr. ‘Ingmar Bergman’s Viskningar och rop: Ett drama om ensamhet-gemenskap-trygghet’ [Bergman’s Cries. pp. See NYT. But Philip Strick in Sight and Sound thought the film was Bergman’s and Nykvist’s greatest collaboration. others issued a call for an ideological rather than an aesthetic approach to Bergman’s filmmaking. 32. 8-9. 12 May 1973.. Catholic Film Newsletter. 300 . p. Excerpts also appeared in the special Hvisken og rop issue of the Norwegian journal Fant.M.: A drama of loneliness-togetherness-security] (Göteborg: St. 10) accepted Bergman as ‘a psychological visionary’ and a bourgeois film poet who depicted ‘a kind of reserve [. Calendar. See MacGuffin no. p.. 1981). 11:1 for report that Cries and Whispers was the only foreign film in the U. 44. In London. 4 (A-M Narti). 6 March 1973.. Sölve Skagen commented again on the film a year later in Fant.. distribution rights to Cries and Whispers – even though Bergman reportedly asked for only $75. Chaplin. 6 April 1973. DN.] the holy autonomy of the soul’ [ett slags reservat [. together with a review (p. Canadian Séquences (no.. pp. no. DN. 4 (G. The article was reprinted in Motbilder. Foreign Reviews Amis du film et de télévision. 46-53. ‘Alla tjänar en hacka på Bergmans succéfilm’ [Everyone earns a penny on B’s successful film]. Hudson in Spectator.

6 January 1973. 5 (1974). Film Criticism XIII. D. no. p. Los Angeles Herald Examiner. no. 3-4 (1973). 1 January 1973. 93-94. also in Swedish as ‘Liksom en saga av Bröderna Grimm’. Mellen. 241 (1972): 601-06. p. Chaplin. 35. 56-57. F-Dienst XXVII/2. Film Quarterly. 9 February 1973. Filmfacts 15. no. pp. Listener. 279 (December 1973). Special issue of Cris et chuchottements. Au bout de l’éblouissement’. 5 (Fall 1973): 2-11. 3 (222). pp. 3-4. 9-12. 3 (Spring) 1989: 37-41. 3 (January 1973). 110. pp. pp. Village Voice. no. 55 (May 1973). a brief Bergman biography and filmography. Fact Sheets and Journal Issues L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma. Sight and Sound. pp. 22 January 1974. 56-7. 117 (December 1973). and XXX/16. Variety. 16:1. no. pp. Image et son. color symbolism. 55-6. 4-30. 22 December 1972. 13. Julian. J. pp. 115. no. review excerpts. 1975. 10. pp. p. 15 February 1973. 17 January 1973. le Fanu. 33). no. Cinéma Québec XXXIX. formerly The Brighton Film Review. Nation. New Leader.Synopses. August 1977. pp. 16-17. pp. no. New York Times Film Reviews. 24. Commentary. B-1. 164-166. Longer Articles Adams. Kosmorama 20. 15 (May 1973). New York. 22-24. ‘Cries and Whispers’. no. pp. New Republic. Sitney P. ‘Color and Myth in Cries and Whispers’. Monthly Film Bulletin. p. Commentaries and Reception Record Cinéma 181 (November 1973). pp. 10-13. pp. 142 (December 1973). pp. Boesten.E. pp. 3 February. no. p. p. New Yorker. 35. pp. 35-38. XL/470 (March) 1973. no. Times (London). no. no. Japanese Film Journal 19. 22 January 1973.B. ‘Cries and Whispers: The Complete Bergman’. 8 January 1973. XXXI. 1 (Winter 1975): 147-58. 1973. Credits. 15-16 and an 301 . ‘Bergman and Women: Cries and Whispers’. 53 (A. pp. no. New York Review of Books. 4-5/326-327 (July-October 1990). 98-106. 64-65. 4 (1975): 243-45. script presentation of characters. Contains review article by André Leroux. Time. Joan. 350-51.). Massachusetts Review 16. pp. p. p. Monogram (G. Der Spiegel. Sketch (Beiruth). 20 (8 March 1973). 10 (4 March) 1974. 81-84. XXVI. De Telegraaf. p. 223. and illustrations. 61-62. clocks and mirrors. Women & Film. 56. 18. Mark. including script. credits. 3-55. 1971-72. no. as well as its political implication (class structure). 28 December 1972. pp. Media C 174. 1989: 124-125. 18 May 1973. 29 March 1974. New York Times. pp. 49. ‘Bergman: the politics of melodrama’. Dossier includes credits and listing of takes. no. 50-54. and analysis calling film ‘a Christus film’ with explanation of names. Rice. Concludes with excerpted press voices. pp. 20 December 1972. Ecran. p. no. ‘Cris et chuchottements de Bergman.

214 (January 1977). 8-14 October 1973. a 16 mm blown-up version of the original six TV scenes. no. The version with which most filmgoers are familiar is a two and a halfhour (155 minute) screen version. 4 (1975). opens with an at-home interview where Johan and Marianne pose as the ideal couple for a ladies journal. D11 (second review). A four-hour commercial film version. C. Ingmar Bergman. 170 minutes. Parmentier. 137 (178). 13-15. Film a doba. p. ‘Cries and Whispers’. 8 (August 1973). L’Express. 2. Filmfacts XV/24. Kosmorama. Télé-Ciné. see Media chapter V (Ø 334) which includes more commentaries and a record of the reception of original TV transmission. Film 72/73. Eastmancolor (16 mm) Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Scener ur ett äktenskap was originally conceived as six 50-minute scenes for television. 1974 [Scenes from a Marriage]. had a brief circulation in Sweden. Aktuelt (Danish). Jovanovich. 27 May 1973. 1974: 601-06. Brace. 432-34. 37. Afterwards. see under film title in Varia. New York Critics’ Award for Best Film. Chr. pp. Johan and Marianne congratulate themselves on their own marriage. Synopsis and extracts from reviews. Contains Hollis Alpert review in World Magazine. ‘Bergman har lavet sit livs mesterværk’ [B has made his life’s masterpiece]. who is pregnant. 1975). 65. A Swedish film version. pp. Village Voice. 1980. A Critical Biography. The release date of the two film versions was 1974. and Pauline Kael’s in New Yorker). Marianne’s pregnancy is omitted. seeks an abortion. 1973). i. ‘Innocence and Panic’. 66-67. Dreamworks 1. The TV version was first aired in 1973. SCENER UR ETT ÄKTENSKAP. For the original TV version.e. 70. Awards 1972: National Society of Film Critics for Best Script and Best Photography. edited for foreign consumption. Peter and Katarina. Elements of Film (New York: Harcourt. pp. 42-51. (15 January). pp. sec. 79-86. Best Director and Best Actress (Liv Ullmann). P. E. had a limited showing abroad. pp. shot in 16 mm. 243-45. See also Lee Bobker. pp. no. Cowie. 13. (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. (The TV version also includes an episode where Marianne. 246. 1970-1979 (Ø 1314). passim. 189-92. pp. pp.. Best Script. 1 (Spring 1980): 54-67.) 302 . ‘Un film pour vous divertir’. pp. 275-82. Svensk filmografi. In the commercial film version. 11 January 1973. p. Braad Thomsen. Japanese Fantasy Film Journal. The scene shifts to a dinner they give for their friends. The gathering breaks up when the guests begin to insult each other. Zimmerman’s in Newsweek. 31 March 1973. Oscar for Best Photography. no. p.Chapter IV Filmography interview based on Cannes press conference by Jean-Pierre Tadros. Synopsis First scene. no. Paul D. New York Times. For additional awards. no.

Afterwards. holding hands. Johan has a cold. Paula. she sees Mrs. Marianne comes to present and sign the divorce papers. Commentaries and Reception Record The second ‘scene’. Instead. Eva. They begin a discussion about outspokenness and eroticism in marriage. Marianne calls a couple they know. but Johan wants to break away from a life filled with middle-class commitments. She fails. she shows him a letter that Paula has written to her. His collegaue.Synopses. The foghorn sounds ouside. she reads him a passage from her diary. with whom he is leaving for Paris the next day. In the meantime. Marianne wakes up after a nightmare. ‘The Valley of Tears’. Credits. somewhat irritated. Soon they begin to argue and accuse each other of the flaws in their marriage. The third scene. Marianne appears indifferent and tells about her new sense of freedom. Credits Production company Production manager Director Screenplay Photography Architect Sound Mixing Costumes Cinematograph AB Lars-Owe Carlberg Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist (Eastmancolor) Björn Thulin Owe Svensson. Johan comes to Marianne’s home for dinner. they sign the divorce papers. which they continue in the evening after a theatre performance of Ibsen’s A Doll’s House. titled ‘In the middle of the Night. Johan tells her he loves her in his own unimaginative way. ‘Paula’. While Johan talks about his professional difficulties. Marianne claims that she is finally free. Later. Distraught. occurs a year later. Johan receives a call from his mother in his lab. Jacobi. and Marianne leaves. who has wanted to divorce her husband for 15 years on the grounds that her marriage is loveless. They make love but in the morning Johan packs and leaves. in a dark House somewhere in the World’. only to find out that Johan’s affair has been known among their friends for some time. Johan is upset because his life seems meaningless. The fourth scene. Later. but Johan falls asleep. She talks to Johan about her sense of confusion and of not being loved. if not happy. They drive to a friend’s cabin and talk about their lives. Marianne suggests that their lack of sexual desire for each other might be the result of too much talk about it. begins with a mild but unsuccessful revolt by Marianne: she decides to cancel the weekly Sunday dinner with her parents. saying that Paula’s epistle is an act of histrionics. Later she criticizes a collection of poems that Johan has given her to read. Marianne and Johan have lunch together. They start drinking. Both Johan and Marianne have remarried. ‘The Illiterates’. in her office. He mentions an offer he has had from an American university and reveals that Paula is not going to accompany him. Marianne pleads with him to stay. They go back to sleep. Several years have gone by when the final scene takes place. but meet on the twentieth anniversary of their own marriage. Arne Carlsson Owe Svensson Inger Pehrsson 303 . takes place in Johan’s and Marianne’s summer house where Johan reveals having an affair with another woman. predicting that Johan will go back to his family. but she refuses. He wants to make love to Marianne. Marianne is in a good mood and seduces him. The next to the last scene. titled ‘The Art of Sweeping under the Carpet’. takes place in Johan’s office. The verbal insults change into a violent physical attack by Johan. comes in and partakes in an experiment: a TV monitor records her efforts to hit a point of light on a screen in a darkened room. Johan leaves. During the night.

pp. 17 May 1973. 304 . Distribution U. 42. In a later interview article by Aino and Arne Sellermark. De mest överraskande saker].S. 15. Bergman talks about a productive 3-month period [April-June 1972].. however. adding. p. In an interview article by Elisabet Sörenson in SvD. The main theme in all three works was ‘the certainty with which bourgeois ideology corrupts people’s emotional life’ (den visshet med vilken den borgerliga ideologin korrumperar människors känsloliv). p. See also Expr. 47-8. opening Svensk Filmindustri (film version) Donald Rugoff TV version: 282 minutes. no. beginning 24 July 1972 and completed 3 October 1972. during which he wrote the script to Scener ur ett äktenskap. no. listed in Chapter II (Ø 152). 1973. See also Bergman’s remarks about the TV series. distribution Running time Swedish film opening U. In an interview by Göran Sellgren titled ‘Första TV-serien för Bergman’ (DN. Bergman said about the genesis of the entire series that ‘It started on my old couch’ [Det började på min gamla soffa]. under the title ‘Det var bara roligt’ [It was nothing but fun]. taped by Thorleif Hellbom at Bergman’s Dämba studio on Fårö.. 4 May 1972) Bergman revealed that Scenes. Swedish film version: 170 minutes. Material also appeared in Danish Politiken. Johan’s colleauge Marianne’s mother Eva. Allers. Palm. American film version: 155 minutes 28 October 1974. Cinema 1.S. NYC Commentary In a reportage in DN (30 August 1972). Same material appeared in Röster i Radio TV. Bergman talked about the genesis of his characters as ‘a kind of spring cleaning in a closet in which I had stored other people’s and my own experiences’ [en slags vårstädning i en garderob där jag hade lagrat andra människors och mina egna erfarenheter]. 39 (1974). 6 April 1973. 12 years old Her sister Voice-over as a press photographer Filmed on location in Stockholm and at Fårö. 25.. was a continuation of his ‘bourgeois tragi-comedies’ The Touch and Reservatet. p. The most amazing things’ [Det förvånade mig mycket när jag skrev om dem att de kunde säga saker av sig själva. that he did not speak through Johan and Marianne: ‘It surprised me a lot when I wrote about them that they could say things all on their own.Chapter IV Filmography Make-up Editor Continuity Cecilia Drott Siv Lundgren Ulla Stattin Liv Ullmann Erland Josephson Anita Wall Jan Malmsjö Bibi Andersson Barbro Hiort af Ornäs Bertil Norström Wenche Foss Rosanna Mariano Lena Bergman Ingmar Bergman Cast Marianne Johan Mrs. Jacobi Arne. 13 May 1973. journalist Peter Katarina Eva Gunnel Lindblom Mrs. 8. under the headline ‘Et par måneders arbejde men et livs erfaring’ [A couple of months work but the experience of a lifetime]. Camera (Västerås) 21 September 1974.

Jag har alltid varit osentimental om mina filmer. 115-18. 33 (repr.Synopses. Films in Review. New Republic. Commentaries and Reception Record On 27 August 1974. 12. pp. 33 (repr. Cinéma 75 listed below). 1 (January 1975). pp. Bergman said: ‘It hasn’t lost anything in the operation. pp. 5 (January-February 1975). no. p. 2. Kosmorama. 10-11. 25 October 1977. In France reviewers noted Bergman’s development from the symbolic and metaphysical films of the Fifties and Sixties to the realism of Scenes. no. no. 12 October 1974. 17. 12 a-d. Jump Cut. pp. p. reprinted in Women and the Cinema. Jeune cinéma. the most drastic difference between the TV and film versions is the omission of an entire episode depicting Marianne’s visit to her mother. 66-69). Film Heritage 10. 41-46. no. and no. 22. 22. 2 (Winter 1974-75): 48-53. They remarked in particular on two things: that Bergman had a talent for simplicity and richness of dialogue and for narrative density. no. Japanese Fantasy Journal 19. 16-17. Films and Filming 21. pp. 23 October 1974. Partisan Review. 1977). p. Amis du film et de la télévision. 404-5. Credits. 144 (May 1975). referred to Bergman’s film as ‘a high-class soap opera missing both the mundane and the metaphysical’. 5 (February 1975): 39-40. 22 September 1974. ed. Ortega y Gasset’. Monthly Film Bulletin. 1. pp. 82. Apart from the cut of the abortion segment. 1-2. 1. no. pp. pp. 3. 228-30. 581-85. Swedish film version (170 minutes) of Scener ur ett äktenskap had a selective showing in Sweden on a try-out basis. pp. January 1975. pp. pp. New York Times. no. 12 October 1974. 7 (September 1974). 68-69. Cineforum. Foreign Reviews America. New Yorker. pp. in Before my Eyes. 196 (March 1975). pp. 501. 85 (March 1975). pp. 22. I’ve always been unsentimental about my films. While John Simon in Esquire. 2 (Winter 1975): 43-44. New York. 305 . Peary (E. 23 September 1974. 34). respectively. pp. compared Scenes ‘to the great literary tracts on love by writers like Stendhal. Kierkegaard. 234 (November 1975). Cinéma 75. Film Quarterly 28. Dutton. but got only a limited response (see Expr. pp. Marcia Cavell in New Leader. Positif. Ms. Los Angeles Times. and XXX. L’Avant-scène du cinéma. no. no. no. pp. 363-77. no. 117 (November 1973). pp. 195. 16. 137-47. have never seem them as untouchable’ [Den har inte förlorat något på operationen. 28 October 1974. 29-32. har aldrig sett dem som oantastliga]. no. 115-116 (August 1973). 34 (March 1975). no. F-Dienst XXVIII/6. in Kauffmann’s Before my Eyes. and that Scenes marked a peak in his ability to present an ‘invisible mise-en-scène’ (See Jeune Cinéma. 60-62. 162 (October 1975). 117-33. 24) reported that Bergman had sold a cut-down version of Scener ur ett äktenskap for commercial distribution in the U.S.. New Republic. sec. pp. (p. pp. no. 2324. K. p.P. 10 August and 12 October 1974. pp. Foreign Reception American evaluations of the shorter (155 minute) film version of Scenes from a Marriage echoed the mixed US response to The Touch a few years earlier. no. p. 21 November 1974. Kay and G. 4 (1974). 66-69). pp. 18 November 1974. Expr. 15. no. 1 (1975). 18 March 1975. 2 (August 1974): 60-61. Molly Haskell interviewed Liv Ullmann for Village Voice. 56 and p. pp. 96-98. 62-63. pp. October 1974. Ecran.

247. Sight and Sound 45. the prince falls in love with Pamina. Paul. no. and while the latter finds Pamina and flees with her from her guardian. 1990. 20 December 1974. no. 313-23. Librach. pp. 28. 306 . ‘Scenes from a Marriage. p. 41 (May 1975). Eastmancolor Director Text Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman. Best Screenplay. He is aware of Pamina’s and Tamino’s love for each other – Papageno has given Pamina a picture of Tamino and her love for him is instant – and sets a scheme in motion. pp. 1975 [The Magic Flute]. 3 January 1975. Papageno. Bild und Funk Bambi Award for Best Foreign Actress. 34. David di Donatello Award. Pamina’s and Papageno’s flight is thwarted by Sarastro as he returns from a hunt. Synopsis The story focusses on Prince Tamino and Princess Pamina. 283-300. ‘Bergman and the Popular Audience’ in Kaminsky. ‘Marriage as Metaphor: The Idea of Consciousness in Scener ur ett äktenskap’. pp. p. The Queen gives Tamino a magic flute and a companion. Awards 1974: 1975: 1976: Hollywood Foreign Press Association Golden Globe. ‘Pillow Talk’ Commonweal. Ronald S. 64-66. A Special Project in Directing’. 15-18. to Liv Ullmann. Télé-Ciné. 167 (March 1975). Steene. Longer Studies and Review Articles (film version) Buxton. and 13 January 1975. Village Voice. 2 October 1974. pp. the prince and his companion must endure three trials. Tamino arrives at Sarastro’s palace. Birgitta. First. 3 (Summer 1977). During a visit the Queen of Night promises Tamino her daughter in marriage if he returns Pamina from her father. 40 (April 1975). During a meeting with his council of priests. and ‘Divorce Swedish Style’. Monostatos. He captures Tamino and sends him away with Papageno. She sends Tamino a medallion of her daughter. They return to tell their mistress of the incident. p. no. National Society of Filmcritics awards for Best Picture. Best Actress. no. Soon Tamino and Papageno lose each other. pp. 29 November 1974. Sarastro reveals his intention to give his daughter to Tamino. see media chapter V (Ø 335). 84. by some considered a wizard. Jr. TROLLFLÖJTEN. MA thesis. 264-70. after a libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder For the reception of the original TV transmission (including controversy over production support). C. 17. Film Journalists’ Association Film Festival (Brussels). ‘Scenes from a Marriage’. 69. no. Lester. As planned. pp. however. 1 (Winter 1974-75): 57-58. 19-21 and no. pp. Movietone News. Rhode Island College. daughter of the evil Queen of Night and Sarastro. Product D II/9. Taormina. Scandinavian Studies 49. who has kidnapped her. Westerbeck. Times (London). 197 (March 1975).Chapter IV Filmography Positif. 26 September 1974. The film opens as Tamino is attacked during a hunt by a bestial dragon and saved at the last moment by three women who are in the Queen of Night’s service. p. 45 typewritten pp. 1975 (Ø 1266). p. Keyser. 300-301. by others a good and wise man.

Nina Harte. Jerker Arvidson Urban Malmberg.Synopses. He persuades Papageno to stay by promising him a beautiful wife. Henny Noremark Bengt Ottekil. Because of his hatred for his wife. Pamina. The film ends as Papageno and Papagena (with an instant hoard of offspring) join Tamino and Pamina in celebration of happiness and love. approaches Tamino but doubts his love for her when he does not answer her. She attempts suicide but is saved by three boys who return her in a balloon to Tamino. who has appeared as an old woman. Sonja Karlsson Cast Tamino Pamina Papageno Papagena First lady Second lady Third lady Sarastro Queen of Night Monostatos The speaker First priest Second priest Two guards Three boys in the balloon Seven girls 307 . Cecilia Drott Siv Lundgren Katinka (Katherina) Faragó Josef Köstlinger Irma Urrila Håkan Hagegård Elisabeth Erikson Britt-Marie Aruhn Kirsten Vaupel Birgitta Smiding Ulrik Cold Birgit Nordin. Peter Hennix (dialog) Bengt Törnkrantz Eric Ericson and SR/Symphony Choir Donya Feuer Karin Erskine. Tamino is now ready for his last trial: to wander through fire and water. Jane Darling. Tamino and Pamina endure the elements and reach their goal. Lena Wennergren. and with the help of the magic flute. assisted by song pedagoque Ulla Blom Ragnar Ulfung Erik Sædén Gösta Prüzelius Ulf Johanson Hans Johansson. They are greeted by Sarastro and his people. Credits Production company Production manager Location manager Director Assistant director Photography Architect Music Sound Mixing Orchestration Choreography Costumes Make-up Editor Continuity Cinematograph/SverigesTelevision (SVT. Ansgar Krook. channel 2) Måns Reuterswärd Ann-Marie Jartelius Ingmar Bergman Kerstin Forsmark Sven Nykvist Henny Noremark W. Commentaries and Reception Record Taken to the Temple of Trials. Sarastro does not consider himself worthy to reign and gives the rulership insignia to Tamino and Pamina. Mozart’s Die Zauberflöte Helmut Mühle (music). who have chased away the Queen of Night. Elina Lehto. Erland von Heijne Lisbeth Zachrisson. In the Temple of Trials. Papagena. Together. Helena Högberg. Tamino forfeits a chance to turn back. Papageno forgets himself and loses his prospective fiancée. Britt Falkemo. Credits.A. Tamino and Papageno are forbidden to talk. who has been sent by her mother to kill Sarastro.

Magnus Blomkvist. Or if you want to translate that into comprehensible language. Arne Hendriksen. and an article by Jan Aghed and Carlhåkan Larsén in SDS. See Varia. A. At age 12 he tried using it for his puppet theater but could not afford to buy the records. Röster i Radio-TV. distribution Running time Released Television premiere Cinema premiere U. written for a 10-year-old by an adult). Stockholm (Studio 1). you can say that he got it from his genius or from a collective human experience or from a sublimated fear of death’. story and wisdom combined. 1990. 47: ‘Mozart got those notes from God of course. where Magic Flute was shown out of competition. Distribution US. LarsOwe Carlberg Girl in the audience Listeners in the audience Bergman’s filmed TV version of Mozart’s opera Die Zauberflöte was shot on a replica of an 18thcentury stage./Carmen F. Coronet. 31 December 1974. NYC A documentary about the production of Trollflöjten was produced by Katinka Faragó and Måns Reuterswärd. In Bilder/Images. and filmed at Filmhuset. no. 4-5. 10 (same material appears in authors’ interview article in Positif. Hans Kyhle. no. For Bergman’s views on Mozart. in which Bergman compares Mozart’s opera to Winnie the Pooh (i. Bergman’s Trollflöjten was recorded at the Circus Theatre in Stockholm. Röda Kvarn (Stockholm) 11 November 1975. SvenErik Jacobsson. opening Svensk Filmindustri Surrogate Co. see also interviews in AB. where Bergman had first planned to shoot the film. 9-23 May 1975. pp. 1-2 (1974/75). fick det från Gud naturligtvis. though diminished reconstruction of the 18th-century Drottningholm Court Theatre outside Stockholm. beginning 6 April 1974. 177 (January 1976). Folke Jonsson. Sven Nykvist. Sixten Fark. is similar in structure to Theater auf der Weiden outside Vienna. Lisbeth Zachrisson. Singling out the 12 beats he used in the puppeteer sequence in Vargtimmen (Tamino’s search for Pamina) as ‘one of civilization’s greatest moments’. Film und Ton 22 (December 1975): 64. 2 January 1975. Ingrid Bergman.]. where Mozart’s opera opened on 30 September 1791. pp. p. Erland Josephson. no. the only intact stage of its kind in Europe. 9-10. two-page program issued at the Cannes Film Festival. Donya Feuer.18.e.Chapter IV Filmography Nine priests Einar Larson. 67. Bergman added in an interview in Vecko-Journalen. 47 (20 November 1974). p. Bergman writes about the genesis of his filmatization of Mozart’s opera and about episodes in the making of the film. This theatre. Carl Henric Qvarfordt Helene Friberg Daniel Bergman. pp. Sets and machinery were a faithful. Bergman mentions his lifelong love of Mozart’s opera and refers to it as ‘the world’s best musical’ [världens bästa musikal]. Gösta Backelin. så kan man säga att han hämtat dem ur sin genialitet eller ur en samlad djupt mänsklig erfarenhet eller ur en sublimerad dödsfruktan. 59). pp. [M.. beginning 16 April 1974 (not counting extensive preparations over a 3-year period) and completed in July 1974. Ingmar Bergman. 350-359.S. Janós Herskó. Commentary In interviews. Eller om du vill översätta detta begripligt. Bergman defines ‘morality of love’ as opera’s main theme and justifies changes he made in the libretto as an attempt to make this theme 308 . Siegfried Svensson. Zollo 135 minutes 26 September 1975 1 January 1975 4 October 1975.

In this context. D17. Ericson. Peter Cowie in High Fidelity Magazine 25. p. no. but the film was not submitted for competition. pp. 48-50. Monthly Film Bulletin. 50:1. pp.] There are synthetic voices that sound wonderful. pp. 18 argued that Bergman fell between two chairs by picking good-looking singers who were neither professional actors nor first-rate opera performers. 4 January 1975. National Review. is also of interest. Filmkritika 28 (March 1975). and Robert Craft in New York Review of Books. 102 (‘ A model of a musical ensemble as well as theatrical inspiration’). 82-84 (‘This is an occasion. January-February 1977. May-June 1977. inte konstlade. See New Republic. He also defends his choice of singers: ‘The most important thing for me was that the singers had natural-born voices. Genius is served.. [. New York Magazine. Time. but you can’t see in the faces that anybody is singing’ [Det viktigaste för mig var att sångarna hade naturliga röster. reprinted in Kauffmann: Before my Eyes. felt that there was never any need to do so: ‘Working with Bergman was a new and fine experience for me and the orchestra’ [Att arbeta med Bergman var en ny och fin erfarenhet för mig och orkestern]. 6 (June 1976): 66-70. Commentaries and Reception Record more explicit. 29 November 1975. 42 (December 1975). Kosmorama. Costumier Henny Noremark spent eleven months preparing the costumes. 309 . 9 November 1975. [. 125 (1975). Dissent 23.. 6 (March 1976). 210-11. no. 35. no. 33-34. 24 January 1976. 24 November 1975. pp. no. Film Quarterly 30. a lot will be forgiven Sweden for having wanted and produced such a celebration’). no. 2: D15. 17. 24 November 1975. High Fidelity and Musical America. who was asked by many before the filming ‘to defend Mozart’. Foreign Reception The Magic Flute opened as a commercial film in the U. pp. 55-56. 22. Newsweek. p. American critics were soon outdoing each other in laudatory assessments.] Mozart is enhanced. 16-18. pp. p. 2. pp. no. [. is not Ingmar Bergman and Liv Ullmann’s daughter. pp. 69-72 (‘On the Day of Judgement of Nations. Village Voice. Ecran. Foreign Reviews America. no. not artificial ones. pp. 17 November 1975. 2 (February 1976). Cinema nuovo. See also an interview with Sven Nykvist discussing the filming of Magic Flute in American Cinematograper 56. 81-82. Films and Filming 22. Bianco e nero. 108-10. New York Times. Bergman is triumphant’). pp. John Simon in New York. pp. Amis du film et de la télévision. 1 (Fall 1976): 45-49. 9. pp. pp. no. pp. 81-82 was critical. In 1976 she was nominated for an Academy Award. February 1976. p..S in early November 1975. and 16 November. discussed this and other musical problems in Magic Flute. p. Helene Friberg. 88 (July-August).. Credits. pp. no. the young girl in the audience..] Det finns syntetiska röster som låter underbara men man kan inte se i ansiktena att någon sjunger]. no. the interview with music director Eric Ericson in SvD.. 2:1. 113-14 (‘a sugar plum for anyone’). 217-18. p. 8 (August 1975): 894-99. (1976): 213-15.Synopses. Jeune cinéma. p. pp. 24 November 1975. as was often stated erroneously in British and American reviews. 16. whose face and reactions to the performance form a visual leitmotif in the film. 61-62. 27 November 1975. 108-11. 234 (November 1975). 12 November 1975. 5 March 1976. Bergman’s choice of singers became a bone of contention among reviewers. 24 November 1975.

Dossier on La flute enchantée with credits and illustrations. ed. Kauffmann. Mozart Opera on Film’. shot for the TV screen.Chapter IV Filmography New Yorker. Fact Sheets and Special Journal Issues Avant-Scène du Cinéma. no. pp. 1976 [Face to Face]. ANSIKTE MOT ANSIKTE. Apec Cinéma. 11-15 (comparison with Losey’s Don Giovanni). Séquences. La flute enchantée (ou “La caméra enchanteresse”)’. Pauline. 4 (January 1975-76). In Fridén. Ann Carpenter. Kael. 10 January 1975. 4 (January 1976): 29-35. Nordic Theatre Studies 11. ‘The Abduction from Theater. 124-37 (on the theatrical style and the theme of power and love in The Magic Flute). pp. no. January 1976. 1 (January 1993). pp. 7 (1980). 2003. Schupp. Unpublished M. pp. p. no. pp. Ingmar Bergman and the Arts. ‘La flute enchantée’. pp. XIII. in her collection of reviews When the Lights Go Down. Cinématographe. Andrew. For additional awards. 121-23 (claims Bergman’s competition is not the opera. 17 November 1975. ‘A meditation on theatre and love’. 84-97. P. 45. 29-35. 47-50. 310 . Sight and Sound. is a television opera rather than an opera film and transforms. no. an old aristocratic opera genre with its upper-class theatre context into a democratic theatrum mundi). 3-5. 92-104 (comparison with Losey’s Don Giovanni and Sellars’s The Marriage of Figaro). Longer Studies Carcassonne. M. Eastmancolor Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman See also Media Chapter (Ø 336) for presentation of Ansikte mot ansikte as TV series. through an intricate viewer perspective. Hunter. Plus. The Yale Review 81. ‘Die Zauberflöte verfilmd door Ingmar Bergman’. Törnqvist. p. Positif. 1975: 248. Stuttgarter Zeitung. pp. 162 (October 1975). 1 December 1975. 177. pp. (Argues that Bergman’s Flute. Variety. 65-79. See also Donneux. 15 January 1975. M. Patrick. Eric. ‘Transcending Bounderies: Bergman’s Magic Flute’. Sarris. pp. Varia. but a hifi record player). 159. Awards French Film Critics Association Special Award Golden Globe Award as Best Film of the Year. Village Voice. no 52 (November 1979). R. C. no. pp. no. 3 (Summer 1975). no. APEC – Revue Belge du Cinéma. see under film title. ‘Bergman – Mozart. no. Also in author’s Bergman’s Muses. 169-74. University of Amsterdam. Australian Journal of Screen 7. 1998.A. thesis. its genesis and Swedish response. Egil. ‘Tombeaux de Mozart’. Donneux. 84 (April 1976): 28-31 (refers to film as a Bergman-Mozart masterpiece). Stanley. pp. 72-75.

In still another nightmare. with some additional scenes taking place in a hospital. Jenny hallucinates and imagines herself dressed in a long red robe and red cap. As she begins to recover. she finds Maria drugged on the floor. Jenny’s husband comes to visit. and threatens to lock her up in the closet. They have dinner together and go to his place. Jenny is substituting for the head of the psychiatric clinic at the hospital where she works. Jenny dismisses the behavior as playacting. an old woman dressed in black. Her grandfather has had a stroke and is decrepit and senile. and recommends aspirin and tranquillizers to her patients but feels uncomfortable with their attempts to touch her. and takes her to the hospital. Jenny is seen standing behind a curtain watching the two old people communicating silently. The film ends as Jenny makes a phone call to the hospital. Later their daughter Anna drops in. who has attended to Jenny during her recovery. revealing open bleeding sores. Jenny sets the coffin afire while the body inside cries desperately. and one of them tries to rape her. Credits Production company Production manager Location manager Director Assistant director Screenplay Photography Cinematograph Lars-Owe Carlberg Katinka (Katherina) Faragó Ingmar Bergman Peder Langenskiöld Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist 311 . Jenny meets Tomas. drooling and caressing her breast. Two men accost Jenny. finds her grandfather crouched in a closet. Jenny sees a specter. in an empty house. informing the receptionist that she will return to work shortly. In yet another hallucinatory fragment Jenny is confronted by her patients. He has rushed home from America but seems preoccupied with his work. She comes to the conclusion that love emcompasses all. a gynecologist. with cold staring eyes. She is seen searching for her parents. wandering through the psychic landscape of her childhood. a psychiatrist in her late Thirties. Tomas. There is also the prospect for her of a trip to the U. Tomas discovers her. When she returns to her grandparent’s apartment. Jenny returns to her grandparents.S. Credits. Jenny has gone to live with her grandparents for the summer while a new house is being finished for her family. and leaves. pulls a rubber mask off a woman’s face. unconscious. The corpse is revived. The woman appears without warning and continues to haunt Jenny until she is driven to a suicide attempt. and at a party. and her teenage daughter at summer camp. confronts her. As she is being brought back to life. The film is set in the old-fashioned apartment of Jenny’s grandparents in Stockholm.S. Ansikte mot ansikte/Face to Face depicts the nervous breakdown and recovery of Jenny Isaksson. In a last hallucinatory scene Jenny assumes the voice of a reprimanding old woman who lectures her about her duties. totally dependent upon the care of Jenny’s grandmother. Maria. even death. Commentaries and Reception Record Synopsis Originally conceived for Swedish television. Later she gets an anonymous phone call. Jenny is watching her own dead self in a nailed white coffin. going to a house that she and her family have recently vacated. Her scientist husband is in the U. At a party that the head psychiatrist’s wife is giving for her homosexual friends. One of Jenny’s patients. who were killed in an automobile accident. She relives her fears of a dark closet where she was locked up as a punishment.Synopses. listens silently to Jenny’s explanations. tells her he is leaving for Jamaica.

Lena Olin Käbi Laretei Bengt Eklund Cast Dr. actor Jenny’s mother Jenny’s father Rapists Boutique girls Piano player Ludde Filmed at SFI studios.. Bergman had become intrigued by Arthur Janov’s psychological theories about ‘the primal scream’. 9. (Ø 842). distribution Running time U. psychiatrist’s wife Erik. no. 66-82. Filmhuset. nurse Mikael Strömberg. 312 .S. p. Paramount TV-version: 175 min. Jenny Isaksson Dr.S. Distribution U. p. played by Käbi Laretei Maggie Strindberg Anna Asp Cecilia Drott Siv Lundgren Kerstin Eriksdotter Liv Ullmann Erland Josephson Gunnar Björnstrand Aino Taube Kari Sylwan Sif Ruud Sven Lindberg Helene Friberg Tore Segelcke Ulf Johanson Kristina Adolphson Gösta Ekman Marianne Aminoff Jan-Eric Lindqvist Birger Malmsten. 15 June 1975. 1990. Same subject appears in Continental Film Review XIV. Mozart’s Fantasy in C minor. and friendship in his filmmaking. Helmut Wankel Veronica. He had met Janov during a brief visit to Los Angeles and mentions his relevance to the film in Bilder/Images. It was released in the U. 2 (December 1976): 34-35. A reportage from the shooting of Ansikte mot ansikte appeared in Los Angeles Times Calendar. beginning in April 1975 and completed 30 June 1975. Film version: 135 minutes 5 April 1976 (charity premiere) Commentary Bergman made two versions of Ansikte mot ansikte/Face to Face: the TV-version and a shorter international film version. premiere Cinematograph Dino de Laurentiis. Jenny’s husband Anna Woman specter Dr. continuity.Chapter IV Filmography Architects Sound/Mixing Music Costumes Props Make-up Editor Continuity Anne Terselius-Hagegård. At the time of his conception of Ansikte mot ansikte. K 475. Bergman talks to Charles Champlin of LA Times about the importance of tradition.A.S. Peter Krópenin Owe Svensson W. pp. This shorter version of Ansikte mot ansikte has never been shown in Sweden. But ABC wanted Bergman to cut further the copy he had submitted. 51. Göran Stangertz Rebecka Pawlo. which he refused to do. 28 January 1976. the same company that backed The Touch. See interview in SvD. The international film version was originally scheduled to be distributed by ABC Pictures. Tomas Jacobi Grandpa Grandma Maria Elisabeth Wankel. though he later re-edited it to run for 135 minutes.

and 18 April 1976. however. Cocks. A glossier 292-page folder presenting the film with credits. 5 April 1976. film credits. C. sec. no. Monthly Film Bulletin. 133-34. Film und Ton 22 (December 1976): 64-65. 45. R. p. A production handbook from the making of Ansikte mot ansikte was published in German: Produktionshandbuch zu Ingmar Bergmans ‘Von Angesicht zo Angesicht’. 10. this was arranged in order to make the film qualify as an Academy Award entry. the final American distributor. 5 April 1976. Filmcritica 28 (March 1977): 123-24. p. 17 April 1976. New Republic. pp. 1976). 247. 22 October 1976. no. American reviews of Face to Face were excerpted in SDS. printed an elaborate 44-page program. 21 May 1976. 2. p. see: Cineforum 17. 3 (May-June 1976): 46-49. p. F-Dienst XXIV/12. 2:1. New Statesman. 28:1. 125 pp. 86 (October 1976): 48-49 (questioned cuts from script). p. Hatch. crisis underneath. 97. Several argued. Paramount. and Bergman’s letter to the crew. 475-76. (Hamburg: Hoffman und Campe. no. and became the preface to Swedish and American printed versions of the script. See B. Ecran no. pp. Positif. 4 (October 1976). Commonweal. that Bergman was less successful when relying on an actor’s aura than when he made visual use of iconography and ritual enactment to capture audience attention. Séquences. which is based on the TV manuscript. and J. 6 April 1976. 570. Films in Review 27. p. no. 333-34. 17 April 1976. biographies of crew and actors. 40-41. Time 12 April 1976. no. Foreign Reception and Reviews V. 18 April 1976. pp. Breslin. 161 (January 1977): 54-61. See the following commentators: J. Patrick Schupp. For additional foreign reactions. no. films conceived before the Bergman tax debacle – attributed their content to the tax case and Bergman’s reaction to it. 1. Brody. pp. 14-15. pp. before releasing the film in the US. Nation. Film Comment 12.Synopses. Credits. On 24 March 1976. 50 (September 1976): 49-51. A number of American reviewers stated that the powerful hallucinatory quality of the Bergman/Ullmann collaboration seduced the audience. pp. no. ed. D. Village Voice. pp. no. and excerpts from the script was published by Beverly Hills Lion Films Co. New York Times.e. Jacobs. 65. saw the film as a metaphor for Sweden – perfection on the surface. L Westerbeck. December 1976. America. Samuel Raphaelson. It included ‘a rare and private look at a day in Ingmar Bergman’s working world’. The letter was also published in New York Times. Canby in NYT. Take One 5. 121-23. p. 4 (September 1976): 15. New Yorker. Psychology Today 10. 183-184 (July-August). Several American reviews of Face to Face. 24 September 1975. as in his medieval films. SR/TV issued a five-page program including plot synopsis. 7 April 1976. 7 August 1976. Films and Filming 22. 3 (December 1976): 31. 55-56. 5 (May 1876): 314-15. 8 June 1976. 1976: 82-83.. 313 . and a year later The Serpent’s Egg – i. p. Commentaries and Reception Record prior to the airing of the TV version in Sweden. pp. 22. Andrew Sarris. by Ernie Anderson.

The man fails to make love to 314 . Trying to escape. Manuela and Abel move to St. Abel follows Manuela to work and sees her enter a church. they ask for mutual forgiveness. In her apartment. C. He looks up Manuela. The two brothers are Canadian citizens born of Danish Jews. 3 (May-June 1976): 44-45. Awards 1977: Golden Globe as Best Foreign Film of the Year. he is beaten and thrown into prison. Abel searches her room and finds a small bundle of dollar bills. Abel works in the archives and Manuela in the laundry room. 249. Abel witnesses the beating up of an old Jewish couple by young German soldiers. Stanley. ORMENS ÄGG /DAS SCHLANGENEI/THE SERPENT’S EGG. Kauffmann. Abel returns to his shabby hotel room in Berlin to find his brother dead. Fuchs reveals that horrible experiments take place in the clinic under the surveillance of Hans Vergerus. who works in the cabaret ‘Zum blauen Esel’. Abel baits them with money. ‘Uno psicologo d’inanzi all’imagine sullo specchio’. March-April 1977. Michener. Abel can provide no clue. unsuccessful attempt to seize political power. Two doctors. the other is a suicide. The police stage a razzia at the cabaret hall where Manuela worked and beat the proprietor unconscious. Abel denies the acquintance. 32. Max’s fiancée. 39 (1976): 936-38. where Hans Vergerus has given Abel access to an apartment.’ Outside the cabaret hall. another girl and a black man are arguing about his impotence. Anna’s Clinic. Film Comment 12. 14 April 1976. She prays with a minister. After Manuela goes to her daytime work (as a prostitute). no. and gives her a letter that Max has left behind. a scientist who claims to recognize him from a summer vacation 26 years ago. 73-76 (New Republic review). p. where Manuela comes to visit. When questioned by a fat cigar-smoking policeman. 1977 Eastmancolor Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis The Serpent’s Egg takes place in Berlin in November 1923 during Hitler’s first. except for one phrase: ‘The poisoning goes on all the time. Solterman and Fuchs. After an argument with Manuela. 115-17 (interview with Italian psychoanalyst Cesare Musatti about Face to Face). U. writing off his behavior as excessively neurotic. Lauder. pp. Abel leaves the apartment. Later he turns up drunk at Manuela’s rooming house. Commissary Bauer. Abel runs into Hans Vergerus. no. Christian Century 93. escort Abel to his job and leave him alone. Cinema Nuovo. Bauer asks him to come along to the morgue to indentify a young woman who has been found drowned. Manuela used to be married to Abel’s brother Max. Frau Holle. no. See also Finetti. Before my Eyes. an apparent suicide. Abel is taken to the police station for interrogation. the handwriting is illegible.Chapter IV Filmography Sight and Sound 46. 1 (Winter 1976-77): 55. Variety. The badly beaten corpse is that of Grethe Hofer. God is no longer present to offer absolution. Returning to his former hotel room. Robert. He meets the landlady. pp. Abel recognizes other bodies shown to him but cannot name them. Later a prostitute picks him up. He is involved in a fracas with a Jewish couple. he reveals that he is an alcoholic and not interested in unexplained deaths or the current political chaos. Bauer releases Abel. The main characters are the former circus artists Abel and Manuela Rosenberg. One has been murdered with painful injections. Abel finds the police waiting.

Abel gets up and acts completely disoriented. He finds a projection booth and turns on the machinery: a picture of a woman sitting against a white wall appears. Pushing a door open. Escorted to the railroad station he escapes and disappears in the crowd. that the police are about to discover his deeds. This is followed by other sequences of people under extreme duress and torture. who collects the money. and Abel is knocked unconscious. Knowing. He is attacked and barely survives. Credits. Charlotte Flemming Heino Hallhuber Petra von Oelffen Kerstin Eriksdotter Liv Ullmann David Carradine Gert Fröbe Heintz Bennent James Whitmore Glynn Turman Georg Hartmann Edith Heerdegen Kyra Mladeck Fritz Strassner Hans Quest Wolfgang Weiser Paula Braend Walter Schmidinger Lis Mangold Grischa Huber Cast Manuela Rosenberg Abel Rosenberg Commisary Bauer Hans Vergerus Parson Monroe Hollinger Frau Holle Frau Dorst Dr. Bauer tells him that arrangements have been made for his departure to Switzerland. Hans Vergerus comes into the booth and explains the film. science will be ready to carry on his work. Soltermann Dr.Synopses. A shadow follows him. Returning to the apartment. The police arrive. Back at work.A. Commentaries and Reception Record the girl. It is a study of a woman taking care of a brain-damaged child who cries night and day.) Horst Wendlandt Dino de Laurentiis Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist Rolf Zehetbauer Rolf Wilhelm Karsten Ullrich. (L. Abel discovers Manuela dead. behaving like one of the victims in Vergerus’s filmed experiments. he enters an empty room and takes an elevator to the top floor. He wakes up in the prison hospital. where he beats him unconscious and steals his keys. Vergerus predicts than in ten years time. Later he finds a movie camera is hidden in the wall. Solterman to accompany him to the archives. Vergerus is dying. Credits Production company Executive producer Producer Director Screenplay Photography Architect Music Sound Costumes Choreography Editor Continuity Rialto Film (Berlin)/Dino de Laurentiis Corp. Silbermann A civil servant Frau Hemse Solomon Mikaela Stella 315 . he commits suicide by swallowing cyanide. mostly involving injections with experimental drugs. Abel asks Dr. however.

L’Express.Chapter IV Filmography Cabaret comedian Girls in uniform Mr. 190-208. pp. 316 . Bergman writes about the genesis and progression of the film in Bilder/Images (Ø 188). Los Angeles Times Calendar. Janos. Hildegard Busse Richard Bohne Emil Feist Heino Hallhuber Irene Steinbeiser Filmed in Bavaria Studios. 1. it was a complicated undertaking both in terms of the setting (‘a Berlin that nobody knew any more’) and cast (finding a male main actor). pp. ‘A Day on the Bergmanstrasse’. The cinematographer was Sven Nykvist but a number of other crew members were German. There were a great many reportages from the shooting of The Serpent’s Egg. pp.S. L. pp. opening Dino de Laurentiis 119 minutes 28 October 1977. Camera (Malmö) 28 October 1977 February 1978 Commentary Das Schlangenei/The Serpent’s Egg was Bergman’s first film made outside of Sweden and the first film made after his taking up residence in Munich. The film was co-produced by German and American financiers (see Credits above). In some reports. Delain. Andrea L’Arronge. Distribution Running time Swedish premiere German premiere U. ed. Bergman dates his personal connection to the film story back to age 17. 78-9 (Am. See: Blume. Munich. West Germany. Rosenberg Mrs. when he spent a summer with a pro-Nazi German family. Time. 20 March. ‘The Bergman Mystique at Work’. in a French interview by M. Beverly McNeely Toni Berger Erna Brunnell Hans Eichler Harry Kalenberg Gaby Dohm Christian Berkel Paul Burian Charles Regnier Günter Meisner Heide Picha Günter Malzacher Hubert Mittendorf Hertha von Walther Ellen Umlauf Renate Grosser. 34. Mary. 18-23. It was shot in the Bavaria Studios but released as an English-speaking film. ‘Bergman et le nazisme’. However. Rosenberg Max Paramedic Woman with baby Student Experimental person Doctor Prisoner Wife Husband Comforter Woman in street Hostess Prostitutes Police officer Greedy man ‘Bride’ ‘Groom’ Paul Bürks Isolde Barth. pp. 42-3) (better researched than Blume’s). 14 February 1977. 28 November 1977. beginning October 1976 and completed December 1976. Bergman is quoted as saying that The Serpent’s Egg was written as a strange premonition of his own arrest in early 1976. Grand (Stockholm). Victoria (Göteborg). Rosemarie Heinikel.

Dino de Laurentiis also produced a documentary called ‘Secrets of a Genius’. 12 November 1976. and the Swedish distributor allegedly lost one million crowns on the project. University of Stockholm undergraduate thesis. Another program. a transcript of the Sundgren interview listed above. Reviews reveal both curious anticipation of the first film made by Bergman in exile and apprehension about his working in a foreign environment. 18-27. pp. 73-74). Positif.. 20 February 1977. Frundt. Torsten. pp. and Expr. (typescript). was issued for the showing of The Serpent’s Egg at Berlin Film Festival in summer 1978. however. 45 (28 October). 43. In Canadian film journal Séquences (listed below). Dawson and B. New York.. no. ‘Ormens ägg’. It contains an unsigned article on the historical background of the film. ca. Swedish reviews of Bergman’s films made in exile have been much more respectful and positive than elsewhere. Notes sur l’utilization de l’éstétique et des thèmes expressionistes dans L’Oeuf du serpent’. so obviously wrong-headed’ (Vincent 317 . Lasse Bergström published a full-page glowing review of Ormens ägg in Expr. Swedish Public Radio (SR). 14). and a transcript of a documentary based on the shooting of the film. 10 February 1978. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. reprinted in Kinozeit (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer. p. 204 (March 1978). Sundgren. pp. 6 February 1978. The Bergman File. 6-7. no. a commercial flop in Sweden. 104-09). 1 December. On 29 October 1977 (p. 1983). Sundgren and J. Nils Petter ‘Filmkrönika’. This interview was published in French under title ‘Rencontre avec Bergman’. 10. ‘a baffling film. pp. ed. Reception The Serpent’s Egg received a great deal of critical attention. pp. Interviews with Bergman during the production appeared in Vecko-Journalen. 30 minute reportage from Bavaria Studio. But in a longer article on the film. first shown on Argentine television. SVT. 30 pp. p. pp. edited by J. Hatch. Stockholm press. Jörn Donner’s film. ‘La métaphore éclatée. a manipulative film lacking human warmth and depth (R. (Televised interview with Bergman about the background of Ormens ägg. includes a live excerpt from Bergman’s press conference in Berlin on 19 November 1976. ‘Der Magiker und das Schlangenei’. and information about his crew and leading actors. made by a West German TV team. and Variety. Positif 204 (March) 1978. Spring Quarter 1978. 155-56). 28 October 1977. Sineux. 28 December 1977. pp.. le masque et l’etre. Commentaries and Reception Record Jungstedt. no. 49 (1976). Michel Serceau argued that form and thematic content were given a cohesive and original shape by Bergman.. See Åke Hedlund. maintaining that Bergman had succeeded in absorbing resources of international filmmaking into his most recent work while guarding his own artistic integrity. no. The film was. See also Finland Filmland. Nation. 20 November 1976. 12 December 1976. For a sample of the Dutch response. channel 2. see Harry Hosman. De Tijd. and Die Zeit. 51 (10 December) 1976. L’Oeuf du serpent also had a mixed reception. Credits. consisting of a review. 5 February 1977. In France. 11 February 1978. 1980. 28-9.S. The Serpent’s Egg was termed ‘a major disaster’ (Molly Haskell. no. A program on Ormens ägg was issued by Fox-Stockholm Film (Swedish distributor). contains a three-part presentation of L’oeuf du serpent by M.-P. 26 October 1978. by Michel Estève (Paris: Lettres modernes Minard. 1978: 64-66. ‘Bergmans angst en beklemming’. Jacobs. 1. synopsis of the script. Röster i Radio-TV. Serceau’s article appeared in a collection titled Ingmar Bergman: La mort. pp. 60. 2. notices about Bergman’s shooting of the film. The German response to Das Schlangenei was mixed but more critical than reviews in Sweden.. With interviews with Sven Nykvist and Liv Ullmann. See Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 21-22). Bild und Zeit section. 83-94. pp. Maurice Elia claimed that Bergman should not be blamed for wanting to do something different. pp. 41-2. N.Synopses. In the U. ‘Svensk press och Ormens ägg’ [Swedish Press and The Serpent’s Egg].

4 February. 34. pp. 141. 30 January 1978. S. Filmbulletin. pp. pp. 6 March 1978. Film og Kino. (3) selecting David Carradine for the lead male part and subordinating Ullmann’s role to his. Göteborg. Time. 55. p. 30 January 1978. 13 (2 November) 1977. Cinemaction. May-June 1980. New Republic. 103. 28-9. Skoop 14. Sight and Sound. New York Times. pp. 38-41. 59-60. p. February 1978: 7-9. no. (subtitled ‘A real horror story’. Film et Télévisie. pp. 95-97. Many American reviews compared Bergman’s film unfavorably to Bob Fosse’s Cabaret. 229 (January 1978). 34-36. 108 (February 1978). no. no. Amis de la cinéma. no. Kauffmann. pp. 65. p. 30 January 1978. Bianco e nero. 58-60. 130-33. pp. Variety. for whom English is also a foreign language. Positif 204 (March) 1978: 18-20. 65 (January 1978). no. July 1978. 318 . p. Lumière du Cinéma. America. October 1978. no. p.1978. p. 49-52. 17). no. 27-28. January-February 1978. May-June 1979. no. pp. 3 (Winter 1977/78). Newsweek. Kael. pp. 19. pp. 45. p. 47.Chapter IV Filmography Canby. 26-7 (reprinted in Before my Eyes. p. no. Séquences. New Yorker. 285 (February 1978). which he did not master. pp. pp. Monthly Film Bulletin. 190. 39. 55-56. pp. 4 February 1978. review deals as much with Bergman’s tax problems as with film). Cine Cubano. Jeune Cinéma. p. Village Voice 6 February. pp. New York: Harper & Row. Summer 1978. 138-40. 29 October 1977. Cinéma 78. pp. 7 February 1978. 8-9. 8 November 1977. 33-5. 27 October 1978. 90-91. October 1978. Skrien. 11 (January-February 1978). New Leader. 1980. pp. Films and Filming. 17. 289-90. 92-94). February 1978. p. pp. Film Kultura. Ecran. pp. no. Cinéaste 8. p. Cinema Nuovo. 76-79) listed three basic mistakes made by Bergman: (1) making the film in English. 70-71. 34-5. 29 January 1978. pp. 5-8. 29-30. Saturday Review. pp. Atlantic Monthly no. and a brutally offensive work (P. Malmö press. 1 (January 1978): 51. 42-43. 35. July 1990. 92 (April 1978). Films in Review 29. 3 March 1978. 1 (February 1978). no. December 1977. February 1979. Cinematograph. National Review. 11 February 1978. NYT. (2) using Liv Ullmann. pp. New Statesman. March-April 1978. Cahiers du cinéma. F-Dienst XXX/23. pp. Reviews Stockholm. 88. p. pp. p. Illustrated. 73 (March 1978). no. 106 (1983): 87-88. 2 (February 1978). p.

Gothic fiction. 250. L’uovo del serpente’. 2 (Spring 1980). pp. Fred. no. p. 112-14. Commentaries and Reception Record Longer Reviews and Studies/Fact sheets Cumozio. (Librach discusses Bergman’s use of dream structure – ‘The oneiric premise’ – and sees male sexual self-knowledge as the film’s principal theme). Intellect. 7-14 June 1978. Cinématographie. and no. Eva stares in absolute misery at her mother. Credits. 327 (April 1978). no. pp. Charlotte. ‘The Birth of Evil: Genesis According to Bergman’. no. Filmhäftet. (On Bergman’s roots in modernism affecting his view of history and his film style in Ormens ägg). September 1978. 137 (Spring 1978). Ronald S. no. pp. pp. 253-55. Eva’s husband opens the film with a narration about his wife. political tract and psychiatric case study’ presented as a modern version of the Fall and Flood myths). Always conscious of money. no. Charlotte’s longtime friend Leonardo has just died. Later.Synopses. pp. Charlotte goes to sleep but wakes up screaming from a nightmare in which Helena touched her. She spends the rest of the night in the living room 319 . ‘Ingmar Bergman. face to face with history]. After doing her accounts in bed. Later she visits Helena’s room. ‘Abel und der Kommissar’. Literature/Film Quarterly 8. Kosmorama. During dinner. After several years of marriage. Cineforum. Charlotte. she cannot resist. It is the first time in seven years that mother and daughter have seen each other. Screen International. no. 33 (December 1977). Christian Century. Charlotte is told that her spastic daughter Helena now lives in the house and is cared for by Eva. Image et son. pp. 106 (June 1978). and Eva invites her mother to the parsonage for a visit. Librach. Film und Fernsehen. pp. then proceeds to play the same piece while discussing how it should be interpreted. Filmfaust. Shortly after arriving. Janet K. After the meal. (Larson sees The Serpent’s Egg as ‘an omnius-gatherum of detective thriller. Erik. documentary. Emilio. 52235. 6 (December 1977). 29-30. See also Chaplin no. who used to be a journalist but gave up her career. 3. Gehler. Cinematograph. Carl-Johan. 1980. 18 March 1978. ‘Bergman ansikte mot ansikte med historien’ [B. Höstsonaten depicts the encounter between a successful concert pianist. pp. Malmberg. 324 (January 1978). the couple had a son. where she appears in elegant red. pp. Charlotte gets a concert offer from her agent on the phone. 44-49 (Dossier on film). 106-16. HERBSTSONATE/HÖSTSONATEN. no. no. 615-19. pp. and her plain-looking daughter. she persuades her daughter to play Chopin on the piano. no. her husband talks confidentially about her. 42-6. 106-8. Larson. visibly upset. 92-103. talks about Leonardo’s death. 25-30. who drowned at age 4. 23-4. pp. p. ‘Through the Looking-Glass Darkly: The Serpent’s Egg’. while Eva is out of the room (but eavesdropping). 1978 [Autumn Sonata]. 34 (January 1978). 153 (1977). 10. 489. Eastmancolor Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis The first Bergman film to feature Ingrid Bergman. pp. 15-18 (May 1978). Eva who is married to a parson and lives in rural Norway.

and is the one moment of peacefulness in the film. is bathed in soft warm light. Helena has a relapse. her daughter Helena. Leonardo stays behind. She feels her son’s presence very strongly. Anne Bylsmå Inger Pehrsson Cecilia Drott Sylvia Ingemarsson Kerstin Eriksdotter Ingrid Bergman Liv Ullmann Lena Nyman Halvar Björk Georg Lökkeberg Linn Ullmann Erland Josephson Gunnar Björnstrand Marianne Aminoff Mimi Pollak Arne Bang-Hansen Costumes Makeup Editor Continuity Cast Charlotte.S. surrounded by all the family members. A scene showing Leonardo playing his cello. Charlotte defends herself and refers to a summer when she gave up her music practice to spend time with her family. Eva now reveals her unhappiness that summer. As her husband peruses the letter. Opus 1. but grows restless and soon follows Charlotte to Vienna.Chapter IV Filmography with Eva. She shows the letter to her husband. asking her to forgive her. J. The film ends with Eva writing a letter to her mother. 2 in A minor played by Käbi Laretei. stating that she doubts her mother will ever read it. the camera shows Eva’s and Charlotte’s faces in turn on the screen. who seems to be recovering. Credits Production company Production manager Director Location manager Photography Architect Sound and mixing Music Personafilm Katinka (Katherina) Faragó Ingmar Bergman Lena Hansson Sven Nykvist Anna Asp Owe Svensson Excerpts from F. she was 14 years old and unable to cope with her mother’s vitality and willpower. Bach’s Suite no. Shots of her on a train with her agent Paul alternate with glimpses of Eva walking to the cemetery to visit Erik’s grave. Gustav Leonhardt. One of her memories focusses on Helena during an Easter visit to the island of Bornholm when Leonardo and Charlotte had come to join them. her daughter Eva’s husband Leonardo Eva as a child Josef Paul. we see Eva as a child. But the following day Charlotte decides to leave early. A rapport forms between Leonardo and Helena. Charlotte’s agent Charlotte’s secretary Piano teacher Uncle Otto 320 . Charlotte leaves the parsonage. longing and waiting for her mother’s return. The film ends as Eva’s husband puts the letter back in the envelope to take to the post office. 4 in E flat major performed by Claude Genetay. and G. who proceeds to accuse her mother of neglecting her family and egotistically pursuing her career. concert pianist Eva. performed by Frans Bruggen. Chopin’s Preludium no. In flashbacks. Händel’s Sonata in F major. This part is told in the present and leads to Eva’s breakdown.F.

9. 33. p. in traditional sex role patterns women’s relations tend to mask aggression. See Variety. p. Films Illustrated 7 (May 1978): 332-33. On 19 September 1977. which surfaces only in moments of extreme tension. p. Norway. distribution Running time Released Premiere U. Bergman explained his choice of a mother/daughter rather than a father/son relationship. 6. Ingrid Bergman reminded Bergman of this. 20 September 1977. p. p. But the new head of the SFI. 2. tried to change the decision and find a loophole in the Academy rules. Arbeiderbladet (Oslo). Asta Bolin responded in DN. 1979: 8-9. 4. Osennjaja sonata’ in Iskusstvo Kino 10 (October) 1988: 141-147. 5 November. At the same press meeting. 321 . Bergman held a press conference on Höstsonaten in Oslo. [Open Letter to Ingmar Bergman]. this Bergman wanted to explore on the screen. DN. ‘The Bergman Principle’. Commentaries and Reception Record Filmed on location at Molde. see ‘To ganger Bergman-Ullmann i høstlig sonate’ [Two times B-U in autumnal sonata]. same date. see Emma Andrews. 4. and GP. For interview with Ingrid Bergman and her impressions of working with Bergman during shooting of Autumn Sonata. ‘Man måste glömma för att rädda sin själ’ [One must forget in order to save one’s soul]. a feminist debate began in the Swedish and Norwegian press. defended Bergman’s portrayal of motherhood in ‘Bergmans mödrar’ [Bergman’s mothers]. no. For good coverages of the press conference. (Spegeln) Stockholm 8 October 1978. Filmrutan XXII. 14 October 1978. In 1975 at the Cannes Film Festival. The Hjalmar Bergman project was rejected because its portrait of women seemed too obsolete. p. DN. Oslo. also covered by Swedish SR/TV under the program title ‘Stjärnor mot stjärnor’ (Stars against stars). Tunbäck-Hansson. Distribution U. 19 October. 17 October. continued the debate in GP. This interview was reprinted in Russian translation as ‘Kak sozdavalas. Per Ahlmark. (July) 1993: 44-80 (a special Bergman issue). and at Norsk Film Studios. but note Variety error in claiming that the Swedish government was behind the first decision not to nominate the film. Monika. 2. Bergom-Larsson in same paper. NYC Commentary A documentary from the shooting of Herbstsonate/Höstsonaten is on file at SFI. Credits. Ingrid Bergman revealed that her role was a fulfillment of an old promise: In 1965 she and Bergman had discussed filming Swedish author Hjalmar Bergman’s novel Chefen fru Ingeborg (Head of the Firm). The Swedish Film Institute (SFI) decided first not to nominate Höstsonaten to the American Motion Picture Academy for an Academy Award as ‘Best Foreign Film’. not a Swedish government agency. ‘Öppet brev till Ingmar Bergman’. Wilson. 1. The Baronet. 17. Maria. 14 February 1979. 20 September 1977. p.S. Boström. Åsa. Bulgarian theatre director Stavri Karamfilov discusses his stage production of Höstsonaten. and Kerstin Anér in same paper. opening Svensk Filmindustri New World Films 93 minutes 8 August 1978 8 October 1978. 26 October. B. SFI is a Foundation. arguing that the film was de facto a German production. with a reply by M. p. 16. In Kino (Sofia) 3. two years later he had written the part of Charlotte in Höstsonaten for her.Synopses. Reception A few days after the Stockholm opening of Höstsonaten. (objection to portrayal of Charlotte and urging Bergman to make a film about a father’s commitments). Produced by Bergman’s own company Personafilm. See the following: Bergom-Larsson.S. beginning 20 September 1977 and completed 30 October 1977. p.

Films in Review 33. December 1978. 115 (December. no. National Review. (February) 1979: 20-2. Commentary. no. Kauffmann in New Republic. 51-54. 10. December 1978. 333 (November) 1978: 139-40. Wiggen. Films and Filming. pp. 21-22 (December) 1978: 76-79. 23 March 1979: 419. referred to the film as ‘a master working’. pp. 7 October 1978. no. 1 (Winter) 1978-79: 56. no. F-Dienst XXXI/24. 79-86). felt that Bergman had joined company with Ibsen. Cinéma 78. and Artur Lundkvist in SvD. Wortzelius felt that Bergman camouflaged himself in the mother’s role. 76. Cahiers du cinéma. pp. October-November 1978: R-F. no. 540 (January) 1979: 7-8. pp. no. New Yorker. pp. 1. 22 October 1978. 48-49.January) 1978: 46-48. no. 8-10. 3 (March) 1979: 43-45. 6 November 1978. Film und Fernsehen. November 1978. New Statesman. Cinematograph. 130-37. pp. 158 (May) 1978: 184-187. (December) 1978. Cahiers du cinéma. 9 (November) 1978: 569. 57-59. Filmhäftet. called Autumn Sonata ‘a folie à deux by Ullmann and Bergman’. Reviews Swedish Press. 288. 9. 165-71. no. Höstsonaten got a varied response. 1978. p. For two particularly noteworthy reviews. New York. 1 (January) 1979: 60-64. no. Sight and Sound 48. Filmbulletin. Filmfaust 2. no. while Lundkvist focussed on the film as a portrait of an artist’s lack of self-confidence in a mass society where (s)he is an outsider. Skoop 14. no. The Listener. pp. see Hugo Wortzelius in UNT (20 October 1978. (April) 1979: 39. 7 November 1978. Cinéaste 9. 322 . Outside of Sweden. November-December 1978. 28 October 1978. 11 (December) 1978: 64-65. 41 (November) 1978: 72-73. S. called Sonate s’autonne ‘stupid and obsolete’ while Newsweek. Image et son. Film og Kino XLVII. Canadian film journal Séquences (see below) thought the film was the work of ‘an artist who pulls us deeper and deeper into the interior of his hallucinating nightmares’. Raymond Lefèvre in Cinéma 78 felt the film bore a strong resemblance to Såsom i en spegel/Comme dans un miroir: four family members in a no exit situation. Filmrutan. Cinema Nuovo.Chapter IV Filmography For Norwegian sample of debate. 2426 (reprinted in Before my Eyes. no. and Edvard Munch in turning an ordinary room into an arena of tragedy. 2925 (5 September) 1985: 31. 74 (November) 1978: 57-8. no. 9 October 1978: 113-14. 2 December 1978: 619-20. Chaplin. 295 (December) 1978: 48-9. pp. Strindberg. no. no. p. two children with an unresponsive parent. 16-17. p. while Pauline Kael. 24 November 1978: 1490-91. 13). ‘Nå er virkeligheten blitt reaksjonær!’ [Now reality has become reactionary]. see C. no. no. no. 7 (197). 1 (February) 1979: 48. Jeune Cinéma. Film et Televisie. pp. Ecran. 9 October 1978 America. Nation. 40. p. Film og Kino. Monthly Film Bulletin XLVI. 16 October 1978. 1979: 8-9.

160-173. France. no. 102 pp. NYT. 1978: 46. no. 319-28. pp. Longer Reviews and Studies Benayoun. See also Los Angeles Times. 1-2 (Spring-Summer) 1987: 267-273. Chaplin XX. Leiden: Rijksuniversitet Leiden. Credits. pp. 1. 1995) pp. VI/9. Motion Picture Product D. 29 (March 1979): 4-13. ‘Autumn Sonata’. no. by Michel Estève (Paris: Lettres modernes Minard. 141 (Spring) 1979: 9-11. 34. 1982. Bird. no. tracing Peter Egerman’s attempt to come to terms with his marriage and with his sense of emptiness and alienation. Diss. Village Voice. 1. (Ø 338). It is constructed as a series of conversations. 1983). McGuffin 7. Berliner Morgenpost. (Amsterdam: AUP. the film has very little action. 60. pp. Kosmorama XXV. ‘Heuresis: The Mother-Daughter Theme in ‘A Jest of God’ and ‘Autumn Sonata’’. Anne-Marie. Variety. 252. again shot in color. ‘Fugue sur la futilité somptueuse de l’ art’. they are like 323 . The victim is a prostitute. The scenes are short and often interrupted. Simmons. Peter Cowie. 13. Millar. 16 October 1978: 112-13 (A. 1980 [From the Life of the Marionettes] B/W & color Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Synopsis: Ingmar Bergman’s third film during his exile begins like a TV whodunnit with a murder sequence shot in flaming red. ‘Pain and Forgiveness: Structural Transformations in Wild Strawberries and Autumn Sonata’. Keith L. Gertner. Michael. Kwakernaak. André. pp. ‘La mort comme propédeutique à la vie’. Ingmar Bergman. 4 October 1978. ‘Herftsonate van Ingmar Bergman: een moeder dochter relatie verfilmd’. New Orleans Review 10. In the final part of the film. pp. 95 (January) 1979: 33-36. E. New Quarterly: New Directions in Canadian Writing 7. Farago. ‘Høstsonaten og rene linier’ [Autumn Sonata and pure lines]. ed. Ingmar Bergman Directs. Egil. no. G. as Peter’s life comes full circle. 3 December 1978. Lauder. Commentaries and Reception Record Time. Törnqvist. 251.E. R. A Critical Biography. 1988. Jensen. Robert. Nils. R. 33-34. Séquences XXIV. Katarina. 19-51. 9 December 1977. In Ingmar Bergman: La mort. Björkman Stig. le masque et l’etre. Boorsma. ‘Sonate d’automne’. no. 41. Peter Egerman. Leroux. no. The rest of the film is a flashback examination of his life. Bernd Lubowski. FÅRÖDOKUMENT 1979 [Fårö-document 79] 1979. 492-93.Synopses. Color (16 mm) See listing in media chapter. UR MARIONETTERNAS LIV/AUS DEM LEBEN DER MARIONETTEN . 5 April 1979. Listener. 4 (Winter) 1983: 5-15. 5 (158) 1978: 184-187. no. 62). 16 October 1978: 71. pp. 6 (13 September) 1978: 21. Apart from the murder. 15 October 1978. pp. a ‘protocol’ in black and white. Between Stage and Screen. ‘En värld av befriade känslor’ [A world of liberated feelings]. The murderer is an upper middle-class German businessman. Positif 213 (December) 1978: 51-54. the murder sequence is repeated. Vecko-Journalen.

Katarina has exposed him to humiliation and taunting love-hatred. using actors from Bayerische Staatsschauspiel. or rather. with a minimum of mise-en-scène and hardly any social frame of reference. Tim. Ingrid Bergman Paulette Hufnagel. Tim (Thomas Isidor Mandelbaum). suggests Peter’s own latent homosexuality. All of them are indirectly related to Peter’s catastrophe. Distribution U. a psychiatrist. There are also indications of childhood traumas still bruising the sensitive Peter. shooting beginning in October 1979. Johannes Kaetzler Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist Peter Beil Rolf Zehetbauer Rolf Wilhelm Charlotte Flemming Harry Freude. The film is virtually all close up. his mother. His mother reveals herself to be of a possessive nature. the people with whom Peter has been associated step before the camera to have their portraits rather than their stories unveiled. Credits Production company Producers Production managers Location manager Director Assistant directors Screeenplay Photography Sound Architect Music Costumes Props Make-up Editor Continuity Personafilm Horst Wendtlandt. Munich. The final vignette shows him in his cell cuddling his childhood teddy bear.S distribution Tobis Film Swank Motion Pictures 324 . Peter’s mother Tim Mandelbaum Arthur Brenner.Chapter IV Filmography fragments in an incomplete puzzle. in disclosing his own despair and lonelineness. Barbara Freude-Schnaase Mathilde Basedow Petra von Oelffen Helma Flachsmeire Robert Atzorn Christine Buchegger Martin Benrath Rita Russek Lola Müthel Walter Schmidinger Heintz Bennent Ruth Olafs Gaby Dohm Karl Heintz Pelser Toni Berger Cast Peter Egerman Katarina Egerman Mogens Jensen Katarina Cordelia Egerman. his wife. Completion date unavailable. von Trotha. psychiatrist Nurse Secretary Interrogator Guard Filmed in Tobis Film Studios. each one implies a possible reason for his collapse and act of violence. One by one. which caused him to become a murderer. Irmgaard Kelpinski Michael Juncker. The psychiatrist has betrayed his confidence and has had an affair with his wife. No single character can provide the answer to Peter Egerman’s psychological short-circuit. We meet in turn Peter’s friend. Franz Achter Ingmar Bergman T. who has the same name as the murdered prostitute. and his wife’s homosexual colleague.

1981. 28 January 1981.. Peter’s spleen and latent homosexuality.. Variety (23 July 1980. 20 February 1981. ‘Kostumierter Geschlechterkampf ’. which was originally planned in black and white. 325 . Bergman regrets that it was distributed elsewhere as a commercial feature film.. 58) was ready to nominate Bergman for the Nobel Prize. 3 November 1980. 95-141. 6) wrote an appreciative review. Bergman calls it his only German film since it was conceived. Some French reviewers even spoke of a fiasco. calling Bergman ‘the world’s best known minority-appeal filmmaker’ and praising Sven Nykvist’s cinemaphotography and Bergman’s ability to make ‘a contrived plot acceptable to viewer’. Torsten Manns in Filmrutan (no. Michel Pérez in Le Matin called Marionettes. Cinéma.. p. p. 8 October 1980 in Paris. In the U.Synopses.S. 1. Sandrew (Göteborg. Cahiers du cinéma. 31) suggested that audiences recognized (and were tired of) Bergman as a tamer of his own demons. p. saw the film as the quintessence of Bergman’s work in the cinema and was fascinated by its ‘deconstructive narrative’.. 12.. 436 (October 1990). for speculation as to why the public failed the film.. Malmö. See Expr. p. pp..S.e. p. social as well as psychoanalytical. For a sample of the (West) German reaction.. 328-329. while Newsweek (24 November.. pp. Stuttgarter Zeitung. See ‘De la vie des marionettes’ in Ingmar Bergman: La mort. In Assayas-Björkman interview book Tre dagar med Bergman (Ø 919). by Michel Estève (Paris: Lettres modernes Minard. no. 172 (1981. 208-220. no. 318 (December 1980)... thinking that their TV sets had malfunctioned. Credits. le masque et l’être. Commentaries and Reception Record Running time First public screening TV screening German opening U. focusing on the film’s thematic ambiguity. no. was more interesting to analyze than to watch. praising its cinematic economy and its resistance to easy solutions. Aus dem Leben der Marionetten was originally made for German television. and Uppsala). Chaplin. Mann’s Fine Arts. Ingmar Bergman explains the reason why Aus dem Leben. Celuloide no. 262 (October 1980). 34. begins in color: West German TV channel ZDF which had bought transmission rights to the film worried that their viewers might switch TV channels if the film opened in black and white. 7 November 1980. 1990. he calls the film one of his favorites. 45-47. no. Commentary Bergman writes about the film in Bilder/Images. an admirable film from beginning to end. in SvD. 6 November 1980. 83. opening Swedish opening 104 minutes July 1980 at a small film festival in Oxford. 24 January 1981. Reviews Swedish press. Time (17 November 1980. financed.. In an interview published in Cahiers du Cinéma no. 1983). Swedish poet/critic Artur Lundkvist discussed Marionetten.S. pp. Grand (Stockholm). Mentions brilliant imagery but also lack of compassion. ed. and shot in Germany. Los Angeles. Neither in the U. p. 33. François Ramasse in a substantial essay on Marionettes. However. Reception Swedish reviews were respectful but not enthusiastic. 109) thought Marionettes. 2 October 1980. p. see Anne Rose Katz. 25 January 1981. 1). i. nor in Europe was the film a box-office success. November 1981: 14-15. p. Film was shown on West German TV (ZDF/Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen)..

pp. Séquences. 7 November 1980. D. no. pp. New York. no. no. See also: AB. 4 (interviews with Christine Buchegger). Skoop. no. Village Voice. February 1982: 82. p. 12 (23 July) 1980: 18. pp. 210 pp. pp. A good French presentation. Positif 236 (November) 1980: 63. ‘All Ways Out Are Closed. Los Angeles Herald Examiner. Maaret. Sight and Sound L. 25. 2 (Spring) 1981: 133-134. 30-40. Kinder. D. 8 October 1980. p. no.. no. pp. Le Matin. Film Quarterly 34. Levende billeder. 2 (1993): pp. no. 3-4. 57. 6 October 1981. Tobin. p. 27 September 1980. S. ingenting är’. 14 October 1979. no. no. 73-77.Chapter IV Filmography Cineforum. Department of Cinema Theatre Studies. Troyan. From the Life of the Marionettes’. Autumn 1981. 2 (March–April) Film og Kino. 1981: 100-101.. 17 November 1980: 80-82. Sunday Sec. Undergraduate thesis exploring the theme of freedom in Marionetterna. Field of View. November 1980: 218-219. 35. 190-191. n. Cinématographe. Monthly Film Bulletin XLVIII. 203 (April 1981). in addition to François Ramasse’s essay mentioned above. pp. ‘The murderer motif in Bergman’s filmmaking from The Devil’s Wanton to Life of the Marionettes’. one by Charles Boost (pp. 133-134. Anders. 63-5. ‘Den omöjliga friheten: En tolkning av Ingmar Bergmans film Ur Marionetternas liv’ [Impossible freedom: An interpretation of Bergman’s film From the Life of the Marionettes]. L’Express. 7 November. pp. Spring 1981. ‘Plotting Transference and the Drive in “From the Life of the Marionettes”’. Films. 12 November 1980. 20. 62 (November) 1980: 57-58. 1819). ‘Si ce meurtre sert mon film’. and SvD. Pym. 1 (1981).p. Skoop (XVI. Marsha. Positif. sec. Saturday Review. 55-60. Filmrutan XXIV. Spectator. no. 66-68 (reprint of New Republic review). 51. 29 November 1980: 57-58. Film und Ton I. pp. no. 25 November 1979. no. 130 (November) 1980): 38-39. 2. Koskinen. 5 January 1981: 84-85. Jeune cinéma. 326 . Le Nouvel Obervateur. Image et son. 5-6 (1981). the other by Wim Verstappen (p. sec. no. p. no. Sight and Sound. Nation. ca. p. no..65. no. Film Comment 17. Kauffmann. 4 (March 1981). 3 (Spring) 1981: 26-37. John. 108. 2000. Variety. p. 228. 70-81. University of Stockholm. 9 November. March 1981: 40-41. 31.. no. pp. 9 (November) 1980) has two reviews of the film. 6. 355 (November) 1980: 26-28. Revue de cinéma hors series. 23. Vi. 5 (1981). New York Times. Yann. 1. 19. Hollywood Reporter. Longer Reviews and Studies Classon. p. 236 (November 1980). 568 (May) 1981: 88. no. Ingmar Bergman: ‘Allting föreställer. (April) 1982: 29-30. 28).

the actors’ Christmas celebration on stage is omitted. (5) The Events of a Summer. (3) the Hamlet rehearsal when Oscar Ekdahl collapses is shortened. The ‘Death and Funeral’ segment begins with a rehearsal of Hamlet’s first meeting with his father’s ghost. A third brother. Officiating at the funeral is Bishop Edvard Vergerus. (2) Christmas. Alexander joins the procession). Alexander surveys the room. an invocation of a traditional Swedish Christmas rite of the past. Their parents.. a leading actress in the company occupy one-half of a huge town house. knick-knacks. that most response material is included in this entry. head of the local resident theater. née Mandelbaum. however. (6) The Demons. is a stark contrast 327 . registers its ticking clocks. Helena Ekdahl. an old Jewish friend. During the ensuing funeral. A little over a year after Oscar’s death. In the early morning hours. however. which follows sequentially the longer five-hour television version but cuts or shortens several scenes: (1) In the Christmas sequence. and a statue that seems to beckon to him. such as the flagellant sequence in The Seventh Seal. Oscar Ekdahl collapses and is taken home. Alexander gets up to play with his laterna magica. Commentaries and Reception Record Awards 1980 Tribute at Chicago Film Festival in connection with showing of Marionettes. Professor Carl Ekdahl. (2) the Christmas pageant performed by the Ekdahl ensemble at the theatre is shortened. the whole extended Ekdahl family meet for coffee at Helena Ekdahl’s. (3) Death and Funeral.. live in the university town of Uppsala. The Christmas segment opens with a performance in the theatre of ‘The Play about Christ’s Joyful Birth’. a widow. When all is quiet. (5) the visualized desert walk when Isak reads from a Hebrew bible to the children after their rescue is omitted (actually Bergman made up the passage. Helena Ekdahl and Isak Jacobi. Justine. He is joined by Fanny. a servant girl. (4) Breaking up. The film. Oscar Ekdahl. followed by a Christmas dinner at Helena Ekdahl’s. 1982-83 [Fanny and Alexander]. and Emilie. camouflaged by wallpaper. and (7) Epilogue. A connecting door. maid at the Vergerus. The house. Servants mingle with the family members. Seated under his grandmother’s diningroom table. a Christmas present. visits Maj. connects the two apartments. FANNY OCH ALEXANDER. Eastmancolor Director Screenplay Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman Bergman edited a special commercial film version of Fanny and Alexander. his widow Emilie marries Vergerus and moves into his home with the two children. while Gustaf Adolf Ekdahl. The prologue describes the town and its inhabitants. talk through the Christmas night. where he dies after a family leavetaking. and bedridden aunt. The script is divided into the following segments: (1) Prologue. appears with stigmata on her hands. Alexander protests his father’s death by mumbling obscene words. it contains several references to earlier Bergman films. (4) the attempt by Carl and Gustaf Adolf Ekdahl to bargain with the bishop about the future of Emilie and the children is shortened. Carl’s and his German-born wife’s nighttime confrontation is shorter and less violent. Oscar’s philandering brother. then travel to church in sleds lit up by torches. Synopsis Fanny and Alexander. lives in the other half. which they share with the bishop’s mother. argues with his German-born wife. Oscar’s mother. The evening ends for the Ekdahl children with a pillow fight with Maj. begins with 12-year-old Alexander exploring his grandmother’s apartment. 253. The time is 1907.Synopses. Note. sister. Credits. In the meantime. the atmosphere is joyous and warm. pre-teen siblings. See also Media chapter (Ø 340) for additional reviews of TV version.

Gustaf Adolf Ekdahl delivers an homage to the ‘little world’ of family and friends. especially Alexander. Johan Husberg Kristina Makroff. who is taken to task for telling lies at school. Emilie puts bromides in the bishop’s broth. Eva Ivarsson Ingmar Bergman Peter Schildt Ingmar Bergman Sven Nykvist. who is locked up because he can be mad and violent. Suites for cello op. Her fantasy is interrupted by the arrival of Maj. In the morning Emilie is informed by the police of her husband’s death. At a family celebration. Anna-Lena Melin. Tony Forsberg (2nd-unit) Owe Svensson Robert Schumann. Gunilla Allard. Oscar. Marik Vos (designer) Leif Qviström. of the death of the bishop’s children from a former marriage. who has a puppet theater. Alexander informs Justina. and 87. and claims that Vergerus is responsible for their drowning. is scared by Aron acting as God. The fire spreads to the bishop’s bedroom. and Ismael. and has a long talk with him about the family. Benjamin Britten. and later by the pregnant Emilie who tells her that the bishop has refused to grant her a divorce. Helena Ekdahl experiences the presence of her dead son. Christmas songs Anna Asp Jan Andersson. At night. Credits Production company Executive producer Production manager Location managers Director Asisstant director Screenplay Photography Sound Music Cinematograph/Svenska Filminstitutet/Sveriges Television 1/Sandrews/Gaumont/Personafilm/Tobis Film Jörn Donner Katinka (Katherine) Faragó Brita Werkmäster. Justina reports the tale to the bishop who punishes Alexander with the rod and locks him in the attic. The film ends with Helena Ekdahl reading to Emilie from the preface to Strindberg’s A Dreamplay. The children hate their stepfather. Aron’s brother. ‘Du Ring an meinem Finger’ from ‘Frauen. March from ‘Aida’. Intercut are shots of Vergerus’s obese aunt catching fire from an overturned kerosene lamp.Chapter IV Filmography to the cluttered and boisterous Ekdahl home. Christer Ekelund. Piano quintet E major op. 72. Alexander gets lost in the cluttered apartment. At his home. then leaves him when he is almost unconscious. 424. 45 (2nd movement) and. Maj visits her and expresses her worry about Fanny and Alexander. he introduces them to Aron. The following winter both Emilie and Maj give birth to baby daughters. Isak Jacobi rescues Fanny and Alexander by hiding them in a big chest he buys from Vergerus. Liebe und Leben’ (sung by Christina Schollin). Sw. 80. Finnish Cavalry March. Ismael articulates Alexander’s wish to kill the bishop. hymns 51. The children are confined to their barren-looking nursery. Next the story moves to Helena Ekdahl’s summer place. one of Vergerus’s servants. Barbro HolmgrenHaugen Bengt Lundgren Sylvia Ingemarsson Kerstin Eriksdotter Architect Props Costumes Make-up Special effects Editor Continuity 328 . and ends up visiting Ismael.

Synopses. Commentaries and Reception Record Cast Ekdahl household Helena Ekdahl Oscar Ekdahl Emilie Ekdahl Alexander Ekdahl Fanny Ekdahl Carl Ekdahl Lydia. his wife Gustaf Adolf Ekdahl Alma. his wife Maj Kling Petra. maid Malla Tander. aunt Selma. Credits. cook Miss Ester. cook Theatre staff Karna Philip Landahl Hanna Schwartz Mikael Bergman Mr. Saleius 329 . housekeeper Elida Lisen Siri Berta Mrs. maid Justina. Gustaf Adolf ’s elder daughter Jenny Putte Eva Miss Vega. Hanna Schwartz Aunt Emma Aunt Anna Gunn Wållgren Allan Edwall Ewa Fröling Bertil Guve Pernilla Allwin Börje Ahlstedt Christina Schollin Jarl Kulle Mona Malm Pernilla Wallgren (August): Maria Granlund Emilie Werkö Kristian Almgren Angelica Wallgren Majlis Granlund Svea Holst-Widén Siv Ericks Inga Ålenius Kristina Adolphson Eva von Hanno Anna Bergman Sonya Hedenbratt Käbi Laretei Erland Josephson Mats Bergman Stina Ekblad Jan Malmsjö Marianne Aminoff Kerstin Tidelius Hans Erik Lerfeldt Marianne Nielsen Harriet Andersson Marrit Ohlsson Mona Andersson Gunnar Björnstrand Anna Bergman Per Mattsson Nils Brandt Heinz Hopf Lickå Sjöman Åke Lagergren Sune Mangs Jacobi household Isak Jacobi Aron Ismael Vergerus household Bishop Vergerus Blenda Vergerus Henrietta Vergerus Elsa Bergius. Morsin Thomas Graal Grete Holm Johan Armfeldt Mr.

First production talks were held in late 1980. Sven Erik Jacobsson Japanese women Viola Aberlé. 15 November 1980. mentions only a planned TV series. In the end Bergman edited a 188 min commercial film version. 8. ghost Pernilla Wahlgren Pastor at marriage ceremony Hans Strååt Police superintendent Carl Billquist The witness Axel Düberg Office manager Tore Karte Dr. including finance: The first mention of the project appeared in SvD. talks with Lord Lew Grade in England fell through when Grade insisted on a much shorter.. Hugo Hasslo. 30. 14 March 1980. Ann Louise Bergström Filmed on location in Uppsala. Stockholm. p. Ulf Lagerwall. 2 January 1980. Sinclair Prompter Mrs. same date. However. and Variety. for the most extensive Swedish presentation. Distribution U. beginning 7 September 1981 and completed 22 March 1982. pp. 20. Stockholm. Palmgren Stage manager Theatre Orchestra Maud Hyttenberg-Bartolotti Kerstin Karte Marianne Karlbeck Gus Dahlström Daniel Bell. opening (film version) Swedish opening (film version) Sandrews Embassy Pictures 188 minutes (TV version: 300 minutes at 25 fr/sec) 17 June 1983. Fürstenberg Gösta Prüzelius A student Patricia Gelin Rosa. Karl Nilheim Others Young men helping Jacobi with chest: Krister Hell. On 6 August 1981 the cast list was published. 135 minute movie house version. p. p. Preliminary discussions. the new maid Lena Olin Carl’s singing partners Lars-Owe Carlberg. 15 November 1980. Gerd Andersson. Folke Eng. 43.Chapter IV Filmography Mrs. (Södra Teatern). Gunnar Djerf. See GP. pp. 23 October 1980. 20. p. Evert Hallmarker.S.. and DN. 23. 15 June 1979. NYC 17 December 1982 at Grand. titled ‘Allt groll är glömt’ [All rancunes are forgotten] suggests an old impasse between Bergman and Sydow. Ebbe Eng.. and Variety. p. See Stockholm Expr. 6. Expr. 1. one might distinguish the following three subject areas: 1. 27 June 1979. Nils Kyndel. See Expr. distribution Running time U. The latter article. p. A note about the film in SvD. finally about 40 million SEK). In October 1980 Max von Sydow was contacted for the role as Bishop Vergerus. 1.S. 12 November 1980. The DN article mentions that Liv Ullmann had been approached for the role as Emilie Ekdahl but had declined because of previous commitments. 48. Peter Stormare Priest at christening ceremony Olle Hilding Pauline Linda Krüger Esmeralda. Cinema 1 and Cinema 2. More articles appeared in October 1980 where the cost of the film was mentioned (most expensive Swedish film to date. one for TV and one for the cinema. still talks about a preliminary plan for a 4-hour film. Värmdö-Tynningö and at SFI Studios. Two versions were still discussed. 32. Stockholm Commentary In the very extensive publicity around Fanny and Alexander. 330 .

Agneta Söderberg and Jacob Forssell followed the shooting of the film for 7 months. and 16 December. Jörn Donner. 24-27 (discusses the autobiographical background of the film). Upsala Nya Tidning. 32). Nils Petter Sundgren interviewed Bergman on SVT. 2. DN’s På stan. p.. pp. 3-9 October 1981. 26-27. Stockholm. See the following: Swedish: DN. Summaries of their impressions were published with long intervals in Expr. 50. 1982. p. pp. on 14 May 1983 in a program titled ‘Ingmar Bergman tar farväl av filmen’ [Bergman bids farewell to filmmaking]. 12. Commentaries and Reception Record In September 1981. p. 2. 1.26-27. pp. 5-11 (also in French. Reports on genesis and shooting of Fanny and Alexander: Bergman writes about the making of the film (including its genesis and the shaping of the manuscript) in Bilder.. 31. Credits. 12 April 1982. 21 December 1981 (sheet no.. pp. 20 December. p. p. 16. 20-21. Shooting started in early September 1981. and costumier. ‘Ingmar Bergman and the World’. 18 September 1981. Swedish Public Radio’s Eko program on 17 and 18 December 1982 includes a 4-minute telephone interview with Bergman about world release of Fanny and Alexander. 1981). 2. pp. 20-25. 17 September 1981. p. 28 March 1982. which also contains a report on Kerstin Eriksdotter’s part as scriptgirl. 4648. 32-33. pp. titled ‘Bergmans största filmäventyr’ [Bergman’s greatest film adventure]. pp.. (1990). pp. Cecilia Hagen. 11-17). 331 . 15. p. pp. pp. Similar material is covered by Ingalill Eriksson under a Bergman title quote: ‘Jag har strävat som en kärlekens ardenner’ [I have striven like a foal of love]. 12 May 1982.-O. 1. 1. 28 December 1984. and 31 October 1981. Jörn?’]. 17 December 1982. 22. 29 September 1981. 38). Löthwall reported on a 9-day visit to the set in Filmrutan 25. 39). reports on filming in Uppsala. 15 January 1982. channel 2. no. 17. SvD. the last of these coverages. Expr. 1982 (sheet no. Donner mentions the reservations expressed by the SFI board and the risk he took in pushing for SFI support of the film. SFI published several accounts from the set: 6 October 1981 (fact sheet release no. as did Agneta Söderberg in an interview article in Expr. presents technical personnel. Throughout the entire filming until March 1982. SvD. plus a resumé of props used for Fanny and Alexander. there was frequent press coverage. and ‘Blåste liv i film-Sverige’ [Blew life into film-Sweden]. 6 October 1981.. p. and in an interview in Variety. 4 (Winter) 1982: 2-15. See also Jörn Donner. 26-27. 379. AB. 9 October 1981. Ulf Sörenson’s ‘Avskedsspektakel med barndomsminnen’ [Farewell party with childhood memories]. Elisabeth Sörenson discussed the ordeal of shooting and editing the film in ‘Sju månaders slit – 16 timmar film’ [Seven months of hard work – 16 hours of film]. 1982). as involved producer discussed the financial risk of F and A in an interview with Stefan Sjöström: ‘Vad har du i fickan Jörn?’ [‘What’s up your sleeve. Expr. Donner reported on the financing of Bergman’s film in SvD. discusses the role of asssistant director Peter Schildt. pp. editor. Sec. 15 December 1982. p. SvD 7 dagar. and 3 January 1985. SVT’s Channel 1 and Sandrews were involved early as co-producers. L. 17 December 1982. sec. 6 SvD. 17. 1. 9 December 1982 (sheet no. Swedish Films (Stockholm: SFI. covers filming at Södra Teatern. Sunday section. Expr. On December 18 the Eko program also included a brief studio talk with producer Jörn Donner and actress Ewa Fröling. 9 January 1982.Synopses. whereas French Gaumont delayed its decision. pp 374-381. no.

distributed in the US by Nelson Orion House. only as such could one accept the film’s exposure of Bergman’s antiquated themes. 54. Aghed noted the tone of reconciliation with life in the film. Stig Larsson saw Bergman’s film as ‘a mature master’s ironic pastiche of his own oeuvre’ [en mogen mästares ironiska pastisch av sitt eget verk]. most European and Latin American countries bought the film unseen. Japan. pp. Arne Carlsson’s 110-minute-long documentary from the shooting. and comment by Jörn Donner. 7. reprinted in Skoop XXI. This documentary film was televised (SR/ TV) in connection with a re-run of Fanny and Alexander on Swedish television. p. 39) viewed the film as ‘a bourgeois inferno with a touch of panopticon’ [ett borgerligt inferno med drag av panoptikon]. no. 44-5). and has also had limited circulation abroad. Sweden Now. Swedish Reception Reception of Fanny and Alexander (film and TV versions) was enthusiastic in Sweden.’s Lasse Bergström (18 December 1982. same paper. 10 December 1982. and Taiwan. Dokument Fanny och Alexander. Peter Cowie. including India. ‘Bergman at Home’. and ‘Fanny and Alexander’. Bruce A. no. 7. 27. in Films and Filming. 22 September 1984.181. Expr. 1 (1982). 56. 23. on the other hand. 34) noted that the film brought out ‘the magic of this Oscarian world that knew little about equality but all the more about togetherness’ [denna oskariska värld av magi som visste så lite om jämlikhet men desto mer om samvaro]. The documentary is available on video from the Swedish Film Institute. p. It was reviewed in Variety. 197 min. no. ‘God. for a good resumé of the event. did so on an ‘option agreement’. 15. 7 (May) 1989: 66. but also felt that Bergman’s idyllic and burlesque story ignored the social consequences of the patriarchal and sexist world portrayed in the film. ‘I trollkarlens verkstad’ [In the magician’s workshop]. 1. Foreign Sales: Two weeks before the Swedish release of Fanny and Alexander.S. p. 5) and in Stig Larsson’s critique of the film in ST (20 December 1982. 1983. no. p. ‘Bergman in Close-Up’. CarlEric Nordberg in Vi. Response was overwhelming. was shown at the Swedish Film Institute with comments by Bergman. also in NYT (‘Ingmar Bergman Bids Farewell to Movies’). 26 February 1986. the U. Block talks with Sven Nykvist about the Academy Awards and the collaboration between him and Bergman in two interviews titled ‘Academy Award Nominees: Sven Nykvist. The film was sold to roughly 30 countries. 36-40. including expenses for close to one thousand costumes. ASC’. 4-9. 3 (Summer 1982): 178. 5. Now. February 1983.Chapter IV Filmography English: Ann-Sofi Lejefors. Sex and Ingmar Bergman’. which gives a good summary of the difficult financing of the film and its unusually high cost. no. 41. The old qualms about Bergman’s lack of social consciousness cropped up in both Jan Aghed’s SDS review (18 December 1982. see Veckans Affärer. 47). no. felt that the melodramatic 332 . partly because of the rollicking mood of the film and partly because it was seen as Bergman’s farewell to filmmaking and the summation of his career and vision. p. American Film 14. pp. ‘Return of the Master’. p. no. 58. SvD. no. p. reviewed a video recording of Fanny and Alexander. January 1983. About the economic success in Sweden and facts about the export of film. while AB’s Jurgen Schildt (same date. pp. 4 (June-July) 1985: 21-23. 3. Ted Folke. Sight and Sound LI. Frederick and Lise Lone Marker. On 16 September 1984. SFI advertised for foreign sales in Variety. See Elisabeth Sörenson. p. Bergman’s rendering of Sweden in the early 1900s received much praise. 4 (April) 1984: 50-52. 51/52 (1982. American Cinematographer LXV. 10 October 1982: 1. p. August 18 1986. p. See AB.

Mosey saw Bergman as suffering from ‘a typical Swedish ailment.. printed an article by Gertrud Nordahl objecting to Bergman’s ‘sensationalism’ and ‘the transcendental murder of the bishop in real voodoo style’. summed up Bergman’s position as an artist: ‘He is no longer of the cinema. SvD. 333 . p. 8 February 1983. Stephan Linnér in KvP (1 February 1983. titled ‘Ingmar apaisé. p. p. 12. same paper. But despite such critical reservations. In response to a positive review in Jönköpings-Posten on 7 February 1983. 3. See also same paper. response to the film was largely favorable. In the Paris press all reviewers except Claire Gallois in Le Figaro (9 March 1983. SvD magazine 7 dagar (no.) praised Fanny and Alexander as a masterpiece. contains two reviews of the film and a survey essay by Jean-Paul Jeancolas. p.p. 13 January 1983. 23 February 1983. Credits. compared Fanny and Alexander to Strindberg’s The Ghost Sonata. Måndagar med Bergman (Ø 1611). April 1983.Synopses. divorced from the rest of the world and traversing the same psychological landscape again and again. 12 March 1983. For a response. 23 April 1983. p. 6. and François Ramasse. [biskopens transcendentala mord i verklig voodoo-stil]. Nordahl questioned the ‘reverential attitude’ among Swedish critics reviewing Fanny and Alexander. but is a religion. was inferior. Reviews Stockholm press. who referred to Fanny and Alexander as a manifestation of Bergman’s usual ‘intellectual clichés’ and lack of narrative skill. 7. 21 February. Robert Benayoun. Gunlög Järhult. Björn Nilsson in Expr. 143 ff. n. September 28. questioned Bergman’s so-called ‘hymn to life’ and referred to Fanny and Alexander as ‘the cynical magician’s attempted flight into pseudo-joy. 83-4. no. 18 and 3 January 1985. 148. but claimed that the TV version. 46) published the negative critique of London Observer correspondent Chris Mosey. Critics noted that Bergman’s obsessions had been turned into a theatrical story. unable to change course’. The discussion of the social relevance of Bergman’s film appeared also in the Swedish provincial press. Several comparative comments and literaly references about Fanny and Alexander were published in the Swedish press. La somme d’une nuit’. 21 January 1983. p. 1983. Smålandsposten. to quote Monthly Film Bulletin. p.’ Positif. 1982. away from life’s seriousness and anguish and demands on social consciousness and responsibility’ [den cyniska och fullkomligt desillusionerade trollkarlens flyktförsök in i en skenglädje. 2. Foreign reception Some critics abroad enjoyed the ‘rolicking opulence of mood. pp. 29 December 1984. Claude Baignères in Le Figaro. p. Fanny and Alexander has remained a favorite Bergman film among Swedish audiences. p. p. 4. 18. Commentaries and Reception Record aspects of the film were meant to be taken seriously and called F and A a showpiece and ‘a ghost parade of earlier Ingmar Bergman motifs’ [en spökparad av tidigare bergmanmotiv]. 5. Both referred to what they termed the ‘Dallas’ qualities of Fanny and Alexander and also questioned TV’s advertisement of the film as ‘family entertainment’ [familjeunderhållning]. 18 December 1982. see Kaj Wickbom.S. an issue that was renewed after the television showing of the five-hour version of the film. beginning on 25 December 1984. for reader response supporting this view. with miseries of Puritanism owing more to Dreyerian formalism than to Bergman angst’. See Kerstin Hallert and Hemming Sten. p. 267 (May) 1983: 20-28. ‘banality is bound to seem deeply satisfying – wholesome’. Borlänge Tidning. bort från livets allvar och ångest och krav på all social medvetenhet. New Yorker called the film ‘a learning to live with your craziness movie’ and pointed out that in Ingmar Bergman. Variety gave the film version an A-rating. See also Törnqvist under Longer Essays below. allt allvar]. reviewed earlier on December 22. p. U. 14) juxtaposed the film to Lagerlöf ’s novel Gösta Berling’s Saga. See Steene.

44 (1983). Film et Télévisie 312-313 (May-June) 1983: 11-13. Films in Review 35. 22 April 1983: 28-29. p.p. 15 February 1983: 4-8. 5. Rolling Stone. Bianco e nero. Revue du Cinéma 382 (April) 1983: 19-22. Filmkultura. p. Kosmorama 163 (March) 1983: 4-9. pp. (September) 1983: 39-40. 8-22 August 1983: 20-21. pp. 28. 22 March 1983. Monthly Film Bulletin. 18 August 1983: 32. Sunday Times (London). pp. n. Kino (September) 1983: 47-48. 20-27 July 1983: 690. p. October 1985: 70-74. no. February 1985: 33. no. De Filmkrant. Skrien 128 (Summer) 1983: 12-13. Filmcritica 341 (January-February) 1984: 14-22.2. 266-68. 43. May 1983: 36-38. 43-45. no. Le monde. January-March 1984: 131-138. pp. Film a Doba. Skoop XIX. Film og kino. Cinérevue. Jeune cinéma 151 (June) 1983: 42-44. C8.