TUGAS BAHASA INGGRIS

Ruwanti Dewi C.N Kimia B 123234216

UNIVERSITAS NEGERI SURABAYA FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM JURUSAN KIMIA 2012

As exposure time increases the extent of damage may also increase. chlorine. nitric. or that cause defatting. 2. As exposure time or frequency increases the extent of damage may also increase. . Ammonia. Hydrochloric acid. fluorine. Burning. Short-term exposure may result in irritation and inflammation at the point of contact and is likely to be reversible. This could result in irreversible effects at the site of contact such as scarring of the skin or permanent damage to the eye(s). Irritant. are examples of corrosive substances and mineral acids (hydrochloric. A substances that may cause significant inflammation of the skin. Irritation of the eyes by substances classified as irritants can cause permanent damage. Corrosive Corrosive materials can attack (corrode) metals or cause permanent damage to human tissues such as the skin and eyes on contact. Short-term exposure may result in irritation and inflammation at the point of contact and is likely to be reversible. scarring. Corrosive materials may also cause metal containers or structural materials to become weak and eventually to leak or collapse. sulphuric and phoshoric acids). persisting for more than 24 hours. potassium hydroxide. magnesium are examples of irritant substances. This could result in permanent damage to the eye(s) or skin sensitisation leading to dermatitis. sodium hydroxide. strong alkalis such as sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide would also be labelled this way. and blindness may result from skin or eye contact.1.

Harmful Harmful substances have the potential to cause serious damage to health if inhaled. chlorofrorm. methanol and cyanide salts. styrene. Sodium cyanide. Toxic A substance that have the potential to cause serious damage to health if inhaled. Exposure to toxic substances in sufficient quantities may cause death. Exposure to harmful substances in sufficient quantities may cause death. Aniline. which is likely to occur via inhalation or skin absorption. bromine. hydrogen cyanide. The extent of the damage will be dependent upon a number of factors including concentration. 4. mercury salts and compounds containing cyanide. ammonia. naphthalene. phosphorus. chlorine. swallowed or absorbed via the skin. Health effects linked to exposure to toxic substances can include cancers or damage to the reproductive system. which is likely to occur via inhalation or skin absorption. phenol. hydrogen sulphide. sensitisation of the respiratory system leading to occupational asthma. Toxic substances pose a danger to health upon entry to the body. sulphate. . This may lead to irreversible effects to the body from repeated/prolonged exposure or even after a single exposure. lead oxide and chromium oxide would be labelled with the toxic symbol.3. enzymes. This may lead to irreversible effects to the body from repeated/prolonged exposure or even after a single exposure. swallowed or absorbed via the skin. exposure time and route of entry into the body. Harmful substances pose a danger to health upon entry to the body. ammonia. sodium nitrilotriacetatewould be labelled with the harmful symbol. For example.

solids which readily catch fire and materials which give off flammable gases upon contact with water. Examples of substances classified as oxidising include hydrogen peroxide. aniline. 6. ethanol. acetone (propanone) and ethyl acetate (ethy ethanoate). methane. potassium manganate (VII) chromate and persulphate salts and chemicals used to disinfect swimming pools. These substances can be readily ignited and will undergo vigorous combustion. lithium. Oxidising Oxidising substances can undergo vigorous reactions which may cause a fire or damage living tissue resulting in chemical burns. Some organic peroxides have flammable properties even when not in contact with other combustible material. Highly flammable Substances covered by this classification include liquids which ignite at low/ambient temperatures. petroleum ether. toluene. Examples of substances classified as highly flammable include sodium. methanol. petrol and the contents of many aerosol canisters. diethyl ether. magnesium powder. Oxidising substances do not burn themselves but they provide oxygen for flammable substances to burn.5. Care should be taken when handling and storing oxidising substances as they can react with combustible material giving rise to a flammable/explosive atmosphere. .

Dangerous for the environment. Substances are assessed on both their effects to aquatic and non-aquatic ecosystems. Care should be taken when handling and storing explosive substances as they may be sensitive to shock. potassium. Explosive Substances classified as explosive have the potential to undergo a very rapid reaction releasing large volumes of heated gases.7. were they to enter into the environment might present an immediate or delayed danger to the environment. ammonium nitrate. These gases may exert pressure on the surroundings causing significant damage or may undergo combustion. fire or other sources of ignition. turpentine oil and certain pesticides. chlorine. . Examples of substances classified as dangerous for the environment include ammonia. 8. Examples of substances which are explosive include certain peroxides. This classification applies to any substances which. azidealkali metal sodium and old Tollen’s reagent.

Exposure to ionising radiation may result in cell damage that could induce cancer or increase its likelihood. fungi and parasites. Examples of agents classified as biohazards include strontium. carbon disulphide. fungi and parasites. Radioactive Radioactive substances release ionising radiation. viruses. This may include vaccination or high standards of personal hygiene. Examples of naturally occurring sources include radon gas and rocks containing uranium. Biohazard A biohazard is a biological agent that can cause harm to humans as a result of exposure. Most biological agents are microorganisms and include bacteria. Most biological agents are microorganisms and include bacteria. Artificial sources include X-rays. . carbon tetrachloride. fall-out and industry discharges. which has the potential to cause serious damage to health. 10. viruses. Radioactive materials can enter the body as a result of inhalation.9. Exposure to a biohazard should be prevented or where this is not reasonably practicable adequate control measures applied. Exposure may also lead to irreversible damage to the reproductive system. ingestion or through unprotected wounds. Some agents can present a significant risk to health even at low exposure levels. Ionising radiation can occur from both natural and artificial sources. toluene. Exposure can occur both externally or internally. A biohazard is a biological agent that can cause harm to humans as a result of exposure.