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Wojciech J. Krzysztofik*

*Wroclaw University of Technology, Institute of Telecommunications,

Teleinformatics & Acoustics, Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland,

woj ciech.krzysztofik@pwr.wroc.pI

Antenna for mobile terminal of satellite navigation GPS and/or communication

e.g. IRIDIUM, GLOBALSTAR systems is proposed. The novel design presented

here takes two semi-ring patches of different radii, fed by a single microstrip line

via a crossed slots in the ground plane, to produce an antenna with a CP axial

ratio < 3 dB, and different impedance bandwidth, depending on frequency of

operation (1.76,5.4,9.2, 14.9, 17.3 GHz). Antenna dimensions are determined

approximately as for annular-ring patch of the TM

11

mode. The antenna can also

be designed as a dual-band antenna with orthogonal linear polarisation.

Introduction

Circular microstrip antennas offer performance similar to that of rectangular

geometries, in some applications such as arrays, however, offer certain

advantages over other configurations. Experimental results have shown that

circular disc microstrip elements may be easily modified to produce a range of

impedances, radiation patterns, and frequencies of operation.

It is well-known that an annular-ring microstrip antenna has a smaller patch size

as compared to a circular microstrip antenna for a given frequency. In application

to arrays, this allows the elements to be more densely situated, thereby reducing

the grating-lobe problem. Secondly, it is possible to combine the annular ring with

second microstrip element, such as circular disc within its aperture, to form a

compact multi-band antenna systems. Thirdly, the separation of the modes can be

controlled by the ratio of outer and inner radii. Finally, it has been found that, by

operating in one of the higher-order broadside modes, i.e. TM

12

, the impedance

bandwidth is several times larger than is achievable in other patches of

comparable dielectric thickness [2]. However, when the annular-ring microstrip

antenna with a larger inner slot size or higher substrate thickness is excited at its

mode, which respectively has lower resonant frequency and wider impedance

bandwidth, the 50 Q input impedance would be difficult to obtain on the patch.

Several technologies have been proposed to solve the problems and are

successfully used to produce linear and circular polarization (CP) [1]-[2], [4],

radiations for the ring microstrip antenna using the probe or microstrip-line feed.

In most methods a geometrical deformation is used to generate both symmetric

and asymmetric modes to cause a CP radiation. These methods are convenient to

generate circular polarization when only one sense of polarization is needed, and

can be implemented by a single feed (Fig. 1). However, when a polarization

diversity is required, one must use two separate feed arrangements. In such case, a

978-1-4244-3647-7/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE

a) b)

Fig. 1. Geometry (a) and photo of the CP double-semi-rings microstrip antenna.

symmetric patch with two separate feed points and an appropriate phase switch

will be sufficient. Also, to generate circularly polarized radiations with a low axial

ratio, one needs an antenna with nearly symmetric radiation pattern. The pattern

symmetry can be controlled by modifying the ground-plane size and thickness. To

investigate the quality of the circularly polarized radiation we present a few

computed results for semi-ring patches as in Fig. 1, fed at different locations, with

a 90° phase difference.

Design Procedure of CP Double-Semi-Rings Antenna

A circular disc operating in the dominant mode TM

11

is the most prevalent

circular microstrip antenna configuration. The first design step is to select a

suitable substrate of appropriate thickness. Bandwidth and radiation efficiency

increase with substrate thickness, but excess thickness is undesirable if the

antenna is to have a low profile and be conformal. The three most commonly used

substrate materials are duroid (£r=2.32), rexolite (£r=2.6) and alumina (£r=9.8).

For a known dielectric substrate at a specified operating frequency fr, the radius

aeff (slightly larger than the physical a, due to taking into account the fringing

fields on the disc edge) of the microstrip disc element is [1]:

K (1)

a -----;::::========

efJ - 2h HK

1+--[In(-) +1.7726]

HcrK 2h

where K = 8.794/ /,. F:; ,and t is in GHz.

For a given values of a and b, the inner and outer radius of annular-ring patch, ae

and be are calculated. After solving the characteristic equation, the mn-order mode

resonant frequency may be predicted accurately from:

J: =c Re{kmna} = CXmn (2)

rmn 2HF:; 2HF:;

where Xmn=R{kmna}is the real part of (kmna), and denotes the root of the

characteristic equation.

For annular-ring microstrip antenna, the radio of outer to inner radius b/a is often

chosen to be equal 2. In some cases this parameter can be used to control the

frequency separation of the modes excited in the antenna. For convenience some

roots Xmn of equation (2) for different ratios of the ring outer-to-inner radius b/a

are presented in table 1.

Table 1: Roots of eqn. (2) for different ratios b/a.

b/a 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0

Inn 2.61 2.15 1.83 1.59 1.4 1.25

Authors proposed a technique by which the antenna size could be reduced by

halving or quartering the patch dimensions. Quartering the patch dimensions

reduced the gain significantly, by a margin of> 3dB, which is unacceptable for

most applications. Conversely, a half patch has similar performance to a full-sized

patch except for a small reduction to the bandwidth. The novel design [7]

presented here takes two half-annular-ring of different radii, fed by a single

microstrip line via crossed-slots in the ground-plane, to obtain a CP of the

antenna. The cross-slots feed excites each semi-annular-ring equally in amplitude

and phase. However, the two semi-annular-rings resonate at different frequencies.

The larger ring resonates at center frequency 1.615 GHz and radiates the

horizontally polarized E-field, and the smaller - is vertically polarized at a much

higher frequency. In this geometry it couples to the larger annular-ring and brings

about 90° phase shift at 1.615 GHz, thus producing RHCP.

Such solution can be also used to design a dual-band antenna with orthogonal

linear-polarization.

Numerical & Experimental Results

The numerical analysis is based on the spectral-domain integral equation

technique with boundary conditions enforced using a Galerkin moment method,

MoM, applied in the commercial computer code IE3D™ and on the finite-

difference-time-domain method, FDTD used in FidelityTM code, of Zeland

Software Ltd.. The implementation of these techniques are described in detail in

User's Manual of Zeland Software Ltd. [11].

The IE3D code uses a full wave formulation which enables accurate predictions

of the coupling, near-fields, far-fields, radiation patterns, current distributions,

impedances etc. Special Green's functions for planar multilayered media are used.

The formulation, and the implementation thereof, enables the analysis of

arbitrarily oriented metallic surfaces and wires.

A surface integral formulation for multiple dielectric/ magnetic volumes can also

be used to model antennas on a finite substrate. The regions where currents flow

(Le. metallic surfaces and wires or surfaces of dielectric bodies) are discretized

into form of wires or a small patches. The integral equation MPFIE are

formulated on each wire segment and solved by means of the MoM.

The Fidelity code is based on FDTD technique - a numerical approach that uses

discrete approximations of Maxwell's time domain equations. The Maxwell's

equations are discretized accordingly to Yee algorithm, in which the whole

object is divided on number of cubes, called voxels having 3D dimensions < 0.1

A. The resulting algebraic equations can be used to track the time evolution of

the fields within a given spatial region. The derivation as well as the practical

implementation of both algorithms are well covered in past literature and as such

will not be covered in this paper.

In Fig. 2 the surface current distributions at frequency, in the band of Iridium

satellite system, are presented. To begin with, simulated results for the antenna

design are first presented in Fig. 1 in which typical results of the excited patch

surface currents distributions of TM

11

modes are shown. It should first be noted

that the loading of slots has small effects on the TM

11

mode and can make the

distribution of patch surface current density mode more uniformly distributed in

the center portion of the annular-ring patch. It is also noted that although, in the

simulation results, of the excited patch surface currents are constrained to flow

around the slot.

a)

.0dB

1

-3dB

-6 dB

-9 dB

-12 dB

-15dB

-18 dB

-21 dB

-24 dB

-27 dB

-30 dB

-33 dB

1

-36dB

-39 dB

-42 dB

25

20

...... 15

5

N

10

10 15 20 25 30

Y[cm]

b)

14-

_ ICNIRP

..........• -6 SAR Level

:":'1< -9 2 [W/kg]

-12 = -3dB

-15

-18

·21

-24

-27

-3D

-33

-36

-39

1

-42

-45

-48

Fig. 2. The surface current (a) and SAR distribution around the semi-ring patch antenna.

The SAR map, is plotted in Fig. 2b, at P=0.6 [W]; f= 1.621 [GHz], for estimation

of the radiation hazard for the human user of hand-held mobile terminal. Fig. 3

shows the measured results of the return loss and the impedance for the semi-ring

patch antenna. Results show that good matching could be obtained for many

frequency-bands in the of range 1.7 to 17 GHz. The antenna power gain at the

1.621 GHz, is close to 5 dBi, as is required for Iridium mobile station receiver.

Markef4_.:__ • .MilIker4 '. _

Fig. 3. Input return loss (a), and the impedance plots (b) of the semi-ring antenna vs frequency.

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